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Theory

Manual

Table of Contents Theory Manual

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Analysis procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Linear static analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Free-vibration analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Stressed free-vibration analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Linear dynamic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Implementation details of Newmark algorithm . . . . . . . 25

Implementation details of adaptive time-step size algorithm . . . . 27

Selection of constant time-step size . . . . . . . . . . 28

Selection of minimum and maximum time-step sizes . . . . . . 29

P-delta analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Linear buckling analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Buckling - Stressed Free Vibration - P-delta . . . . . . . . 34

Response spectrum analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Nonlinear static analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Analysis description . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Implementation details . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Newton-Raphson Method . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Convergence Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Other procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Skyline storage scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Mesh optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Application of boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . 52

Constraints (coupled degrees of freedom) . . . . . . . . 54

Damping effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Checking for non-structural degrees of freedom. . . . . . . 59

Graph interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Lumped mass VS. consistent mass formulations . . . . . . . 60

Number of elements required . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Table of Contents Theory Manual

Element library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

3D Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

Stiffness, geometric stiffness, and mass matrices . . . . . . . 65

3D Thin Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Stiffness and mass matrices . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Plate elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Membrane elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

3D Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Stiffness and mass matrices . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Two-noded spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

Stiffness matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Tension-only members . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Compression-only members . . . . . . . . . . . 71

Spring element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Stiffness matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Hook element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Gap element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Memory requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Dynamic memory allocation requirements (RAM) . . . . . . 78

Storage requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Table of Contents Theory Manual

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 1 : Introduction : 6

1 Introduction

This document describes the theoretical and computational

aspects of the S-Frame finite-element analysis engine. It is hoped

that this information will enable the user to make full use of

S-Frame’s capabilities while being aware of its limitations.

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S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 8

2 Nomenclature

Following is a list of the symbols used throughout this manual.

A cross-sectional area.

s

Ai shear area normal to direction i.

c generalized damping.

c cr critical generalized damping.

E Young’s modulus.

Fi Dominant modal base shear in ithdirection.

G shear modulus.

J jerk or torsional moment of inertia.

ˆ

J normalized jerk.

Jcr critical jerk.

k generalized stiffness.

L element length.

m generalized mass.

me element mass.

ˆ

m modal mass.

%M

j

percent of total mass participating in jth direction.

Pe axial load (positive for a tensile load).

t time.

Ti Code base shear in ithdirection.

x generalized displacement.

wh half bandwidth.

α, β Rayleigh damping parameters.

α, δ Newmark parameters.

∆t time step.

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9 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature S-Frame Theory Manual

θ phase angle.

λ load factor or shift factor or scale factor.

λ cr critical load factor.

j

µ modal participation factor in jth direction.

ξ damping ratio ( c ⁄ ccr )

ω circular natural frequency.

ω shifted circular natural frequency.

Ω frequency of disturbing force.

[ c ]s system modal damping matrix.

[ C ]e element damping matrix.

[ C ]s system damping matrix.

ˆ

[D] a diagonal matrix.

[ k ]s system modal stiffness matrix.

[ K ]e element stiffness matrix.

[ K ]s system stiffness matrix.

[ Kr ] reduced system stiffness matrix.

)

[ K eq ] equivalent system stiffness matrix.

[ Kg ]e element geometric stiffness matrix.

[ Kg ]s system geometric stiffness matrix.

[ K go ]s system geometric stiffness matrix at reference

loading.

[L] a lower matrix.

[ m ]s system modal mass matrix.

[ M ]e element mass matrix.

[ M ]s system mass matrix.

[ Mr ] reduced system mass matrix.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 2 : Nomenclature : 10

ˆ

[ ]s a system matrix after the application of boundary

conditions.

{a} a vector.

{b} a vector.

{ F }e element internal load vector.

{ F }s system internal load vector.

j

{I} unit vector in jth direction expanded to system

dimension.

{J} system jerk vector.

{ R }e element applied equivalent load vector.

{ R }s system applied load vector.

{ R }s

i

system applied load vector for ith load

case/combination.

{ R eq } equivalent load vector.

{ W }s relative system displacement vector.

j max

{ w }i maximum relative displacement contribution of

mode i due to ground motion in the jth direction.

max

{ w }i maximum relative displacement contribution of

mode i due to ground motion.

max

{W} maximum relative displacement due to ground

motion

{ X }e element displacement vector.

{ X }s system displacement vector.

·

{ X }e element velocity vector.

·

{ X }s system velocity vector.

··

{ X }e element acceleration vector.

··

{ X }s system acceleration vector.

{ Z }s ground displacement vector.

·

{ Z }s ground velocity vector.

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11 : Chapter 2 : Nomenclature S-Frame Theory Manual

··

{ Z }s ground acceleration vector.

{ ˆ }s a system vector after the application of boundary

conditions.

·

{ η }s generalized system velocity vector.

··

{ η }s generalized system acceleration vector.

[Λ] natural frequencies and eigenvalues matrix

(diagonal).

[Φ] mode-shapes or eigenvectors matrix.

{φ} mode shape or eigenvector or buckling mode.

{ψ} normalized mode shape or eigenvector.

[Ψ] normalized modal matrix or eigenvectors matrix.

num1Delm number of 1D elements (beams, trusses, etc.)

num2Delm number of 2D elements (shells, plates, etc.)

numelm number of elements.

numbc number of boundary conditions (constrained

degrees of freedom).

numdof number of degrees of freedom in structure.

numitrvec number of iteration vectors.

numldcas number of load cases.

numldcmb number of load combinations.

numnatfrq number of natural frequencies.

numnod number of nodes.

numRSAldcasnumber of RSA load cases.

numtimstp number of time steps.

tstval test value.

RMS root mean square.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 12

3 Analysis procedures

This section briefly describes the theoretical basis of the various

analysis procedures available in S-Frame. S-Frame uses the

displacement method of the finite-element method. In this

method, the structure to be analyzed is approximated by an

assembly of structural regions (elements) connected at a finite

number of points (nodes) to ensure that the displacements are

continuous. Once the equilibrium equations for each element are

known

{ F } e = { R }e (1)

can be accounted for by assembly of the element equations (Eq.

1) using standard matrix procedures

numelm

∑ ( { F }e = { R }e ) (2)

e=1

{ F }s = { R }s (3)

{ F }s = [ K ]s { X }s (4)

·· ·

{ F } s = [ M ] s { X } s + [ C ] s { X } s + [ K ]s { X } s (5)

{ F }s – { R }s = { 0 } (6)

displacements and stresses due to time-independent loading

analysis

conditions under the following assumptions:

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13 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

(i.e. dead loads).

temperature effects may be applied.

Analysis description The system equilibrium equations for the linear static analysis

are

[ K ] s { X }s = { R }s (7)

number to the rigid-body modes of the structure. On application

of adequate boundary conditions, rigid-body modes and the

degeneracy of the stiffness matrix are removed and hence, the

solution of the system of equations becomes possible (see

Application of boundary conditions on page 52 for a discussion

on the application of boundary conditions). The system of

equilibrium equations after the application of the boundary

conditions becomes

ˆ ˆ

[ K ] s { X }s = { R }s (8)

displacements are obtained, the element stresses and nodal

forces may be computed. For the elements at the boundaries

these nodal forces will be in equilibrium with the reaction forces.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 14

details scheme on page 48 for a discussion on the skyline storage

scheme) of the Crout reduction (Bathe (1982), Gerald (1980),

Press et. al. (1990)) to factorize the system stiffness matrix to

ˆ ˆ T

[ K ]s = [ L ] [ D ] [ L ] (9)

process, is performed only once during a linear static analysis

regardless of the number of load cases and load combinations.

Therefore, for each load case and/or load combination i, S-Frame

needs only forward reduce and back substitute for the

corresponding system load vector, i.e.

ˆ T ˆ

[ L ] [ D ] [ L ] = { R }s i (10)

following checks:

then it issues the SL001 exception. In such a case, the Crout

factorization can not be performed, therefore, it will abort

the factorization.

definite), then it issues the SL003 exception, it replaces the

zero pivot with a very small pivot and continues the

factorization.

issues the SL002 exception. In such a case, the system matrix

may be ill-conditioned and results may be meaningless. The

Crout factorization will continue. The user should ensure

that the results from the analysis are physically plausible. The

value of the test variable tstval is calculated as follows:

– 31

tst ( dv )al = Max ( 7.888 ×10 , ( ftr1 ftr2 )maxpvt ) (11)

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15 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

where

maxpvt maximum pivot encountered.

– 13

ftr1 1 ×10 (default)

– 23

ftr2 1 ×10 (used if support settlements are present

in the model)

natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of vibration.

analysis

This information is needed for instance for seismic analysis. The

following assumptions are made:

independent and hence the free-vibration motion is simple

harmonic.

are applied to the structure.

Analysis description The equilibrium equations for the free-vibration analysis are

··

[ M ] s { X } s + [ K ]s { X } s = { 0 } (12)

may be expressed as

{ X }s = { φ } sin ( ωt + θ ) (13)

time derivative of Eq. 13

·· 2

{ X } s = – ω { φ } sin ( ωt + θ ) (14)

expression

2

– ω [ M ]s { φ } sin ( ωt + θ ) + [ K ] s { φ } sin ( ωt + θ ) = { 0 } (15)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 16

2

( [ K ]s – ω [ M ]s ) { φ } = { 0 } (16)

since the sine term is arbitrary and is not equal to zero at all

times. Using Cramer’s rule (Anton (1977)), the solution of the

above equation can be shown to be of the form

{0}

{ φ } = ------------------------------------

2

- (17)

[ K ] s – ω [ M ]s

determinant vanishes, i.e.

