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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

SN043a-EN-EU

NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints


This NCCI provides the rules for the design of fixed column base joints. The rules are

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limited to covering the design of symmetric un-stiffened base plate joints of I section

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columns subjected to normal force, shear force and moment about the column major axis.
The design of a shear nib, if required, is covered by NCCI SN021. The rules given can be

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easily extended to bases of other types of column sections.

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Contents

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1. Introduction 2

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2. Parameters 4

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3. Design model and limitations 5

4. n@
Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate for the loading at the base of a given
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column section 8
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5. Design situation 2: Determine the design resistances of a given base plate 12


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gd
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rig
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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

1. Introduction

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This NCCI covers the design of fixed bases of I section columns transmitting a normal force,

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a shear force and a moment. The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a
symmetrical position so that it has projections beyond the column flange outer edges on all

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sides (see Figure 1.1). Anchor bolts rows, normal to the column major axis, are symmetrically
placed about the column minor axis. The base plate may be located eccentrically on the

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concrete foundation.

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In practice, the following two design situations are encountered:

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1. The column section and the concomitant design normal force, shear force and moment
are known. The dimensions of the required base plate and anchor bolts are to be

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determined.

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2. The column section, base plate and foundation dimensions in a particular structure are
known. It is required to check that the different combinations of axial force, shear force
and moment that arise can be safely resisted.
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The design procedures for these two situations are given in Sections 4 and 5 respectively.
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Noting, in particular, the importance of the intrinsic relationship between the values of the
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design moment and the concomitant normal force, the satisfactory determination of the
fundamental characteristics of the joint components (i.e. grout/foundation bearing resistance,
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base plate area, base plat thickness, anchor bolt dimensions and anchor bolt positions) usually
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requires separate checking of all joint components for the concomitant forces and moments
resulting from a number of different load combination cases acting on the structure.
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The shear force resistance of the base plate joint is either covered by SN037 and, if the
friction resistance is insufficient, by SN043. The shear force is not considered to have any
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effect of the joint resistance to a combination of a normal force and a moment.


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The stiffness of the base plate joint is obtained using SN045.


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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

1
5 2
3
4

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df

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on
m
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ail
bp bf

gm
n@
da
hp
hf
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Key :
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1. I section column
gd

2. Base plate
3. Grout
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4. Concrete foundation
5. Anchor bolt
to
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Figure 1.1 Typical fixed column base plate joints


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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

2. Parameters

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Table 2.1 Parameters

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Definition Definition

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beff Effective width of a base plate T-stub in As Sectional area of an anchor bolt
compression.

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c Additional bearing width (measured from the Ft,Rd Design resistance in tension of an anchor bolt
column section perimeter) for a compression section
T-stub.

m
eN Effective normal load eccentricity expressed Ft,bond,Rd Anchorage bond design resistance of an anchor

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by the ratio, MEd/NEd , of the applied bolt
concomitant moment MEd and axial load NEd

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bf, hf, df Width, length and depth of the foundation. Ft,anchor,Rd Design resistance of an anchor bolt in tension

gm
= min(Ft,Rd: Ft,bond,Rd)
fyb Yield strength of the anchor bolt. FT,l,Rd Design resistance in tension of the left-side anchor

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bolt row T-stub.
fyp Yield strength of the base plate. FT,r,Rd Design resistance in tension of the right-side
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anchor bolt row T-stub.
fjd Design bearing strength of the foundation FC,l,Rd Design resistance in compression of the left-side
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joint. compression flange T-stub.


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fcd Design compressive strength of the concrete FC,r,Rd Design resistance in tension of the right-side
according to EN 1992-1-1. compression flange T-stub.
gd

bfc, tfc, twc, Flange width, flange thickness web thickness LB Length of anchor bolt submitted to tensile
hc and depth (height) of an I section column elongation.
bo

bp, hp, tp Width, length and thickness of the base plate. MEd Design moment applied by the column (positive if
Mj,Ed clockwise) to the base joint, in conjunction with
to

NEd.
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beff, leff Effective length of a T-stub in tension. Mj,Rd Design resistance moment of the column base
joint for a given effective eccentricity, eN = MEd/NEd
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of the normal load NEd = Nj,Rd


m, n, e Tension T-stub geometric parameters NEd Design normal force (positive if in tension) applied
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Nj,Ed by the column to the base joint, in conjunction with


the moment MEd.
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γM0 Partial factor on the base plate bending Nj,Rd Design normal force resistance of the column base
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resistance. at an effective eccentricity of eN = MEd/NEd =


Mj,Rd/Nj,Rd
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z Lever arm between the left-side force and the


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right-side force induced on the column base


m

to foundation joint.
zT,r Distance of a right-side anchor bolt row from
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the column major axis.


