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You are on page 1of 28

in Compartment Fires 30

William D. Walton, Philip H. Thomas,

and Yoshifumi Ohmiya

in terms of evacuation and fire resistance was

The ability to predict temperatures developed examined by taking into account fire stage. The

in compartment fires is of great significance to stage of ignition and growth are very significant

the fire protection professional for protection of to estimate the time for fire detectors and sup-

human life and property. There are many uses for pression systems to activate. The stage of fully-

a knowledge of compartment fire temperatures, developed fire is important for the fire resistance

including the prediction of (1) the onset of haz- of building loadbearing elements and separating

ardous conditions, (2) property and structural elements.

damage, (3) changes in burning rate, pyrolysis 1. Ignition

rate and heat (energy) release rate, (4) ignition of 2. Growth

objects,(5) the onset of flashover and so on. 3. Flashover

The fundamental principles underlying com- 4. Fully-developed fire

partment fires are presented in Chap. 29. This 5. Decay

chapter gives a number of simplified solution Although many fires will not follow this ide-

techniques. alization, it provides a useful framework for the

discussion of compartment fires. All fires include

an ignition stage but, beyond that, may fail to

Fire Stages grow, or they may be affected by manual or

automatic suppression activities before going

In this chapter, compartment fires are defined as through all of the stages listed above.

fires in enclosed spaces, which are commonly

thought of as rooms in buildings, but may include

other spaces such as those found in transportation Growth Stage Definitions

vehicles such as ships, planes, trains, and the like.

Compartment fires are often discussed in Ignition Stage The period during which the fire

terms of growth stages [1]. Figure 30.1 shows begins in a compartment.

an idealized variation of temperature with time

Growth Stage Following ignition, the fire

initially grows primarily as a function of the

fuel itself, with little or no influence from

the compartment. The fire can be described in

W.D. Walton (*) • P.H. Thomas • Y. Ohmiya terms of its rate of energy and combustion

product generation. A discussion of energy

DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-2565-0_30, # Society of Fire Protection Engineers 2016

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 997

description of room fire

in absence of fire control Postflashover

Flashover

Temperature rise

Fully developed fire

Ignition Decay

Growth

Time

generation or burning rate can be found in pyrolized than can be burned with the oxygen

Chap. 26. If sufficient fuel and oxygen are avail- available in the compartment. In this case, the

able, the fire will continue to grow, causing the fire is said to be ventilation controlled. If there

temperature in the compartment to rise. Fires are openings in the compartment, the unburned

with sufficient oxygen for combustion are said fuel will leave the compartment in the gas flow

to be fuel controlled or well-ventilated. and may burn outside of the compartment. It will

cause fire spread to upper floors and neighboring

Flashover Flashover is generally defined as the buildings. During the fully developed stage, the

transition from a growing fire to a fully devel- environment within the compartment has a sig-

oped fire in which all combustible items in the nificant effect on the pyrolysis rate of the burning

compartment are involved in fire. During this objects.

transition there are rapid changes in the compart-

ment environment. Flashover is not a precise Decay Stage Decay occurs as the fuel becomes

term, and several variations in definition can be consumed, and the heat release rate and temperature

found in the literature. However the onset of within a compartment decline. The fire may change

flashover should be estimated for considering from ventilation to fuel controlled during this

fire safety. Most have criteria based on the period.

temperature at which the radiation from the

hot gases in the compartment will ignite all of

the combustible contents. Gas temperatures of Compartment Fire Phenomena

300–650 C have been associated with the

onset of flashover, although temperatures of Compartment Fire Model

500–600 C are more widely used [2]. The igni-

tion of unburnt fuel in the hot fire gases, the In order to calculate or predict the temperatures

appearance of flames from openings in a and other properties generated in a compartment

compartment, or the ignition of all of the fire, a description or model of the fire phenomena

combustible contents may actually be different must be created. This model will be described in

phenomena all related to flashover. terms of physical equations that can be solved to

predict the temperature in the compartment. Such

Fully Developed Fire During this stage, the a model is, therefore, an idealization of the com-

heat release rate of the fire is the greatest. The partment fire phenomena. Consider a fire that

fire behavior in this stage is influenced by starts at some point below the ceiling. It releases

conditions of enclosure such as the size and con- energy and products of combustion at a rate that

struction materials, size and form of openings, may change with time. The hot products of

type amount and distribution of fuel in the enclo- combustion form a plume that, due to buoyancy,

sure. Frequently during this stage more fuel is rises toward the ceiling above heat source. As the

