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4 NATIONALADVISORYCOMMITTEE
FORAERONAUTICS
TECHNICAL NOTE 3905
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Washington
February 19 57
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEF,FOR AERONAUTICS,.
SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
SYMBOLS
%iiJ%2 mass radii of gyration about major neutral axis and about
an axis perpendicular to chord through the elastic axis,
respectively
c
m mass of beam per unit length
ANALYSIS
General Procedure
As noted from figure 2, the beam is considered as though it were a
rotating helicopter blade with rotation counterclockwise when viewed
from above. The xaxis of the x,y,z coordinate axes system shown lies
outward along the blade and is coincident with the undeformed position
of the elastic axis. This set of axes moves with the blade around the
axis of rotation at the given rotational velocity a, and all deforma
tions of the blade are referred to this coordinate system. The blade is
considered under the action of distributed aerodynamic loadings in the
y and zdirections and under a distributed torque loading about the
elastic axis, where the intensities per unit length are denoted by Ly,
L z, and M, respectively. The tension in the beam is denoted by T.
Figures 3(a) and (b) show the coordinate system used for the blade
cross section and the chosen displacements of this analysis. The q
and caxes, with the origin at the elastic axis and the qaxis along
the major axis of the cross section, move with the cross section. The
blade deformations are denoted by a displacement v of the elastic axis
in the plane of rotation, positive when in the directfon of rotation, a
displacement w out of the plane.of rotation, positive upward, and a
rotation fl about the elastic axis. The builtin twist B and also #
are positive when the blade leading edge is up.
The aim of this analysis is to derfve the differential equation of
motion in terms of v, w, and #. The derivation proceeds along the
following steps:
(1) The equation for longitudinal strain at any point on the cross
section is derived in terms of the displacements.
(2) With the aid of this strain equation the internal elastic moments
are derived; these are the resultant moments taken about the q and {axes
and are shown in figure 3(c).
(3) The transformation is then made of these elastfc moments to the
more easily handled moments which have vectors parallel to the x,y,z axes
system. (See fig. 3(c).)
6 NACA TN 3905
(4) The equilibrium expressions for these latter moments are. derived,
and this consideration involves the introduction of the total loading on
the beam. 
(5) The total loadings, composed of the body forces and applied
loadings, are derived.
(6) Steps 3, 4, and 5 are combined to give the final differential
equations. 
6 =E T +(eA& v'cos p+w"sin /3)+ c(v"sin p  W”COS p) + (c2+ v2 kA2)p'$&
(1)
The longitudinal stresses follow directly from this equation and are
(3)
where the minus signs have been introduced to make the moments positive
when they produce compression in the upper and nose fibers, respectively.
The component in the plane normalto the elastic axis leads to an
effective torsional resisting moment. The consideration of this compo
nent and the addition of the torque associated with St. Venant twisting
mentioned previously leads to the following equation for total resisting
torque:
(5)
/ NACA TN 3905 .
8
are uniform across the cross section and hence do not produce any
1
shearing stresses. For the expression 
E p + w"sin p) + ((2 .
2 + ml(Jj')2
1
#' + TkA2p'  E+j3'(v"COS p +w"SiIl p) (8)
Y
NAcA TN 3905 9
(9)
B2 =j"" t(T2 I $  kA2)dq
e !
In equations (9) it is interesting to note that if displacements parallel
and perpendicular to the blade chord had been used instead of v and w
the results obtained would differ from those used by other investigations.
(See appendix A for the results obtained.) Also of interest is the form
that equation (8) would take if large deflections in # were considered,
butwith v=w=O. This point, which is connected with the possibility
of a torsional instability, is discussed also in appendix A.
Moment Transformation
In the consideration of the equilibrium between moments, shears,
and tension, it is more convenient to deal with moments that are orien
tated parallel to the x, y, and zaxes, that is, the moments M,, My,
and M, shown in figure 3. A simple transformation of the moments Ml,
M2, and Q to these newer moments is thus desired. When the Ml, MS,
and Q moments are resolved into components in the x, y, and
zdirections, respectively, and use is made of the relations that when
pr is small
sin(p + pI) = sin p + # co6 p
(10)
cos(p + (i4) = co6 p  fi sin j3
1
the following relations are obtained:
Now when equations (6), (7), and (8) are substituted into equa
tions (ll), and all the secondorder terms are dropped, the following
desired equations for Mx, My, and Mz in terms of the displacements
are found:
Equilibrium Conditions
The equilibrium of the forces and moments that act on a differential
beam element is now considered. In this consideration the element is
formed by slices parallel to the yzplane, because this choice leads to
rather simple results. The forces that act on such an element are shown
in figure (6a); the moments, in figure 6(b). The quantities Px, s,,
PZj cx, Eiy, and & are resultant force and moment loadings, which
involve both the acceleration body forces and the applied aerodynamic
loading. The acceleration body forces, due to both centrifugal and
transverse accelerations, are derived in appendix B.
