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Dedication

To …

My Country …

My People …

My family …

all My friends…

I
Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their sincere appreciation and


indebtedness to their supervisor Asst. Prof. Ghssan Adnan Abd
for his support, suggestions, cooperation, patient and assistance
during this work. We wish to express our gratitude to the dean of
engineering college for his help and assistance during the period of
research.

Many thanks to the head of department and staff for their help We
would like to thank the staff and our colleagues in the department of
Mechanical Engineering, Our deepest thanks to our father for his
patient and forbearance, a lot of appreciation is expressed to our
mother, brothers for their continuous encouragement.

II
Certification
I hereby certify that this project entitled ” Numerical Investigation Of
Heat Transfer From Micro Channel Heat Sinks By Using
Nano Fluids ” which is been submitted by (Ali Adel Shikahi,

Ali Khalaf Abdulrazaq ,Dua’a Saher Othman). Has been conducted


under my supervision as a partial fulfillment for the requirements for the needed
to award for B.Sc. degree in Mechanical Engineering. In view of the
available recommendations, I forward this project for debate by the examination
committee.

Signature:

Name:

Scientific Degree:

Date:

III
Examination Committee Certification
We certify that we have read the project entitled

”Numerical Investigation Of Heat Transfer From Micro


Channel Heat Sinks By Using Nano Fluids”, and as an

examining committee examined the students ( Ali Adel Shikahi,


Ali Khalaf Abdulrazaq , Dua’a Saher Othman ). in its contents and
what is related to it, and that in our opinion, it meets the standards of project for
the degree of Bachelors of Science in Mechanical engineering.

Signature: Signature:
Name: Name:

Scientific Degree: Scientific Degree:

Date: Date:

(Member) (Member)

Signature:

Name:

Scientific Degree:

Date:

(Chairman)

IV
ABSTRACT

The effect of using Nano fluids on heat transfer and aerodynamics


characteristics in rectangular shaped micro channel heat sink (MCHS) is
numerically investigated for Reynolds number range of (200-1200) and constant
value of heat flux (323.5) ⁄ .

In this study, the MCHS performance using tow type of Nano fluid
( ⁄ ⁄ ) with volume fraction (0.1, 0.2, 0.3) was used as a
coolant is examined. The three-dimensional steady, laminar flow and
Heat transfer governing equations are solved using the computational fluid
dynamics code (FLUENT).

The MCHS performance is evaluated in terms of temperature profile, heat


transfer, pressure drop and Friction factor. The results reveal that both heat
transfer and pressure drop will be increasing with increasing Reynolds number,
while the friction factor of the MCHS is decreased. However, heat transfer from
micro channel heat sink with metal Nano fluids ( ⁄ ) improves
compared with that of a micro channel heat sink with oxide metal Nano fluids
( ⁄ ). Only a slight increase in the pressure drop across the MCHS is
found compared with the pure water-cooled MCHS.

V
Contents

Subjected Page
Dedication I
Acknowledgement II
Certification III
Examination committee certification IV
Abstract V
Contents VI
List of figures VIII
List of table IX
Nomenclature X
Chapter One 1

