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Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

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Computers and Geotechnics


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Implicit and explicit integration schemes in the anisotropic bounding


surface plasticity model for cyclic behaviours of saturated clay
Cun Hu a,b, Haixiao Liu a,⇑
a
School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
b
Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Two integration algorithms, namely the implicit return mapping and explicit sub-stepping schemes, are
Received 30 March 2013 adopted in the anisotropic bounding surface plasticity model for cyclic behaviours of saturated clay and
Received in revised form 26 July 2013 are implemented into finite element code. The model is a representative of a series of bounding surface
Accepted 26 July 2013
models that have typical characteristics, including isotropic and kinematic hardening rules and a rota-
Available online 23 August 2013
tional bounding surface to capture complex but important cyclic behaviours of soils, such as cyclic shake-
down and degradation. However, there is no explicit current yield surface in the model to which the
Keywords:
conventional implicit algorithm returns the stress state back or the sub-stepping integration corrects
Bounding surface plasticity model
Implicit integration
the drift of the stress state. Hence, necessary modifications have been made for both of the integration
Explicit integration schemes. First, the image stress point is mapped or corrected to the bounding surface instead of mapping
Cyclic behaviour back or correcting the stress state to the yield surface. Second, the unloading–loading criterion is checked
Saturated clay to determine the image stress point rather than checking the yield criterion after giving the trial stress
state in a conventional way. Comparative studies on the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the two inte-
gration schemes are conducted not only at the element level but also in solving boundary value problems
of monotonic and cyclic bearing behaviours of rigid footings on saturated clay. For smaller strain incre-
ments, there is no significant difference in the accuracy between the two integration schemes, but the
explicit integration shows a higher efficiency and accuracy. For relatively larger increments, the implicit
return mapping algorithm presents good accuracy and more robustness, while the sub-stepping algo-
rithm shows deteriorating accuracy and suffers the convergence problem. With the tolerance used in
the present model, the bearing capacity of the rigid footing predicted by the return mapping algorithm
is closer to the available analytical and numerical solutions, while the bearing capacity predicted by
the sub-stepping algorithm shows a marginal increase.
Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction the cornerstone that controls the accuracy, stability and efficiency
of the calculations.
The response simulation of offshore structures embedded in Existing approaches for stress integration of elasto-plastic con-
seabed soils under cyclic loading still faces significant obstacles. stitutive models are generally classified as implicit and explicit
First, it requires efficient and accurate constitutive models that schemes. Implicit algorithms that are based on the closest point
reflect important cyclic behaviours of seabed soils, such as the hys- projection or the return mapping [4–10] require a consistent
teretic property, initial anisotropy, cyclic shakedown and stiffness tangent operator that corresponds to the final stress state of the
degradation as well as the accompanying accumulation of plastic integration increment. This arrangement means that an iterative
strain and pore pressure [1–3]. However, to capture all of these calculation of the final stress state is needed. Explicit algorithms
important but complex behaviours makes the constitutive model such as the algorithm with automatic error control and sub-
more lengthy and complicated. Moreover, in order to be applicable stepping [11–14] require a continuum tangent operator that corre-
to offshore geotechnical calculations, the constitutive model sponds only to the initial stress state of the integration increment
requires efficient and robust numerical implementations, whereas while using the adaptive sub-stepping to control the error. Both of
the integration scheme of the incremental constitutive relations is the algorithms have been developed in classic elasto-plastic
models but are still less reported for cyclic plasticity models.
Manzari and Nour [7] first attempted to use an implicit algorithm
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 2227401510.
in the bounding surface model for cyclic behaviours of soil. The
E-mail address: liuhx@tju.edu.cn (H. Liu).
results demonstrated the robustness of the implicit integration in

0266-352X/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2013.07.012
28 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

the bounding surface model. However, one drawback of the model et al. [23] is generalised to the multiaxial stress space. Within the
is the unrealistic description of cyclic loading because it is based on framework of critical state soil mechanics, this model has been
the fully isotropic hardening rule. Rouainia and Wood [8] pre- shown to accurately simulate important characteristics of satu-
sented an implicit return mapping integration in a modified bubble rated clay under cyclic loading such as initial anisotropy, reversal
model based on a kinematic hardening rule, but it was only tested flow, cyclic shakedown and stiffness degradation by combining
by a soil element. Borja et al. [9] used an implicit scheme to solve a isotropic with kinematic hardening rules and adopting a rotational
two-surface model. However, the algorithm was run on the strain bounding surface. A brief description of the model is presented
space in order to consider the nonlinear hyper-elasticity. Zhao et al. below.
[15] argued that there were difficulties in the application of the im- In terms of notation, tensors are written in bold face characters
plicit integration scheme to cyclic plasticity models and described to allow them to be easily distinguished from scalars. All of the
the explicit integration of two complex constitutive models. How- presented stress quantities are effective. The symbol ‘:’ denotes
ever, they did not provide the performance of the algorithm in ana- an inner product of two second-order tensors (e.g., c:d = cijdij) or
lysing the cyclic behaviour of the soil. Andrianopoulos et al. [16] a double contraction of the adjacent indices of tensors of rank
proposed an explicit integration in the bounding surface model two and higher (e.g., C : ee ¼ C ijkl eekl ). The symbol ‘’ denotes the
to analyse the earthquake liquefaction of noncohesive soils. Kronecker product of two second-order tensors (e.g., c  d = cijdkl).
The accuracy, stability and efficiency of integration schemes are
important issues in large-scale numerical simulation. However, 2.1. Bounding surface formulation
comparative studies on the performance of the two integration
algorithms in a complex cyclic plasticity model are rather limited. For the initial consolidation process, the form of the bounding
The conclusions from different researchers in solving boundary va- surface in the model proposed by Hu et al. [23] is the same as
lue problems are not uniform. Potts and Ganendra [17] compared the form adopted by Dafalias [24], which can be written in the con-
the accuracy of return mapping implicit and sub-stepping explicit ventional triaxial p–q stress space as
schemes in the Cam-clay model and stated that the sub-stepping
algorithm was more accurate for a specific incremental size and ðq  Þ2
  ap
2  p
F¼p pc þ ¼0 ð1Þ
for the analysis of a cavity expansion problem. Manzari and Pra- M 2  a2
chathananukit [18] compared the closest point projection implicit where p  and q are mean effective and deviatoric stresses, respec-
integration with the sub-stepping explicit integration in a two-sur- tively, and the superimposed bar indicates that the variables are re-
face model and implemented them into finite element code. It was lated to the bounding surface; M is the slope of the critical state line
observed that for a relatively large strain increment, the implicit and equals Me for extension and Mc for compression; pc and a define
algorithm remained stable and accurate, while the explicit algo- the size and inclination of the bounding surface, respectively, and
rithm faced convergence difficulties. Sołowski et al. [19] ran both their initial values are denoted by p0 and a0. The concept of the
implicit and sub-stepping explicit integrations in the Barcelona ba- model is shown graphically in Fig. 1 in the p–q stress space.
sic model of unsaturated soil at a single stress point. However, it The generalisation of Eq. (1) in the multiaxial stress space is ob-
was concluded that for a larger strain increment, the implicit tained by standard methods [25,26], as follows:
scheme offered faster convergence but might cause inaccurate
computations. These findings highlight the importance of compar- 3
2  p
F¼p pc þ aÞ : ðs  p
½ðs  p aÞ ¼ 0 ð2Þ
ative studies on the accuracy, stability and efficiency of the two 2ðM 2  a2 Þ
integration schemes.
where s and a are deviatoric and anisotropic tensors, respectively,
The bounding surface plasticity model with a vanishing elastic qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
region is more attractive for large-scale mathematical modelling and a ¼ 32 a : a is a measure of the degree of soil anisotropy.
related to cyclic loading because it is not necessary to address It can be seen from Eq. (2) that the bounding surface passes
the evolvement of more than two yield surfaces (such as in the through the origin of the stress space. However, for the sequence
two-surface and multi-surface plasticity models [20–22]) and the shearing after the initial consolidation process, the model [23]
smooth translation from nonlinear elastic to elasto-plastic behav- has assumed that the bounding surface translates according to
iours. A recently developed anisotropic bounding surface model the kinematic hardening rule, which will be briefly explained in
[23] has been shown to realistically present the stress–strain the following section (the details can be found in Ref. [23]). As a re-
behaviours of the soils, including the cyclic shakedown and degra- sult, the endpoint of the bounding surface, which coincides with
dation. The present work is to implement the developed model the origin of the stress space in the initial consolidation process,
with a vanishing elastic region [23] into a commercial finite ele- will translate to a new position in the stress space. We denote
ment code with two integration schemes, i.e., the return mapping the endpoint as n (Fig. 1). Hence, the translating bounding surface
and sub-stepping integration schemes. However, there is no expli- in the multiaxial stress space is expressed as
cit current yield surface in the model to which the conventional
implicit algorithm returns the stress state back or the sub-stepping
integration corrects the drift of the stress state. Several necessary q CSL
modifications should be made for both of the integration schemes.
The performance, including the accuracy, robustness and efficiency Subsequent bounding
of the two integration schemes, is investigated in detail both at the surface Fm
element level and in solving boundary value problems that involve
Initial bounding K0 line
monotonic and cyclic bearing behaviours of rigid footings on nor- surface F0 ξFm A
mally consolidated saturated clay. ξF0
α0
o p0 p
2. Outline of the anisotropic bounding surface model
CSL
In this section, the anisotropic bounding surface plasticity mod-
el with a vanishing elastic region for saturated clay proposed by Hu Fig. 1. Schematic of the rotational bounding surface in the p–q space.
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 29

