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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

PC1

MODULAR LEVEL
PROCESS CONTROL

OBJECTIVES

• To demonstrate the characteristics and loop tuning procedures of Single Level


Control Loop via Open Loop Ziegler & Nichols Method.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

PROCESS CONTROL

A fundamental component of any industrial process control system is the feedback control
loop. It consists of the process, the measurement, the controller, and the final control element,
as shown in Figure 1. If all these elements are interconnected, that is, if information can be
passed continuously around the loop, this is closed-loop control and automatic feedback
generally exists.

Figure 1: A Closed Loop Control Loop

This information flow provides the means for control, which allows efficient utilization of raw
materials and energy, if a loop is interrupted for any reason, such as when the controller is
placed on manual control, as seen in Figure 2, it is considered to be open-loop control and
automatic control no longer exists.

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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

Figure 2: An Open Control Loop

The concept of automatic feedback control is not new. The first such industrial application
occurred in 1774 when James Watt used a fly-ball governor to control the speed of his steam
engine. Understanding of automatic feedback control loops developed slowly at first.
Pneumatic transmission systems did not become common until the 1940s, but past few
decades have seen extensive study and development in the theory and application of those
concepts.

Automatic feedback control is not used universally. In Figure 2, parts of the system are
disconnected, creating open-loop control. Open-loop control does not feed information from
the process back to the controller. A familiar example is the domestic washing machine,
which may be programmed to control a series of operations necessary to wash a load of
clothing, it runs through its cycle and, since no information is fed back to the control device
regarding the condition of the wash, it shuts down. Only a human agent inspection the load,
and finding it unsatisfactory, can institute corrective action. Open-loop control is seldom
encountered in industrial processes and will be given no further consideration.

As stated before, automatic control requires some sort of signal system to close the loop and
provide the means for information flow. This means that the controller must be able to move
the valve, the valve must be able to affect the measurement, and the measurement signal must
be reported to the controller. Without this feedback, you do not have automatic control.

The modular process control SE 270 is connected to real time simulators which are SCADA,
LABVIEW and MATLAB. In order to select an available simulator at different PC, a pointer
in marshalling panel must be switched on, as shown in Figure 3.

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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

2.1 Level Process Control

a. General Start Up Procedure


1. Select the level control in panel. Ensure that all valves which can be shown in
Figure 4, are set according to Initial Valve Positions outlined as follows:-

Open Close Partially


open
HV 207 HV 201 HV 202
HV 204 HV 203
HV 205
HV 206

2. Fill in Sump Tank (T-201) with water to 90% full.


3. Switch on the control panel power supply.
4. Turn on P-201 and manually regulate HV 202 and HV 203 such that 90% of
water by-pass back to sump tank and the pressure (PI 201) not exceed to 10psi.

Warning: Extra care should be taken to ensure water level doesn’t overflow or empty.
Failure of doing so may result circulating pump running dry.
b. General Shut Down Procedure

1. Switch off P-201.


2. Open HV 201 to drain all the water.
3. Switch off the control panel power supply.

2.2 Open Loop Single Level PID Control Loop Tuning (Ziegler & Nichols Method)

Objective: To demonstrate the characteristics and loop tuning procedures of Single


Level Control Loop via Open Loop Ziegler & Nichols Method

Procedure:

1. Put control loop LIC-201 into “Manual Mode” and adjust the control loop
output “MV” to 30%, wait until PV value is stabilized.
2. Make a step change by increasing the LIC-201 output MV to 50%, wait until
PV value is constant.
3. Open up “Trend History Window”, measure the dead time, time taken for step
change to stabilize, and total change in PV.
4. Referring to the table below, calculate for proportional, integral and derivative
values:-

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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

Controller Proportional Integral Time Derivative Time


Gain (PB) (TI) (TD)
PID PB = 83.3 RR Td TI = 2 Td TD = 0.5 Td

5. Put LIC-201 into “Manual Mode”, and manually adjust the set point to 50%.
6. Manually adjust the output MV gradually so that the level measurement
matches the set point of 50%.
7. Input the calculated PID values into the controller and put the LIC-201 into
“Auto Mode”. Simulate a set point change by increasing the set point to 75%.
Observe the response of the controlled and manipulated variables.
8. Adjust (increase) the PB until the desired degree of damping is achieved.
9. Put the LIC-201 into “Manual Mode”, and manually adjust the set point to
50%.
10. Manually adjust the output MV gradually so that the level measurement
matches the set point of 50%. Input the tuned PID values into the controller
and put the LIC-201 into “Auto Mode”.
11. Simulate a load change by fully open HV 206 for 5 seconds and restore it back
to its original position. Observe the response of the controlled and manipulated
variables.
12. Once the measurement stabilizes, put the LIC-201 back into “Manual Mode”.
13. Manually adjust the LIC-201 output MV gradually so that the level
measurement matches the set point of 50%.
14. Put the LIC-201 into “Auto Mode”.
15. Simulate a set point change by increasing the set point SV to 75%. Observe
and record the response of the controlled and manipulated variables.

REFERENCES

1. Introduction to Process Control, Foxboro, USA.


2. Rys, R.A. August 20, 1984. Advanced Control Methods, Chemical
Engineering. pp 49.

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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

Figure 3:P&I Diagram of Modular Process Control Training System SE 270

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EKC 493 Chemical Engineering Laboratory III

Figure 4:P&I Diagram of Modular Level Control Training System SE 270