2

[ K ]s – ω [ M ]s = 0 (18)

above equation is the frequency equation of the system and its

solution, after applying the necessary boundary conditions (see

Application of boundary conditions on page 52 for a discussion

on the application of boundary conditions), corresponds to the

solution of the general eigenvalue problem

ˆ 2

( [ K ]s – ωi [ M ] s ) { φi } = { 0 } (19)

ωi , { φi } (20)

Implementation There are numerous methods for solving the general eigenvalue

details problem stated in Eq. 19. For small systems (a few hundred

degrees of freedom) some of the most popular methods include

the Jacobi, Given’s and Householder methods (Petyt (1990)). For

larger systems, methods of reducing the number of degrees of

freedom have been developed and are described by Bathe (1982)

and Petyt (1990). However, for very large systems

aforementioned methods are inefficient. The eigenvalue solver

used in S-Frame is the skyline implementation (see Skyline

storage scheme on page 48 for a discussion on the skyline

storage scheme) of the Subspace Iteration method (Bathe

(1982)).

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17 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

numnatfrq lowest eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of

Eq. 19 simultaneously. The subspace iteration procedure is as

follows:

to the user-specified number of eigenvalues. Note that

numnatfrq will normally be much smaller than the number

of degrees of freedom (i.e. numnatfrq << numdof). If this

condition is not met, the solver may issue the SI004 and/or

JD001 exceptions. For the current implementation of the

subspace iteration, it is recommended that numnatfrq be

below 100. For the case when the model is using the

consistent mass formulation (i.e. a non-zero density has been

specified for all the elements in the structure), the user may

easily calculate the structure’s number of degrees of freedom

by the following equation:

However, in the case where lumped masses are used to model

the inertia of the structure, the number of degrees of

freedom is equal to the number of lumped masses times the

degrees of freedom per lumped mass present in the structure.

numitrvec) where numitrvec > numnatfrq and is given by

The columns of matrix [ A ]1 are determined as follows: The

first column of the product [ M ] s [ A ] 1 consists of the diagonal

terms of the system mass matrix [ M ] s . The other columns in

[ M ] s [ A ] 1 are unit vectors each with unit entries at the position

of the smallest ratio Kii ⁄ Mii where Kii and Mii are the diagonal

terms of the system stiffness and mass matrices respectively.

equation

ˆ

[ K ]s [ A r ] i + 1 = [ M ] s [ A ] i (23)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 18

solver described in Implementation details on page 14.

(ii) Calculate the reduced stiffness and mass matrices

T ˆ

[ Kr ]i + 1 = [ Ar ] i + 1 [ K ]s [ Ar ]i + 1 (24)

T

[ Mr ]i + 1 = [ Ar ] i + 1 [ M ] s [ Ar ] i + 1 (25)

(iii)Solve the reduced general eigenvalue problem

[ Kr ]i + 1 [ Φ ]i + 1 = [ Mr ] [ Φ] i + 1 [ Λ ] (26)

For numnatfrq eigenvalues [ Λ ] i + 1 and eigenvectors

[ Φ ] i + 1 . This reduced eigenvalue problem may be solved

by any of the many methods available for the solution of

the general eigenvalue problem. Noting that the reduced

stiffness and mass matrices ( [ K r ] , [ Mr ] ) tend toward a

diagonal form as the number of subspace iterations

increases, the generalized Jacobi method is the most

effective choice.

(iv)Calculate an improved approximation to the eigenvectors

of the original system using

[ A ]i + i = [ A r ]i + 1 [ Φ ]i + 1 (27)

The eigenvalues [ Λ ] i + 1 and eigenvectors [ Φ ] i + 1 converge

to the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Eq. 19 as

i → ∞ . Convergency is achieved and this process is

terminated when the user-specified tolerance is met for

all numnatfrq eigenvalues. It should be noted that the

tolerance with which the lower eigenvalues are extracted

is smaller than the tolerance with which the higher

eigenvalues are extracted. A user-specified tolerance of

0.001 is generally recommended. If convergence is not

achieved within the user-specified maximum number of

iterations, the solver will issue the SI001 exception. The

recommended user-specified number of iterations is

around 12.

that no eigenvalues have been missed.

Shifting Procedure Above procedure for extracting the natural frequencies and

mode shapes of vibration will fail if the system stiffness matrix

ˆ

[ K ]s is singular. This case arises with not-fully-supported

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19 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

allow the user to perform a free-vibration analysis of such

structures, S-Frame uses the shifting procedure (Bathe (1982)).

In the solution of Eq. 19, S-Frame performs a shift λ on [ Kˆ ] s by

calculating

)

[ K ]s = [ K ] s – λ [ M ]s (28)

)

2

( [ K ]s – ϖ i [ M ]s ) { φi } = 0 (29)

eigenvalue problem of Eq. 19 with its eigenvalues related to those

of Eq. 19 by

2 2

ϖi = ωi –λ (30)

amount of shifting using the following relation

ˆ

RMS ( [ K ] s )

λ = shift factor --------------------------- (31)

RMS ( [ M ] s )

components of the corresponding matrix. Typically, a shift factor

of magnitude around unity is recommended for problems with

rigid-body motion.

Closely packed When the user suspects that the eigenvalues of a system are

eigenvalues closely packed, then he/she should run several analyses using

progressively smaller tolerance and larger number of iterations

to ensure that no eigenvalues have been missed. In addition,

shifting may be used to accelerate the convergence of closely

packed eigenvalues.

Mode shape If the value of one of the elements of a mode shape vector { φ i } is

normalization assigned a specified value, then the remaining elements are

determined uniquely. The process of scaling a natural mode so

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 20

normalization, and the resulting modal vectors are called normal

modes (Craig (1981)).

amplitude unique, and assuming { ψ i } to be “dimensionless”, that

is, an arbitrary modal vector corresponding to ωi can be written

in the form

{ φ }i = λ i { ψ }i (32)

T

{ ψ } i [ M ] s { ψ }i has the dimensions of mass.(a)

by

T

m i = { ψ } i [ M ]s { ψ } i (33)

T

ki = { ψ }i [ M ] s { ψ }i (34)

In the case where the mode shapes are normalized with respect

to the mass matrix (Eq. 33), generalized stiffnesses are given by

2

ki = ωi (35)

(a) The reason for this particular definition of dimensionless is that vectors { ψ }i may

contain a mixture of types of coordinates, for example, translations and rotations.

Thus, it would not be possible to simultaneously make all components of { ψ }i

dimensionless in the usual sense of the word.

(b) As previously noted, it is convenient to scale { ψ }i , so that the product

T

{ ψ } i [ M ] s { ψ } i has the units of mass, therefore, m i = 1Kg (or 1 Slug).

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21 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

vibration, S-Frame computes for each mode i the modal

j

participation factors( jµi ) and modal masses ( mˆ i ) in the three

global directions (j = X, Y, Z) defined, respectively, as

T j

j – { ψ } [ M ] { I }-

µi = ----------------------------------

T

(36)

{ψ} [M]{ψ}

T j 2

jˆ ({ψ } [M] {I })

mi = --------------------------------------

T

- (37)

{ ψ} [M]{ ψ}

expanded to the system dimension. For instance Y{ I } is given by

Since S-Frame scales the mode shapes with respect to the mass

matrix, the expressions for the modal participation factors and

modal masses simplify to

j T j

µi = – { ψ } [ M ] { I } (39)

jˆ T j 2

mi = ( { ψ } [ M ] { I } ) (40)

of the mass in each of the three global directions (j = X, Y, Z)

using the following expression

numnatfrq

jˆ

∑ mi

j i=1

% M = -----------------------------

j

- (41)

[ M] {I }

determine the natural frequencies and corresponding mode

vibration analysis

shapes of vibration while taking into consideration membrane

effects due to time-independent loads under the following

assumptions:

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 22

temperature effects are applied to the structure.

temperature effects may be applied to the structure.

Analysis description The stressed free-vibration analysis requires a two phase analysis

procedure. In the first phase, the system equilibrium equations

for the linear static analysis (Eq. 7) are used to solve for the { X } s

for the user-selected load case or load combination. Once the

nodal displacements are obtained, the element membrane forces

are calculated and used to form the element geometric stiffness

matrices [ Kg ]e . In general, compressive membrane forces tend

to reduce the stiffness of an element, while tensile membrane

forces cause a corresponding increase of stiffness. In the second

phase of the analysis, the equilibrium equations for the stressed

free-vibration analysis are considered, namely

··

[ M ]s{ X }s + [ [ K ]s + [ Kg ]s ] { X } s = { 0 } (42)

assembly of the element geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ] e using

standard matrix procedures. The geometric stiffness matrix

represents the effect of membrane forces on the stiffness of the

elements. Hence, by including it in the equilibrium equations 42,

we are in essence including the effects of the membrane forces on

the stiffness of the structure. Following the same procedure as in

Analysis description on page 15, it can be shown that the

frequency equation of the stressed system is

2

[ [ K ] s + [ Kg ] ] – ωi [ M ]s = 0 (43)

conditions (see Application of boundary conditions on page 52

for a discussion on the application of boundary conditions),

corresponds to the solution of the general eigenvalue problem

ˆ 2

( [ [ K ] s + [ K g ]s ] – ω i [ M ] s ) { φ i } = 0 (44)

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23 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

ω i , { φi } (45)

oscillation) decrease in the presence of compressive membrane

forces, whereas they increase in the presence of tensile

membrane forces. In the case where the structure is critically

loaded, the lowest eigenvalue becomes zero. This is due to the

singularity of the stiffness matrix induced by the geometric

stiffness matrix. This is in fact one of the methods used to predict

buckling loads by frequency measurements for varying

membrane loads. Further details are provided on the methods

for determining buckling loads in Linear buckling analysis on

page 31.

details combination of the descriptions in Implementation details on

page 14 and Implementation details on page 16. In the current

version of S-Frame, the geometric stiffness matrices [ K g ] e of

beams and shells are formed.