3 Case 1: Upon the (m + 1)th loading event in which the stress


^2  p
Fm ¼ p ^pc þ ^s : ^s ¼ 0 ð3aÞ
2ðM2  a2 Þ path does not change direction, Fm+1 expands or contracts isotrop-
ically from the nth to the (n + 1)th loading substep. The endpoint n
with of the current bounding surface Fm+1 is then expressed as follows:
8 8
<p   npðmÞ
^¼p >
> ðnþ1Þ ðmþ1Þ ðnÞ
ðnþ1Þ
ðmþ1Þ pcðmþ1Þ
  ð3bÞ >
< npðmþ1Þ ¼ op þ ðnpðmþ1Þ  op Þ ðnÞ
pcðmþ1Þ
: ^s ¼ s  nðmÞ  p  nðmÞ a ð5aÞ
s p
>   ðnþ1Þ
>
> ðnþ1Þ ðmþ1Þ ðnÞ ðmþ1Þ pcðmþ1Þ
: nsðmþ1Þ ¼ os þ nsðmþ1Þ  os
p
ðnÞ
where m is the ordinal number of specific loading events in which cðmþ1Þ

the stress path does not change direction. For example, m = 0 means
Case 2: When the stress path changes direction, Fm translates along
the initial consolidation process, and m = 1 means the first loading
the line that connects the stress reversal point and the image point
or unloading event; stress tensors r  and n are expressed in terms
to form Fm+1. The endpoint n of the current bounding surface Fm+1 is
of the volumetric and deviatoric components, which are defined as
then expressed as
1 1 (

p trðrÞ; s ¼ r  p
I; np ¼ trðnÞ; ns ¼ n  np I ð3cÞ npðmþ1Þ ¼ nðmÞ
p

þ ðp  p
3 3 ð5bÞ
ns
ðmþ1Þ
¼ n þ ðs  sÞ
ðmÞ
s
where I is a second-rank identity tensor, and the subscripts p and s
denote the volumetric and deviatoric components of a tensor, where (p,s) and ðp ; sÞ are the newly formed stress reversal point and
 
respectively. its image stress state, respectively; ðnðmþ1Þ
ðnÞ ðnÞ
; nsðmþ1Þ Þ; npðmþ1Þ ; nsðmþ1Þ
p
 
ðnþ1Þ ðnþ1Þ
and npðmþ1Þ ; nsðmþ1Þ denote the endpoints of the bounding surfaces
2.2. Hardening rules
of the 0th, nth and (n + 1)th loading substeps in the (m + 1)th load-
ðnÞ ðnþ1Þ
The characteristics of isotropic, kinematic hardening and even ing event, respectively; pcðmþ1Þ and pcðmþ1Þ are the sizes of the bound-
rotational hardening rules are included in the model proposed by ing surfaces of the nth and (n + 1)th loading substeps in the
Hu et al. [23]. In this section, the evolution for each of them is de- ðmþ1Þ ðmþ1Þ
(m + 1)th loading event, respectively; and ðop ; os Þ is the
scribed briefly and generalised into multiaxial stress space.
homological centre o of Fm+1, i.e., the coordinates of the last stress
reversal point and the mapping centre. Details of the mapping cen-
2.2.1. Isotropic hardening tre and the image stress state are introduced in Section 2.3.
As in the original two-dimensional model [23], the scalar hard-
ening variable pc controls isotropic hardening and determines the 2.2.3. Rotational hardening
size of the bounding surface, which depends not only on the irre- The model proposed by Hu et al. [23] has assumed that the
versible volumetric strain rate e_ pv but also on the damage parame- initial anisotropy due to anisotropic consolidation is accounted
ter H, which is related to the deviatoric plastic strain rate e_ p in the for by adopting a rotational bounding surface at the start of
multiaxial stress space. The evolution equation for the size pc is gi- shearing but without further rotation in the subsequent shearing,
ven as and the stress-induced anisotropy is considered by the above-men-
( ðnþ1Þ ðnÞ   tioned kinematic hardening rule.
pc v0 e_ pv Hðnþ1Þ
¼ pc exp
ð4Þ Similar to the definition adopted by Liang and Ma [26], Ling et al.
ðnþ1Þ ðnÞ
H ¼ H exp ðbe_ A Þ [27] and Huang et al. [28], the initial anisotropic tensor a0 induced in
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
the initial anisotropic consolidation is obtained through the devia-
with e_ A ¼ 2 _p
e : e_ p and v0 ¼ 1þe0
.
3 kj
toric tensor s0 and the preconsolidated stress condition p0 as
ðnþ1Þ
In Eq. (4), pc and H(n+1) denote the size and damage for the
ðnÞ s0
current load increment of the bounding surface, respectively; pc a0 ¼ ð6aÞ
(n) p0
and H denote the size and damage for the previous load incre-
ment of the bounding surface, respectively; e0 denotes the void ra- For the K0 consolidated samples, K 0 ¼ r03 =r01 , and the initial
tio after consolidation; and k and j are the slopes of the primary anisotropic tensors are given as follows:
compression and swelling lines in the e-lnp relations, respectively.
2ð1  K 0 Þ K0  1 1  K0
It can be observed that H decreases with the accumulated deviator- a011 ¼ ; a022 ¼ a033 ¼ ; a0 ¼ 3 ð6bÞ
ic plastic strain eA, which monotonically increases during the defor- 1 þ 2K 0 1 þ 2K 0 1 þ 2K 0
mation process and is always positive. The decrease in H induces a Hence, the inclination of the bounding surface a, which is used
shrinkage of the bounding surface to reflect the degradation in to account for the initial anisotropy, can be obtained.
stiffness and the reduction in strength. Further details of H and eA
can be found in Ref. [23]. 2.3. Flow rule and mapping rule

2.2.2. Kinematic hardening The plastic strain increments are governed by the associated
The model assumes that the bounding surface isotropically flow rule
hardens around the discrete homological centre (e.g., the stress  : r_
n :r
n _
reversal point). Once the stress reversal point occurs, the bounding e_ p ¼ hKin ; K ¼ ¼ ð7Þ
Kp Kp
surface should translate along the line that connects the stress
reversal point and the image stress point. It can be seen that the where K is the loading index; hi is the symbol of Macauly brackets;
kinematic hardening role arises from two parts. The first part is Kp and K p are the plastic moduli at the current and image stress
the movement of the bounding surface due to its isotropic harden- points, respectively; and n ¼ f@F=@ pI; @F=@sg ¼ fn  s g denotes
 p I; n
ing around the discrete homological centre. The second part is the the tensor of the stress gradient on the bounding surface at the
translation of the bounding surface when the stress path changes current stress state.
direction. As a result, two cases should be noted in determining To define the image point at the bounding surface in a simple
the location of the bounding surface. way, the radial mapping rule proposed by Dafalias [24] is adopted.
30 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

The image stress point r


 is defined by projecting the radial line It is known that in the conventional elasto-plastic model, the re-
that connects the mapping centre o and the current stress state turn mapping algorithm consists of two basic sequences, namely
r onto the bounding surface. The radial mapping rule is expressed the elastic trial and the plastic corrector depending on whether
by the elastic trial stress falls inside or outside the yield surface. How-
ever, as mentioned earlier, the elastic region is reduced to a point,
r ¼ o þ bðr  oÞ ð8Þ
and there is no explicit current yield surface in the present bound-
where b is the ratio of the distance between the mapping origin and ing surface model. Hence, several modifications of the return map-
the image stress point to the distance between the mapping origin ping algorithm are necessary to make it useful to this type of single
and the current stress state, which can be determined by substitut- bounding surface model.
ing Eq. (8) into the analytical expression of F = 0 (see the expression
in Section 3.2). The mapping centre o is translated to capture the 3.1. Elastic trial
plastic flow in the reverse loading [23] and can be determined by
the following equation: In the process of an elastic trial, the plastic response remains
 constant and equals the respective value at the previous increment
 n : rnþ1 P 0
ðop;n ; os;n Þ if n
ðop;nþ1 ; os;nþ1 Þ ¼ ð9Þ (say, n). For the initial iteration number k = 0,
ðpn ; sn Þ if n n : rnþ1 < 0
(
in which the subscripts n and n + 1 refer to the previous and current Depð0Þ pð0Þ ð0Þ
v ;nþ1 ¼ Denþ1 ¼ DHnþ1 ¼ 0
ð12aÞ
load steps, respectively. ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
pc;nþ1 ¼ pc;n ; nnþ1 ¼ nn ; onþ1 ¼ on

