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# Derivation of Coulomb’s Law of Forces Between Static Electric Charges Based on

## Spherical Source and Sink Model of Particles

Xiao-Song Wang∗
State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080, China
(Dated: February 2, 2008)
We speculate that the universe may be filled with a continuum which may be called aether. Based
arXiv:physics/0609099v2 [physics.gen-ph] 3 Nov 2006

on a spherical source and sink model of electric charges, we derive Coulomb’s law of interactions
between static electric charges in vacuum by methods of hydrodynamics. A reduced form of the
Lorentz’s force law of static electric charges is derived based on a definition of electric field.
Keywords: Coulomb’s Law; hydrodynamics; spherical source; spherical sink; aether.

## I. INTRODUCTION [7, 8, 8, 9, 10] because of the absence of a continuum.

Thus, the Maxwell’s theory can only be regarded as a
Coulomb’s law of interactions between static electric phenomenological theory. New mechanical interpreta-
charges in vacuum can be written as (refer to, for in- tions of Coulomb’s law may help us to establish a field
stance, ) theory of electromagnetic phenomena [1, 11].
Fourthly, there exists some inconsistencies and inner
1 q1 q2 difficulties in the classical electrodynamics [8, 12, 13, 14].
F21 = r̂21 , (1)
4πǫ0 r2 New theories of Coulomb’s law may help to resolve such
difficulties.
where q1 and q2 are the electric quantities of two elec-
tric charges, r is the distance between the two electric Finally, one of the tasks of physics is the unification of
charges, ǫ0 is the dielectric constant of vacuum, F21 is the the four fundamental interactions in the universe. New
force exerted on the electric charge with electric quantity theories of interactions between static electric charges
q2 by the electric charge with electric quantity q1 , r̂21 may shed some light on this puzzle.
denotes the unit vector directed outward along the line To conclude, it seems that new considerations on
from the electric charge with electric quantity q1 to the Coulomb’s law is needed. It is worthy keeping an open
electric charge with electric quantity q2 . mind with respect to all the theories of interactions be-
The main purpose of this paper is to derive Coulomb’s tween static electric charges before the above problems
law of interactions between static electric charges in vac- been solved.
uum by means of fluid mechanics based on spherical Now let us briefly review the long history of mechanical
source and spherical sink model of particles. interpretations of electromagnetic phenomena.
The motive of this paper is to seek a mechanism of Descartes was the first to bring the aether concept into
Coulomb’s law. The reasons why new mechanical in- science by suggesting that it has mechanical properties
terpretations of Coulomb’s law are interesting may be according to E. T. Whittaker. He believed that every
summarized as follows. physical phenomenon could be interpreted in the con-
Firstly, Coulomb’s law is an elementary and profound struction of a mechanical model of the universe.
law in physics and play various roles in the fields of William Watson and Benjamin Franklin introduced the
electromagnetism, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, one-fluid theory of electricity independently in 1746 .
cosmology and thermodynamics, etc., for instance, see Henry Cavendish attempted to explain some of the prin-
[2, 3] and the references cited there. From the point cipal phenomena of electricity by means of an elastic fluid
view of reductionism, the fundamental importance of in 1771. Not contented with the above mentioned one-
Coulomb’s law in all branches of physics urges the reduc- fluid theory of electricity, du Fay, Robert Symmer and
tionists to provide it a proper mechanical interpretation. C. A. Coulomb developed a two-fluid theory of electricity
Secondly, the mechanism of this action-at-a-distance from 1733 to 1789 . John Bernoulli introduced a fluid
Coulomb’s law remains an unsolved problem in physics aether theory of light in 1752. Euler believed that all
for more than 200 years after the law was put forth by electrical phenomena is caused by the same aether that
Coulomb in 1785 [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. From the point view of propagates light.
reductionism, we need a satisfactory mechanical interpre- In 1821, in order to explain polarisation of light, A. J.
tation in the framework of Descartes’ scientific research Frensnel proposed an aether model which is able to trans-
program. mit transverse waves. Inspired by Frensnel’s luminifer-
Thirdly, although the Maxwell’s theory of electro- ous aether theory, numerous dynamical theories of elastic
magnetic phenomena is a field theory , the concept solid aether were established by Stokes, Cauchy, Green,
of field is different from that of continuum mechanics MacCullagh, Boussinesq, Riemann and William Thom-