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zT,l Distance of a left-side anchor bolt row from


the column major axis.
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zC,l Distance of a left-side T stub centre of


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compression from the column major axis.


zC,r Distance of a right-side T stub centre of
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compression from the column major axis.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

3. Design model and limitations


3.1 Design model

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The design model for a fixed column base plate joint for a combined normal force plus a
moment about the major column axis is given in §6.2.8 of EN 1993-1-8.

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The most common load distributions in a fixed column base joint, shown in Figure 3.1 a), b)

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and c) respectively, are as follows:

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‰ Compression on both sides of the joint due to a dominant axial compression load

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combined with

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- either a clockwise moment

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- or an anticlockwise moment.

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‰ Tension on the left hand side and compression on the right hand side due to a dominant
clockwise moment combined with
- either a compressive axial load
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- or a tensile axial load (uplift) .
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‰ Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side due to a dominant
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anticlockwise moment combined with


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- either a compressive axial load


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- or a tensile axial load (uplift).


In the design formulae given Table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8 a distinction made between the latter
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two cases which permits the use of parameters, symbols and a sign convention which
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facilitate treating non symmetric joints subjected to multiple load cases. An additional load
distribution case with tension on both sides of the joint (Figure 3.1d)), for which an axial
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tensile load is dominant, completes the theoretical possibilities for the load distributions.
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While having tension throughout a fixed column base is uncommon in typical buildings, it
could arise in vertical members of bracing sub-structures required to transmit high lateral
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loads, for instance in industrial buildings in which cranes operate or in buildings under
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significant seismic loading.


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A simplified mechanical model is adopted which considers that the possible reaction force on
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any one side of the joint can be either tension in a single anchor bolt row or compression on
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the foundation joint over a bearing area centred under the column flange. The design
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resistance of the critical joint component (T stub in compression or in tension) determines the
design resistance moment acting in concomitance with the given normal force.
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The formulae given in Table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8 are derived from the equilibrium between
the applied moment - normal force combination and the reaction forces induced on the base
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plate. They cover each of the four possible and distinct load distribution scenarios for the
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basic configuration of column base plate joint shown in Figure 3.1.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

M M

N N

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a) b)

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M M

N N

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gm
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c) d)
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Key :
gd

a) Compression on both sides of the joint


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b) Compression on the right hand side and tension on the left hand side
c) Compression on the left hand side and tension on the right hand side
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d) Tension on both sides of the joint (rare situation)


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Figure 3.1 Load distribution


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3.2 Resistance in bearing


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For the compression side of a joint the design approach is to ensure that the bearing stresses
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under the base plate neither exceed the design bearing strength of the foundation joint
material nor lead to excessive bending of the base plate.
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The design model assumes that the bearing resistance is provided by one or both of the
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column flange T-stubs in compression, depending on whether compression reigns over part or
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all of the column base plate respectively as shown in Figure 3.1. For a flange T-stub in
compression the bearing stresses are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the T-stub area
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centred beneath the flange as shown in Figure 3.2. In the simplified approach given in
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EN 1993-1-8 for the design of column base joints transferring moment, no direct account is
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taken for any compression force that may be transferred through a column web T-stub in
compression.
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In this NCCI, reference is made to SN037 for the design resistance of T-stubs in compression.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

3.3 Resistance in tension of an anchor bolt row


The design model for an anchor bolt row in tension is similar to that for a bolt row of an end

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plate connection transmitting moment. Therefore, the design approach is to ensure that the
tensile force in the anchor bolt row does not exceed either of the following;

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‰ The design tensile resistance of the base plate tension T stub. This involves the

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consideration of the three basic tension T stub failure modes as identified in

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Table 6.2 of EN 1993-1-8. If relevant, the single mode replacing modes 1 and 2 shall be
considered (see Table 6.2 EN 1993-1-8). The latter mode is possible if the prying effect

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disappears with the loss of contact between the base plate edge and the foundation
because of anchor bolt elongation.

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‰ If necessary, i.e. for anchor bolt rows between the column flanges, the design resistance
in tension of the column web component of the T stub.