2.4. Elastic and plastic moduli where the subscript n + 1 indicates the variables that are related to
the current increment. The trial stress is obtained from the follow-
The elastic components of deviatoric and volumetric strain rates ing equations:
are obtained following the standard relationships 
ð0Þ 1 þ e0
s_ p_ pnþ1 ¼ pn exp Dev ;nþ1 ; sð0Þ ð0Þ
nþ1 ¼ sn þ 2Gnþ1 Denþ1 ð12bÞ
e_ e ¼ ; e_ ev ¼ ð10aÞ j
2G K
Integrating Eq. (10a) with p and Deev ; the secant bulk modulus can
Similar to the critical state models [12,15,18], the tangential
be derived as
bulk and shear moduli in the present model are assumed to depend
1þe0
linearly on the mean effective stress and to satisfy the following ð0Þ pn exp j Dev ;nþ1  pn
equation
K nþ1 ¼ ð12cÞ
Dev ;nþ1
3ð1  2mÞ and the secant shear modulus can be expressed as
G¼ K ð10bÞ
2ð1 þ mÞ
ð0Þ 3ð1  2v Þ ð0Þ
where m is the constant Poisson’s ratio. Gnþ1 ¼ K ð12dÞ
2ð1 þ v Þ nþ1
The plastic component of the strain rate is based on the form gi-
ven to the plastic modulus (see Eq. (7)). The plastic modulus can be It should be noted that, in the case Dev ;nþ1 ¼ 0, we have
given by the consistency condition on the bounding surface as ð0Þ ð0Þ 3ð1  2v Þ 1 þ e0
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi! pnþ1 ¼ pn ; snþ1 ¼ sn þ 2 p Denþ1 ð13Þ
2b 3 2ð1 þ v Þ n j
^ pc
Kp ¼ p  p v0  2
n ^s : ^s ð11aÞ
M  a2 2
3.2. Plastic correction
The plastic modulus of the current stress state can be obtained
by employing the interpolation rule as [23] In the process of the plastic correction, two characteristics of
c the bounding surface model should be noted. First, due to the elas-
; s; epv ; ep Þðb  1Þ
K p ¼ K p þ qðp ð11bÞ
tic region vanishing in the bounding surface model, the plastic flow
8 occurs immediately for any stress increment within the bounding
< jK m  K p j
> for first loading
surface. Second, in contrast to the conventional plastic models that
; s; epv ; ep Þ ¼ j1u K m  K p j for unloading
with qðp ð11cÞ
> consider the unloading elastic, the present model can capture the
:
j1r K m  K p j for reloading reverse plastic flow by adopting the discrete stress reversal point
as the mapping origin in the radial mapping rule. Hence, two mod-
where Km is the bounding plastic modulus on the last stress rever-
ifications of the conventional return mapping algorithm are corre-
sal, and
spondingly made. For the first characteristic, the trial image stress
 2 state is mapped onto the bounding surface instead of mapping
fu Mc
¼  p =gÞ
ð1 þ n ð11dÞ back or correcting the stress state to the yield surface. In fact, sim-
fr Me
ilar to the work by Borja et al. [9], the condition of consistency on
in which c, fr and g are positive model parameters, whose physical the bounding surface implies the condition of consistency on the
meaning and calibration are given in the literature [23]. yield surface (referring to the current stress point). The details
can be found in Appendix A. For the second characteristic, the load-
3. A return mapping integration for the anisotropic bounding ing–unloading criterion is checked to distinguish the mapping ori-
surface model gin and the homological centre and then to determine the location
of the bounding surface to obtain the trial image stress point,
In this section, a conventional implicit integration scheme rather than judging whether the stress point is inside the yield
based on the return mapping algorithm [6] is modified and surface.
developed into the anisotropic bounding surface model described To map the image stress state back onto the bounding surface, it
above. Then, the model is implemented into a commercially avail- is necessary to meet all of the incremental constitutive relations, as
able finite element code. follows:
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 31


1 þ e0 The general form of the consistent tangent operator Cknþ1 is de-
pnþ1 ¼ pn exp ðDev ;nþ1  Depv ;nþ1 Þ ð14aÞ
j rived as
Depv ;nþ1 ¼ Knþ1 n
 p;nþ1 ð14bÞ @ Dpknþ1 @ Dsknþ1
Cknþ1 ¼ k
Iþ ð15Þ
snþ1 ¼ sn þ 2Gnþ1 ðDenþ1  Depnþ1 Þ ð14cÞ @ Denþ1 @ Deknþ1
Depnþ1 ¼ Knþ1 n
 s;nþ1 ð14dÞ To evaluate the consistent tangent operator, Eqs. 14a, 14c, and 14e,
p
pc;nþ1 ¼ pc;n expðv0 Dev ;nþ1 ÞHnþ1 ð14eÞ which directly relate to p, s, ev and e, are written in the differential
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi! form, as follows:
2 p 8
Hnþ1 ¼ Hn exp b De : Depnþ1 ð14fÞ
< Dp ¼ KðDev  np DK  Dnp KÞ
>  
3 nþ1

Ds ¼ 2GðDe  ns DK  Dn  s KÞ
2 3 >
: Dp ¼  pc v0 Dp þ bpc Dep : Ds þ p
^nþ1 Þ  p
ðp ^nþ1 pc;nþ1 þ ^snþ1 : ^snþ1 ¼ 0 ð14gÞ v0 Dev  32bpc
Dep : De
2ðM 2  a2 Þ c K 3G DeA c DeA