1
son (refer to, for instance, ). enclose the source with an arbitrary spherical surface S
In 1861, in order to obtain a mechanical interpre- with radius b > a. A calculation shows that
tation of electromagnetic phenomena, Maxwell estab-
Q
ZZ ZZ
lished a mechanical model of a magneto-electric medium. u · ndS = 2
r̂ · ndS = Q, (3)
Maxwell’s magneto-electric medium is a cellular aether, S S 4πb

looks like a honeycomb. In a remarkable paper published where n denotes the unit vector directed outward along
in 1864, Maxwell established a group of equations which the line from the origin of the coordinates to the field
were named after his name later. point(x, y, z). Equation (3) shows that the strength Q of
In a remarkable paper published in 1905, Einstein a spherical source or spherical sink evaluates the volume
abandoned the concept of aether. However, Einstein’s of the fluid leaving or entering a control surface per unit
assertion did not cease the exploration of aether, for in- time.
stance, see [5, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25].
Einstein changed his attitude later and introduced his
new concept of ether[26, 27]. I regret to admit that it III. FORCES ACTING ON SPHERICAL
is impossible for me to mention all the works related to SOURCES AND SPHERICAL SINKS IN IDEAL
this field in history. FLUIDS
Inspired by the above mentioned works, we show that
Coulomb’s law of interactions between static electric The purpose of this section is to calculate the forces
charges can be derived based on a continuum mechanics between spherical sources and spherical sinks in inviscid
model of vacuum and a spherical source and sink model incompressible fluids which is called ideal fluids usually.
of electric charges. Suppose the velocity field u of an ideal fluid is irrota-
tional, then we have (refer to, for instance, [28, 29, 30,
31, 32, 33, 34]),
II. DEFINITIONS OF SPHERICAL SOURCES
AND SPHERICAL SINKS IN FLUIDS u = ∇φ, (4)
∂ ∂ ∂
where φ is the velocity potential, ∇ = i ∂x + j ∂y + k ∂z is
The purpose of this section is to establish a definition
the Hamilton operator.
of spherical sources and spherical sinks in fluids.
It is known that the equation of mass conservation of
If there exists a velocity field which is continuous
an ideal fluid becomes Laplace’s equation(refer to, for
and finite at all points of the space, with the exception
instance, [28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34]),
of individual isolated points, then these isolated points
are called velocity singularities usually. Point spherical ∇2 φ = 0, (5)
sources and spherical sinks are examples of singularities.
2 2 2
To avoid singularities, we may introduce a mechanical where φ is velocity potential, ∇2 = ∂x ∂ ∂ ∂
2 + ∂y 2 + ∂z 2 is
model of spherical sources and spherical sinks with finite the Laplace operator.
radii in fluids. Using spherical coordinates(r, θ, ϕ), a general form of
solution of Laplace’s equation Eq.(5) can be obtained by
Definition 1 Suppose there exists a hard sphere with a
sepatation of variables as
finite radius a at point P0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 ). If the velocity
field near the hard sphere at point P = (x, y, z) is ∞ 
X Bl

l
φ(r, θ) = Al r + l+1 Pl (cos θ), (6)
Q r
l=0
u(x, y, z, t) = r̂, (2)
4πr2
p where Al and Bl are arbitrary constants, Pl (x) are Leg-
where r = (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 + (z − z0 )2 , r ≥ a, is endre’s function of the first kind which is defined as
the distance between the point P0 and the point P , r̂ de-
1 dl 2
notes the unit vector directed outward along the line from Pl (x) = (x − 1)l . (7)
the point P0 to the point P , then we call this hard sphere 2l l! dxl
a spherical source if Q > 0 or a spherical sink if Q < 0. From Eq.(2) and Eq.(6), we see that the velocity po-
Q is called the strength of the spherical source or the tential φ(r, θ) of a spherical source or spherical sink is a
spherical sink. solution of Laplace’s equation (5).
The following lemma is useful in the proof of the main
For convenience, we may regard a spherical sink as a theorems in this section.
negative spherical source.
Suppose a static spherical source with strength Q and Lemma 2 Suppose (1) the velocity field u of a fluid is
a radius a locates at the origin (0, 0, 0). In order to calcu- irrotational, i.e., we have u = ∇φ, where φ is the velocity
late the volume leaving the source per unit time, we may potential; (2) there is an arbitrary closed surface S fixed