Linear dynamic The purpose of the linear dynamic analysis is to determine the

response of a structure to arbitrarily time-varying loads under

analysis

the following assumptions:

on time.

Analysis description The system equilibrium equations for the linear dynamic

analysis are

·· ·

[ M ] s { X } s + [ C ] s { X } s + [ K ] s { X } s = { R }s (46)

differential equations with constant coefficients. Three categories

of methods exist for the solution of such system of equations:

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 24

not require any transformation of the system equilibrium

equations prior to solution. Indirect methods require the

transformation of the system equilibrium equations to a more

convenient form prior to solution (Modal Analysis). Direct

methods enforce equilibrium which includes the external forces,

·· ·

inertia forces ( [ M ] s { X } s ) and damping forces ( [ C ]s { X }s ) at discreet

time intervals. Methods that consider equilibrium at time t are

classified as explicit (Central Difference), whereas methods that

consider equilibrium at time t + ∆t are classified as implicit

(Newmark, Wilson, Linear Acceleration). S-Frame uses the

Newmark time integration method for the solution of Eq. 46.

The cost of dynamic analysis is proportional to the number of

steps in the analysis. Therefore, the choice of the step size

becomes very important. This point will be discussed further in

the following sections. Dropping the subscript s from all system

vectors for brevity, the difference equations suggested by

Newmark may be expressed as

· ·· ··

{ X } t + ∆t = { X }t + ∆t ( ( 1 – δ ) { X } t + δ { X }t + ∆t ) (47)

and

· 1 ·· ··

(48)

2

If the values of 1/2 and 1/6 are used for δ and α , respectively,

then above equations reduce to the equations used in the linear-

acceleration method. First we consider the system of second-

order differential equations at time t = t+∆t

·· ·

[ M ] s { X } t + ∆t + [ C ]s { X } t + ∆t + [ K ] s { X }t + ∆t = { R } t + ∆t (49)

·· ·

so, we must first obtain expressions for { X } t + ∆t and { X } t + ∆t in

terms of quantities at time t and { X } t + ∆t only. From Eq. 48 we

obtain

·· 1 1 · 1 ··

2α

(50)

α∆t α∆t

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25 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

· · ·· ··

{ X }t + ∆t = { X } t + ∆t ( ( 1 – δ ) { X }t + δ { X } t + ∆t ) (51)

rearranging, we obtain

[ K eq ]s { Y } = { R } t + ∆t + { R eq } t (52)

t + ∆t

where

1 δ

[ K eq ]s = -----------2- [ M ] s + ---------- [ C ] s + [ K ] s (53)

α∆t α∆t

and

1 1 · 1 ··

α∆t α∆t 2α

(54)

δ δ δ

[ C ] s ---------- { X }t + --- – 1 { X } t + ∆t ------- – 1 { X } t

· ··

α∆t α 2α

displacements at t = t+∆t. Having done that, Eqs. 50 and 51 may

be used to obtain the velocities and accelerations at time t = t+∆t.

Since equilibrium is considered at t = t+∆t, the Newmark

method is an implicit time-integration method.

details of Newmark in S-Frame.

algorithm

calculations conditions to obtain [ Mˆ ] s and [ Kˆ ] s .

(see Damping effects on page 57 for more details), and form

the system damping matrix

ˆ ˆ ˆ

[ C ] s = α [ M ] s + β [ K ]s (55)

Damping effects on page 57 gives details on how to select the

damping parameters α and β .

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 26

physical damping is present in the structure (i.e. Rayleigh

damping parameters α and β are zero) the values 0.2525 and

0.5050 should be used respectively. Otherwise, the values

0.25 and 0.50 should be used instead.

0.00001 s should be used for the initial time-step size of the

variable time-step algorithm. In the case of the constant

time-step algorithm, the time-step size should be selected

using the guidelines given in Selection of constant time-step

size on page 28.

5. For the variable time-step algorithm, select a value for the Jcr

parameter. A description of this parameter is given in

Implementation details of adaptive time-step size

algorithm on page 27.

minimum and maximum time-step sizes using the guidelines

of Selection of minimum and maximum time-step sizes on

page 29.

determine the initial accelerations using equilibrium at time

to

ˆ ·· ˆ ˆ ·

[ M ] s { X }to = { R } t – [ K ] s { X } t – [ C ] s { X } to (56)

o o

1 ˆ δ ˆ ˆ

[ K eq ]s = -----------2- [ M ] s + ---------- [ C ]s + [ K ] s (57)

α∆t α∆t

2. Factorize [ Keq ]s

T

[ K eq ]s = [ L ] [ D ] [ L ] (58)

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27 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

3. Form { Req } t

ˆ 1 1 · 1 ··

α∆t α∆t 2α

(59)

δ δ δ

[ C ] s ---------- { X }t + --- – 1 { X } t + ∆t ------- – 1 { X } t

ˆ · ··

α∆t α 2α

t = t+∆t

T ˆ

[ L ] [ D ] [ L ] { X }t + ∆t = { R } t + ∆t + { R eq } t (60)

Eqs. 50 and 51 respectively.

size according to the procedure described in

Implementation details of adaptive time-step size

algorithm on page 27.

Implementation The criterion used for the selection of a time-step size is the

details of adaptive magnitude of the rate of change of acceleration, known as jerk.

time-step size Jerk is approximated by

algorithm ·· ··

{ X } n – { X }n – 1

{ J } n = ------------------------------------- (61)

∆t n

where the most recent results available are via the nth integration

step using a time-step size of ∆tn. Next we determine the

maximum component of the jerk vector, which we denote by Jˆ n .

The maximum jerk is then normalized as follows

ˆ

Jn = J n ∆t n3 (62)

normalized jerk, denoted by Jcr, which corresponds to the largest

value of normalized jerk allowed at the n+1 integration step, that

is

ˆ

J cr = Jn + 1 = J n + 1 ∆t n3 + 1 (63)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 28

approximated by

ˆ

J cr = Jn ∆t n3+ 1 (64)

Now substituting for ˆJn from Eq. 62 and solving for ∆tn+1, Eq. 64

yields an expression for the estimation of the next time-step size,

namely

Jcr 1 / 3

∆t n + 1 = ∆t n ------ (65)

Jn

should be in the neighborhood of 0.001. From a number of tests

we have performed, we found that a 30% reduction in the

number of time steps is normal in structural dynamics when

using the variable time-step size algorithm. The adaptive time-

step algorithm performs numerous checks before selecting an

appropriate time-step size. One of these checks is to ensure that

the time-step size does not increase or decrease too rapidly (a

known cause of numerically induced transients). When this

occurs, the DE005 exception is issued. If this exception occurs at

the beginning of the analysis only, then the value of the user-

defined initial time-step size should be adjusted accordingly. If it

occurs at the end of the analysis it may be ignored. If, however, it

occurs throughout the analysis, a smaller value for the user-

specified value of Jcr is recommended.

Selection of constant It was noted (Tabarrok and Stylianou (1985)) that the response in

time-step size modes with a small ratio Ω ⁄ ωi is essentially static, and the

response in modes with a large ratio Ω ⁄ ωi is negligible (where Ω

is the highest frequency component of the forcing function).

Therefore, realizing that the static response is directly included in

the time integration of the system equilibrium equations 46, we

need only consider response contributions from modes for

which the ratio Ω ⁄ ωi is less or equal to 1 ⁄ 4 . Two important

practical considerations follow from the above discussion.

Firstly, the time integration need only be accurately performed

for modes with frequencies up to 4Ω , which will be denoted by

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29 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

*

Ω from here on. And secondly, the finite-element model used

need only accurately represent modes with frequencies up to Ω * .

As a rule of thumb we recommend that the user-selected

constant time step size satisfies the following condition

2π

∆t cr ≤ ------------* (66)

20Ω

minimum and minimum and maximum time-step sizes satisfy the following

maximum time-step conditions, respectively

sizes

∆t cr

--------- ≥ ∆tmin ≥ 1.0 ×10– 8 (67)

10.0

∆t max ≥ 100.0∆t cr (68)

displacements and stresses due to time-independent loading

conditions under the following assumptions:

of the structure is considered.