K p;nþ1  bnþ1 K p;nþ1 ð16aÞ


bnþ1 ¼ bn þ Knþ1 ð14hÞ (
Anþ1 ^  pc  32a:^s 2
 p ¼ 2p
n
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi! in which M a
ð16bÞ
2b 3  s ¼ 23^s 2
n
^nþ1 pc;nþ1
K p;nþ1 ¼ p v0 np;nþ1  2 2 ^snþ1 : ^snþ1 ð14iÞ M a
M a 2
It can be seen that the unknowns ðDn  s Þ and DK are related to
 p ; Dn
In Eq. (14h), Eqs. (14g) and (14h), which reflect the mapping rule and the consis-
tency condition, respectively. As a result, Eqs. (14g) and (14h)
3 should be differentiated with respect to e. The additional derivative
A ¼ pc ðp  op Þ þ 2ðp  op Þðnp  op Þ þ ½ðs  os Þ
ðM 2  a2 Þ of the plastic modulus, Eq. (14i), furnishes the system of linear
 ðp  op Þa : ½ðns  os Þ  ðnp  op Þa equations. Thus, there are a total of six independent unknowns
ðDp; Ds; Dpc ; Db; DK; DK p Þ and six linear equations. The consistent
Eqs. (14a) and (14c) represent the elastic strains and their rela- tangent operator can then be determined, and the details are pre-
tions to the stress states; Eqs. (14b) and (14d) present the flow sented in Appendix B.
rule; Eqs. (14e) and (14f) represent the isotropic hardening laws;
and Eq. (14g) represents the condition of consistency on the
4. A sub-stepping integration for the anisotropic bounding
bounding surface. It is observed that the condition of consistency
surface model
needs the updated image stress point. As a result, the above equa-
tions include not only the updated stress, the flow rule, the hard-
In addition to the return mapping integration approach, the ex-
ening laws and the condition of consistency such as in the
plicit integration scheme based on the forward modified Euler
conventional methods but also the mapping rule (e.g., Eq. (14h)),
method with automatic sub-stepping and error control [12] is also
to obtain the image point and Eq. (14i) to furnish the additional
adopted to integrate the rate form of stress–strain relations in the
equation that is necessary for solving the set of equations. Thus,
present model.
Eq. (14) constitutes a system of nonlinear implicit equations that
In general, the explicit algorithm involves three parts [12]: (1)
must be solved simultaneously and iteratively using the New-
locating the yield surface intersection with the elastic trial stress
ton–Raphson procedure. Note that Eqs. (5) and (9) must be used
path to compute the portion of the given strain increment that
to obtain the locations of the bounding surface and the mapping
corresponds to the plastic deformation; (2) integrating the rate
origin (e.g., n and o). However, it can be seen from Eqs. (5) and
equations of the stress and internal variables via a second-order
(9) that n is not involved in the iterative procedure because the
forward modified Euler scheme with sub-stepping and error con-
kinematic hardening rule is discrete and related only to the previ-
trol; and (3) correcting the drift of the yield surface at the end of
ous location, the newest stress reversal and the current size of the
the successful sub-increment. Similar to the situation in the im-
bounding surface.
plicit integration, modifications are still required when applying
the scheme to the bounding surface model without a yield sur-
3.3. Stress updating procedure face. First, it is not necessary to perform the first part to define
the portion of the plastic strain because the elastic region is re-
A full stress updating procedure is given in Table 1, where the duced to a point, which means that the total given strain incre-
superscript k refers to the local iteration number, and the ment causes the plastic flow. Second, in the third part, instead of
subscripts n and n + 1 denote the previous and current load steps, correcting the stress state to the yield surface, the image stress
respectively. It should be noted that, in order to compare the point is enforced to lie on the bounding surface at the end of
performance of the two integrations at the same level of error, the successful sub-increment. The details are described in Section
the residual tolerance in the implicit scheme and the specified 4.2.
tolerance for the explicit sub-stepping integration (i.e., STOL in
Table 2) are all set to 105, which lies in the typical range of values 4.1. General formulations
suggested by Sloan et al. [12] and Zhao et al. [15].
For a given strain increment, we have
3.4. Consistent tangent operator
r_ ¼ De : e_ e ¼ De : ðe_  Kn Þ ð17aÞ
To maintain the main advantage of the implicit integration where De is the elastic stiffness matrix. By decomposing the right
scheme, i.e., the quadratic convergence of the Newton iteration, terms in Eq. (17a) into volumetric and deviatoric components, Eq.
it is necessary to use the consistent tangent operator in the (17a) can be written as
solution of the global finite element equation. Here, consistency
r_ ¼ 2Ge_ þ K e_ v I  hKið2Gn s þ K n p IÞ ð17bÞ
means that the stress increment calculated by the tangent modu-
lus operating on the strain increment matches the stress increment Substituting Eq. (17b) into Eq. (7), the loading index is ex-
calculated by the integration procedure to first-order [29]. pressed as
32 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

Table 1
Stress updating procedure of the return mapping scheme.

Step Description
1 Initialize k = 0
( pð0Þ pð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
Dev ;nþ1 ¼ Denþ1 ¼ Knþ1 ¼ 0; pc;nþ1 ¼ pc;n ; Hnþ1 ¼ Hn
ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
bnþ1 ¼ bn ; K p;nþ1 ¼ K p;n ; nnþ1 ¼ nn ; onþ1 ¼ on
2 Calculate the trial stress using the elastic predictor based on given Dev ;nþ1 and Denþ1
 
ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
pnþ1 ¼ pn exp 1þej Dev ;nþ1 ; snþ1 ¼ sn þ 2Gnþ1 Denþ1
0

3 Distinguish the unloading process from the loading event


 n :r_ ðkÞ
n ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
IF cos h ¼  n k2 kr_
nþ1
ðkÞ < LTOL, which is set to 1012, THEN: re-determine nnþ1 and onþ1 with Eqs. (5) and (9); re-calculate bnþ1 by substituting Eq. (8) into Eq. (3),
kn k
nþ1 2

 ðkÞ
the related image stress tensor r  ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ
nþ1 and internal variables (i.e., nnþ1 , K p;nþ1 and Knþ1 )
ENDIF
4 Evaluate the following residuals
8 h  i
ðkÞ 1þe0 pðkÞ
>
> pnþ1  pn exp j Dev ;nþ1  Dev ;nþ1
>
>
>
> pðkÞ ðkÞ
>
>
> Dev ;nþ1  Knþ1 n  ðkÞ
p;nþ1
>
>  
> sðkÞ  s  2GðkÞ De
> pðkÞ
>
> nþ1 n nþ1 nþ1  Denþ1
>
>
> pðkÞ
> ðkÞ
 ðkÞ
>
> De  Knþ1 n
> nþ1
>
s;nþ1
 
>
> ðkÞ 1þe pðkÞ ðkÞ
< pc;nþ1  pc;n exp kj0 Dev ;nþ1 Hnþ1
ðkÞ
Rnþ1 ¼  qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
> ðkÞ pðkÞ pðkÞ
> Hnþ1  Hn exp b 23 Denþ1 : Denþ1
>
>
>
>
>
> ðkÞ
> ðkÞ K
ðkÞ
b
ðkÞ
K
ðkÞ
>
> bnþ1  bn  Knþ1 p;nþ1 ðkÞnþ1 p;nþ1
>
> Anþ1
>
>
>
> 2
>
> ^ðkÞ Þ  p
ðp ^ðkÞ ðkÞ 3 ^ðkÞ ^ðkÞ
nþ1 pc;nþ1 þ 2ðM 2 a2 Þ snþ1 : snþ1
>
> nþ1 
>
> qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
>
> ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ 3 ^ðkÞnþ1 ^ðkÞnþ1
:K p ^ p
p;nþ1 v n
nþ1 c;nþ1  2b
0 p;nþ1 M 2 a2
s 2 nþ1 :s nþ1

4 ðkÞ
IF kRnþ1 k2 6 Tolerance, which is set to 105, THEN EXIT
ELSE GOTO Step 5
5 ðkÞ
Solve the following linear equation to obtain dU nþ1 , i.e., the unknown increment plastic strain and internal variables
@R ðkÞ ðkÞ ðkÞ p
ð@U Þnþ1 dU nþ1 ¼ Rnþ1 with dU ¼ fdp; ds; dDev ; dDep ; dpc ; db; dK; dK p ; dHg
6 Update the stress and internal variables
ðkþ1Þ ðkÞ ðkÞ
U nþ1 ¼ U nþ1 þ dU nþ1
Set k = k + 1, and GOTO Step 3
ENDIF

 : r_
n 2Gn s : e_ þ K n p e_ v a consistency correction scheme similar to the scheme proposed
K¼ ¼ ð18Þ
Kp K p þ 2Gn s : n s þ Kðn  p Þ2 by Sloan et al. [12] is adopted. This choice was made because the
consistency of the bounding surface ensures the condition of con-
sistency on the yield surface (details can be seen in Appendix A). In
4.2. Stress integration procedure with the sub-stepping algorithm Step 10, the coefficients 0.9 and 1.1 act merely as safety factors,
which are adjustable to suit the specific models [12]. According
The second part of the explicit algorithm, i.e., the integration of to the suggestion by Sloan et al. [12] and Zhao et al. [15], the
the rate equations, works in the following way: once a strain incre- bounding surface tolerance (FTOL) is set to 109.
ment is given, the set of the stress increment and the increments
of the internal variables can be calculated based on the current stress 4.3. The continuum tangent operator
state. Then, update the stress and internal variables and use them to
obtain another set of increments of the stress and internal variables. The Jacobian stiffness matrix must be given and updated after
If the difference between two sets of solutions cannot satisfy the pre- the successful stress integration, and then, must be passed to the
scribed tolerance, the strain increment is subdivided automatically global finite element routine. Here, the Jacobian stiffness matrix
into a smaller sub-increment. For a given strain increment, the inte- is the continuum tangent operator and is derived following the
gration is accomplished in one or more sub-increments. The proce- same procedure in solving the classical elasto-plastic modulus,
dure of the sub-stepping integration for the anisotropic bounding i.e., substituting the consistency, flow rule and hardening laws into
surface model is listed in Table 2. We define the pseudo time T the incremental relations between the stress and strain. The con-
(0 6 T 6 1) for each strain increment e_ over a time step [tn, tn+1]. At tinuum Jacobian stiffness matrix is represented as
the same time, the sub-increment is denoted by e_ s with a pseudo
time DTm (0 6 DTm 6 1), in which the subscript n and the superscript  Þ  ðn
ðDe : n  : De Þ
Dep ¼ De  ð19Þ
m denote the numbers of increments and sub-increments, respec- Kp þ n 
 : De : n
tively, and the superscript s refers to the sub-increment.
In Step 2 of Table 2, the total given strain increment is used to
determine the strain sub-increment. In Step 3, the unloading-load- 5. Performance of the integration schemes
ing criterion is checked to determine the locations of the bounding
surface and the mapping rule because they are different for the In this section, the generalised three-dimensional bounding
unloading and loading events. In Step 8, similar to correcting the surface plasticity model with a vanishing elastic region is imple-
drift of the stress to the yield surface in the conventional sub-step- mented into the commercial software ABAQUS. Then, the perfor-
ping algorithm, the image stress point is enforced to be on the mance of the implicit and explicit integration schemes described
bounding surface. To keep the total strain increment unchanged, above, i.e., the accuracy, stability and efficiency, is assessed
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 33

Table 2
Procedure of the sub-stepping integration scheme in the model.

