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You are on page 1of 42

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu BOZTEPE

Ege University, Dept. of E&E

Outline of lecture

Introduction

Power and energy

EE328 POWER ELECTRONICS

– Instantaneous power

– Energy

– Average power

Inductors and capacitors

Energy recovery

Effective values: RMS

Apparent power and power factor

Power computations for sinusoidal AC circuits

Power computations for non-sinusoidal periodic

waveforms

– Fourier series

– Non-linear source and linear load

– Linear source and non-linear load

1

Introduction

Power computations are essential in analyzing and designing power

electronics circuits.

The power calculation methods differ according to the current and

voltage waveforms

– DC

– sinusoidal voltages and currents

– non-sinusoidal voltages and/or currents

Various definitions of power

– Instantaneous power

– Average power

– Active power

– Reactive power

– Apparent power

– Complex power

– and so on.

AC & DC quantities

If the value of any electrical quantity (voltage, current etc.) doesn’t

change with respect to time, it is a DC quantity.

quantity.

2

Instantaneous power

The power is defined as the product of current and voltage

or any circuit.

The instantaneous power is the value

of power p(t) at any instant of time.

The instantaneous power is generally

a time-varying quantity.

The power has negative or positive

value with respect to the time.

The sign of the power indicates its

direction of flow.

Sign conventions

Passive sign convention (Used frequently for passive components)

At any instant of time;

– if p(t)>0, it indicates the device is absorbing power

– if p(t)<0, it indicates the device is supplying power

At any instant of time;

– if p(t)<0, it indicates the device is absorbing power

– if p(t)>0, it indicates the device is supplying power

reference direction of current i(t).

3

Exercise 1

Calculate the power

of all components

in the circuit.

Energy

Energy, or work, is the integral of instantaneous power.

Observing the passive sign convention, the energy absorbed by a

component over the time interval from t1 to t2 is

where v(t) is in volts, i(t) is in amperes, power has units of watts and

energy has units of joule.

4

Average Power

Periodic voltage and

current functions produce

a periodic instantaneous

power function.

Average power is the time average of p(t) over one or more periods.

Exercise 2

Voltage and current, consistent with the passive sign convention, for

a device are shown below.

b) Determine the energy absorbed by the device in one period.

c) Determine the average power absorbed by the device.

5

Solution (1)

a) Instantaneous voltage¤t

Instantaneous power

Solution (2)

b) The energy absorbed by the device can be found by integration of

instantanous power p(t) over the period.

or alternatively;

6

DC voltage source

The average power absorbed by a dc voltage source is

the product of the voltage Vdc and the average current Iavg .

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 13

Exercise 3

Assume that the voltage and current waveforms of a DC voltage

source is;

7

Resistor

It doesn’t cause a phase difference between voltage and current.

A dissipative device in electric circuits which obeys Ohm’s law,

a resistor is

8

Inductors and capacitors

Inductors and capacitors have some particular characteristics that

are important in power electronics applications.

in magnetic field in electric field

If the inductor current is periodic, the stored energy at the end of one

period is the same as at the beginning.

by an inductor is zero for steady-state periodic operation.

be absorbed during part of the period and returned to the circuit

during another part of the period.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 18

9

P, V and I for an inductor

From the voltage-current relationship for the inductor

inductor is zero.

conclusion which is used

in the analysis of

switching converters

10

Inductor packages

If the capacitor voltage is periodic, the stored energy is the same at

the end of a period as at the beginning.

steady-state periodic operation.

be absorbed during part of the period and returned to the circuit

during another part of the period.

11

P, V and I for a capacitor

From the voltage-current relationship for the capacitor,

through a capacitor is zero.

conclusion which is used in the

analysis of switching converters

12

Capacitor types

Capacitor packages

13

Exercise 4 - Power and Voltage for an Inductor

The current in a 5-mH inductor is the periodic triangular wave as

shown below.

the inductor.

Solution (1)

The current-voltage relationship

of an inductor is

voltage across the inductor can

be found as shown in the figure

on the right.

the figure that the average

inductor voltage is zero

14

Solution (2)

The instantaneous power in the

inductor is

absorbing power,

when p(t) is negative, the inductor is

supplying power.

Energy recovery

Inductors and capacitors must be energized and de-energized in

several applications of power electronics.

For a periodic operations, the net energy in inductors and capacitors

must be zero in steady-state condition, otherwise the current or

voltage ramps up, and can easily destroy the sensitive devices.

For example, a fuel injector solenoid in an automobile is energized

for a certain time interval by a transistor switch.

During this time interval, energy is stored

in the solenoid’s inductance.

The circuit must be designed to remove

the stored energy in the inductor while

preventing damage to

the transistor

when it is turned off.

15

Solenoid switching

The solenoid can be modelled as an inductor. The resistance

associated with the inductor is assumed to be negligible

Transistor switch and diode are assumed to be ideal.