2
in the space without any bodies or singularities inside S; where D/Dt represents the material derivative in the la-
(3) the velocity field u is continuous in the closed surface grangian system (see, for instance, [29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
S. Then, we have 34]).
D
ZZ

ZZ ZZ In order to calculate FQ , let us calculate DK/Dt and
ρφndS = ρφndS + ρu(u · n)dS. (8) F2 respectively. The expressions of the momentum K
Dt S ∂t S S
and the force F2 are
where D/Dt represents the material derivative in the la- ZZZ ZZ
grangian system. K= ρudV, F2 = (−p)ndS, (11)
τ 2
Remark. For the proof of Lemma 2, refer to, for in-
stance, Appendix 2 in . where the first integral is volume integral, the second
Theorem 3 Suppose (1)there exists an ideal fluid (2)the integral is surface integral, n denotes the unit vector di-
ideal fluid is irrotational and barotropic, (3)the density rected outward along the line from the origin of the co-
ρ is homogeneous, that is ∂x ∂ρ ∂ρ
= ∂y = ∂ρ ∂ρ ordinates to the field point(x, y, z).
∂z = ∂t = 0
Since the velocity field is irrotational, we have the fol-
(4)there are no external body forces exerted on the fluid,
lowing relation
(5)the fluid is unbounded and the velocity of the fluid at
the infinity is approaching to zero. Suppose a spherical u = ∇φ, (12)
source or spherical sink is stationary and is immersed in
the ideal fluid. Then, there is a force where φ is the velocity potential.
4 3
4πρa ∂u0 According to Ostrogradsky–Gauss theorem (see, for in-
FQ = ρQu0 + (9) stance, [29, 30, 31, 33, 34]) and using Eq.(12), we have
3 3 ∂t
exerted on the spherical source or the spherical sink by
ZZZ ZZZ
the fluid, where ρ is the density of the fluid, Q is the ρudV = ρ∇φdV
τ τ
strength of the spherical source or the spherical sink, a ZZ ZZ
is the radius of the spherical source or the spherical sink, = ρφndS − ρφndS. (13)
S2 S1
u0 is the velocity of the fluid at the location of the spher-
ical source induced by all means other than the spherical Therefore, from Eq.(11) and Eq.(13), we have
source itself. ZZ 
D D
ZZZ ZZ
Proof. Only the proof of the case of a spherical source ρudV = ρφndS − ρφndS. , (14)
Dt τ Dt S2 S1
is needed. Let us select the coordinates {o, x, y, z} or
{o, x1 , x2 , x3 } that is attached to the static fluid at the Applying Lemma 2 to the second integral in Eq.(14),
infinity. we have
We set the origin of the coordinates at the center of the
D ∂
ZZ ZZ ZZ
spherical source. Let S1 denotes the spherical surface of ρφndS = ρφndS + ρu(u · n)dS. (15)
the spherical source. We surround the spherical source by Dt S2 ∂t S2 S2
an arbitrary spherical surface S2 with radius R centered
at the center of the spherical source. The outward unit Putting Eq.(15) into Eq.(14), we have
normal to the spherical surface S1 and S2 is denoted by DK ∂
ZZ ZZ
n. Let τ (t) denotes the mass system of fluid enclosed in = ρφndS + ρu(u · n)dS
Dt ∂t S2 S
the volume between the surface S1 and the surface S2 at
D
ZZ
time t. − ρφndS. (16)
Let FQ denotes the hydrodynamic force exerted on the Dt S1
spherical source by the mass system τ . Then according
Now, let us calculate F2 . According to Lagrange–
to Newton’s third law, a reacting force of the force FQ
Cauchy integral (see, for instance, [29, 30, 31, 33, 34]),
must act on the the fluid enclosed in the mass system τ .
we have
Let F1 = −FQ denotes this reacting force acted on the
mass system τ by the spherical source through the surface ∂φ (∇φ)2 p
S1 . Let F2 denotes the hydrodynamic force exerted on + + = f (t), (17)
∂t 2 ρ
the mass system τ due to the pressure distribution on
the surface S2 . Let K denotes momentum of the mass where f (t) is an arbitrary function of time t. Since the
system τ . velocity u of the fluid at the infinity is approaching to
As an application of Newton’s second law of motion to zero, and noticing (6), φ(t) must be of the following form
the mass system τ ,we have ∞
X Bl (t)
DK φ(r, θ, t) = Pl (cos θ), (18)
= F1 + F2 = −FQ + F2 , (10) rl+1
Dt l=0