Step Description
1 Set T ¼ 0; m ¼ 0 and DT ðmÞ ¼ 1 for a given total strain increment e_ ¼ e_ þ e3v I over a time step [tn, tn+1] with the initial stress and the internal variables
ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
pc;nþ1 ¼ pc;n ; bnþ1 ¼ bn ; Hnþ1 ¼ Hn ; K p;nþ1 ¼ K p;n ; nnþ1 ¼ nn ; onþ1 ¼ on
s
2 e
IF T<1, THEN: e_ s ¼ e_ s þ 3v I ¼ DT ðmÞ e_ , ENDIF
3 Distinguish the unloading process from the loading event
 n :r_ ðkÞ
n ðkÞ ðkÞ
IF cos h ¼ nþ1
ðkÞ
 n k2 kr_
< LTOL, which is set to 1012, THEN: re-determine the locations of the bounding surface nnþ1 and the mapping origin onþ1 with Eqs. (5) and
kn k
nþ1 2
ðkÞ
 ðkÞ
(9), respectively; re-calculate bnþ1 by substituting Eq. (8) into Eq. (3), the related image stress tensor r  ðkÞ  ðkÞ ðkÞ
nþ1 and internal variables (i.e., nnþ1 , K p;nþ1 and Knþ1 )
ENDIF
4 Calculate the first order (j = 1) and second order (j = 2) trial stresses and the plastic strain increments
r_ j ¼ 2Gj e_ s þ K j e_ sv I  hKj ið2Gj n s;j þ K j n p;j IÞ
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
e_ p;s  p;j ; e_ p;s
v ;j ¼ Kj n
 _s
j ¼ Kj ns;j ; eA;j ¼ 2=3e_ p;sj : ej
_ p;s
And then calculate the trial hardening parameters
ðpc;nþ1 Þj ¼ ðpc;nþ1 Þj1 expðv0 e_ p;s
ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
_s
v ;j ÞðHnþ1 Þj1 expðbeA;j Þ
8 h i ðmÞ
>
> ðpc;nþ1 Þ
> ðnðmÞ
< p;nþ1 Þ ¼ op
ðmÞ ðmÞ
þ ðnp;nþ1 Þ  op
ðmÞ
ðmÞ
j
j j1 ðpc;nþ1 Þ
j1

> h i ðpðmÞ Þ
>
> ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ c;nþ1 j
: ns;nþ1 j ¼ os þ ðns;nþ1 Þj1  os ðp
ðmÞ
Þ c;nþ1 j1

 p;j ; pc;j ; np;j and ns;j for the first order (j =1) trial evaluated at the stress state r
 s;j ; n m1
In the above equations, the values of Gj ; K j ; Kj ; n , while for the second order (j
=2) trial evaluated at the temporary updated stress-state rm1 þ r_ 1
5 Compute the new stress and the hardening parameters and temporarily store them
^ðmÞ ^ðmÞ
h i
ðm1Þ ðmÞ ðmÞ
rnþ1 ¼ rnþ1 þ 0:5ðr_ 1 þ r_ 2 Þ; p c;nþ1 ¼ 0:5 ðpc;nþ1 Þ1 þ ðpc;nþ1 Þ2
^ h i ^ h i
ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
n p;nþ1 ¼ 0:5 ðnp;nþ1 Þ þ ðnp;nþ1 Þ ; n s;nþ1 ¼ 0:5 ðns;nþ1 Þ1 þ ðns;nþ1 Þ2
1 2
6 Determine the relative error Rm ¼ maxðRr ; Rpc ; Rnp ; Rns Þ
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2ffi
ðmÞ ðmÞ
½ðpc;nþ1 Þ ðpc;nþ1 Þ 
Rr ¼ 0:5 ðr1 ^rðmÞ2 Þ:ð^rðmÞ
_ _ _ 1 r_ 2 Þ
; Rpc ¼ 0:5 1
^ðmÞ 2
2
rnþ1 :rnþ1 ðp c;nþ1 Þ
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi2ffi sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
½ðnp;nþ1 Þ ðnp;nþ1 Þ  ½ðns;nþ1 Þ ðns;nþ1 Þ :½ðns;nþ1 Þ ðns;nþ1 Þ 
Rnp ¼ 0:5 ^
1
2
2
; Rns ¼ 0:5 1
^
ðmÞ
2
^
ðmÞ
1 2
ðmÞ n s;nþ1 : n s;nþ1
ð n p;nþ1 Þ

IF Rm > STOL, which is a user-specified value and equals 105, THEN the substep has failed and a smaller pseudo-time needs to be computed by means of an
extrapolation. First compute
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
q ¼ maxð0:9 STOL=Rm ; 0:1Þ
And then set
DT(m) = max (qDT, DTmin)
with DT min ¼ 103
GOTO Step 2
ENDIF
7 The substep is successful. So update the stresses and internal variables
^ ^ ^ ^
rðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
nþ1 ¼ r nþ1 ; pc;nþ1 ¼ p c;nþ1 ; np;nþ1 ¼ n p;nþ1 ns;nþ1 ¼ n s;nþ1
8  ðmÞ
Calculate the ratio b and use Eq. (8) to determine the image stress point r nþ1
A

ðpop Þ2 þ1:5=ðM 2 a2 Þ½ðsos Þðpop Þa:½ðsos Þðpop Þa
 
ðmÞ
IF jF nþ1 r  ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
nþ1 ; pc;nþ1 nnþ1 j > FTOL, which is set to10-9, THEN: GOTO Step 9.

ELSE: GOTO Step 10


ENDIF
9 Calculate the corrections of the stress tensor and hardening parameter from the following equations to ensure the total strain unchanged
ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
drnþ1 ¼ dKDe : n
 nþ1 ; dpc;nþ1 ¼ dKBnþ1
ðmÞ ðmÞ
with dK ¼ F nþ1 =ðK p;nþ1 þ n ðmÞ  ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
ðmÞ
nþ1 : De : nnþ1 Þ; Bnþ1 ¼ K p;nþ1 =ðpnþ1
ðmÞ
 np;nþ1 Þ
ðmÞ ðmÞ
r
Update nþ1 and pc;nþ1 as follows:
ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ ðmÞ
r r r
nþ1 ¼ nþ1 þ d nþ1 ; pc;nþ1 ¼ pc;nþ1 þ dpc;nþ1
ðmÞ ðmÞ
Re-determine nnþ1 from Eq. (5a) using the updated pc;nþ1
GOTO Step 8
10 Extrapolate the size of the next sub-step
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
q ¼ minð0:9 STOL=Rm ; 1:1Þ
If the previous step failed, limit the step size growth further by enforcing
q = min (q, 1)
Update pseudo-time and compute new step size
DT ðmþ1Þ ¼ qDT ðmÞ ; T ¼ T þ DT ðmþ1Þ
11 Minimize step size to hold the integration does not proceed beyond T = 1
DT ðmþ1Þ ¼ maxðDT ðmþ1Þ ; DT min Þ
DT ðmþ1Þ ¼ minðDT ðmþ1Þ ; 1  TÞ
Set m = m+1, GOTO Step 2
12 At T=1 exit with updated stress and internal variables

through simulating the conventional laboratory tests, including the analyses of rigid footings on saturated clay under both monotonic
triaxial shear tests, the stress-controlled cyclic triaxial tests and and cyclic loading. The element types used in Sections 5.1–5.5
the strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests, and performing coupled include the 8-node trilinear displacement element and the
34 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

pore-pressure element C3D8P, and the element types used in Sec- 0.8
tion 5.6 include the 8-node biquadratic displacement element and 5 increments
Compression
50 increments
the pore-pressure element CPE8P [30].
0.4 500 increments