1-1 Introduction 2

1-2 Conduction heat transfer 2

1-3 Convection heat transfer 3

1-4 Mechanism of forced convection 3

1-5 Nussle number 4

1.6 Reynolds number 4

1.7 Radiation heat transfer 5

Chapter Two 6

2-1 The Coolants 7

2-2 Nano fluid 7

2-3 Applications of Nano fluids 7

2-4 AL2O3 8

2-5 Heat Sink 8

VI
2.6 Active heat sinks 9

2.7 Passive heat sinks 9

2.8 Heat Spreaders 10

2.9 Natural Convection Cooling 10

2.10 Heat Sink for natural convection 10

Chapter Three 11

3-1 Physical Model 12

3.2 Governing equations and boundary conditions 13

Chapter Four 15

4-1 Calculation 16

4-2 Numerical Method 22

Chapter Five 26

5-1 Nu, SF and ∆P with RE Charts 27

5-2 Temperature contour 32

Reference 36

‫الخالصة‬ 37

VII
List of figures
Fig. No. Title Page
Fig (1-1) shows the heat transfer through the wall by conduction 3
Fig (1-2) shows the heat transfer by forced convection 4
Fig (1-3) shows the heat transfer by radiation 5
Fig (2-1) shows the color water when it is mixed with particles of Al2O3 8
Fig (2-2) Schematic of rectangular micro channel heat sink and unit cell 9
Fig (2-3) shows the heat transfer by natural convection 10
Fig (3-1) Schematic of rectangular micro channel heat sink and unit cell 12
Fig (5-1) the relationship between Re and Nu number for pure water 27
the relationship between Re and Nu number for pure water and
Fig (5-2) 27
⁄ for three volume fraction
the relationship between Re and Nu for pure water and Cu for three
Fig(5-3) 28
volume fraction
Fig (5-4) the relationship between Re and SF for pure water 28
the relationship between Re and SF for pure water and ⁄ for
Fig (5-5) 29
three volume fraction
the relationship between Re and SF for pure water and for three
Fig (5-6) 29
volume fraction
Fig (5-7) the relationship between Re and ∆P for pure water 30
the relationship between Re and ∆P for pure water and ⁄ for
Fig (5-8) 30
three volume fraction
the relationship between Re and ∆P for pure water and for three
Fig (5-9) 31
volume fraction
Temperature distribution along micro channel at q = 323.5 and
Fig (5-10) 32
Re= 1200 for water
Temperature distribution along micro channel at q = 323.5 and
Fig (5-11) 34
Re= 1200 for ⁄ when ø (0.1,0.2,0.3)
Temperature distribution along micro channel at q = 323.5 and
Fig (5-12) 35
Re= 1200 for ⁄ when ø (0.1,0.2,0.3)

VIII
List of Table
Table no Title Page
Table (3-1) Dimensions of micro channel 13

Table (3-2) Thermo- physical properties of water and nanoparticles 13

Table (4-1) Thermo-physical properties of Nano fluid (AL2O3) Shown below 16

Table (4-2) Thermo-physical properties of Nano fluid (Cu) Shown below 17

Table (4-3) Velocity of water flow in each Re-no Shown below 18

Velocity of Nano fluid (AL2O3) flow in each volume Shown below


Table (4-4) 18
fraction
Table (4-5) Velocity of Nano fluid (Cu) flow in each volume Shown below 19

Table (4-6) Nu-no of water flow in each Re-no Shown below 20

Table (4-7) NU-no of Nano fluid (AL2O3) in each volume fraction Shown below 20

Table (4-8) Nu-no of Nano fluid (cu) in each volume fraction Shown below 21

Table (4-9) ∆P of water flow in each Re-no Shown below 22

Table (4-10) ∆P of Nano fluid (AL2O3) in each volume fraction Shown below 23

Table (4-11) ∆P of Nano fluid (cu) in each volume fraction Shown below 23

Table (4-12) SF coefficient of water flow in each Re-no Shown below 24

Table (4-13) SF coefficient of Nano fluid (cu) in each volume fraction Shown below 24

SF coefficient of Nano fluid (AL2O3) in each volume fraction Shown


Table (4-14) 25
below
Table (4-15) SF coefficient of Nano fluid (cu) in each volume fraction Shown below 25

IX
NMECLATURE
Symbol Definition SI Unit
Dh hydraulic diameter M
k Thermal conductivity W/m K
q Heat flux W/
T temperature K
Reynolds number ‫ــــــــــ‬
ø Volume fraction ‫ــــــــــ‬
μ dynamic viscosity Pa/s
friction factor ‫ــــــــــ‬

Nano fluid ‫ــــــــــ‬

specific heat ⁄

ch channel ‫ــــــــــ‬
L channel length μ
H height of micro-channel μ

W Width of micro-channel μ

Nu Nussle number ‫ــــــــــ‬


pressure drop Pa
H Convection W/
Pr Prandtl Number ‫ــــــــــ‬