(i.e. dead loads).

temperature effects may be applied.

the ends of the beam or by transverse loading along the span

of the beam.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 30

acting through the lateral displacement of the beam.

force acting through the lateral displacement of the beam relative

to its chord (Fig. 1.a), whereas the P-∆ moments are moments

caused by the axial force acting through the relative lateral

displacement of the two ends of the beam (Fig. 1.b). The effect of

axial force on the primary bending moments of slender beams

and shells may be significant. The procedure in which these

secondary effects are accounted for in a static analysis in referred

to as a P-delta analysis.

δ

P P

(a)

∆

(b)

The P-delta analysis, specifically the Two-Cycle Iterative Method

(Chen and Lui (1991)) requires a two pass analysis procedure. In

the first phase, the system equilibrium equations for the linear

static analysis (Eq. 7) are solved for the nodal displacements { X } s

for all of the user-selected load cases and load combinations.

Once the nodal displacements are obtained, the element

membrane forces are calculated and used to form the element

geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ] e . The beam geometric stiffness

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31 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

earlier, compressive membrane forces tend to reduce the stiffness

of an element, while tensile membrane forces cause a

corresponding increase of stiffness. In the second phase of the

analysis, the equilibrium equations of the P-delta analysis are

considered, namely

( [ K ]s + [ Kg ]s ) { X }s = { R }s (69)

assembly of the element geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ]e .

Accordingly, Eqs. 69 are solved for the nodal displacements { X } s

for all of the user-selected load cases and load combinations.

Once nodal displacements are obtained, the element stresses and

nodal forces may be computed. For the elements at the

boundaries, these nodal forces will be in equilibrium with the

reactions.

details analysis is an approximation to the full non-linear analysis. For

the solution of the system of equations, the skyline solver as

described in Implementation details on page 14 is used. In the

current version of S-Frame, the geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ] e

of beams and shells are formed.

Linear buckling The purpose of the linear buckling analysis is to determine the

critical load factors and corresponding buckling mode shapes

analysis

under the following assumptions:

horizontal force-deflection curve).

Analysis description The linear buckling analysis requires a two phase analysis

procedure. In the first phase, the system equilibrium equations

for the linear static analysis (Eq. 7) are used to solve for the

displacements { X } s for the user-selected load case or load

combination. Once the nodal displacements are obtained, the

element membrane forces are calculated and used to form the

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 32

compressive membrane forces tend to reduce the stiffness of an

element, while tensile membrane forces cause a corresponding

increase of stiffness. In the second phase of the analysis, the

equilibrium equations for the linear buckling analysis are

considered, namely

[ [ K ]s + [ Kg ]s ] { X }s = { R }s (70)

assembly of the element geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ] e , using

standard matrix procedures. The geometric stiffness matrix

represents the effect of membrane forces on the stiffness of the

elements. Hence, by including it in the equilibrium equations 70,

we are in essence including the effects of the membrane forces on

the stiffness of the structure. In order to evaluate the critical

buckling loading of the structure let us express the geometric

stiffness matrix in terms of a reference geometric stiffness matrix

multiplied by a load factor λ . Thus

[ Kg ]s = λ [ K g ] (71)

o s

under the reference loading (in general { R } s is used as the

reference loading). Therefore, the loading of the structure is

proportional to λ and its relative distribution is constant (Cook

et. al. (1989)). Substituting Eq. 71 in Eq. 70 the equilibrium

equations become

( [ K ] s + λ [ K g ] ) { X }s = { R } s (72)

o s

[ K eq ]s = [ K ] s + λ [ K g ] (73)

o s

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33 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

must become singular. Hence, the most obvious way for solving

the above problem, is to increase the load factor, step by step, and

at each load level check the singularity of matrix [ Keq ] s by

evaluating its determinant. Three possibilities exist:

[ K eq ]s < 0 if ( λ > λ cr )

[ K eq ] s = 0 if ( λ = λcr ) (74)

[ K eq ] s > 0 if ( λ < λ cr )

are multiplied by, will yield a loading configuration that will

render the structure unstable (i.e. it will cause the onset of

buckling). The first one corresponds to unstable equilibrium, the

second possibility corresponds to the case where the structure is

on the verge of instability, and the third one corresponds to a

stable structure. The value of λ is then a measure of the closeness

of the actual loading to the loading necessary for the structure to

buckle. This problem can also be viewed as an eigenvalue

problem (for more details see Cook (1989), Tabarrok and

Stylianou (1985))

2

[ K ]s + λ i [ Kg ] = 0 (75)

o s

described in Analysis description on page 15 for the free-

vibration analysis. Now all that is necessary, is to determine the

smallest eigenvalue and corresponding eigenvector. Generally,

there is interest only in the first eigenpair

λ cr , { φ 1 } (76)

{ φ1 } the corresponding buckling mode shape.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 34

here, does not require or imply buckling of each element. That is,

at the structure’s critical loading, the following is true for an

element

2

( [ K ] e + λ cr [ K g ] ≥ 0 ) (77)

o e

one-element structure.

details combination of the descriptions in Implementation details on

page 14 and Implementation details on page 16. In the current

version of S-Frame, the geometric stiffness matrices [ Kg ] e of

beams and shells are formed. In addition, it is recommended that

only the first few buckling modes be computed in a linear

buckling analysis. Specifically, for small structures no more than

the first couple mode shapes should be requested.

Free Vibration - P- Eqs. 74 in the context of two other analysis types, namely

delta Stressed Free Vibration and P-delta analyses and compare to the

Buckling analysis.

Buckling Analysis [ K eq ] s < 0 if ( λ > λ cr ) : the absolute value of λ cr will be less than 1

indicating that the structure has already buckled.

1 indicating that the structure is on the verge of instability.

than 1 indicating that the structure is stable

Stressed Free Vibration [ K eq ] s < 0 if ( λ > λ cr ) : the analysis will fail since at least one of

Analysis

the eigenvalues is negative.

lowest natural frequency.

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35 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

positive eigenvalues.

P-delta Analysis [ K eq ] s < 0 if ( λ > λ cr ) : the analysis will fail since at least one of

the pivots is negative.

to zero. If it is zero or positive then the analysis will not fail, but

the displacements will be physically large. If it is negative the

analysis will fail.

pivots greater than zero.

the stresses due to a response spectrum under the following

spectrum analysis

assumptions:

spectrum.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 36

detailed time history of the response is not always required. The

response spectrum analysis estimates the peak response, such as

maximum displacement, without the need for computing the

time history of the response.

Y’

{W}s

Y

{X}s X’

{Z}s

Z X

The system equilibrium equations associated with the response

spectrum analysis are

·· · ··

[ M ] s { W } s + [ C ]s { W } s + [ K ] s { W } s = –[ M ]s { Z ( t ) } s (78)

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37 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

displacement vector { Z } s (a given function of time t) are shown

in Fig. 2 together with the absolute displacement vector { X } s .

follows:

compute the first numnatfrq eigenpairs ωi , { φ i }.

[ Ψ ] = [ { ψ 1 }, { ψ 2 }, { ψ 3 }, …, { ψ numnatfrq } ] (79)

system equilibrium equations 78

T ·· ··

[ Ψ ] [ M ]s [ Ψ ] { η }s = [ m ]s{ η }s

T · ·

[ Ψ ] [ C ]s [ Ψ ] { η } s = [ c ] s { η } s

(80)

T

[ Ψ ] [ K ]s[ Ψ ] { η }s = [ k ]s { η }s

T ·· T j ··

–[ Ψ ] [ M ]s { Z ( t ) }s = –[ Ψ ] [ M ]s { I } z ( t )

constant vector which indicates the global direction of the

base motion ( {j I } , where j = X, Y, Z), and a scalar function

which gives the ground acceleration history in time ( z··( t ) ). If

the mode shapes are normalized according to Eq. 33, then

the system equilibrium equations will be decoupled so that

for the ith generalized degree of freedom the equilibrium

equation becomes

·· · 2 j ··

η i + 2 ξ i ω i η i + ω i η i = µi z ( t ) (81)

where ξi is the modal damping ratio defined in Damping

effects on page 57, and jµi is the participation factor of mode

i in direction j and is defined as

j T j

µi = – { ψ } i [ M ] s { I } (82)

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 38

due to the ground motion in the jth direction can be

expressed in terms of response spectra as

j

j max µi

{ w }i = { ψ }i ----- S v ( ω i, ξ i ) (83)

ωi

Penzien (1975), Craig (1981)).

of mode i due to the ground motion in all directions using

one of the following methods:

numdir

max j max

wi = ∑ wi (84)

j=1

numdir

max j max 2

{ w }i = ∑ ( { w }i ) (85)

j=1

the following methods:

numnatfrq

max max

W = ∑ wi (86)

i=1

numnatfrq

max max 2

{W} = ∑ ( { w }i ) (87)

i=1

numnatfrq

max max max

{ W} = ∑ ∑ { w }i κ ik { w }k (88)

i=1 k=1

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39 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

where

3⁄2

8 ξ i ξ k ( ξ i + rξ s )r

κ ik = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- (89)

2 2 2 2 2 2

( 1 – r ) + 4ξ i ξ k r ( 1 + r ) + 4 ( ξ i + ξ k )r

ωi

r = ------ . (90)

ωk

numnatfrq

max max max

{W} = ∑ ∑ κ ik { w }i { w }k (91)

i=1 k=1

where

1

κ ik = ----------------------------------------------------2 (92)

ω′ i – ω′ k

1 + -----------------------------------

ξ′i ω′ i – ξ′k ω′ k

2

ω′ i = ω i 1 – ξi (93)

2

ξ′ i = ξi + ---------- (94)

τe ωi

the earthquake excitation (represented by

extremely irregular accelerations of roughly equal

intensity).