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The design approach is identical to that for a bolt row of an end plate except that when

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determining the resistance of the anchor bolt in tension one must also consider that the
anchorage bond resistance may be more critical.
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In the simplified mechanical model the resistance in tension is presented for the case of there
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being one anchor bolt row only. To permit the direct application of the design rules given for
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the case of anchor bolt rows on both sides of the column flange, it is recommended to use an
equivalent single row having a total tensile resistance of the two rows acting together at the
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centroid. It is not recommended to consider that other rows than those about the column
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flanges contribute to the resistance of a fixed column base subjected to a moment combined
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with an axial load.


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3.4 Limitations
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The design rules provided are limited to applications for the types of un-stiffened column base
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plates shown in Figure 1.1 subjected to axial load in combination with moment acting about
the column major axis only. The rules cover the case of two anchor bolts in a row.
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EN 1992-1-1 does not provide design rules for the bond anchorage resistance of plain bars. It
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is also believed also that the rules provided for the bends and hooks of the ribbed bars should
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not be applied to plain bars. No rules are given for the design of anchored bolts, such as with
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anchor plates or special heads. These issues may the subject of provisions in the National
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Annexes.
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In the present NCCI the design basic anchorage length of plain anchor bolts is taken as that
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for a ribbed bar divided by a factor of 2,25. This is in accordance with some existing national
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rules for reinforced concrete and with initial drafts for Eurocode 2. It is to be noted that,
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according to EN 1993-1-8 §6.2.6.12(5) that the yield strength of the steel for bent or hooked
anchor bars should not exceed 300 N/mm².
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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

1
NEd

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3
2 MEd

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la

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FT,l FC,r

m
zT,l zC,r

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z
4

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c tfc c
c tfc c

gm
c

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c
6
5 beff,c beff,c
da
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6
c
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2 3 2 zT,l zC,r 3
zT,l zC,r
gd

z
z
bo
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Key:
1 Both the normal force and the moment applied by the column to the column base plate joint are shown acting in the
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positive sense as defined by EN 1993-1-8, i.e. tensile axial forces are positive and positive moments act clockwise.
2 Left-side of the base plate joint when the anchor bolts are in tension: the tensile force is resisted by the T stub formed by
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the base plate and the anchor bolt row.


3 Right side of the base plate joint when in compression: foundation joint offers bearing resistance on the underside of the
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base plate T stub which is acting in bending off the column flange.
4 Lever arm between the tension force in the anchor bolts and the compression force under the base plate.
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5 Anchor bolts.
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6 Compression T stub area.


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Figure 3.2 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the normal force and moment
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4. Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate for


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the loading at the base of a given column section


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4.1 Choice of base plate type


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It is recommended that the base plates be of the “long projection” type of sufficient width so
as to allow having an anchor bolt row situated on the projection on each side of the column.
This facilitates providing adequate compression resistance and, by increasing the lever arm
between the compression and the tensile zones, reduces the mechanical resistance
requirements on the anchor bolts in tension.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

In the following the dimensioning of a symmetric base plate joint is presented. A “long
projection type of base is used, as shown in Figure 4.1, with anchor bolts
with a single row on the extended part of the base plate

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or in two rows, one each side of the flange.

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Each row has two anchor bolts symmetrically placed about the column minor axis.

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hc

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1

m
mx e x
w bp 3

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tfc

gm
1

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e m2
m 3
da
bp
m
2
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e m m e
an

m2 mx ex 3
gd

Key:
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1. Column flange
2. Column web
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3. Column base plate


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Figure 4.1 Geometrical parameters for the tension T-stub


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4.2 Choice of materials


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It is necessary to choose the concrete class, the base plate steel and the anchor bolt class. For
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typical buildings, in some countries it has been usual practice to recommend class 4.6 anchor
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bolts while elsewhere class 8.8 plate ended anchors have become common. The base plate is
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not necessarily of the same steel grade as that of the column section.
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4.3 Estimation of maximum compression and tension


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forces on the foundation


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Considering all the various combinations of axial load and moment (NEd, MEd) at the column
base, the following expressions provide estimates of the maximum compressive force and
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maximum tensile force acting on the foundation:


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M Ed N
- max(FC,Ed ) compression: maximum value for FC,Ed = − Ed
hc − tfc 2

M Ed N
- max(FT,Ed ) tension: maximum value FT,Ed = + Ed
hc − tfc 2

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Note: while the expressions above give the absolute values for the two forces, the sign of the
axial load NEd (positive if tensile, negative if compressive) is to be used in them. In order to
simplify the notation NEd , MEd , NRd , and MRd are written for N j,Ed , Mj,Ed , Nj,Rd and Mj,Rd

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respectively.