998 W.D. Walton et al.

model with no exchange

between layers except the

plume

Hot upper layer •

mg

T∞ Tg

Ho

•

ma Xd XN

the compartment, decreasing the plume’s tem-

perature and increasing its volume flow rate. Convention

Radiation from

When the plume reaches the ceiling, it spreads upper layer Enthalpy

out under ceiling. When the extension of hot flow

current under ceiling reaches the walls, the flow

turns downward and forms a hot gas layer that Radiation Convention

descends with time as the plume’s gases continue Energy from flame

release

to flow into it. There is a relatively sharp inter-

face between the hot upper layer and the air in the

lower part of the compartment. The only Fig. 30.3 Energy balance of compartment fire during

assumed interchange between the air in the Two-layer condition

lower part of the room and the hot upper layer

comprised of products of combustion is through Calculation of Compartment Fire

the plume. As the hot layer descends and reaches Temperatures

openings in the compartment walls (e.g., doors

and windows), hot gas will flow out the openings The basic principle used to calculate the temper-

and outside air will flow into the openings. This ature in a compartment fire is the conservation of

description of compartment fire phenomena is energy. In order to estimate the temperature in

referred to as a two-layer or zone model. The enclosure, energy balance can be assumed as

basic compartment fire phenomena are shown shown in Fig. 30.3.

schematically in Fig. 30.2. As applied to the hot upper layer, the conser-

The two-layer concept assumes that the vation of energy can be simply stated as follows:

compositions of the layers are uniform, that is, the energy added to the hot upper layer by the fire

that the temperature and other properties are the equals the energy lost from the hot layer plus the

same throughout each layer. Although the tem- time rate of change of energy within the

perature of the lower layer will rise during the hot upper layer. From the time rate of change of

course of the fire, the temperature of the upper energy within the hot layer, the temperature

layer will remain greater and is the most impor- of the layer can be computed. Conservation of

tant factor in compartment fires. The assumptions energy can also be applied to the lower layer.

may be less valid for very large spaces or for long, Since the volume of the upper layer changes with

narrow spaces such as corridors and shafts. To time, and mass flows in and out of the upper

describe the vertical distribution, multi-layer layer, conservation of mass must be used along

models were being developed [3]. with the conservation of energy. Because the

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 999

in the compartment vary as a function of time, ṁf ¼ Mass burning rate of the fuel (kg/s)

the application of conservation of energy will q ¼ Heat flux to the fuel surface(kW/m2)

result in a series of differential equations. For A ¼ Suraface area of the fuel(m2)

the purposes of examining the components of L ¼ Heat of gasification (kJ/kg)

the conservation of energy, the steady-state At initial stage in compartment fire, the

expressions for the conservation of energy in heat flux to surface of the fuel is due to the

the hot upper layer will be used. flame generated above the fuel. In case that com-

The transport of energy in a compartment fire partment fire reached flashover, it is due to the

is a very complex process. In order to formulate gas around fuel. If there are oxygen in the enclo-

expressions for the conservation of energy in a sure, pyrolysis products react with oxygen,

practical way, a number of assumptions must be generating heat and producing flames. The rate

made. It is possible to formulate the equations in of energy release is equal to the mass loss rate

a number of ways, based on the level of detail of the fuel times the heat of combustion of

desired. The expressions and assumptions used in the fuel:

this chapter are based on those commonly found

in the fire research literature and represent a Q_ ¼ m_ f Δhc ð30:2Þ

somewhat simplified description of the phenom-

ena. Additional details may be found in the where

references cited. Q_ ¼ Energy release rate of the fire (kW)

The steady-state conservation of energy for ṁf ¼ Mass burning rate of the fuel (kg/s)

the hot upper gas layer in a compartment can be Δhc ¼ Effective heat of combustion of the fuel

simply stated as follows: the energy generated by (kJ/kg)

the fire and added to the hot layer equals the The effective heat of combustion is the heat of

energy lost from the hot layer through radiation combustion expected in a fire where incomplete

and convection plus the energy convected out of combustion takes place. This amount is less than

the compartment openings. the theoretical heat of combustion as measured in

the oxygen bomb calorimeter [4].