The diode-resistor path provides a means of opening the switch and

removing the stored energy in the inductor when the transistor turns

off.

Without the

diode-resistor path,

the transistor could

be destroyed

when it is turned off

Inductor voltage is equal to the supply voltage Vcc. Therefore the

current can be calculated as follows,

the inductor current

thus increase linearly Transistor

when the transistor is on. is ON

16

Circuit operation: t1<t<T

This is a simple RL circuit, so that the inductor current can be

calculated as follows

Time constant

current is

and resistor is decaying

exponential with

time constant L/R.

The switch current is zero

The current waveform supplied by the DC source is

17

Average resistor power (Method 1)

The average power absorbed by the resistor could be determined by

integrating an expression for instantaneous resistor power, but an

examination of the circuit reveals an easier way.

The average power absorbed

by the inductor is zero

The power absorbed by

the ideal transistor and

diode are both zero.

Therefore, all power

supplied by the source

must be absorbed

by the resistor

Another way to approach the problem is to determine the peak

energy stored in the inductor,

while the transistor switch is open.

Power absorbed by the resistor can be determined from

18

Efficiency considerations

All the energy stored in the inductor is dissipated in the resistor, and

converted to heat.

Therefore, the energy efﬁciency is very low for resistive energy

recovery circuits.

The circuit efficiency can be improved if stored energy in the

inductance can be transferred back to the source rather than

dissipating in resistor.

The circuit below can be

used for this purpose

Two transistor switches

are turned on

and off

simultaneously.

Inductor voltage is equal to the supply voltage Vcc. Therefore the

current can be calculated as follows,

the inductor current

ON

thus increase linearly

when the transistors are on.

19

Circuit operation: t1<t<2t1

Inductor voltage is vL(t)= –Vcc ,then the current can be found as,

then the source is absorbing

power.

Average source current is zero,

resulting in an average

source power of zero.

No energy losses!!!

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 39

Exercise 5

In the following circuits Vcc=90 V, L=200 mH, R=20, t1=10 ms,

and T=100 ms. Determine,

a) the peak current and peak energy storage in the inductor

(Ans. 4.5A, 2.025J)

b) the average power absorbed by the resistor,

(Ans. 20.25W)

c) the peak and average

power supplied by the source.

(Ans. 405W, 20.25W)

d) Compare the results with

what would happen if

the inductor were energized

using lossless two

transistor circuit.

20

Effective value: RMS

The effective value of a periodic voltage waveform is based on the

average power delivered to a resistor.

For a periodic voltage across a resistor, effective voltage is deﬁned

as the voltage that is as effective as the dc voltage in supplying

average power.

Both voltages Veff and Vdc produce same average power on the

load.

However, Veff is a quantity which corresponds to the effective value

of the ac source v(t)

Average power on the resistor is

follows

RMS: Root-Mean-Square

21

Effective value: RMS

Similarly, the RMS current is developed from P=I2rmsR

as,

with time.

Thus, the AC circuits can be analyzed as like DC circuits

by using RMS values of voltages and currents in the

circuits.

Additionally, ratings of devices such as transformers are

often speciﬁed in terms of RMS voltage and current.

Exercise 6

Determine the rms value of the periodic pulse waveform that has a

duty ratio of D as shown below.

22

Exercise 7

Determine the RMS Value of a sinusoidal voltage of v(t)=Vm sin(wt)

rectified sinewave

v(t)=|Vm sin(wt)| is same

Exercise 8

Determine the RMS Value of a half-wave rectified sinewave of

The square of the function has one-half the area of full wave,

23

Exercise 9

Neutral Conductor Current in a Three-Phase System

An ofﬁce complex is supplied from a three-phase four-wire voltage

source

The load is highly nonlinear as a result of the rectiﬁers in the power

supplies of the equipment,

Exercise 9 (cont.)

The currents in each of

the three phases has

very distorted waveform.

The neutral current is the

sum of the phase

currents.

Due to the non-linear

loads, a certain current

flows through the neutral

conductor

If the rms current in

each phase conductor

is known to be 20 A,

determine the rms

current in the neutral

conductor

24

Exercise 9 (cont.)

Noting by inspection that the area of the square of the current

function in the neutral in, is 3 times that of each of the phases ia

larger than the phase currents for this

situation.

supplying highly nonlinear loads

should have a neutral conductor

capable of carrying times as

much current as the line conductor

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 49

The term containing the product v1v2 is zero if the functions v1 and v2

are orthogonal.

v1 and v2 are orthogonal if they are sinusoids of different

frequencies, then

25

RMS of the sum of two periodic voltage (cont.)