Grouping Method

numnatfrq

max max max

{W} = ∑ ∑ κ ik { w }i { w }k (95)

i=1 k=1

where

ωk – ω i

1 if ----------------- ≤ 0.1

ωi

κ ik = (96)

ωk – ω i

0 if ----------------- > 0.1

ωi

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 40

details with a free-vibration analysis (Implementation details on page

16) and then a post-processing phase which uses equations 84 to

96 to estimate the maximum displacements, member forces,

reactions and base shears.

methods, the current version of S-Frame uses a constant value of

modal damping ratio ξ i for all modes. This value is specified by

the user when choosing the modal combination method.

includes enough number of modes. If physically possible, at least

90% of the total mass of the structure should be recovered in the

directions of interest. Therefore, it is recommended that the

analyst perform several free-vibration analyses to determine how

many modes are necessary and then perform a response

spectrum analysis.

combination first and then the modal combination. The

implementation is given below:

selected spatial combination method to get the total

modal displacement contributions

using the modal displacement contributions (not the

total)

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41 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

using selected spatial combination method to get the

total modal element force contributions

modal displacement contributions (not the total)

spatial combination method to get the total modal

reaction contributions

displacements, the element forces and the reaction contributions

will have been computed using either a power (square) or an

absolute value operator both of which are non-commutative

operators.

selected modal combination method to get the maximum

displacements

selected modal combination method to get the maximum

element forces

selected modal combination method to get the maximum

reactions

displacements, the element forces and the reactions will have

been computed using one of the non-commutative RSA

combination methods. Therefore, due to the non-commutative

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 42

computed maximum quantities will differ if the modal

combination is performed before the spatial.

and reactions) are computed using statistical methods, all sign

information is lost. To remedy this situation, S-Frame assigns

signs to the maximum quantities as obtained from the dominant

modal contribution of the corresponding quantity in the

direction of the applied spectral curve.

maximum quantities. The type of scaling factor is user specified

and it depends on whether the analysis is RSA or static.

quantities (displacements, reactions, element forces, base shears)

using the following scaling factors:

Tx Ty Tz

S x = ----- S y = ----- S z = ----- (97)

Rx Ry Rz

mode quantities (displacements, reactions, element forces, base

shears), which then may be used to combine with static load

cases. The scaling factors used depend on the user selection and

are given by:

Tx Ty Tz

S x = ----- S y = ----- S z = ---- (98)

Fx Fy Fz

or

Rx Ry Rz

S x = ----- S y = ----- S z = ----- (99)

Fx Fy Fz

where

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43 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

Nonlinear static The purpose of the nonlinear static analysis is to determine the

displacements and stresses due to time-independent loading

analysis

conditions under the following assumptions:

deformation.

(i.e. dead loads).

temperature effects may be applied.

Analysis description The system equilibrium equations for the nonlinear static

analysis are

{ F }s – { R } s = { 0 } (100)

all externally applied nodal forces

element stresses in this configuration. This vector is known as

the internal load vector.

details incremental step-by-step analysis with the total applied loads

divided into a number of load steps (n). Let us assume that the

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 44

displacement vector i{ X }s is known), and that the solution is

sought for load increment i+1, i.e.

i+1 i+1

{ F }s – { R }s = { 0 } (101)

vector at load increment i+1 may be written as

i+1 i

{ F }s = { F s } + ∆ { F s } (102)

corresponding to the increment in displacements ∆ { Xs } from

load increment i to i+1. In this step-by-step analysis, the

incremental internal load vector is approximated by

i

∆ { Fs } = [ Kt ] ∆ { X s } (103)

Eqs. 102 and 103 into Eq. 101 we get the incremental equilibrium

equations

i i+1 i

[ Kt ] ∆ { Xs } = { R s } – { Fs } (104)

displacements at load increment i+1 can be estimated by

i+1 i

{ Xs } = { Xs } + ∆ { Xs } (105)

practice, however, this procedure will invariably be subject to

significant errors due to the assumption of Eq. 103, hence one

iterates until the solution of Eq. 101 is obtained with an

acceptable accuracy. Many methods are available for performing

these iterations. The next section describes one of the most

popular iteration methods used for the solution of nonlinear

equations, the Newton-Raphson method.

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45 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

Method equations is the Newton-Raphson method (which is also used by

the current version of S-Frame). The Newton-Raphson iterations

(j) are performed at each load increment (i) using the following

equations

[ Kt ] ∆ { X s } = { Rs } – { Fs }

(106)

i+1 j i+i j–1 j

{ Xs } = { Xs } + ∆ { Xs }

given by

i+1 0 i

{ Xs } = { Xs }

(107)

i+1 0 i

{ Fs } = { F }

an out-of-balance load vector. A load vector that is not yet

balanced by the internal load vector (element stresses). In

essence, the goal of the Newton-Raphson iterations is to

minimize this out-of-balance load vector.

stop the Newton-Raphson iterations (j) in order to proceed to

the next load increment (i). Some of these criteria are based on

displacements, some on residual forces, and some on a

combination of both (using some energy measure). For a

detailed description of these criteria, please refer to Bathe (1982).

In this section we will describe the convergence criteria used by

S-Frame.

displacement component of iteration vector ∆ { Xs } j is

compared to a user-specified tolerance. If it is less than the

user-specified tolerance, the Newton-Raphson iterations stop

and the solution proceeds to the next load increment (i).

each displacement and rotation component of the iteration

vector ∆ { Xs } j is compared to a user-specified tolerance. If it is

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures : 46

iterations stop and the solution proceeds to the next load

increment (i).

each displacement component of the iteration vector ∆ { Xs } j

to the increment vector ∆ { X s } is compared to a user-specified

tolerance ratio. If it is less than the user-specified tolerance,

the Newton-Raphson iterations stop and the solution

proceeds to the next load increment (i).

displacement and rotation component of the iteration vector

j

∆ { X s } to the increment vector ∆ { X s } is compared to a user-

specified tolerance ratio. If it is less than the user-specified

tolerance, the Newton-Raphson iterations stop and the

solution proceeds to the next load increment (i).

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47 : Chapter 3 : Analysis procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 48

4 Other procedures

This section describes the storage scheme as well as various

procedures used in S-Frame.

Skyline storage The S-Frame finite-element analysis engine uses the skyline

storage scheme for storing the system stiffness, damping and

scheme

mass matrices (Bathe (1982)) for all the supported types of

analyses. To illustrate this storage scheme, consider the

hypothetical stiffness matrix shown below (since this matrix is

assumed to be symmetric, only the upper half is shown).

k11 k 12 0 k 14 0 0 0 0

k 22 k 23 0 0 k 26 0 0

k 33 k 34 0 0 0 k 38

k 44 k 45 k 46 0 0

[K] = (108)

k 55 k 56 0 0

k 66 k67 0

k77 k 78

k 88

storage scheme, where only the upper part of the matrix

(including the diagonal elements) is stored, requires storage for

n (n + 1 )

-------------------- = 36 (109)

2

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49 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

hand, if a symmetric banded storage scheme is used, the matrix

of Eq. 108 is stored as

k 11 k 12 0 k 14 0 0

k 22 k 23 0 0 k 26 0

k 33 k 34 0 0 0 k 38

k 44 k 45 k 46 0 0

[ K] = n

k 55 k 56 0 0 (110)

k 66 k 67 0

k 77 k 78

k 88

wh

hence, only

wh ( wh – 1 )

nw h – --------------------------- = 33 (111)

2

can easily see that the storage savings by using a symmetric

banded storage scheme can be significant if wh is much smaller

than n.

between the diagonal and the last non-zero element of each

column are stored (including the diagonal). Therefore, the

matrix of Eq. 108 is stored as

k 11 k 12 k 14

k 22 k 23 0 k 26

k 33 k 34 0 k38

k 44 k 45 k 46 0

[K] = (112)

k 55 k 56 0

k 66 k 67 0

k 77 k 78

k 88

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 50

the number of elements below the skyline, and hence the storage

requirements. Nevertheless, the skyline storage requirements can

never be greater than the requirements of the symmetric banded

storage scheme. For the example at hand, the number of elements

under the skyline is 24. However, it should be noted that this

scheme requires an additional two auxiliary arrays. One for

storing the column heights of [K] ({a}) and one for storing the

location of the diagonal terms of [K] ({b}}. For the matrix of Eq.

112, these auxiliary arrays will contain the information shown in

Eq. 113. In computing the storage requirements of the skyline

storage scheme one needs to add the requirements of these two

arrays, i.e. 2n + 1 elements. Noting that these two arrays are of

type integer, their combined storage requirement in double

precision numbers can then be approximated as n. Therefore, for

the matrix of Eq. 112 the number of elements that need to be

stored is 24 + 8 = 32 .

From this example, one may conclude that for almost full

matrices the storage and addressing overhead associated with the

skyline storage scheme can outweigh its benefits. In general,

however, for matrices of the type encountered in finite-element

analyses, the skyline storage scheme and associated solvers can

be very effective. This is especially true if the node numbering of

the finite-element model is optimized so that the skyline size is

minimized. Node numbering optimization will be discussed in

the next section.