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4.4 Dimension the base plate for the estimated maximum

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joint compression force

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To dimension the base plate, apply the procedure in Section 4 of SN037, assuming that the

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axial compressive load is.

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Nj,Ed = 2 max(FC, Ed.)

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A “long” projection base plate is chosen from the outset of the procedure. The values for the

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plate base plan dimensions (bp, hp) and plate thickness (tp) are obtained.

gm
4.5 Dimension the base plate thickness and the anchor
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bolts for the estimated maximum joint tensile force da
4.5.1 Axial tensile resistance of an anchor bolt
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Anchorage bond resistance and tensile section resistance of anchor bolts


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When considering the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an
gd

anchor bolt in tension is to be taken as the least of the following two values:
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‰ Design bond anchorage resistance (assuming that good bond conditions pertain):
to

1
o Bolt diameter φ ≤ 32 mm: Ft,bond,Rd = (πφlb f bd ) ,
ed

2,25
ns

(132 − φ ) / 100
o Bolt diameter φ > 32 mm: Ft,bond,Rd = (πφ lb f bd ) .
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2,25
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Where lb is the basic anchorage length of the anchor bolt (starting from the bottom
surface of the grout down into the foundation) and fbd is the design bond strength of the
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concrete (§8.4.2(2) of EN 1992-1-1).


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- Note: EN 1992-1-1 provides design bond strengths for “ribbed” bars only. It is
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assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given
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in §8.4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i.e. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in
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similar concrete and conditions) divided by 2,25. The relevant National Annex may
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provide guidance.
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0,9 f ub As
- design tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section, Ft,Rd =
γ Mb,traction
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Annex A of this NCCI gives the design bond anchorage resistance of often used diameters of
class 4.6 anchor bolts as a function of the basic anchorage length for typical foundation
concrete.

A reduced anchorage depth into the foundation is required if bent or hooked anchor bolts are
used. However the equivalent bond anchorage length for bends and hooks of plain bars is not

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

provided by EN 1993-1-1 so that it is necessary to adopt other rules such as those in existing
national standards or international recognised recommendations to provide them.

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The final choice of the anchor bolt details, in particular those concerning anchoring, usually
requires knowledge of the foundation depth.

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The design resistance of a single anchor bolt Ft, anchor, Rd is taken as:

Ft,anchor,Rd = min [Ft,bond, Rd ; Ft,Rd ]

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on
Anchor bolt size

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Assume that one anchor bolt row on the base plate projection will be adequate. To avoid
anchor bolt failure (mode 3) the resistance of the anchor bolts of the chosen class must satisfy

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the following condition:

gm
2Ft,anchor,Rd ≥ max(FT,Ed)

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As a first estimate, it is assumed that the full tensile resistance of the anchor bolt section can
da
0,9 f ub As
be attained: Ft,anchor,Rd = . The required bolt section is given as follows:
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γ M2
an

γ
As ≥ FT,Ed ( M2 ) from which the bolt diameter can be obtained.
gd

1,8 f ub
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Two rows of anchor bolts


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If one row of the anchor bolt size available is not adequate, decide to use two rows of anchor
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bolts (i.e. four anchor bolts of section As). The dimensioning of the bolt size becomes:
ns

γ M2
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As ≥ FT,Ed ( )
3,6 f ub
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The latter assumption about the anchor bolt tensile resistance needs to be checked when the
final details of the bond anchorage lengths are established. Experience with standard
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foundation design and construction practice in a particular region will guide the designer in
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the choice of a suitable anchor bolt. If full anchorage for any given diameter and class of
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anchor bolt cannot be assured, it is necessary to adopt a lower resistance than the design
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tensile resistance of the section.


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4.5.2 Design resistance of T-stub in tension with a two bolt anchor


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row
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Base plate thickness


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The base plate thickness tp obtained for the compression design of the base plate may not be
adequate.

Based on the mode 1 resistance (full plastic mechanism) the following estimate of the plate
thickness is obtained (see Figure 4.1 for the parameters):

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

FT, Edγ M0
One anchor bolt row: tp ≥
f yp 2π

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FT, Edγ M0

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Two anchor bolt rows: tp ≥
f yp 4π

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4.6 Check of the fixed base plate joint

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Design resistance checks given in Section 5 below should be carried out, modifications being
made if necessary to the base plate and/or anchor bolt dimensions.