The effective heat of combustion is often

Energy Generated by the Fire described as a fraction of the theoretical heat of

combustion. The effect of fluctuations is largely

The energy generated by the fire is the primary neglected.

influence on the temperature in a compartment In fuel-controlled fires, there is sufficient air

fire, and much research has been conducted in to react with all the fuel within the compartment.

predicting the energy release rate of many fuels In ventilation-controlled fires, there is insuffi-

under a variety of conditions. This discussion cient air within the compartment, and some of

will focus on flaming combustion, as it is the pyrolysis products will leave the compart-

most important in generating a significant tem- ment, possibly to react outside the compartment.

perature rise in a compartment. A discussion of For calculating the temperatures produced in

non-flaming combustion is found in Chap. 19. As compartment fires, the primary interest is the

a fuel is heated it releases pyrolysis products. The energy released within the compartment.

amount of pyrolysis products depends on fuel The pyrolysis rate of the fuel depends on the

properties, incident heat flux to surface of fuel, fuel type, its geometry, and the fire-induced envi-

oxygen mass fraction in the enclosure and so ronment. The energy generated in the compart-

on. The fortmula to estimate the mass burning ment by the burning pyrolysis products then

rate of the fuel can be given as follows, depends on the conditions (temperature, oxygen

concentration, etc.) within the compartment. The

m_ f ¼ qA=L ð30:1Þ processes involved are complex, and some are

1000 W.D. Walton et al.

not well understood, but for two fire types some Conservation of Mass

simplifying assumptions can lead to useful

methods for approximating the energy released The mass flow into the compartment and the flow

by the fire. out are related by

Fuel-controlled fires are defined as those in

which the pyrolysis rate and the energy release m_ g ¼ m_ a þ m_ f ð30:3Þ

rate are affected only by the burning of the fuel where ṁf is the mass burning rate of the fuel

itself and not by the room environment, analo- (kg/s).

gous to a fire burning outdoors on a calm day. The mass flow rate of hot gas out of a window

Babrauskas has provided data on free-burning or door is given by Rockett as [7]:

fires in Chap. 26. This data is most useful for

estimating burning rates of primarily horizontal 2 T1 T 1 1=2

m_ g ¼ Cd W o ρ1 2g 1 ðH o XN Þ3=2

fuels in preflashover fires, where the primary 3 Tg Tg

heating of the fuel is from the flames of the ð30:4Þ

burning item itself. Vertical fuels, such as wall

linings and fuels located in the upper hot gas where

layer, will likely be influenced by the ṁg ¼ Mass flow rate of hot gas out an opening

preflashover room environment. (kg/s)

Ventilation-controlled fires are defined as Cd ¼ Orifice constriction coefficient

those in which the energy release rate in the (typically 0.7)

room is limited by the amount of available Wo ¼ Width of opening (m)

oxygen. The mass flow rate of air or oxygen Ho ¼ Height of opening (m)

into the room through a door or window can be ρ1 ¼ Ambient air density (kg/m3)

calculated from the expressions described g ¼ Acceleration due to gravity, 9.8 m/s2

below and in Chap. 23. For most fuels [5], the XN ¼ Height of neutral plane (m)

heat released per mass of air consumed is a Tg ¼ Temperature of the hot upper gas layer (K)

constant approximately equal to 3000 KJ/kg. T1 ¼ Ambient temperature (K)

Therefore, the rate of energy release of the The mass flow rate of air into a door or

fire can be approximated from the air window is given by

inflow rate.