5.1. Conventional triaxial shear test for K0-consolidated clay

q /p0
0.0
The first problem of interest involves an undrained conventional
triaxial test on a normally consolidated clay. The model parameters
reported by Stipho [31] for Kaolin clay are used and listed in Table 3, Extension
-0.4
which were also used for calibrating the constitutive models by
Liang and Ma [26] and Ling et al. [27]. Triaxial shear tests, including
compression and extension tests on both isotropically and aniso- -0.8
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
tropically consolidated specimens, are simulated using a cubical ele-
Axial strain ε1 /%
ment with the size 102 mm  102 mm  102 mm. The initial
conditions for the two cases (K0 = 1 and K0 = 0.67) are the initial void (a) Stress-strain relations
ratio e0 = 1.6 and the mean effective stress p0 = 210 kPa (e.g., r1 =
r2 = r3 = 210 kPa) or p0 = 163 kPa (e.g., r1 = 210 kPa, r1 = 210, 5 increments
0.8
r2 = r3 = 140 kPa). The element is fixed at the bottom with constant 50 increments CSL
lateral pressure, and then, it is subjected to the axial strain at the top 500 incremens
with a magnitude of 10% and 10% for compression and extension, 0.4
respectively.

q /p0
The tests are performed with different strain increments to a
0.0
maximum axial strain of 10%. Fig. 2 shows the stress–strain re-
sponse, the effective stress path and the pore pressure–strain curve
of both the compression and extension tests when using the return -0.4
mapping algorithm for K0 = 1. As seen in Fig. 2, all of the simula- CSL
tions are close to each other, even at a relatively larger strain incre- -0.8
ment of 2%. This finding demonstrates the stability and accuracy of 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
the implicit integration. The behaviour of the combination of the p /p0
consistent tangent operator and the Newton–Raphson procedure (b) Effective stress path
for local iteration at a moderate strain increment of 0.2% is demon-
strated in Table 4, in which the residual norms are shown for typ- 0.8
ical load increments. This result clearly indicates that the quadratic 5 increments
50 increments Compression
rate of asymptotic convergence is achieved. 0.6 500 incremens
Fig. 3 shows the corresponding simulation of the triaxial exten-
sion test for K0 = 0.67 using the sub-stepping algorithm. Similar to
0.4
the return mapping rule, the sub-stepping integration provides a
u /p0

solution with reasonable accuracy. Here, the convergence problem


occurs when imposing the axial strain of 10% in 50 increments. 0.2
Extension
Fig. 4 presents the comparison between the triaxial compression
data and the simulation results for K0 = 0.67 by using the implicit 0.0
and explicit integrations with the same increment size. It is ob-
served that all of the simulations that use the implicit and explicit -0.2
algorithms generally match with the experimental data. The differ- -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
Axial strain ε1 /%
ence induced by the two approaches is not significant. However,
the sub-stepping algorithm predicts a higher shear strength at (c) Pore pressure-strain curve
the same increment size. In fact, Sołowski et al. [19] have reported
a similar phenomenon and noted that the difference between the Fig. 2. Model simulation by the return mapping in undrained triaxial tests with
variable magnitude of strain increment.
implicit and explicit schemes reaches 30% for a Gaussian integra-
tion point in a triaxial stress state.
5.2. Iso-error maps
Table 3
Values of the model parameters.
To further assess the accuracy of the two integrations in the
Parameters Kaolin Newfield Marine plastic Saturated
present model, a more systematic error analysis is performed in
clay clay clay clay
the manner described by Simo and Hughes [6]. The relative error
Traditional
d defined by Borja et al. [9] is expressed as
e0 1.1 0.62 2.422 0.929
m 0.20 0.15 0.30 0.30 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Me 0.846 0.83 1.456 1.46
ðr  r Þ : ðr  r Þ
d¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  100% ð20Þ
Mc 1.178 1.14 1.560 1.56 r : r
j 0.05 0.0108 0.057 0.17
k 0.14 0.0508 0.349 0.05 where r is the result obtained by applying the algorithms; and r⁄ is
Hardening the exact solution that corresponds to the specified strain incre-
c 2 1.5 2 2 ment, which decreases as it produces no significant change in the
fr – 3.4 2 5 results.
g 120 100 100
Here, iso-error maps are established by first constructing a
b – 0.005 –
stress state after isotropical consolidation for Kaolin clay at an
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 35

Table 4 1.0
Iteration process of the return mapping integration (Kaolin clay, K0 = 1, 50
increments): residual norms for typical load increments at integration point 3.

Iteration Increment 1 Increment 20 Increment 40 Increment 60 0.8

1 1.2951E+3 4.9837E+3 4.9072E+3 4.9054E+3

q /p0
2 3.113E+1 2.9041E+2 2.8171E+2 2.8151E+2
3 3.629E1 3.7213E+0 3.6824E+0 3.6815E+0 0.6
4 2.684E3 7.1423E2 7.0854E2 7.0840E2
5 4.137E6 1.3622E4 1.3574E4 1.3572E4 Experimental data
6 – 4.9551E7 4.9825E7 4.9829E7 0.4 500 increments (Explicit)
500 increments (Implicit)

0.2
-0.8 0 2 4 6 8 10
Axial strain ε1 /%
-0.6
(a) Stress-strain relations
-0.4

Experimental data CSL


q /p0

-0.2 0.8
500 increments (Explicit)
100 increments 500 increments (Implicit)
0.0
250 increments 0.6
500 increments

q /p0
0.2
0.4
0.4
K0 line
0 2 4 6 8 10 0.2
Axial strain ε1 /%
(a) Stress-strain relations 0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
p /p0
-0.8
(b) Effective stress path
-0.6
Fig. 4. Comparison between the predicted results and experimental data [31].
-0.4
q /p0

-0.2 the result from Potts and Ganendra [17], in which the errors from
both stress point algorithms increase first and then decrease with
0.0 100 increments
250 increments
the strain increment size. The possible reason is that a relatively
0.2 500 increments large-scale strain increment was adopted by Potts and Ganendra.
It is also observed that the difference in accuracy for the two inte-
0.4 grations is not significant. The sub-stepping algorithm shows
slightly better accuracy for smaller increment sizes but faster dete-
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
rioration for larger increment sizes.
p /p0
(b) Effective stress path
5.3. Stress-controlled cyclic triaxial tests
Fig. 3. Model simulation by the sub-stepping in undrained triaxial tests with
variable magnitude of strain increment. In this section, the performance of the two integrations for
stress-controlled cyclic behaviours is investigated. Values of the
model constants are those that are appropriate for prediction of
element level, which is described in Section 5.1, then applying the the Newfield clay, as listed in Table 3. The specimen is hydrostat-
axial strain at a magnitude of 104 in the direction of the r1 axis ically consolidated with the confining pressure p0 = 400 kPa.
(i.e., the z-axis) to bring the soil element into the triaxial compres- The stress–strain response and the stress path of the Newfield
sion state and then to impose a sequence of specified strain incre- clay, which is subjected to one-way cyclic axial loading with a
ments by simultaneously applying displacements in the directions magnitude of 150 kPa by using the implicit integration scheme,
of r1 and r2 (i.e., the x-axis). For each strain probe, the exact solu- are presented in Fig. 7. It is found that the stress path almost be-
tion is obtained by dividing the desired displacement increment comes stable and the accumulation rate of the plastic strains de-
into 1000 sub-increments. The model constants are listed in Table creases. This finding means that the cyclic shakedown is
3. In the sub-stepping integration, the local stress tolerance (STOL) obtained at the cyclic stress level. The simulation results using
and the bounding surface tolerance (FTOL) are set to 105 and 109, the increment sizes of Dq = 1.5 kPa and Dq = 0.75 kPa are close
respectively. each other. Again, the accuracy and stability of the return mapping
Figs. 5 and 6 present the iso-error maps for the loading from the algorithm are verified in predicting the cyclic behaviour of the sat-
initial isotropic stress state using the return mapping and sub- urated clay. Similar analysis is also conducted by using the sub-
stepping algorithms, respectively. It is observed that, in the strain stepping algorithm.
increment range of 0–1%, the relative error becomes larger with To investigate the efficiency of the two integration algorithms,
an increasing strain increment both for the return mapping and more simulation of the stress-controlled cyclic loading at different
the sub-stepping algorithms. This result does not coincide with cyclic levels with various stress increments is performed. The CPU
36 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

1.0 180
Δq = 1.5 kPa
0 Δq = 0.75 kPa
150
0.8 1.50

Deviatoric stress q /kPa


2.25
3.00
120
4.50
0.6
6.00 90
Δεz /%

7.50

0.4 9.00 60
10.5
12.0
30
0.2
0
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Axial strain ε1 /%

Δεx /% (a) Stress-strain relations

Fig. 5. Iso-error map from the return mapping integration scheme.


180
Δq = 1.5 kPa
150 Δq = 0.75 kPa
1.0

Deviatoric stress q /kPa


120
0
0.8 1.25
90
1.88
2.50
0.6 60
3.75
Δεz /%

5.00
6.25
30
0.4
7.50
8.75 0
0.2 300 325 350 375 400
10.0
Volumetric stress p /kPa

0.0 (b) Effective stress path


0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Δεx /% Fig. 7. Simulations of stress-controlled cyclic triaxial tests using the return
mapping integration scheme.
Fig. 6. Iso-error map from the sub-stepping integration scheme.