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5. Design situation 2: Determine the design

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gm
resistances of a given base plate

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5.1 Joint type da
It is assumed below that the joint is symmetric with one row or two rows of anchor bolts (two
per row) on each side of the joint (see Figure 5.1).
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an

Note: For a symmetric joint the distances z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC.
gd

c tfc c
c tfc c
bo
to

c c
ed

beff,c beff,c
ns
ice

zT,l
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zC,r
zT,l zC,r
ial

z
z
er
at

Figure 5.1 Compression and anchor bolt tension induced by the applied normal force and
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moment
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5.2 Check the resistance of the anchor bolts


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The design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt, Ft,anchor,Rd, is obtained from 4.5.1 above:
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Ft,anchor,Rd = min [Ft,bond,Rd ; Ft,Rd ]


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5.3 Determine the axial compressive resistance


Refer to Section 5 of SN037 to provide the axial compressive resistance of the joint. This
value is valid when the concomitant applied moment is zero.

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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

It provides a first indication of the possible (NEd, MEd) combinations that can be applied to the
joint.

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It should be noted that if a part of the axial compression is transferred through a column web
T-stub, the resistance obtained will exceed the sum of the resistances for the two column

/2 0
flange T-Stubs in compression. In the EN 1993-1-8 simplified model, the axial resistance in

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compression reduces to the latter value when the applied moment is zero.

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The resistance of each flange T-stub in compression is written here as FC,Rd .The axial
compressive resistance is then given as:

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NC,Rd = -(2 FC,Rd) , the negative sign indicating that the load is compressive.

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5.4 Determine the tensile axial load resistance

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The resistance in tension of the anchor bolt rows on both sides of the joint are obtained.

gm
T stub effective lengths

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The possible modes of failure of a T-stub in tension are shown schematically in Figure 5.2.
da
The effective T stub length is as follows (see Figure 4.1 for the definition of the geometric
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parameters):
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‰ Outer anchor bolt row :


gd

o Circular mechanism: leff,cp = min[( 2π m); (π mx + w), (π mx + 2e)]


bo

o Non circular mechanism:


leff,nc = min[ 0,5bp ; ( 4m + 1,25ex ); (e + 2mx + 0,625ex ); (0,5w + 2mx + 0,625ex )]
to
ed

Mode 1 effective T-Stub length: leff,1 = min(leff,cp : leff,nc )


ns

Mode 2 effective T-Stub length: leff,2 = leff,nc


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‰ Inner anchor bolt row


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o Circular mechanism: leff,cp = 2 π m


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at

o Non circular mechanism leff ,nc = ( 4m + 1,25e)


m

Mode 1 effective T-Stub length: leff,1 = min(leff,cp : leff,nc )


ed
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Mode 2 effective T-Stub length: leff,2 = leff,nc


rig

For the special mode indicated in Figure 5.2 e), the T stub length is that given above for
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mode 1.
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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Ft
Ft

m e m e
δ

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Ft

/2 0
δ

/0 5
n n

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a) b)

Ft Ft

on
e)

m
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δ

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gm
c) d)

n@
Key:
a) Full plastic mechanism (failure Mode 1),
da
b) Partial plastic mechanism with anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 2),
c) Anchor bolt failure (failure Mode 3),
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d) Web yielding in tension (failure Mode 4),


e) Failure by flexural yielding of the flange in conjunction with separation of the base plate from the foundation due to
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anchor bolt elongation (the prying force becomes null). It replaces failure Modes 1 and 2
gd

Figure 5.2 Possible failure modes for a T stub in tension


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The special failure mode replacing mode 1 and mode 2 is possible only when the following
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condition on the anchor bolt length is met:


ed
ns

3
8,8 As

⎡m⎤
Lb > L = ⎢ ⎥
ice

b
leff,1 ⎢⎣ t p ⎥⎦
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Where the distance m is as shown in Figure 5.2 and the effective T stub length leff is
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determined above.
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at

T stub resistance in tension


m

Determine the resistance of the T stub in tension for the bolt row. The design resistance of a
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bolt row will be the least value for the failure modes shown in Figure 5.2. When considering
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the failure modes of a T stub in tension the design tensile resistance of an anchor bolt in
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tension is to be taken Ft, anchor, Rd.


py

t p2 f y
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The plastic hinge flexural resistance is given by: M pl,Rd = leff mpl,Rd = leff .
4γ M0

This value may be differ between mode 1 (with leff,1 ) and mode 2 (with leff,2 ).