Summation of the forces in the x, y, and zdirections and summa
tion ofthe moments about the x, y, and zaxes lead to the following
equilibrium conditions for shear and moment:
(15)
 Vyw’ + Vzv’ + & = 0 (164
MX’
Substitution of equation6 (12), (13), and (14) into equations (17) gives
1
{c w + TkA2 + ml(p')2
1 8' + TkA2p1  ~2/3'(V"COS j3 + W"SiIl e) +
EI2  EIl sin p cos p w" + ( EIl sin2j3 + EI2 cos2p > v" 
>
Resultant Loadings
As mentionedpreviously, the resultant or tot&t.loadings are com
posed of both the inertia loading due tmntrifugal and vibratory accel
erations and the applied aerodynamic loading. The..inertia loadings,
which consist of the forces and moments which oppose accelerations of the
blade elements, are derived in appendix B whereas the aerodynamic
loadings I+, L,, and M are left in this symbolic form, since they are
in the nature of externally applied loadings.

The procedure thatfollows is employed in thederivation of the
total loadings which is given in appendix B. The acceleration of any
mass particle on the vibrating, rotating blade is derived and the com
ponents in the x# y, and zdirections are obtained. These component
accelerations include terms for the Coriolis force and transverse and
centrifugal acceleratXons along with higher order terms. The inertia
force and moment loadings are then obtained by integrating over the cross
section; these are simplified by dropping secondorder terms and are then
added with the aerodynamic or applied loadings to yield the following
desired resultant loadings G,, g,, g,, qx, qy; and cz:
Px = T' F &2%x
jTy=Ly m[v  Sl'(v + eo)] + me[$ sin J3+ n2(cos p  $3 sin j3)
I I
t
iy = Smex(sin p + $7ico6 p)
1
n2m km2"  km12)cos 2j3 + ee, cos p # + mkm2$  me(ii sin p  "w co8 /3) =
E EIl cos2p + E12 sin2p)w" + (E12  EIl)sin j3 COB p v"  TeA$ cos p 
[(w+TkA2)#j '
(25)
EIl cos2j3 + EI2 sin2B)w" + (EI2  EIl)sin p COB j3 v" "  (TV')' + rn;j =
I
L, + (TeA sin B)" + (&IXe sin p)* (28)
EI2 EIl)sin
11
j3 cos j3 w"+ (EIl sin2p +EIS cos2p v" "  (Tv')' S&N+ m;' =
Ly+(TeA,)"+(&IlX'3
CO6 p)'+ii%
(eo+
e p) COB CO6 (29)
16 .. NACA TN 3903

For case III, v = w = 0,
[m+Dl(P’
,‘Iw2  2EB2(v"cos p + w"sin j3)p'#'
1
dx 
(ecosB+eoe$sinp)v+ p cos p 
where pyy pz, and q are the applied loadings considered in a static
sense. Applicationof the minimum variational principles to this expres
sion yields differential equations which are the same‘as those given by
equations (22), (23), and (24) when @, v, and w are not time dependent.
The variation also gives the boundary conditions on moments, shears, and
torques that are for stipulated geometrical conditions at the ends of the
beam and are given in the section entitled '*Boundary Conditions". The
differential equations applicable when time dependent motion is considered
may now be obtained by writing the loadings py, pz, and q as the sum
of the applied loadings and vibratory inertia loads (as obtained by
D'Alembert's principle); specifically,
PY = %  m(Y  eJ sin B)
a’ =
w = blwl+
alpI1 + a2ti2 + . =
b2w2 + . . . bqwq
l “p$
1 (33)
1
v = ClVl + c2v2 + . . . CrVr
J
where an, b n, and Cn are unknown coefficients, which may be time
dependent, and &, Wn, and vn are chosen modal functions which satisfy
18  NACA TN 3905
sR#$~($~wYv)~
0
+@JR=0 (n 0
= 1, 2, 3, l ’ l P) (34a)
s 0
R
1
WnD2(#yW,V)~ +
1
.My”n’
R
0
+ vzwn
R
0
= 0 (n = 1, 2, 3, . . . q)
(34b)
s v,D3($>W>V)dX
0R 1R+vyv
+MzVn’ nil
R=0 (n 0 0 = 1, 2, 3, . . . r)
(344
amaan 4 = o (n = 1, 2, . . 0 P>
3% = 0 (n = 1, 2 , . . . d (35)
a(uacn v) = 0 (n = 1 I 2 ,.* 4
a(u  v) I
Example 1
In example 1, it is desired to determine the natural frequencies of
a rotating cantilever blade having zero initial twist or blade angle of
attack (p = 0) and with v = 0. The RayleighRitz procedure will be used.