Table 5
Comparison of the efficiency of the two integration schemes in stress-controlled
time required for each analysis is summarised in Table 5, in which cyclic triaxial tests.
NC means ‘‘not convergent’’. It is observed that predicting the Case qd (kPa) Increments Return mapping Sub-stepping
cyclic behaviour of saturated clay by using the sub-stepping CPU time (s) CPU time (s)
integration requires less CPU time than by using the return 1 70 17,000 1167.4 1077.6
mapping integration. At a relatively large stress increment size, the 2 70 1700 65.9 59.1
sub-stepping integration cannot make itself convergent. These 3 100 17,000 1116.1 1058.3
conclusions are consistent with the study by Manzari and 4 100 1700 63.4 60.4
5 150 3400 131.2 122.5
Prachathananukit [18], in which a two-surface model for 6 150 1700 62.4 NC
predicting the monotonic behaviour of sands was adopted. 7 200 3400 131.2 121.6
8 200 1700 61.7 NC

5.4. Strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests


Similar to the simulation of the stress-controlled cyclic loading,
The finite element model described in Section 5.3 is also used to another set of strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests using the two
perform a strain-controlled cyclic loading at a level of e1d = ±1.0%. integration schemes is conducted to further investigate the effi-
To demonstrate the application of the model to the boundary value ciency. To make the sub-stepping scheme convergent, the strain
problems, the finite element model is meshed into 8 elements. Val- increments adopted here are relatively small. The CPU time re-
ues of the model constants are those that are appropriate for pre- quired for each analysis is listed in Table 6. Similarly, it is observed
diction of the marine plastic clay, as listed in Table 3. The specimen that predicting the cyclic behaviour of soils that use the sub-step-
is hydrostatically consolidated with the confining pressure ping integration requires less CPU time than using the return map-
p0 = 210 kPa. ping scheme.
The simulation of the marine plastic clay using the sub-stepping
scheme at different increment sizes is presented in Figs. 8 and 9. It 5.5. FEM analysis of a square footing under monotonic loading
is observed from Fig. 8 that the stress–strain relations move to-
ward the strain axis, and the stiffness degradation occurs from The collapse of a rigid footing is a well-known problem for test-
the second load cycle. Comparing the results at different increment ing stress integration. To demonstrate the application of the model
sizes, the accuracy of the sub-stepping integration scheme can be with the two integration schemes to the bounding value problems,
further confirmed. a finite element coupled analysis of a rigid square footing on the
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 37

150 Δε1 = 0.004% 150 Δε1 = 0.004%

Deviatoric stress q /kPa


Deviatoric stress q /kPa

100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 90 120 150 180 210
Axial strain ε1 /% Volumetric stress p /kPa
(a) (a)

150 Δε1 = 0.002% 150 Δε1 = 0.002%


Deviatoric stress q /kPa

Deviatoric stress q /kPa


100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100
-1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 90 120 150 180 210
Axial strain ε1 /% Volumetric stress p/ kPa

(b) (b)

Fig. 9. The predicted stress path for strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests using the
Fig. 8. The predicted stress–strain relations for strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests
sub-stepping algorithm.
using the sub-stepping algorithm.

Kaolin clay is performed. As illustrated in Fig. 10, the finite element Table 6
model is composed of 7220 elements and 8400 nodes. Dimensions Comparison of the efficiency of the two integration schemes in strain-controlled
of the soil and the footing are 10 m  10 m  10 m and 0.68 m  cyclic triaxial tests.
0.68 m, respectively. The lateral boundaries of the soil are fixed Case e1d (%) Increments Return mapping Sub-stepping
in both the X and Y directions but are allowed to move in the Z CPU time (s) CPU time (s)
direction, and the bottom boundary is locked in all directions. 1 0.3 6400 323.5 305.5
The model constants of the soil are listed in Table 3. One additional 2 0.3 3200 156.3 130.4
parameter in the coupled analysis is the permeability kp. In the 3 0.5 6400 357.4 319.2
4 0.5 3200 150.5 131.9
present work, its value is set to 109 m/s, which is a typical value
5 1.0 16,500 1038 968.7
suggested by Potts and Zdravkovic [32] in the coupled consolida- 6 1.0 8250 409.1 342.7
tion finite element analysis. Considering that the footing is re- 7 1.5 6400 362 332.1
garded as a rigid body, the displacement increments are actually 8 1.5 3200 164.6 131.4
applied at the soil boundaries that are in contact with the footing.
To avoid any interface elements in the 3D finite element analysis,
the soil-footing interface is treated as completely smooth with free
horizontal displacements at the contact nodes. where Dw is the equivalent footing pressure applied over the time
Note that most of the available analyses on the bearing capacity period t; and cw is the unit weight of water. Sheng et al. [37] consid-
of the square footing are for the clay with a uniform strength and ered that the soil behaves essentially in an undrained manner when
under undrained conditions [33–36]. To compare them, two spe- the loading rate x equals 104. Thus, in the present work, the loading
cial steps in the present analysis are necessary. First, in the geostat- rate x is set to 105. In ABAQUS, the option of automatic time incre-
ic step, the soil is hydrostatically consolidated under a pressure of menting is open because the fixed increments could prevent the
110 kPa to obtain clay with a uniform strength. In the bounding solution from converging. As a result, the numbers of increments
surface plasticity model, which is based on critical state theory, in the explicit and implicit integration schemes are usually differ-
for a given group of critical state parameters (j; k; M), the initial ent. In a coupled analysis, the pore pressure tolerance (i.e., UTOL
undrained strength of saturated clay after consolidation is deter- in ABAQUS), which specifies the allowable pore pressure change
mined by the initial size of the bounding surface (i.e., the pre-con- per increment, has a greater influence on the global convergence
solidation pressure pc). Second, in the coupled analysis step, fast than the displacement tolerance. In the present work, by trial and
loading is necessary to retain an undrained condition. Here, the error, tolerances in the pore pressure and in the displacement are
loading rate defined by Sheng et al. [37] is adopted set to 5 kPa and 105, respectively.
Dw=t The normalised load–displacement curves by using the two
x¼ ð21Þ integration schemes are presented in Fig. 11. It can be observed
kp cw
that each of the two algorithms produces a reasonable analysis
38 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

Table 8
Comparison of the efficiency of the two integration schemes for the square footing
under monotonic loading.

Algorithms Global iterations CPU time (s)


Return mapping 1489 16581
Sub-stepping 1673 14335

Fig. 10. Finite element model used in simulating the square footing under
monotonic loading.

7.50

6.25

5.00
Fig. 12. Finite element model used in simulating the strip footing under cyclic
P/(Asu )

3.75 loading.

2.50
Εxplicit the other results except for Skempton’s expression. The CPU usage
1.25 Ιmplicit
of the analysis by using the two integrations is listed in Table 8.
0.00 Again, it is found that the sub-stepping integration is more efficient
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 than the implicit integration at the specified increment size.
Centriod displacement /m

Fig. 11. Normalized load–displacement response of the rigid square footing on 5.6. FEM analysis of a strip footing under long-term cyclic loading
normally consolidated Kaolin clay.

A cyclic test on a strip footing [39] is simulated to further dem-


onstrate the capability of the model in solving the boundary value
of the footing problem. At the same time, the departure between problems that involve long-term cyclic loading. In the test, a strip
them is higher than that at the element level (see Fig. 4). This find- foundation with the size of 7.61 cm  22.9 cm  3.81 cm was sup-
ing could be attributed to the difference in the number of incre- ported by saturated clay and subjected to a static load of 17.4 kPa,
ments in the two integrations. Note that the bearing capacity which superimposed a cyclic load of 2.54 kPa. The model parame-
factor N = P/(Asu) can be determined from the curve at the point ters are listed in Table 3. Details of the cyclic test can be found in
where it becomes almost linear [38]. Then, the values of N from the literature [39].
the Skempton’s expression, other available analytical and numeri- Plane strain conditions are assumed, and a symmetrical 2D fi-
cal solutions for rigid square footings and the present integration nite element model is established, as illustrated in Fig. 12. Note
schemes are compared in Table 7. The bearing capacity of the foot- that the soil is under its own weight and an additional surcharge
ing predicted by the sub-stepping algorithm is slightly larger than of 19 kPa, through which the strength of the clay varies with depth.

Table 7
Comparison of the bearing capacity factor of the square footing.