The value of the resistance of a T-stub in tension Ft,Rd is taken as the least of the following
resistances as relevant:
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NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

4 M pl,Rd,1
- Mode 1: Plastic mechanism: Ft,1,Rd =
m

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2 M pl,Rd,2 + 2nFt,anchor,Rd
- Mode 2 : Mixed failure mode: Ft,2,Rd = , n = min(e;1,25m)

/2 0
m+n
- Mode 1-2: If the condition requiring adopting the special mode is met, the resistances

/0 5
for modes 1 and 2 are replaced by

19
2 M pl,Rd,1
o : Ft,1/2,Rd = .

on
m

m
- Mode 3 : Anchor bolt failure Ft,3, Rd = 2Ft, anchor,Rd

.co
f y,wc
- Mode 4: Column web in tension for inner anchor bolt rows -: Ft,wc,Rd = beff,t,wct wc

ail
γ M0

gm
The resistance of all the anchor bolt rows present are calculated. The design resistance for the

n@
side in tension is taken as:
FT,Rd = ∑Ft,Rd
da
.va

The summation sign allows considering having either one bolt row on each side of the joint or
two bolt rows on each side of the joint.
an
gd

Axial resistance in tension of the joint


bo

The axial tensile resistance of the symmetric joint is given as follows:


to

NT,Rd = 2 FT,Rd
ed

Which is valid only when the concomitant moment is null.


ns
ice

5.5 Moment resistance


If the axial load is zero the moment resistance of the symmetric joint is given as the least of
.L

the following two values:


ial
er

M0,Rd = min ( z FT,Rd : z FC,Rd), where the lever arm z = zT + zC


at
m

5.6 Case of a given load combination


ed

When the check is limited to verifying that the joint can resist a given (MEd, NEd) combination,
the checks can be limited to the following steps:
ht
rig

a) The distribution of stresses in the column section will provide a direct indication as to
py

which load distribution reigns in the base plate joint. This information can be used to
identify the load distribution case to be examined in table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8.
Co

M Ed
b) The effective eccentricity of the axial load is determined as eN = for the applied
N Ed
combination is (MEd, NEd). It should be noted that the eccentricity value may be
positive or negative depending on the signs of the forces and moments.

Page 15
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

c) The resistances of the bolt row T stubs in tension, FT,Rd, are obtained in 5.3 above.
Because the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in tension will be
equal. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in compression).

17
d) The resistance of the column flange T stub in compression, FC,Rd can be obtained from

/2 0
5.2 above, the value being taken as that for one column flange T-stub only. Because
the joint is symmetric the design resistances on both sides in compression will be

/0 5
equal. (This calculation is not required if the entire section is in tension).

19
e) The geometric parameters, in particular the various lever arms, are obtained as shown
in Figure 5.1. Because of the joint symmetry z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC.

on
f) From the distribution of stresses in the column identify the case to be examined. The

m
Mj,Rd moment resistance, applied simultaneously with the axial load, NEd , is obtained

.co
by the direct application of the relevant formulae given in Table 5.1 (see
table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8).

ail
g) Check that the moment, MEd and MRd , are of the same sign and that M Ed ≤ M Rd . If

gm
so, the joint is adequate to resist the load combination given.

n@
The formulae given in Table 5.1 are for symmetric joints and have been adapted from those in
da
table 6.7 of EN 1993-1-8.
.va

Table 5.1 Checking the design moment resistance MRd of fixed column bases
an

Loading Lever arm z Moment resistance MRd


gd
bo

Left side in tension z = zT,l + zC,r NEd > 0 and e > zT,l NEd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC,r
Right side in FT, Rd z − FC, Rd z
to

z = z T + zC The smaller of and


compression zC / e + 1 zT / e + 1
ed

Left side in tension z = zT,l + zT,r NEd > 0 and 0 < e < zT,l NEd > 0 and -zT,r < e ≤ 0
ns

FT, Rd z FT, Rd z
ice

Right side in tension z = z T + zT The smaller of and


zT / e + 1 zT / e − 1
.L

Left side in
z = zC,l + zT,r NEd > 0 and e ≤ -zT,r NEd ≤ 0 and e > zC,l
ial

compression
− FC, Rd z
er

F z
Right side in tension z = z C + zT The smaller of and T, Rd
at

zT / e + 1 zC / e − 1
m

Left side in
z = zC,l + zC,r NEd ≤ 0 and 0 < e < zC,l NEd ≤ 0 and -zC,r < e ≤ 0
compression
ed

Right side in − FC, Rd z − FC, Rd z


ht

z = z C + zC The smaller of and


compression zC / e + 1 zC / e − 1
rig

M Ed
py

MEd > 0 is clockwise, NEd > 0 is tension, e =


N Ed
Co

The formulae above are those for a symmetric joint so that: z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = zC
If it is found that M Ed ≤ M Rd the joint is adequate.