The amount of energy released by the fire 2 T 1 1=2

m_ g ¼ Cd W o ρ1 2g 1 ðXN Xd Þ1=2

that enters the hot upper layer is a function of 3 Tg

the fire, layer conditions, and geometry. For ðXN þ Xd =2Þ

most fires, approximately 35 % of the energy ð30:5Þ

released by the fire leaves the fire plume as

radiation [6]. (A discussion of flame radiation where

can be found in Chap. 23.) In a compartment Xd ¼ Height of the interface (m).

fire, a fraction of the radiated energy reaches the The expressions for mass flow in and mass

upper layer. The majority of the remaining flow out cannot be solved directly for Tg since

energy released by the fire is convected into the height to the neutral plane and interface are

the upper layer by the plume. As the plume unknown. The complete solution of these

rises, it entrains air from the lower layer, thus equations requires expressions for plume entrain-

reducing its temperature and increasing the ment and additional energy equations and is nor-

mass flow rate. For a first approximation, it can mally carried out only in computer fire models. If

be assumed that all of the energy generated the mass burning rate of the fuel is small com-

by the fire is transported to the upper layer. For pared with the mass flow rate of air into the

a complete discussion of fire plumes see compartment, the mass flow out of the opening

Chap. 13. may be approximated as equal to the mass inflow

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1001

rate. Flows out of vents in the ceiling are The Conseil International du Bâtiment (CIB)

discussed in Chap. 66. experiments upon which Law [11] has based her

For preflashover fires in compartments with method shows a dependence on AT. It seems

typical doors or windows, the neutral plane and possible that the wide use of Equation 30.7 is a

interface can be approximated at the midlevel of result of a concentration of experimental fires in

the opening. This approximation can only be rooms of a limited range of

made after the initial smoke filling of the com-

partment is complete, and flow in and out of the AT

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

opening is established. Ao H o

For fires nearing flashover and postflashover

where

fires, the interface between the upper and lower

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing

layers is located near the floor, and the flow

surfaces (m2)

reaches a maximum for a given upper gas temper-

Traditionally, energy balances were often

ature. Rockett [7] has shown the temperature

stated in terms of the energy produced by the

dependence on the flow becomes small above

burning fuel and, thereby, led to an effective

150 C and the flow into the compartment can be

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ heat of combustion of the fuel. However, this

approximated as a constant multiplied by Ao H o . practice in principle leads to the same result—

Rockett calculated values for this constant of the energy produced is related to the air flow

0.40–0.61 kg/s · m5/2, depending on the dis- for ventilation-controlled fires. Kawagoe [9]

charge coefficient of the opening. Thomas and and Magnusson and Thelandersson [12] used

Heselden estimate the value of this constant at 10.75 MJ/kg for the effective heat of combustion

0.5 kg/s · m5/2, which is the value most com- of wood in the flaming phase for fully developed

monly found in the literature [8]. The resulting compartment fires. With 16.4 MJ/kg for the heat

approximation is then of combustion of wood volatiles, this setup

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ corresponds to a combustion efficiency of

m_ a ¼ 0:5Ao Ho ð30:6Þ 10.75/16.4, which is virtually identical to the

0.65 used in several computer models.

where

By far most data are based on experiments in

Ao ¼ Area of opening (m2)

which the fuel was cellulosic, and much of the

Ho ¼ Height of opening (m)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ experimental data are based on wood in the form

The term Ao H o is commonly known as the of cribs. For the post-flashover burning of a dif-

ventilation factor. The first use of this type of ferent fuel with a different chemistry, the burning

opening flow analysis for evaluating rate expressions may still be used, as long as the

postflashover fire test data is attributed to fuel is a hydrocarbon producing approximately

Kawagoe [9]. From early work analyzing such 3000 kJ for each kg of air consumed in the

data, the empirical observation was made that combustion process. Because different fuels

wood fires in rooms with small windows appeared react differently to the thermal environment and

to burn at an approximate stoichiometric rate. will pyrolyze at different rates according to the

Although flames emerging from the windows energy requirements to produce volatiles, one

implied that some fuel was burning outside, can only estimate temperatures by evaluating

calculations often suggested that enough air was the differences or obtain maximum temperatures

entering the fire for stoichiometric burning. by using stoichiometry. Fuels more volatile than

Empirical observations on wood fires [9] led to wood will probably produce lower temperatures

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ inside a compartment, even if the excess fuel

m_ f ¼ 0:09Ao H o ð30:7Þ

produces a greater hazard outside the compart-

There is now a body of data [10] that modifies ment. The assumptions that the energy is related

this simple proportionality between ṁf and to the air flow and that the fuel is in stoichiomet-

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ric proportion will give an upper estimate of

Ao H o .