3
where Bl (t), l ≥ 0 are functions of time t. Thus, we have Now let us calculate the two terms in Eq.(28) respec-
the following estimations at the infinity of the velocity tively. Firstly, let us calculate the integral I1 in Eq.(27).
field Since the velocity field induced by the spherical source
with strength Q is Eq.(2), then according to the superpo-
    sition principle of velocity field of ideal fluids, the velocity
1 ∂φ 1
φ=O , =O , r → ∞, (19) u on the surface S1 is
r ∂t r
Q
u= n + u0 , (29)
where ϕ(x) = O(ψ(x)), x → a stands for limx→a | ϕ(x) | 4πa2
/ψ(x) = k, (0 ≤ k < +∞). where n denotes the unit vector directed outward.
Applying (17) at the infinity and using (19), we have Since the velocity field u is irrotational, we have
| u |→ 0, ∂φ/∂t → 0 and p = p∞ , where p∞ is a constant.
Thus, f (t) = p∞ /ρ. Therefore, according to (17), we Q
φ=− + φ0 , (30)
have 4πa
where φ0 is the velocity potential respect to u0 , i.e., u0 =
∂φ ρ(u · u)
p = p∞ − ρ − . (20) ∇φ0 .
∂t 2 Since the density ρ is homogeneous, we have
Using (11) and (20), we have ∂ρ
= 0. (31)
ZZ
∂φ
ZZ
ρ(u · u)n ∂t
F2 = ρ ndS + dS. (21) Therefore, using Eq.(31), we have
S2 ∂t S2 2
∂φ
ZZ
Now, putting (16) and (21) into (10), we have I1 = ρ ndS. (32)
S1 ∂t
ZZ  
1
FQ = ρ(u · u)n − ρu(u · n) dS Suppose that ∂Q/∂t = 0. Then, using Eq.(30), we
S2 2 have
D
ZZ
+ ρφndS. (22) ∂φ ∂φ0 1 ∂Q ∂φ0
Dt S1 = − = . (33)
∂t ∂t 4πa ∂t ∂t
For convenience, let us introduce the following defini- Using Eq.(33) and Ostrogradsky–Gauss theorem,
tion Eq.(32) becomes

ZZ   ZZ
1
F= ρ(u · u)n − ρu(u · n) dS. (23) I1 = ρφ0 ndS
S2 2 ∂t S1

ZZZ
Since the radius R of the spherical surface S2 is arbitrary, = ρ∇φ0 dV
∂t V
we may let R to be large enough. Now, making use of ZZZ 1
the result (5.13) in , we have ∂
= ρu0 dV. (34)
∂t V1
F = 0. (24)
We speculate that the radius a of the spherical source
Therefore, using (24), (22) becomes may be so small that the velocity u0 at any point of the
spherical surface may be treated as a constant. Thus,
D
ZZ
Eq.(34) becomes
FQ = ρφndS. (25)
Dt S1
∂(ρu0 )
ZZZ
I1 = dV
Applying Lemma 2, (25) becomes ∂t V1
∂(ρu0 ) 4πa3

ZZ ZZ
=
FQ = ρφndS + ρu(u · n)dS. (26) ∂t 3
∂t S1 S1 4πρa3 ∂u0
= . (35)
For convenience, let us introduce the following defini- 3 ∂t
tions Now let us calculate the integral I2 in Eq.(27).

