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INTRODUCCIÓN

Una de las áreas donde más trabajo tiene la ingeniería civil es el Diseño Estructural, que
es muy interesante y tiene una aplicación más que útil en el mundo industrial. Son el
arquitecto y el diseñador quienes se encargan de crear la estructura y darle las proporciones
correctas. Por principio de cuentas, el diseño estructural se encarga de investigar qué
puede ofrecer un material y cuáles características lo convierten en único, así como los
costos que tendrá y sus propiedades, tales como aislamiento térmico y acústico,
impermeabilidad, entre otras. Los expertos señalan que este diseño se compone de dos
partes: la intuición de los creadores y el método científico.
El diseño estructural se compone de los siguientes cinco elementos:

 Estructuración: se proponen ubicaciones y dimensiones que permitan afinar un


proyecto.

 Análisis: se utilizan programas computacionales que brindan los desplazamientos y


elementos mecánicos de los componentes de la estructura.

 Diseño: cuando ya se poseen los elementos mecánicos, se proporcionan las


dimensiones y armados de los miembros de la estructura.

 Dibujo: se arman los planos.

 Memoria de cálculo: se mencionan las cargas vivas y muertas, así como ejemplos
de diseño.
OBJETIVOS

 Realizar el análisis estructura de un edificio de cinco niveles, con base en NSR-10.


 Diseñar elementos estructurales para el edificio de cinco niveles.
 Adicionar el análisis estructural del pórtico principal utilizando software como SAP 2000.
DESCRIPCIÓN Y LOCALIZACIÓN DEL PROYECTO

En el presente informe se realiza el diseño estructural para la edificación, ubicada en la


cuidad de Cartagena, Bolívar, en la República de Colombia, el cual cuenta con un sistema
estructural de pórticos, diseñados en concreto reforzado. El proyecto contempla una
edificación que llega a una altura de 10,2 metros desde el nivel de la carretera, alojando
cinco plantas.

Los cinco niveles están conformados por losas diseñadas en dos direcciones, vigas y
columnas que se apoyaran en zapatas aisladas para transmitir las cargas al suelo.

En el diseño se contemplan cargas viva, muerta, sísmica en X y Y de la estructura, para


modelarla y analizarla con el software de estructuras SAP 2000.
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.......................... ...................................
.......... ...
CONCLUSIONES

Mediante el desarrollo del presente informe se comprobaron las diversas técnicas y


parámetros que se deben tener en cuenta para el diseño de estructuras de concreto
reforzado de acuerdo a la normatividad vigente (NSR-10). Se aprendió a diseñar con
software especializados como lo es SAP2000, y se comprobaron sus resultados mediante
el diseño manual de algunos de los elementos estructurales.

Durante el desarrollo del pórtico de la estructura se tuvieron diversos problemas, en parte


por desconocimiento de las herramientas de diseño, y en parte por comportamientos
inesperados de las estructuras modeladas. Esto se hizo latente tanto en SAP2000 pues hay
una serie de vigas que, tras diversos cambios en la distribución de elementos, sus
secciones, las características de sus materiales, e incluso la disposición de nuevos
elementos tipo columnas que no se habían considerado inicialmente, siguieron mostrando
un estado de falla. Para evitar esta situación, se recomienda analizar y diseñar estos
elementos como columnas, donde el acero de refuerzo esté dispuesto de modo tal que
contribuya a contrarrestar las cargas recibidas por la estructura; esto es, axialmente.

Por otro lado, se comprobó que el diseño manual de algunos elementos permite obtener
secciones más óptimas, ya que en los software de diseño, realizar un cambio de sección o
material puede llegar a ser tedioso, aunque llevar a cabo un diseño totalmente manual
puede inducir a errores y demoras para la entrega de los proyectos.