1002 W.D. Walton et al.

Since Equation 30.7 is close to stoichiometric, Methods for Predicting Preflashover

it could, coupled with the effective heat of com- Compartment Fire Temperatures

bustion of wood, give results close to an upper

temperature limit for other fuels. The solution of a relatively complete set of

equations for the conservation of energy requires

the solution of a large number of equations that

Conservation of Energy vary with time. Although individual energy

transport equations may be solved, in general

The heat generated by burning materials within there is not an explicit solution for a set of these

a compartment is absorbed by the enclosing equations. As a result, one of two approaches can

surfaces of the compartment and any other be taken. The first is an approximate solution

structural surfaces, by the surfaces of the fuel, accomplished by hand using a limiting set of

and by the incoming air and any excess fuel. assumptions. The second is a more complete

Heat is lost to the exterior in the flames and hot solution utilizing a computer program. In either

gases that exit from the openings in the com- case, a number of methods have been developed.

partment enclosing surfaces and by radiation The methods presented are those with the widest

through the openings. Table 30.1 gives an apparent acceptance in the fire protection com-

example of an experimental heat balance munity, each with different assumptions and

measured in a small compartment, for which limitations that should be understood before

unglazed windows provided ventilation from employing the method. The methods presented

the start of the fire. in this chapter predict average temperatures

Table 30.1 illustrates the significant amount of and are not applicable to cases where prediction

heat loss in the effluent gases and shows that, of local temperatures are desired. For example,

with decreasing window area, a larger proportion these methods should not be used to predict

of the heat released will be absorbed by the detector or sprinkler actuation or the

enclosing surfaces. The total heat released, temperatures of materials as a result of direct

assuming a complete burnout, is directly propor- flame impingement.

tional to the amount of the fire load, but the rate

of heat release may also be controlled by the

ventilation. In this example, with the lower fire Method of McCaffrey, Quintiere,

load, both window areas give sufficient ventila- and Harkleroad

tion for the fuel to burn at its maximum (free-

burning) rate but, with the doubled fire load, the McCaffrey, Quintiere, and Harkleroad have

burning rate is not doubled, because the window used a simple conservation of energy expression

area restricts the ventilation rate. and a correlation with data to develop an

Table 30.1 Heat balance measured in experimental fires in a compartment of 29 m2 floor area with a fire load

of wood cribs

Fire load Window Heat release Structural Feedback Window

(kg) area (m2) (kcal/s) Effluent gas surfaces to fuel radiation

877 11.2 1900 65 15 11 9

5.6 1900 52 26 11 11

1744 11.2 3200 61 15 11 13

5.6 2300 53 26 12 9

2.6 1600 47 30 16 7

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1003

a compartment [13]. Applying the conservation Cd ¼ Orifice constriction coefficient

of energy to the upper layer yields Wo ¼ Width of opening (m)

Ho ¼ Height of opening (m)

Q_ ¼ m_ g c p T g T 1 þ qloss ð30:8Þ ρ1 ¼ Ambient air density (kg/m3)

g ¼ Acceleration due to gravity, 9.8 m/s2

where XN ¼ Height of neutral plane (m)

Q_ ¼ Energy (heat) release rate of the fire (kW) Since XN primarily depends on Tg, Q, _ and

ṁg ¼ Gas flow rate out the opening (kg/s) geometric factors (Ho and Wo), ṁg may be

cp ¼ Specific heat of gas (kJ/kg · K) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

replaced by gρ1 Ao H o in the two dimension-

Tg ¼ Temperature of the upper gas layer (K) less variables in Equation 30.11, without any loss

T1 ¼ Ambient temperature (K)

in generality. The effects of Tg and Q_ are

qloss ¼ Net radiative and convective heat trans-

incorporated into the correlation via other terms.

fer from the upper gas layer (kW)