1 1

2 2

2 4

{a} = 4 n {b} = 6 n+1 (113)

2 10

5 12

2 17

6 19

25

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51 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

Mesh The analyst using S-Frame is free to choose any convenient node

numbering scheme. However, once the finite-element model has

optimization

been defined, the S-Frame finite-element analysis engine

optimizes the internal node numbering so that the size of the

skyline is minimized. This node numbering optimization is

necessary for minimizing the memory requirements for storage

of the system matrices (stiffness, damping, mass).

due to Sloan (1986). This algorithm has been used on a broad

range of problems with various types of elements (e.g. problems

suggested by Everstine (1979)). The results suggest that it is

superior to both the reverse Cuthill-McKee (1969) and Gibbs-

King (1976) methods.

simple finite-element model shown in Fig. 3.

‘

Internal 1 3 4 5 6 7 2

Optimized 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The user node numbers are arbitrary. They can start at any

number and they do not have to be sequentially numbered, that

is, different node numbering schemes may be used for different

parts of the structure. Of course a node number cannot be used

more than once, but gaps may exist in the numbers used. In

addition, all node numbers must be greater than zero. The

internal node numbers are assigned during the model definition.

In the example of Fig. 3, it is assumed that the analyst specified

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 52

the nodes in the following order: 200, 300, 400, 500,..., 800.

Therefore, node 200 was specified first (internal node number 1),

node 300 was specified second (internal node number 2), node

400 was specified third (internal node number 3) and so on. The

optimized node numbers are computed by the node-numbering

optimization algorithm of S-Frame.

numbering scheme to another. All results and user messages use

the user node numbers, whereas all computations use the

optimized node numbers. Both the internal and the optimized

node numbers are transparent to the analyst.

Application of As noted earlier, once the system equations have been formed,

the system matrix (or matrices) has to be modified in order to

boundary

account for the boundary conditions. The system stiffness matrix

conditions will generally have a degeneracy equal in number to the rigid-

body modes of the structure. On application of adequate

boundary conditions, rigid-body modes and the degeneracy of

the stiffness matrix are removed and hence, the solution of the

system of equations becomes possible. The Boundary conditions

can be of two types: homogeneous and non-homogeneous. An

example of the first type is a constrained node, and of the second

type, a prescribed nodal displacement (foundation settlement).

Both types of boundary conditions can be applied using a

number of different schemes.

functions. A proof of this method is given in Zienkiewicz (1977).

Consider the system of equations

k 11 x 1 + k 12 x 2 + k 13 x 3 = r 1

k 21 x 1 + k 22 x 2 + k 23 x 3 = r 2 (114)

k 31 x 1 + k 32 x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

displacement vector (x2) is prescribed the value of xp. Let us

further assume that the system of equations is symmetric and

that it is desirable to preserve this symmetry. We now select a

large number α which is six to twelve orders of magnitude larger

than the largest coefficient kij. We then add this coefficient to k22.

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53 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

changed to α times the prescribed value, i.e. αxp. Following this

procedure, above system of equations becomes

k 11 x 1 + k 12 x 2 + k 13 x 3 = r 1

k21 x 1 + ( ( k 22 + α )x 2 ) + k23 x 3 = αx p (115)

k 31 x 1 + k 32 x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

coefficients kij, for all practical purposes, the second equation is

equivalent to

αx 2 = αx p (116)

or

x2 = xp (117)

boundary conditions is very simple to implement, it conserves

symmetry, and allows the application of non-homogeneous

boundary conditions to be treated within load cases and/or load

combinations. The only disadvantage of this method is the

artificial introduction of very large diagonal terms which, in

certain cases, may introduce some ill-conditioning during the

solution phase, thereby resulting in possible loss of accuracy.

Therefore, if the finite-element model contains only homogenous

boundary condition, S-Frame uses a variation of the

aforementioned procedure which does not introduce the

unwanted ill-conditioning. Using this alternate procedure, after

applying the constraint

x2 = 0 (118)

k 11 x 1 + 0x 2 + k 13 x 3 = r 1

0x 1 + αx 2 + 0x 3 = 0 (119)

k 31 x 1 + 0x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 54

diagonals of the system matrix, that is

k ii

α = -------------------

-. (120)

numdof

of degrees of freedom. For this type of constraint, the analyst

(coupled degrees

must specify sets of nodes which have a certain degree of

of freedom) freedom coupled (i.e. these degrees of freedom are constrained

to have the same displacement, velocity and acceleration).

Consider, for example, the cantilever beam shown in Fig. 4.

Y

Ty direction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 X

Rx direction

In order to couple the translational y degrees of freedom of node

2, 3, 4 and the rotational x degrees of freedom of nodes 5, 6 the

user needs to specify the information given in Table 1.

freedom only, i.e. degrees of freedom that have not been

restrained due to support conditions (boundary conditions

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55 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

degrees of freedom of node 1 in Fig. 4 (which is fully supported)

can be part of a constraint specification.

Numbers of Freedom

2 to 5 Ty

3 to 5 Ty

6 to 5 Rx

The scheme used in S-Frame for application of constraints is as

follows. Consider the system of equations

k 11 x 1 + k 12 x 2 + k 13 x 3 = r 1

k 21 x 1 + k 22 x 2 + k 23 x 3 = r 2 (121)

k 31 x 1 + k 32 x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

constrained to be equal to the first degree of freedom (x1).

Furthermore, similar to the procedure for application of

boundary conditions, we assume that the system of equations is

symmetric and that it is desirable to preserve this symmetry. On

application of the constraint

x2 = x1 (122)

( k 11 + k 12 )x 1 + k 13 x 3 = r 1

( k 21 + k 22 )x 1 + k 23 x 3 = r 2 (123)

( k 31 + k 32 )x 1 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 56

Since there are only two unknown (x1, x3), equations 123 are not

independent. If we take the second equation as the superfluous

one and add it to the first equation, then we are left with the

symmetric system of equations

( k 11 + k 12 + k 21 + k 22 )x 1 + ( k 13 + k 23 )x 3 = r 1 + r 2

(124)

( k 31 + k 32 )x 1 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

preserve the original size of the system of equations. Therefore,

in S-Frame the superfluous equations are not removed. Instead,

they are decoupled from the rest of the system of equations using

a technique similar to the one described for the application of

boundary conditions. For the example at hand, we first add the

2nd row to the first row so that equations 121 become

( k 11 + k 21 )x 1 + ( k 12 + k 22 )x 2 + ( k 13 + k 23 )x 3 = r 1 + r 2

k 21 x 1 + k 22 x 2 + k 23 x 3 = r 2 (125)

k 31 x 1 + k 32 x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

and then we add the 2nd column to the first column to obtain

( k 11 + k 21 + k 12 + k 22 )x 1 + ( k 12 + k 22 )x 2 + ( k 13 + k 23 )x 3 = r 1 + r 2

( k 21 + k 22 )x 1 + k 22 x 2 + k 23 x 3 = r 2 (126)

( k 31 + k 32 )x 1 + k 32 x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

from the rest of the equations. This is accomplished by zeroing

the 2nd row and column of the system of equations except for the

diagonal term, i.e.

( k 11 + k 21 + k 12 + k 22 )x 1 + 0x 2 + ( k 13 + k 23 )x 3 = r 1 + r 2

0x 1 + αx 2 + 0x 3 = α (127)

( k 31 + k 32 )x 1 + 0x 2 + k 33 x 3 = r 3

verified that above system of equations is equivalent to Eqs. 124.

Once the system of equations 127 is solved for x1, and x3, then

Eq. 122 is used to obtain the correct value for x2.

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57 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

will normally increase the skyline storage requirements. Since

ultimately the constraints are applied using the optimized node

numbers, it is generally not possible for the analyst to estimate

this increase a priori. However, the following is a useful

guideline:

freedom (j) increases the memory requirements less than

coupling a higher degree of freedom (j) to a lower degree of

freedom (i).

difference between the coupled degrees of freedom

abs ( i – j )

increases.

Damping effects The most common form of viscous damping used in structural

dynamics is the so-called Rayleigh-type damping (Bathe (1982))

where the system damping matrix is expressed as a linear

combination of the system mass and stiffness matrices

[ C ]s = α [ M ] s + β [ K ] s (128)

specifying the damping ratio for two modes, say first and second,

to obtain

2ω 1 ω 2 ( ω 2 ξ 2 – ω 1 ξ1 )

α = ----------------------------------------------------

2 2

[ ω 2 – ω1 ]

(129)

2 ( ω 2 ξ 2 – ω1 ξ1 )

β = --------------------------------------

2 2

[ ω 2 – ω1 ]

α βω i

ξ i = -------- + --------- (130)

2ω i 2

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 58

be used separately. For mass-proportional damping β = 0.

Specifying ratio for the first mode only gives

α = 2ξ 1 ω 1 (131)

Therefore,

ξ1 ω1

ξi = ------------ (132)

ωi

with increase in mode frequency.

damping ratio for the first mode only gives

2ξ 1

β = -------- (133)

ω1

Therefore,

ξ1 ωi

ξ i = ----------- (134)

ω1

frequency. In practice, it has been found that mass-proportional

damping can represent friction damping, whilst stiffness-

proportional damping can represent internal material damping.