Reference Analysis type N


Skempton [32] Empirical 6.17
Shield and Drucker [33] Upper bound 5.71
Michalowski and Dawson [34] Finite difference 5.43
Gourvenec et al. [35] Finite element (Tresca soil model) 5.56
Present study Finite element (BSPa model) Return mapping 5.61
Sub-stepping 6.02
a
Bounding surface plasticity.
C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41 39

0.00 schemes, are adopted in the anisotropic bounding surface plasticity


model with a vanishing elastic region, and the performance is eval-
0.05
Experimental data[39] uated both at the soil element level and in solving boundary value
Implicit problems. For this reason, there is no explicit current yield surface
0.10
Explicit
in the bounding surface model to which the conventional implicit
Settlement /cm

0.15 algorithm returns the stress state back or to which the sub-step-
0.20 ping integration corrects the drift of the stress state; several mod-
ifications have been made for both of these integration schemes.
0.25 First, the image stress point is mapped or corrected to the bound-
0.30
ing surface instead of mapping back or correcting the stress state to
the yield surface. Second, the unloading–loading criterion is
0.35 checked to determine the image stress point rather than checking
0 50 100 150 200
the yield criterion after giving the trial stress state in a conven-
Number of cycles tional way.
To assess the performance of the integration algorithms in the
Fig. 13. The settlement accumulation of the strip footing under cyclic loading.
present model, a series of numerical simulations of conventional
triaxial tests, stress-controlled and strain-controlled cyclic triaxial
tests as well as boundary value problems that involve monotonic
20
and cyclic bearing behaviours of rigid footings on normally consol-
idated saturated clay were conducted. The results indicate that
there is no significant difference in the accuracy between the im-
Load per unit area /kPa

18 plicit and explicit integrations for smaller strain increments, but


the explicit integration shows a higher efficiency. For relatively lar-
ger increment sizes, the implicit return mapping algorithm shows
16 better accuracy and convergence, while the sub-stepping suffers
the convergence problem that is attributed to the continuum tan-
gent matrix being adopted. Furthermore, with the tolerance used
14
in the present model, the soil strength and the bearing behaviour
of the footing predicted by the sub-stepping algorithm are slightly
0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
larger than those by the return mapping algorithm. The model is a
Settlement /cm representative of a series of bounding surface models that have
typical characteristics, including the isotropic and kinematic hard-
Fig. 14. The cyclic load–settlement curve calculated by the implicit integration. ening, pressure dependency of the elastic bulk and shear moduli,
and a rotational bounding surface to capture complex but impor-
tant cyclic behaviours of soils, such as the cyclic shakedown and
Table 9 degradation. The present work could provide a guide for similar at-
Comparison of the efficiency of the two integration
tempts in this class of bounding surface plasticity models.
schemes for the strip footing under cyclic loading.

Algorithms CPU time (s)


Acknowledgments
Return mapping 1219.5
Sub-stepping 1163.2
Financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation
of China (Grant nos. 50979070 and 51179124) is gratefully
The footing is regarded as a rigid body and is tied to the soil acknowledged.
elements.
Fig. 13 shows the settlement accumulation with the number of
Appendix A. Consistency condition on the current stress point
loading cycles. It is observed that the simulation results from both
the implicit and explicit integrations are generally coincident with
As shown in Fig. A1, passing the current stress point r and the
the experimental data. At the initial loading stage, the displace-
homological centre (i.e., the mapping origin o), there is a
ment accumulates rapidly. Then, the rate of accumulation
dependent surface fm implied in the model, which is homologous
decreases with the number of cycles until it is almost zero, which
to the bounding surface Fm.
indicates that the cyclic shakedown has been approached. The cyc-
lic load–settlement curve from the implicit scheme is demon-
strated in Fig. 14, which shows that the hysteresis loop is q
approximately closed at the state of cyclic shakedown. The CPU
CSL σ Fm
usage by the two integrations is listed in Table 9. In the simulation,
a fixed load increment is adopted and a repeated attempt is made σ fm

to make both of the integrations convergent. It can be seen from


Table 9 that for the cyclic bearing behaviour of the strip footing,
ξ
the implicit return mapping integration is more time-consuming
π o
than the sub-stepping integration. o
p
6. Conclusions
CSL
In the present work, two stress point integration algorithms, i.e.,
the implicit return mapping and the explicit sub-stepping Fig. A1. The condition of consistency on the surface fm implied in the model.
40 C. Hu, H. Liu / Computers and Geotechnics 55 (2014) 27–41

From the mapping rule and geometric similarity between the with
two surfaces, we have:
e1 ¼ 2C 4  pc  3CC 6 ; e2 ¼ 3Cbs;
 
 ¼ op þ bðp  op Þ
p np ¼ op þ bðpp  op Þ e3 ¼ C 4 ; e4 ¼ ð2C 4  pc  3CC 6 ÞC 5 þ 3CC 10 ðB10Þ
and ðA1Þ
s ¼ os þ bðs  os Þ ns ¼ os þ bðps  os Þ
From Eq. (14i), we obtain
where (pp, ps) denotes the corresponding endpoint of fm. f1 Dp þ f 2 : Ds þ f3 Dpc þ f4 Db þ f6 DK p ¼ 0 ðB11Þ
Substituting Eq. (A1) into the formation of the bounding surface
(i.e., Eq. (3)), obtain with

8  
< f1 ¼ Z 0 pc n
 p b þ 2M 2 CC 4 bpc v0 þ 3CC 4 C 6 bpc bq^ ; f 2 ¼  3CC 4 bpc v0 a þ 3CC 4 bpc bq^ ^s
ðB12Þ
: f ¼ ðZ C n  p C 5 þ CC 4 pc v0 ð2M2 C 5  3C 1 Þ þ 3CC 4 C 9 pc bq^ ; f6 ¼ 1
3 0 4  p  C 4 pc v0 Þ; f4 ¼ Z 0 pc n

( 2
F m ¼ b fm ¼ 0 In the above equations, we define
fm ¼ ðp  pp Þ2  ðp  pp Þ pbc þ 2ðM23a2 Þ ½s  ps  ðp  pp Þa : ½s  ps  ðp  pp Þa ¼ 0 8
> 1 K p bK p K r
ðA2Þ > C ¼ M2 a2 ;C 1 ¼ ðs  os Þa;C 2 ¼ A ;C 3 ¼ A ½1  b þ bðb  1Þ 
>
>
>
>
< C4 ¼ p  np ;C 5 ¼ p  op ;C 6 ¼ ^s : a;C 7 ¼ np  op ;C 8 ¼ ~n : a;C 9 ¼ ^s : ~s
By taking the time-derivative of Fm, the following expression is
derived: > C 10 ¼ ^s : ðs  os Þ; n~ ¼ ðns  os Þ  ðnp  op Þa; ~s ¼ ðs  os Þ  ðp  op Þa
>
>
>
> qffiffi
>
: Z ¼ v  2bC q ; q
F_ m ¼ b f_ m þ 2bfm b_ ¼ 0
2
ðA3Þ 0 0 p
n
 ¼ 32^s : ^s

Because fm = 0, it follows that f_ m ¼ 0. This result means that the ðB13Þ


condition of consistency on Fm ensures the condition of consistency
From Eqs. B1, B3, B5, B7, and B9, we have
on fm, which the current stress state lies on. It should be clarified
that fm is actually implied in the model, and its evolution is totally 2 32 3 2 3
a1 aT2 a3 a4 a5 0 Dp Dev
determined by the bounding surface and the current stress state. 6 76
6 b1 b2 I T 0 b4 b5 0 76 Ds 7 6
7 6 De 7
7
6 76 7 6 7
6 c1 cT2 c3 0 0 7 2bpc
0 76 Dpc 7 6 pc v0 Dev  3De De : De 7
p
Appendix B. Consistent tangent operator 6
6 T 76
6
7¼6
7 6
A 7
7
6 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 7 Db 7 6 0
6 76 7
From Eq. (14a), we obtain 6 76 7 6 7
4 e1 eT2 e3 e4 0 0 54 DK 5 4 0 5
a1 Dp þ a2 : Ds þ a3 Dpc þ a4 Db þ a5 DK ¼ Dev ðB1Þ f1 f2
T
f3 f4 0 f6 D K p 0
with ðB14Þ

1 Therefore, the consistent tangent modulus Cknþ1 can be obtained by


a1 ¼ 2CM 2 Kb þ ; a2 ¼ 3C aKb; a3 ¼ K; a4
K solving
@ Dpknþ1
and
@ Dsknþ1
.
2 @ Deknþ1 @ Deknþ1
p
¼ KCð2M C 5  3C 1 Þ; a5 ¼ n ðB2Þ
From Eq. (14c), we obtain References
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