Page 16
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

5.7 Interaction diagram for a column base joint


When the joint design resistance is attained under a combination (MEd, NEd) the following
holds:

17
MEd = MRd

/2 0
NEd = NRd

/0 5
19
M Ed M
e= = Rd
N Ed N Rd

on
All of the latter parameters can have both positive and negative values. By varying the value

m
of the equivalent eccentricity within the range indicated for each loading situation (see

.co
Figure 3.1, Table 5.1 and Table 5.2), the limiting design condition is found to be a boundary
plotted with, for instance, axial load NRd on the vertical axis and moment MRd on the

ail
horizontal axis (see Figure 5.3).

gm
It is found that the boundary for the type of base plate joint treated here is made up of linear

n@
segments which can be plotted using the expressions between MRd and NRd given in Table 5.2.
The diagram shown in Figure 5.3 is for the particular case of a symmetric joint with two bolt
da
rows on each side for which it has been assumed that the distances from the column major
.va

axis to the centroids of the compression T stub area under a flange and of anchor bolt tension
area, zC and zT respectively, are equal. When the latter distances are not equal, the enclosed
an

area differs slightly from the diamond shape.


gd

The following type of interaction diagram is obtained. It allows rapid checking of any load
bo

combination applied to the base plate joint. All allowable load combinations fall on or within
to

the surface defined by the boundaries corresponding to the relevant limiting design condition.
ed

NEd
(1) : +NT.Rd
ns
ice

(3) : +M0,Rd
.L

(4) : -M0,Rd
ial

MEd
er
at
m
ed

(5)
ht
rig

(2) : -NC,Rd
py
Co

Key: 1) Axial resistance in tension 4) Negative moment resistance


2) Negative moment resistance 5) Allowable M and N combination
3) Positive moment resistance

Figure 5.3 Fixed column base plate joint: Typical M-N interaction diagram

Page 17
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Table 5.2 Interaction of design resistances NRd and MRd for fixed column bases

Lever arm
Loading Design moment resistance MRd corresponding to NRd

17
z

/2 0
Left side in tension 0≤ NRd and e > zT NRd ≤ 0 and e ≤ -zC

/0 5
Right side in
Compression side critical : Compression side critical :

19
compression
z z

on
Dominant positive M Rd = − N C, Rd + N Rd zT M Rd = − N C, Rd + N Rd zT
z = z T + zC 2 2
moment with a

m
Tension side critical : Tension side critical :
tensile or

.co
compressive load (see M Rd = N T, Rd
z
− N Rd zC M Rd = N T, Rd
z
+ N Rd zC

ail
figure 5.1) 2 2

gm
Both sides in tension NRd > 0 and 0 < e < zT NRd > 0 and -zT < e ≤ 0

Dominant axial
tensile load with a
z = 2 zT
n@
M Rd = ( N T, Rd − N Rd )
z
M Rd = −( N T, Rd − N Rd )
z
da
2 2
positive or negative
.va

moment
an

Left side in 0≤ NRd and e ≤ -zT NRd ≤ 0 and e > zC


gd

compression
bo

Compression side critical : Compression side critical :


Right side in tension
z z
to

M Rd = N C,Rd − N Rd zT M Rd = N C, Rd − N Rd zT
Dominant negative z = z C + zT 2 2
ed

moment with a Tension side critical : Tension side critical :


ns

compressive or
z z
tensile axial load M Rd = − N T, Rd + N Rd zC M Rd = − N T,Rd + N Rd zC
ice

2 2
.L

Both sides in NRd ≤ 0 and 0 < e < zC NRd ≤ 0 and -zC < e ≤ 0
compression.
ial

z = 2 zC z z
er

Axial compression M Rd = ( N C, Rd − N Rd ) M Rd = −( N C, Rd − N Rd )
2 2
at

(negative) dominant,
m

with a positive or
negative moment
ed
ht

M Ed
MEd > 0 is clockwise, NEd > 0 is tension, e = .
rig

N Ed
py

The values of NC,Rd and NT,Rd are obtained from 5.3 and 5.4 respectively.
Co

The formulae are for a symmetric joint so that: z T,l = z T,r = z T and z C,l = z C,r = z C

Page 18
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Annex A: Design resistances of anchor bolts

17
/2 0
The reinforced concrete standard EN 1992-1-1 gives design rules for anchorage bond
resistance for ribbed reinforcement bars only. No mention is made of anchor bolts or of

/0 5
‘plain’ round bars, which is what most anchor bolts in use today are made of.