ZZ ZZ Noticing Eq.(29), we have
I1 = ρφndS, I2 = ρu(u · n)dS. (27)
∂t S1 Q2
ZZ 
S1 Q
I2 = ρ 2 a4
n+ u
2 0
S1 16π 4πa
Thus, Eq.(26) becomes 
Q
+ (u0 · n)n + (u0 · n)u0 dS. (36)
FQ = I1 + I2 . (28) 4πa2

4
For convenience, let us introduce the following defini- at the center of the spherical source. Then Eq.(44) can
tions be obtained following the same procedures in the proof
of Theorem 3. 
ρQ2
ZZ
J1 = ndS, Applying Theorem 4 to the situation that a spherical
2 4
S116π a source or spherical sink is exposed to the velocity field of
ρQ
ZZ
another spherical source or sink, we have
J2 = u dS,
2 0
S14πa
Corollary 5 Suppose the presuppositions (1),(2),(3),(4)
ρQ
ZZ
J3 = (u0 · n)ndS, and (5) in Theorem 3 are valid and a spherical source or
2
S14πa spherical sink with strength Q2 is exposed to the veloc-
ZZ
ity field of another static spherical source or spherical
J4 = (u0 · n)u0 dS. (37)
S1 sink with strength Q1 , then the force F21 exerted on the
spherical source or spherical sink with strength Q2 by the
Thus, Eq.(36) becomes velocity field of the spherical source or spherical sink with
strength Q1 is
I2 = J1 + J2 + J3 + J4 . (38)
4πρa32 ∂
   
4 Q1 Q1
Suppose that the radius a of the spherical source may F21 = ρQ2 r̂21 − vs + r̂21 − vs ,
3 4πr2 3 ∂t 4πr2
be so small that the velocity u0 at any point of the spher- (45)
ical surface S1 may be treated as a constant. Therefore, where r̂21 denotes the unit vector directed outward along
the four integral terms in Eq.(38) turns out to be the line from the spherical source or spherical sink with
strength Q1 to the spherical source or spherical sink with
J1 = 0, (39) strength Q2 , a2 is the radius of the spherical source or the
J2 = ρQu0 , (40) spherical sink with strength Q2 , r is the distance between
1 the two bodies, v2 is the moving velocity of the spherical
J3 = ρQu0 , (41)
3 source or spherical sink with strength Q2 .
J4 = 0. (42)
If the spherical source with strength Q2 is static in the
Therefore, using Eq.(39-42), we have aether, then Eq.(45) reduces to
4πρa3 ∂
 
4 ρQ1 Q2 Q1
I2 = ρQu0 . (43) F21 = r̂21 + r̂21 . (46)
3 3πr2 3 ∂t 4πr2

## Putting Eq.(35) and Eq.(43) into Eq.(28), we arrive at

Eq.(9). This completes the proof.  IV. A SPHERICAL SOURCE AND SPHERICAL
Theorem 3 only considers the situation that the spheri- SINK MODEL OF ELECTRIC CHARGES
cal sources or spherical sinks are at rest in fluids. Now let
us consider the case that the spherical sources or spheri- The purpose of this section is to establish a spherical
cal sinks are moving in fluid. source and spherical sink model of electric charges.
It is an old idea that the universe may be filled with a
Theorem 4 Suppose the presuppositions (1),(2),(3),(4) kind of continuously distributed material which may be
and (5) in Theorem 3 are valid and a spherical source or called aether (refer to, for instance, ).
a spherical sink is moving in the fluid with a velocity vs , In order to compare fluid motion with electric fields,
then there is a force Maxwell introduced an analogy between sources or
sinks and electric charges . Recently, we derive the
4 4πρa3 ∂ Maxwell’s equations in vacuum by methods of contin-
FQ = ρQ(uf − vs ) + (uf − vs ) (44)
3 3 ∂t uum mechanics based on a continuum mechanical model
is exerted on the spherical source or the spherical sink of vacuum and a point source and sink model of electric
by the fluid, where ρ is the density of the fluid, Q is the charges .
strength of the spherical source or the spherical sink, a In 1892, Lorentz established an electromagnetic
is the radius of the spherical source or the spherical sink, theory in order to derive the Fresnel convection coeffi-
uf is the velocity of the fluid at the location of the source cient. There are only two types of entities in Lorentz’s
induced by all means other than the spherical source itself. theory: movable electrons and a stagnant aether. To
avoid singularities, the electrons were not designed to be
Proof. The velocity of the fluid relative to the spher- singularities as Larmor’s electrons in the aether field, but
ical source at the location of the spherical source is were extremely small hard spheres with a finite radius.
uf − vs . Let us select the coordinates that is attached to Inspired by Maxwell  and Lorentz, we speculate
the spherical source and set the origin of the coordinates that electric charges may not be singularities, but may be

