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Academic Health Center (AHC) & Academic Health System (AHS)

Conceptual framework and Islamic perspectives

Ieva B. Akbar*
*Dean, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung
**Department of Physiology Universitas Islam Bandung
E-mail: ieva.b.akbar@gmail.com

Abstract

Disruption era generates many impact into healthcare service delivery and medical education in
the world. Many abrupt changes have to be anticipated rapidly by the healthcare stakeholders in
collaborative manner. The future challenges for the healthcare services are: (1) the changing of
business sector and market forces; (2) consumer empowerment; (3) the dynamic changes of the
disease patterns, (4) the era of globalization; (5) uncertain pace of change (disruption), (6) rapid
changes in politics and policies; (7) population demographics; (8) innovations in science and
technology; and (9) societal needs and values.

Academic Health Center (AHC) is an integration of education, research, patient care, and
population health in a highly synergistic manner. AHC give a mutual benefit for the medical school
and the healthcare services provider as called as "Virtuous Cycle“ which means the clinical and
academic missions support each other and make each other better.

A sustained AHC could be developed into Academic Health System (AHS). AHS can be defined
as organizational network that consist of medical and health faculties, teaching hospitals, research
institutes, private sectors, and/or local government, that become part of health-education system
integration to provide best health outcomes to society through health education and translational
research that will impact to the continuous quality improvement for healthcare.

There are two prototypical models of the organizational structure of AHCs: (1) the fully integrated
model, in which academic, clinical, and research functions report to one person and one board of
directors; and (2) the split/splintered model, in which the academic and clinical/health system
operations are managed by two or more individuals reporting to different governing boards.

In Islamic perspectives of AHC and AHS, all Muslims agreed that Islamic values are important
point that must be present in delivering healthcare services.In a Muslim's majority countries, the
context of bioethics needs to get some change to the values and belief system adopted by patients
who are Muslims. Thus we need to foster the concept of Islamic Academic Health Center as a
crucial factor on the Islamization of Healthcare. The Islamic values must be present as the core of
the Islamic curricula of the medical education and the spirit of the Hospital services settings.

There are more than 100 hospitals Islam in Indonesia, which is under the umbrella of the
organization “Majelis Upaya Kesehatan Islam Indonesia (Mukisi)” that seeks to carry the Islamic
health services in hospitals through implementing the Sharia Certification Hospital. There are also
exist 30 Islamic Medical Faculty among 85 Faculty of Medicine in Indonesia. All the Islamic
Medical School are incorporated into the organization called FOKI (Islamic Medical Forum)
which is a forum for coordination, knowledge, and sharing experience, etc. besides Mukisi and
FOKI, there is PROKAMI/IMANI as the umbrella for the Muslims Healthcare workforce in
Indonesia. All of the Organization (MUKISI, FOKI, and IMANI) must collaborate tightness to
create the Islamic Academic Health Center as the basis of an Islamic Healthcare System in the
future which adopt the concept of Academic Health System in an Islamic Manner.
Keywords: Academic Health Center, Islamic, Medical School, Maqashid Al-Sharia