Assume that the displacements $8 and w are given as follows:
w = blwl + b2w2 + b w
33 J
where & and Wn are the natural uncoupled modes of the nonrotating
(36)
R
mwmwndx=o Cm # 4
s0
= M, , b = n>
EIlwm"wn" dx = 0 Cm + 4
SR
0
(m = n)
’ (37)
 b # n>
= Nn (m = n)
GJ$'(i&' dx = 0 
b # 4
= CL112 b = n)
= b2Nn
M, =foR mwn2dx
N, =
s 0
R
A,,=
s 0
R
Twm'wn' dx
B,=
s 0
TeA&wn" dx
(38)
cm =
s 0
R
=kwn dX
s
R
Dmn = mxe(iimwnl dx
0
%l =fR TkA2!&& do
0
. Fmn= nh
Example2 
+ TkA2 6'
)I * + An (k2  k,12>6  a2(mew + %2#) = 0
’ + Gmxew .
1
(39)
(EIlw”)”  (Tw’ )I  (SmxepO’  w2(mw + me#) = 0
i
+ fl%expl
wn (Tw* )'  LQ~dj are integrated once by parts, the term w~(EI~w")~~
c
is integrated twice by parts, the boundary terms cancel, and the results
are the following two equations:
R
G+J+TkA2)$'&' dx+ Smxew'+~2m(~2km12)$Lu3~(mew+mkm2~ $4, dx=O
fl 0 !I
(41)
R
EIlw"wn" dx + mw + me@)w, dx = 0
s0 (
L
(42)
. Approximations to the displacements are now chosen as
#= 31
(43)
w = glwl
I
where @I and wl are the fundamental uncoupled vibration modes of the
beam without the tip mass, in torsion and bending, respectively, and each
is given in terms of a unit tip displacement; these functions satisfy the
equations
where m refers only to the mass per unit length of the beam. Equa
tions (43) are now substituted into equations(41) and (&2), use is made
of equations (44) and the equation for tension (ap@icable here) .
T = $ Sa2m(R2 x2) + C&R, and the integrations are performed with due 
cognizance being given the offset tip mass; the values found for the
integrals are as follows: ;
s 0
R
GJg12dx = p12mkm" 5
s
R
&nxewlf& dx = 1.38n2m 1
; ( ,R
0
&R
0% km22  k2)g12dx = n2Maz
mewl(i$ dx = Ma
J0
(45)
R
&q12dx =mkm2 g+Ma2
s0
kR EIl(wl'02dx = CUFF
s( 0
R
Tw' 1
)
2
dx = R
>
PR r)
mwpx = y+M
J0
(The contribution of TEA2 is found neglible in the first integral.)
The final equations are given now in nondimensional form
NACX T’N 3905 25
=
R
a 4
P12
= 0.152 ES
al2 %12
and the results are shown in figure 7. Results are shown for three con
ditions: (a) for vibration of the beam with offset mass in pure bending
or pure torsion, (b) f or vibration in the conventional coupled sense but
with no centrifugalforce coupling (that is, the underlined terms of the
equations of this example are emitted), and (c) for vibration with all
coupling terms considered (the curves labeled complete in fig. 7). It
may be seen that the inclusion of centrifugalforce coupling, which is
new in this paper, has a very pronounced influence on the vibration
characteristics. In fact, this centrifugalforce coupling seems to be
of the same general strength as the conventional offset mass coupling
normally considered.
CONCLUDINGIEMARKS
*
Because of its usefulness, the energy equation for blade deformation
is also presented. Two methods of solution are discussed: one is a modi ..=
fled Galerkin process which makes use of the~diffe%ntialequatIons; the .
other is a RayleighRitz procedure which makes use of the energy expres
sion. Two examples are presented which illustratethe application of
both of these procedures. 
\Elastic axis
The xaxis is normalto the paper and is made coincident with the unde
formed position of the elastic axis. In terms of the distance q along
the major axis, the distance E; perpendicular to this axis, and the
builtin twist p, the initial y and zpositions of the fiber and the
rate of change of these positions with respect to the x are
.