5
extremely small hard spherical sources or spherical sinks V. DERIVATION OF COULOMB’S LAW OF
with finite radii. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN STATIC ELECTRIC
In , we introduced a hypothesis that the constitu- CHARGES IN VACUUM
tive relation of the aether satisfies
deij 1 1 dsij The purpose of this section is to derive Coulomb’s law
= sij + , (47) of interactions between static electric charges in vacuum.
dt 2η 2G dt
It is known that the motion of an incompressible
where sij is the stress deviator, eij is the strain deviator,
Newtonian-fluid is governed by the Navier–Stokes equa-
G is the shear modulus, η is the dynamic viscocity.
tions (refer to, for instance, [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34]),
Now let us introduce the following definition of
Maxwelllian relaxation time τ
 
∂u
η ρ + (u · ∇)u = −∇p − η∇2 u, (53)
τ= . (48) ∂t
G
Therefore, using Eq.(48), Eq.(47) becomes where u is the velocity field of the fluid, p is the pressure
field, ρ is the density field, η is the dynamic viscocity
sij dsij deij coefficient, t is time.
+ = 2G . (49)
τ dt dt The definition of Reynolds number Re of a fluid field
Let T0 be the characteristic time of a observer of an is
electric charge. We may suppose that the observer’s time ρ0 U 0 L 0
scale T0 is very large compares to the the Maxwelllian re- Re = , (54)
η0
laxation time τ . So the Maxwelllian relaxation time τ is
a relatively a small number and the stress deviator sij where ρ0 is the characteristic density, U0 is the charac-
changes very slowly. Thus, the second term in the left of teristic velocity, L0 is the characteristic length, η0 is the
Eq.(49) may be neglected. Therefore, the observer con- characteristic dynamic viscocity coefficient.
cludes that the aether behaves like the Newtonian-fluid.
According to this observer, the constitutive relation of Hypothesis 7 We speculate that the characteristic ve-
the aether may be written as locity U0 of an electric charge is so high compares to
the characteristic dynamic viscocity coefficient η0 of the
deij
sij = 2η . (50) aether that the Reynolds number Re of the fluid field is
dt a large number.
We see that Eq.(50) is the constitutive relation of a
Newtonian-fluid. Therefore, the observer concludes that Under this hypothesis, we may treat the aether as an
the aether behaves as a Newtonian-fluid under his time inviscid incompressible fluid when we study the motion
scale. of electric charges. Therefore, according to Hypothesis 7,
Now let us introduce the following hypothesis. the motion of the aether is governed by the Euler equa-
tions (refer to, for instance, [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34]),
Hypothesis 6 Suppose all the electric charges in the
universe are small hard spherical sources or spherical ∂u 1
sinks with finite radii in the aether. We define a spherical + (u · ∇)u = − ∇p. (55)
∂t ρ
source as a negative electric charge. We define a spheri-
cal sink as a positive electric charge. The electric charge Now based on Hypothesis 6 and Hypothesis 7, we can
quantity of an electric charge is defined as make use of Theorem 3 and Theorem 4 to study the mo-
tions of electric charges.
qe = −kQ ρQ, (51)
Theorem 8 Suppose a static electric charge with an
where ρ is the density of the aether, kQ is a positive
electric charge quantity q2 is exposed to the electric field
dimensionless constant, Q is called the strength of the
of another static electric charge with an electric charge
spherical source or spherical sink.
quantity q1 , then the force F21 exerted on the electric
A calculation shows that the mass m of a electric charge with electric charge quantity q2 by the electric field
charge is changing with time as of the electric charge with electric charge quantity q1 is
dm qe 4 1 q1 q2
= −ρQ = , (52) F21 = r̂21
dt kQ 3kE kQ 4πǫ0 4πr2
where qe is the electric charge quantity of the electric 4πa32 ∂  q1 
charge. − r̂21 , (56)
3kQ ∂t 4πr2
We may introduce a hypothesis that the masses of elec-
tric charges are changing so slowly relative to the time where r̂21 denotes the unit vector directed outward along
scaler of human beings that they can be treated as con- the line from the electric charge with electric charge quan-
stants approximately. tity q1 to the electric charge with electric charge quantity