Accepted values of modal damping ratios ξ i for typical forms of

construction vary from 0.01 for small diameter piping systems,

to 0.07 for bolted joint and reinforced concrete structures.

freedom only. This is accomplished by attaching dashpots on

nodes in the desired directions. Dashpots are currently

supported for the Dynamic Analysis of S-Frame only.

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59 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

motion can be decoupled when using the normalized

eigenvectors (Eq. 33). In this case the generalized damping for

the ith mode is defined as

T

ci = { ψ } i [ C ] s { ψ }i (135)

S-Frame models as a result of nodal releases. The physical

structural degrees

interpretation of non-structural degrees of freedom is as follows:

of freedom

Non-structural degrees of freedom are degrees of freedom that

are not structurally connected to the rest of the structure.

they do render the system stiffness matrix singular. Before the

solution phase of all types of analyses, S-Frame performs a check

to ensure that all degrees of freedom are connected to the

structure. If S-Frame finds a degree of freedom that is unstable

due to the imposition of nodal releases, it fixes the degree of

freedom by appropriate modifications to the stiffness matrix and

issues the CO0045 exception. If, however, S-Frame finds an

unstable degree of freedom which was not caused by the

imposition of nodal releases, it only issues the CO0046

exception.

interpolate between user-specified data. For instance, in the case

interpolation

of a dynamic analysis, the engine must interpolate within

discrete data points of the user-specified force or acceleration vs.

time graph.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 4 : Other procedures : 60

of the dependent variable. Consider, for example, the data given

in Table 2 which is typical of the force vs. time graph required for

a dynamic analysis.

Time ( xi ) Force ( yi )

0.0 0.6

0.2 1.2

1.3 0.2

3.2 -0.3

5.6 -2.3

9.1 -1.1

During the time integration of the system equilibrium equations

46, the S-Frame finite-element analysis engine will require the

value of the force at times for which it has not been provided

explicitly by the user. For instance, if the value of the force ( y * ) at

time 1.0 (i.e. x * = 1.0 ) is required, S-Frame will interpolate using

the following equation

y2 – y1

y * = y 1 + ---------------- ( x * – x 1 ) (136)

x2 – x1

or

0.2 – 1.2

y * = 1.2 + -------------------- ( 1.0 – 0.2 ) = 0.47272 (137)

1.3 – 0.2

Lumped mass VS. The consistent mass matrix is based on the approximation for the

kinetic energy. That is, while the approximation for the strain

consistent mass

energy leads to the stiffness matrix, the use of the same

formulations polynomial functions (or shape functions) in the approximation

of the kinetic energy, leads to the consistent mass matrix. As a

result one finds some negative off diagonal elements in the

consistent mass matrix. The consistent mass matrix is a more

accurate representation of the inertial properties and it further

leads to natural frequencies that are bounded below by the exact

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61 : Chapter 4 : Other procedures S-Frame Theory Manual

always lie above the exact values and by using sufficient number

of elements one can obtain very accurate results.

the consistent mass matrix, is based on equivalent mass

representation in the gravitational field. Thus, in the case of the

beam element one may choose to place half the mass of the beam

at each node of the element. However, such representation

overlooks the inertial effects due to flexure and in rigid-body

rotations of the beam it will over estimate the rotational inertia.

Accordingly, the lumped mass representation is not as accurate

and can lead to natural frequencies that may be higher or lower

than the exact ones. However, for large problems lumped mass

representation leads to considerable savings in computing since

it gives rise to a diagonal mass matrix. The current release of

S-Frame supports the consistent mass formulation only. In a

future release the analyst will be given the option to use either

consistent or lumped mass formulation.

Number of The cubic polynomial used to develop the element matrices for

the beam element is an exact solution of the homogeneous part

elements required

of the beam static equilibrium equations. Accordingly, the

stiffness matrix is exact and often one need only use one beam

element per span in static problems. In non-static problems

(vibration, dynamic, buckling) the equilibrium equations are

different and the cubic polynomial is no longer an exact solution.

For instance, the solution of the free-vibration problem is

frequency dependent. Accordingly, for non-static analyses one

must use several elements to obtain accurate results. This is

especially true in the following cases:

shell elements) above discussion is also true for static analysis.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 62

5 Element library

S-Frame’s element library contains the following elements:

stiffness/inertia).

stiffness/inertia).

inertia).

5. Tension-only members

6. Compression-only members

7. Spring element.

8. Hook element.

9. Gap element.

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63 : Chapter 5 : Element library S-Frame Theory Manual

case where a an element type is not appropriate for a certain

analysis type (e.g. a cable element in a linear static analysis), the

solver performs an automatic element and spring conversions

according to Table 3 and Table 4.

Stressed Vibration

Nonlinear Static

Free Vibration

Dynamic

Buckling

P-Delta

R.S.A.

Static

Element

Type

Description

0 Non-active 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 Beam 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 Truss 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 Cable 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

4 2-noded spring 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 2-noded torsion 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

spring

6 2-noded nonlinear 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6

spring

7 2-noded nonlinear 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7

torsion spring

8 Tension-only truss 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8

9 Compression-only 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9

truss

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 64

Stressed Vibration

Nonlinear Static

Free Vibration

Dynamic

Buckling

P-Delta

R.S.A.

Static

Spring

Type

Description

0 Compression only 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0

if motion -ve

1 Compression only 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

if motion +ve

2 Linear spring 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 Nonlinear spring 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

The following sections describe these elements in more detail.

compression, torsion, and bending capabilities. It has six degrees

of freedom at each node: three translations in the element x, y, z

directions and rotations about the element x, y, z axes.

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65 : Chapter 5 : Element library S-Frame Theory Manual

Stiffness, geometric The finite element formulation of the 3D-beam element uses a

stiffness, and mass third order polynomial for bending and linear polynomials for

matrices tension and torsion (Przemieniecki (1968), Cook (1989), Weaver

(1980)). The stiffness, geometric stiffness and consistent mass

matrices are given by Eqs. 138, 147 and 148 respectively.

AE

------

L

1

0 kz

1

0 0 ky

GJ

0 0 0 ------

L

4 5

0 0 ky 0 ky

3 5

0 kz 0 0 0 kz

[ K ]e = (138)

A E-

–-------- AE

0 0 0 0 0 ------

L L

2 4 1

0 kz 0 0 0 kz 0 kz

2 3 1

0 0 ky 0 k y 0 0 0 ky

– GJ GJ

0 0 0 --------- 0 0 0 0 0 ------

L L

4 6 3 5

0 0 ky 0 k y 0 0 0 kz 0 k y

3 6 4 5

0 kz 0 0 0 kz 0 ky 0 0 0 k z

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 66

where

A cross-sectional area.

s

Ai shear area normal to direction i.

E Young’s modulus.

L element length.

G shear modulus.

J torsional moment of inertia.

1 12EIi

k i = -----------------------

3

- (139)

L ( 1 + Γi )

2 – 12 EIi

k i = -----------------------

3

- (140)

L ( 1 + Γi )

3 6EIi

k i = -----------------------

2

- (141)

L ( 1 + Γi )

4 – 6 EI i

k i = -----------------------

2

- (142)

L ( 1 + Γi )

5 ( 4 + Γ i )EI i

k i = ------------------------- (143)

L ( 1 + Γi )

6 ( 2 – Γ i )EI i

k i = ------------------------ (144)

L ( 1 + Γi )

12EIz

Γ y = --------------

2 s

(145)

GL A z

12EI y

Γ z = --------------

2 s

- (146)

GL A y

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67 : Chapter 5 : Element library S-Frame Theory Manual

0

0 36

0 0 36

0 0 0 0

2

0 0 – 3L 0 4L

Pe 2

[ K g ] e = ----- 0 3L 0 0 0 4L (147)

30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 – 36 0 0 0 – 3L 0 36

0 0 – 36 0 3L 0 0 0 36

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

2 2

0 0 – 3L 0 – L 0 0 0 3L 0 4L

2 2

0 3L 0 0 0 – L 0 – 3L 0 0 0 4L

where

P axial load (positive for a tensile load).

140

0 156

0 0 156

140J

-----------

0 0 0

A

2

0 0 – 22L 0 4L

me 2

[ M ] e = -------- 0 22L 0 0 0 4L (148)

420 70 0 0 0 0 0 140

0 54 0 0 0 13L 0 156

0 0 54 0 – 13L 0 0 0 156

70J 140J

0 0 0 -------- 0 0 0 0 0 -----------

A A

2 2

0 0 13L 0 –3L 0 0 0 22L 0 4L

2 2

0 –13L 0 0 0 – 3L 0 – 22L 0 0 0 4L

where

me element mass.

For the nonlinear beam element, the 2nd order terms are also

included in the tangent stiffness matrix.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 68

3D Thin Shell The triangular and quadrilateral thin shell elements have both

out-of-plane (bending) and in-plane (membrane) capabilities.

Both in-plane and out-of-plane loads are permitted. These

elements have six degrees of freedom at each node: three

translations in the element x, y, z directions and rotations about

the element x, y, z axes. For nonlinear static analysis, the 2nd

order terms are also included in the tangent stiffness matrix of

the thin shell family of elements.

Stiffness and mass In the element coordinate system (with x, y in the plane of the

matrices element and z normal to it) the in-plane and out-of-plane actions

are decoupled and one may derive the stiffness and mass

matrices, for in-plane and out-of-plane actions, independently.