Y = 7jCOB j3  f sin p
(Al)
z = 7j sin p + 5 co6 B i
yl' = v'  j'z  j3'yg  z#' = VI_ yp'$  z(p'+ $74') (A41
z1 '=w'+p'yp'zpl+yp=w'+y(p'+~')zpq
ds1
= + z2)(p*)2 + 2 u'  yv"  zw" + (y2 + z2)p'p]} 1'2
dx 1+w I:
t
bw
NACA TN 395 29
Now the analogous equation for the original length ds may be determined
directly from equation (A8) by letting u = v = w = $8 = 0. Thus
g = b + (9 + z")(p')2]1'2 (A91
dsl  ds
E: .=
ds
dsl 1
=ds 
l/2
=
= [ I+
c[
l+
1 + (y'
(3
1
2
I z2)(pq2
+ z2)pt2 I[
I[u'  yp  zw”
u'  yv"  zw" + (y2 + 2
+z+Pp
+(y2 I)
) #I
p' '
1
(AlO>
Now with (~2 + z~)(P')~ << 1 (say less than 0.03 to 0.04, which is
generally the case), then
or
If T/EA is denoted by the tensile strain err, then equation (Al5) com
bined with equation (A12) yields
which is the complete expression for the strain oFany fiber in the
cross section.
v = vl co8 p  wl sin p
(A17)
w = q sin p + wl cos B
1
NACATN 3905 31
If two derivatives of these equations are taken, and due care is given
the fact that p may vary with x, then the following combination of
these derivatives may be found:
Vcos j3 + d'sin /3 = vl'  2pfwlf  p"wl  (p') 2v1
(Al8 >
2
v"sin p + w"cos p = wl" i 2pfvlf + plrvl  (p') wl
. I
If these expressions are now substituted in equation (Al6), then the equa
tion for strain becomes
I
The strain component u' is now handled as before; and the equation for
strain becomes ;
.
This sketch also shows the rotating x,y,z axes system (used in the body
of the report and in appendix A) and the deformed positions ~1, Y~Y and
z1 of the mass particle (see eqs. (A3)). The azimuth position of the
rotating system relative to the fixedaxes system is denoted by Sit.
In terms of the unit vectors i, j, and k, the vector F may be
written
FE x1 COB clt  y2 sin Qt)i + (xl sin CIt + y2 cos Qt)j + zlk (Bl)
(
03)
lA
rl = (xl  n2x1  2&)i + ( y2  02y2 +&I$) j + Ilk
Use is now made of equations (A3) and the fact that y2 = yl + e,. c
Thus,
Xl = x + u  v'y  w'z
y2 = v + y  zg + e,
The first two derivatives with respect to time are given as follows:
(35)
NACA TN 3905 35
(B6)
.. .
ax=u ;i ' y  ij',  n2(x + u  v'y  w'z)  2n(+  z(8)
.. ..
&Y =v 4  .n2(v + y  z@ + eo) + 2Q(G  G'y  G'z) (B7)
..
a, = V+ypl
.
02(v’ cos p t w’ sin p) + 2Q# sin p + f i;'
1 [ sin B 
.. .
w' co8 p + $(VI sin p + w' co8 p) + 2.@ co6 p I
a,=;‘ .. mu
C12(v t eo) + 2SDi + 7 # sin p  f12(cos p  # sin p) +
II
I
en(;' COB p  It' sin BjJ + t;k$ co8 p 
(B9)
‘Y=jqtejet/,kadzl
 wipdtJ
dtl
TX = T’ = m,5&
qy = f12mex(sin p +@cos B)
where

h2 = k&2 + ?Q2
NACA TN 3905 39
REFERENCES
14. DeVries, J. A., and Stulen, F. B.: A Cmplete Matrix Solution for
the Vibratory Bending Moments of a Propeller Blade Subjected to a
Pure First Order Aerodynamic Excitation. Rep. NO. c2152, CurtisEi
Wright Corp., Propeller Div. (Caldwell, N:J.), May 16, 1950.
15. Turner, M. J., and Duke, James B.: Propeller FlutteS. Jour. Aero.
sci., vol. 16, no. 6, June 19@, pp. 323336.
16. Love, E. R., and Silberstein, J. P. 0. (Assisted by J. R. M. Radok):
Vibration of Stationary and Rotating Propellers. Rep. ACA36,
Australian Council for Aeronautics, June l&7.
17. Timoshenko, S., and Goodier, J.N.: Theory of Elasticity. Second
ed., McGrawBill Book Co., Inc., 1951, pp. 3~3336:
1.8. Rosenberg, Reinhardt: AeroElastic Instability in Unbalanced Lifting
Rotor Blades. Jour. Aero. Sci., vol. 11, no; 4, Oct. 1944,
pp. 361368.
lg. Niedenfuhr, F. W.: On the Possibility of Aeroelastic Reversal of
Propeller Blades. Jour. Aero. Sci. (Readers' Forum), vol. 22,
no. 6, June 1955, pp. 4s440.
I
c.g.axis 1
//
/’ \ ,:
// L/
@ Elastic axis
9%
(c) Moments.
Figure 3. Nmenclature.
rF
. .
I
. 4 1 ,
II
Pure torsion
/y
7,
Pure torsion I/,
/)
R
~ R
/@
/@
/
4
1st mode