19
It is assumed in the present NCCI that the design value for a plain bar is the value given in
§8.4 of EN 1992-1-1 (i.e. the design value for a ribbed bar of the same diameter in similar

on
concrete and conditions) divided by 2,25. The relevant National Annex may provide guidance
on the design for anchorage bond of plain bars.

m
.co
The graphs below plot the basic anchorage bond length for class 4.6 and class 5.6 anchor bolts
of various diameters against the design tensile resistance for typical foundation concrete

ail
classes.

gm
Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)

n@
110,0

100,0
da
90,0
.va

80,0
M16
an

70,0 M18
M20
gd

60,0 M22
M24
bo

50,0 M27
M30
40,0 M33
to

M36
30,0
ed

20,0
ns

10,0
ice

0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
.L

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)


ial

Figure A.1 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and
er

concrete C20/25
at
m
ed
ht
rig
py
Co

Page 19
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)


150,0

140,0

17
130,0

120,0

/2 0
110,0

/0 5
100,0 M16
M18
90,0 M20

19
80,0 M22
M24
70,0

on
M27
60,0 M30
M33
50,0

m
M36
40,0

.co
30,0

ail
20,0

10,0

gm
0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@
Basic anchorage bond length (mm)
da
Figure A.2 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and
concrete C30/37
.va
an
gd

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)


180,0
bo

170,0
160,0
to

150,0
140,0
ed

130,0
120,0 M16
ns

M18
110,0
M20
ice

100,0 M22
90,0 M24
.L

80,0 M27
M30
70,0
M33
ial

60,0 M36
50,0
er

40,0
at

30,0
m

20,0
10,0
ed

0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
ht

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)


rig

Figure A.3 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 4.6 and
py

concrete C40/50
Co

Page 20
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)


110,0

100,0

17
90,0

/2 0
80,0

/0 5
M16
70,0 M18
M20

19
60,0 M22
M24
50,0

on
M27
M30
40,0 M33

m
M36
30,0

.co
20,0

ail
10,0

gm
0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@
Basic anchorage bond length (mm)
da
Figure A.4 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and
concrete C20/25
.va
an
gd

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)


bo

150,0

140,0
to

130,0

120,0
ed

110,0
ns

100,0 M16
M18
90,0
ice

M20
80,0 M22
M24
.L

70,0 M27
60,0 M30
ial

M33
50,0
M36
er

40,0
at

30,0
m

20,0

10,0
ed

0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
ht

Basic anchorage bond length (mm)


rig

Figure A.5 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and
py

concrete C40/50
Co

Page 21
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Tensile resistance Ft,Anchor,Rd (kN)


180,0
170,0

17
160,0
150,0

/2 0
140,0
130,0

/0 5
120,0 M16
M18
110,0
M20

19
100,0 M22
90,0 M24

on
80,0 M27
M30
70,0
M33
60,0

m
M36
50,0

.co
40,0
30,0

ail
20,0
10,0

gm
0,0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

n@
Basic anchorage bond length (mm)
da
Figure A.6 Anchorage bond resistance and tensile resistance of anchor bolts – Steel 5.6 and
concrete C40/50
.va
an
gd
bo
to
ed
ns
ice
.L
ial
er
at
m
ed
ht
rig
py
Co

Page 22
NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints
SN043a-EN-EU

Quality Record

17
/2 0
RESOURCE TITLE NCCI: Design of fixed column base joints

/0 5
Reference(s)

19
ORIGINAL DOCUMENT

on
Name Company Date

Created by Ivor Ryan CTICM 06/02/2006

m
.co
Technical content checked by Alain Bureau CTICM 06/02/2006

Editorial content checked by

ail
gm
Technical content endorsed by the
following STEEL Partners:

n@
1. UK G W Owens SCI 07/04/06

2. France A Bureau CTICM 07/04/06


da
3. Sweden B Uppfeldt SBI 07/04/06
.va

4. Germany C Müller RWTH 07/04/06


an

5. Spain J Chica Labein 07/04/06


gd

Resource approved by Technical G W Owens SCI 18/08/06


bo

Coordinator
to

TRANSLATED DOCUMENT
ed

This Translation made and checked by:


ns

Translated resource approved by:


ice
.L
ial
er
at
m
ed
ht
rig
py
Co

Page 23