6
q2 , a2 is the radius of the electric charge with electric Theorem 11 Suppose a static electric charge with an
charge quantity q2 , r is the distance between the two elec- electric charge quantity q is exposed to an electric field
tric charges, kQ and kE are two positive dimensionless E of the aether, then the force F exerted on the electric
constants. charge by the electric field E is

## Proof. From Hypothesis 6, we have 4πa3 ǫ0 ∂E

F = qE − , (63)
q1 q2 3kQ ∂t
Q1 = − , Q2 = − , (57)
kQ ρ kQ ρ where q is the electric charge quantity of the electric
where Q1 and Q2 are the strengthes of the electric charges charge, a is the radius of the electric charge, ǫ0 is the
respectively. From a definition in Eq.(65) in , we have dielectric constant of vacuum, kQ is a positive dimen-
sionless constant, E is the electric field at the location of
kQ ρ the electric charge induced by all means other than the
ǫ0 = , (58)
kE electric charge itself.
where ǫ0 is the dielectric constant of vacuum. Putting Proof. From Hypothesis 6, we have
Eq.(57) and Eq.(58) into Eq.(46), we get Eq.(56). 
If we ignore the second term in Eq.(56), then we get q
Q=− , (64)
kQ ρ
4 1 q1 q2
F21 = r̂21 . (59) where Q is the strength of the electric charge. Putting
3kE kQ 4πǫ0 4πr2
Eq.(62) and Eq.(64) into Eq.(9) and making use of
Compare Eq.(59) with Eq.(1), it is natural to introduce Eq.(58) and Eq.(60), we get Eq.(63). 
the following hypothesis. If we ignore the second term in Eq.(63), then we get
Hypothesis 9 Suppose we have the following relation F = qE. (65)
4
kE kQ = . (60) We know that the Lorentz’s force law can be written
3 as
Now based on Hypothesis 9, from Eq.(59) we see that
we have arrived at Coulomb’s law (1) of interactions be- F = qE + qve × B, (66)
tween static electric charges in vacuum.
where q is the electric charge quantity of a electric charge,
Theorem 8 only states the force exerted on a static
F is the force exerted on the electric charge, ve is the
electric charge by the electric field of another static elec-
velocity of the electric charge, E and B are the electric
tric charge. We may generalize this result to the case of
field intensity and the magnetic induction respectively at
an static electric charge exposed to any electric field of
the location of the electric charge induced by all means
the aether.
other than the electric charge itself.
In , we introduced the following definition
We see that Eq.(65) is a reduced form of the Lorentz’s
∂u force law (66) for static electric charges in vacuum.
E = −kE , (61)
∂t
where u is the displacement of the visco-elastic aether, VI. SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE OF
∂u
∂t is the velocity field of the aether, E is the electric ELECTRIC FIELD OF STATIC ELECTRIC
field intensity, kE is a positive dimensionless constant. CHARGES
Since the observer of an electric charge concludes that
the aether behaves as a Newtonian-fluid under his time From the definition 10, we see that the electric field
scale, we may define the electric field intensity as the intensity is a linear function of the velocity field of the
velocity field of the aether. Therefore, we may introduce aether. Therefore, the superposition principle of electric
the following definition. fields of static electric charges in vacuum is deduced from
the superposition theorem of the velocity field of fluids.
Definition 10 We define the electric field intensity in
the aether as
VII. CONCLUSION
E = −kE va , (62)

where va is the velocity field of the aether at the location We show that the forces between spherical sources and
of an testing electric charge induced by all means other spherical sinks in ideal fluids coincide with Coulomb’s
than the testing electric charge itself, E is the electric inverse-square-law of interactions between static electric
field intensity, kE is a positive dimensionless constant. charges. It is an old idea that the universe may be filled

7
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