The finite-element formulation of these thin shell elements uses a

linear polynomial for the in-plane action, and a third order

polynomial for the out-of-plane actions. Unlike in the case of the

beam element, the element matrices (stiffness and consistent

mass) for the shell elements cannot be evaluated explicitly and

they require the use of numerical integration algorithms. For

more details on these shell elements, the user is referred to

Bazeley et. al. (1965). A Softek internal report on the thin shell

element formulation is available.

Plate elements The triangular and quadrilateral thin plate elements have out-of-

plane (bending) stiffness only. Only out-of-plane loads are

permitted. These elements have three degrees of freedom at each

node. With x, y in the plane of the element and z normal to it, the

nodal degrees of freedom are: translation in the z direction, and

rotations about the x and y directions.

Membrane elements The triangular and quadrilateral thin membrane elements have

in-plane (membrane) stiffness only. Only in-plane loads are

permitted. These elements have two degrees of freedom at each

node. With x, y in the plane of the element and z normal to it, the

nodal degrees of freedom are: translations in the x and y

directions.

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Aspect ratio It is important that the aspect ratio of these thin shell, plate and

membrane elements (defined as the ratio of the longest side to

the shortest side of an element) be lower than 4. Highly distorted

elements are known to yield poor results.

capabilities only. It has one degree of freedom at each node: a

translation in the element x direction. For the nonlinear truss

and cable elements, the 2nd order terms are also included in the

tangent stiffness matrix. A Softek internal report on the

nonlinear truss and cable element formulation is available.

Stiffness and mass The finite element formulation of the 3D-truss element uses a

matrices linear polynomial for tension (Cook (1989), Weaver (1980)). The

stiffness and consistent mass matrices are given by Eqs. 149 and

150 respectively.

AE

------

L

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

[ K ]e = 0 0 0 0 0 0 (149)

–A E AE

--------- 0 0 0 0 0 ------

L L

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 70

where

A cross-sectional area.

E Young’s modulus.

L element length.

140

0 140

0 0 140

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

me 0 0 0 0 0 0

[ M ] e = -------- (150)

420 70 0 0 0 0 0 140

0 70 0 0 0 0 0 140

0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 140

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

where

me element mass.

Two-noded spring The two-noded spring element has tension and torsional

stiffness. It has two degrees of freedom at each node: one

translation in the element x direction and a rotation about the

element x axis.

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71 : Chapter 5 : Element library S-Frame Theory Manual

ka

0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0 kr

0 0 0 0 0

[ K ]e = 0 0 0 0 0 0 (151)

–ka 0 0 0 0 0 k a

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 – kr 0 0 0 0 0 k r

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

where

ka axial stiffness of linear spring.

They are functions of the spring deformation (axial and

rotational respectively) provided in the form of a table.

give by Eq. 151

members

where

if member is in compression k a = 0

otherwise k a = k a

kr = 0

stiffness only when they are in tension.

matrix give by Eq. 151

members

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 5 : Element library : 72

where

if member is in tension k a = 0

otherwise ka = k a

kr = 0

have stiffness only when they are in compression.

Spring element The spring element can have tension and torsional stiffness. It

has two degrees of freedom: one translation in the element x

direction and a rotation about the element x axis.

ka

0 0

[ K ]e = 0 0 0 (152)

0 0 0 kr

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

where

ka axial stiffness of linear spring.

For nonlinear static analysis, k a and k r are not constant. They are

functions of the spring deformation (axial and rotational

respectively) provided in the form of a table.

Hook element The hook element is a spring element which engages after it

undergoes a compression greater or equal to the user specified

GAP. Its stiffness is given by Eq. 152

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73 : Chapter 5 : Element library S-Frame Theory Manual

where

if spring compression < GAP ka = 0

otherwise k a = k a

kr = 0

Gap element The gap element is a spring element which engages after it

undergoes an elongation greater or equal to the user specified

GAP. Its stiffness is given by Eq. 152

where

if spring elongation < GAP k a = 0

otherwise k a = k a

kr = 0

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 6 : Unit conversion factors : 74

Unit conversions in S-Frame are performed during the model

definition and throughout the analysis. The following six tables

give the unit conversion factors used by S-Frame.

Second

Second (s) 1.0

Minute (min) 60.0

Hour (h) 3600.0

Pound

Pound (lbf) 1.0

Ounce (US oz) 0.0625

Kip (kip) 1000.0

Ton (tnf) 2000.0

Kilogram (kgf) 2.20463414

Tonne (tf) 2204.63414

Dyne (dynf) 2.248089237E-6

Newton (N) 0.2248089237

Kilonewton (kN) 224.8089237

Meganewton (mN) 224808.9237

Inch

Inch (in) 1.0

Foot (ft) 12.0

Yard (yd) 36.0

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75 : Chapter 6 : Unit conversion factors S-Frame Theory Manual

Inch

Millimeter (mm) 0.03937007874

Centimeter (cm) 0.3937007874

Meter (m) 39.37007874

Mug

Mug (mg) 1.0

Pound (lbm) 0.00259041

Kip (kipm) 2.59041

Ton (tnm) 5.18082

Tonne (tm) 5.71081

Slug (-) 0.0833333

Gram (g) 5.71081E-6

Kilogram (kg) 5.71081E-3

Radian

Radian (rad) 1.0

Degree (o) 0.0174532925

Cycle (cycle) 6.283185307

oF

oF 1.0

o

C 1.8

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 6 : Unit conversion factors : 76

engine converts all quantities to the International System of

Units, abbreviated SI (from the French, Système International

D’Unités), prior to the solution phase. Table 11 gives the basic SI

units used by S-Frame.

Length meter (m)

Time second (s)

Mass kilogram (kg)

Force newton (N)

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S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 7 : Memory requirements : 78

7 Memory requirements

The following sections describe the memory requirements (both

Random Access Memory (RAM) and hard disk storage) of the

S-Frame solution engine.

of bytes of RAM the S-Frame solution engine must dynamically

allocation

allocate during execution.

requirements

(RAM)

Linear static: numdof ( 4 numdof + 32 ) (153)

2

Free vibration: numdof ( 8 numdof + 8 numitrvec + 24 ) + 24 numitrvec (155)

2

Stressed free-vibration: numdof ( 8 numdof + 8 numitrvec + 32 ) + 24 numitrvec (156)

2

Linear buckling: numdof ( 12 numdof + 8 numitrvec + 40 ) + 24 numitrvec (159)

2

numdof ( 8 numdof + 8 numitrvec + 24 ) + 24 numitrvec +

Response spectrum: (160)

2 ( 96 num1Delm + 296 num2Delm )

of bytes of permanent storage the S-Frame solution engine needs

requirements

during execution.

N ( 68 numnod + 72 num1Delm + 164 num2Delm + 8073 ) +

Output files: 64 ( numnod numnatfrq ) + (162)

296 ( numRSAldcas num2Delm numnatfrq )

where

D:\softek docs\book\Theory\Theory.csc.fm

79 : Chapter 7 : Memory requirements S-Frame Theory Manual

( 7512 + 196 numldcas ) ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +

(164)

numdof ( 4 numdof + 8 numldcas )

Free vibration:

2

7512 ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +8 numdof (165)

Stressed free-vibration:

( 10016 + 196 numldcas ) ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +

(166)

numdof ( 4 numdof + 8 numldcas )

Linear dynamic:

( 7512 + 196 numldcas ) ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +

(167)

numdof ( 4 numdof + 8 numldcas )

P-delta:

( 7512 + 196 numldcas ) ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +

(168)

numdof ( 4 numdof + 8 numldcas )

Linear buckling:

( 10016 + 196 numldcas ) ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +

(169)

numdof ( 4 numdof + 8 numldcas )

Response spectrum:

2

7512 ( num1Delm + num2Delm ) + 48 numnod +8 numdof (170)

analysis, it is highly recommended that the user makes the RSA

load cases the first ones.

S-Frame solution engine after the completion of the analysis.

S-Frame Theory Manual Chapter 8 : References : 80

8 References

Anton, H., Elementary Linear Algebra, John Wiley & Sons,

Toronto, 1977.

Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982.

Triangular Elements in Plane Bending – Conforming and Non-

conforming Solutions, Proceedings 1st on Matrix Methods in

Structural Mechanics, Ohio, pp. 547-576, 1965.

Symmetric Matrices, Proceedings ACM National Conference,

Association of Computing Machinery, New York, 1969.

Toronto, 1975.

Applications of Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley & Sons,

Toronto, 1989.

Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, 1981.

for the Reduction of Matrix Profile and Wavefront, International

Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 14, 837-853, 1979.

Wesley, Don Mills, Ontario, 1980.

Math. Software, 2, 378-387, 1976.

John Wiley & Sons, 1977.

Cambridge University Press, New York, 1990.

D:\softek docs\book\Theory\Theory.csc.fm

81 : Chapter 8 : References S-Frame Theory Manual

Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, New York, 1990.

McGraw-Hill, Toronto, 1968.

Sparse Matrices, International Journal of Numerical Methods in

Engineering, 23, 239-251, 1986.

Rinehart and Winston, Toronto, 1985.

for Vibration of Structures, CSME Proceedings of the 10th

Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, D67-68, 1985.

Van Nostrand Company, Toronto, 1980.

Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987.

(UK), London, 1977, pp. 204-207.

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