Noting that

orthogonal, the rms value is

Note that the equation above can be applied to previous exercise to obtain the

rms value of the neutral current.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 51

Exercise 10

Determine the effective (rms) value of

26

Solution of

The rms value of a single sinusoid is Vm/2

The rms value of a dc voltage equals to its dc value.

The sinusoids have different frequencies, then they are orthogonal

All the terms are orthogonal, therefore the the rms value is,

Solution of

The sinusoids have same frequencies, then they are not orthogonal

27

Exercise 11

Find the RMS Value of Triangular Waveforms at below

supply circuits.

The current is expressed as

28

Solution for offset triangular waveform

It is assumed that the waveform

has two parts;

– A dc offset

– A triangular waveform

DC signal and triangular waveform

are orthogonal

For any element

29

Power computations for sinusoidal ac circuits

Average power is

In the steady state, no net power is absorbed by an inductor or a

capacitor.

Reactive power, Q, represents the energy exchange between the

source and reactive part of the load, such as inductive and

capacitive loads.

Unit of Q is VAR

with power

is the product of rms voltage and rms current magnitudes and is

often used in specifying the rating of power equipment such as

transformers. Unit of S is VA

30

Power triangle

Power factor of a load is deﬁned as the ratio of average power

to apparent power

The power factor is also equal to the cosine of the power angle

pf=cos

Power of Ayran

Reactive

power

Apparent power

power

Active

31

Power computations for nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms

that are periodic but not sinusoidal.

The Fourier series can be used to describe nonsinusoidal periodic

waveforms in terms of a series of sinusoids.

The Fourier series for a periodic function f(t) can be expressed in

trigonometric form as

Sines and cosines of the same frequency can be combined into one

sinusoid, resulting in an alternative expression for a Fourier series:

Or alternatively

represents a dc voltage or current in electrical applications.

32

Alternative expression to Fourier series

frequency.

Coefﬁcients C2, C3, . . . Cn are the amplitudes of the harmonics that

have frequencies 2w0, 3w0, . . . nw0

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier_series

33

Some examples for Fourier series

Square wave

Ramp signal

If periodic voltage and current waveforms represented by the Fourier

series as

The average of

voltage and current

products of different

frequencies is zero.

Note that total average power is the sum of the powers at the

frequencies in the Fourier series.

EE328 Power Electronics, Dr. Mutlu Boztepe, Ege University, 2016 68

34

Non-sinusoidal Source and Linear Load

If a non-sinusoidal periodic voltage is applied to a linear load the

power absorbed by the load can be determined by using

superposition.

A non-sinusoidal periodic voltage is equivalent to the series

combination of the Fourier series voltages, as illustrated below.

The current in the load can be determined using superposition.

same frequency.

Exercise 12

A non-sinusoidal voltage source has a fourier series of

inductor in series.

Determine the power absorbed by the load.

35

Solution

The dc term is

phasor analysis:

Solution (cont.)

The power at each frequency in the Fourier series can be

determined as follows,

the power absorbed by the load can be calculated using rms current

as follows

36

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

If a sinusoidal voltage source is applied to a nonlinear load, the

current waveform will not be sinusoidal but can be represented as a

Fourier series.

Voltage source is linear,

by the Fourier series

then average power absorbed by the load (or supplied by the

source) is computed as

frequency of the applied voltage!!!

37

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

The power factor of the load

Note that the power factor term commonly used in linear circuits is

called the displacement power factor.

The ratio of the rms value of the fundamental frequency to the total

rms value is the distortion factor (DF)

the non-sinusoidal property of the current. Power factor is also

expressed as

Power Distortion

factor Displacement factor

factor

38

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

Total harmonic distortion (THD) is another term used to quantify the

non-sinusoidal property of a waveform.

THD is the ratio of the rms value of all the non-fundamental

frequency terms to the rms value of the fundamental frequency term

Since only non-zero term for reactive power is at the frequency of

voltage, the reactive power can be expressed as follows,

must include a term to account for the current at frequencies which

are different from the voltage frequency.

The term distortion volt-amps D is traditionally used in the

computation of S

where

39

Sinusoidal Source and Nonlinear Load

Other terms that are sometimes used for non-sinusoidal current (or

voltages) are form factor and crest factor.

Exercise 13

A sinusoidal voltage source of v(t)=100 cos(377t) V is applied to a

nonlinear load, resulting in a non-sinusoidal current which is

expressed in Fourier series form as

Determine,

a) The power absorbed by the load

b) The power factor of the load

c) The distortion factor of the

load current

d) The total harmonic distortion

of the load current

40

Numerical calculation

100

50

Voltage [V]

-50

-100

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 2000

time [s]

30 1500

20

Power [W]

1000

Current [A]

10

500

0

0

-10

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

time [s] -500

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05

time [s]

Solution

a) The power absorbed by the load is determined by computing the

power absorbed at each frequency in the Fourier series

41

Solution

c) The distortion factor is computed as

42

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