Based on an analysis of test data, Equation 30.10

The left-hand side of Equation 30.8 is the

was written as a power-law relationship:

energy generated by the fire. On the right-hand

side, the first term is the heat transported from the !2=3

Q_

upper layer in the gas flow out an opening. The ΔT g ¼ 480 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

second term is the net rate of radiative and con- g c p ρ1 T 1 A o H o

ð30:12Þ

vective heat transfer from the upper layer, which !1=3

is approximately equal to rate of heat conduction h k AT

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

into the compartment surfaces. The rate of heat g c p ρ 1 Ao H o

transfer to the surfaces is approximated by

where

qloss ¼ hk AT T g T 1 ð30:9Þ Ao ¼ Area of opening (m2)

where Ho ¼ Height of opening (m)

hk ¼ Effective heat transfer coefficient The numbers 480, 2/3, and 1/3 were deter-

(kW/m2K) mined by correlating the expression with the data

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing from over 100 experimental fires. These data

surfaces (m2) included both steady-state and transient fires in

Substituting Equation 30.9 into Equation 30.8 cellulosic and synthetic polymeric materials and

yields the non-dimensional temperature rise in gaseous hydrocarbon fuels. Compartment height

terms of two dimensionless groups: ranged from 0.3 to 2.7 m and floor areas from

0.14 to 12.0 m2. The compartments contained a

ΔT g _ c p T 1 m_ g

Q=

¼ ð30:10Þ variety of window and door sizes. The term

T1 1 þ hk AT = c p m_ g raised to the 2/3 power in Equation 30.12

represents the ratio of the energy released to the

where ΔTg is the upper gas temperature rise

energy convected, and the term raised to the

above ambient (Tg– T1)(K).

1/3 power represents the energy lost divided

The mass flow rate of hot gas out of a window

by the energy convected.

or door can be rewritten from Equation 30.4:

Substituting the values for ambient conditions

of

2 T1 T 1 1=2

m_ g ¼ Cd W o H o ρ1 2g

3=2

1 g ¼ 9.8 m/s2

3 Tg Tg

3=2 cp ¼ 1.05 kJ/kg · K

1

XN ρ1 ¼ 1.2 kg/m3

Ho T1 ¼ 295 K

ð30:11Þ into Equation 30.12 yields [14, 15]

1004 W.D. Walton et al.

Q_

2

ΔT g ¼ 6:85 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð30:13Þ determined from data or other correlations.

Ao H o h k AT 5. The characteristic fire growth time and ther-

mal penetration time of the room-lining

The heat transfer coefficient can be determined materials must be determined in order to eval-

using a steady-state approximation when the time uate the effective heat transfer coefficient.

of exposure, t, is greater than the thermal pene- 6. The correlation is based on data from a limited

tration time, tp, by number of experiments and does not contain

extensive data on ventilation-controlled fires

hk ¼ k=δ for t > tp ð30:14Þ

nor data on combustible walls or ceilings.

The thermal penetration time is defined as Most of the fuel in the test fires was near the

center of the room.

ρc

δ2

tp ¼ ð30:15Þ

k 2 Example of McCaffrey et al. Method Calculate

the upper-layer temperature of a room 3 3 m

where in floor area and 2.4 m high with a door opening

ρ ¼ Density of the compartment surface (kg/m3) 1.8 m high and 0.6 m wide. The fire source is a

c ¼ Specific heat of the compartment surface steady 750 kW fire. The wall-lining material is

material (kJ/kgK) 0.016 m (5/8 in.) gypsum plaster on metal lath.

k ¼ Thermal conductivity of compartment sur- Perform the calculation at times of 10, 60, and

face (kW/m · K) 600 s after ignition. Using Equation 30.12,

δ ¼ Thickness of compartment surface (m)

!2=3

t ¼ Exposure time (s) Q_

tp ¼ Thermal penetration time (s) ΔT g ¼ 480 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

g c p ρ1 T 1 A o H o

When the time of exposure is less than the

penetration time, an approximation based on !1=3

hk A T

conduction in a semi-infinite solid is pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

g c p ρ1 A o H o

1=2

kρc

hk ¼ for t tp ð30:16Þ where

t

cp ¼ 1 kJ/kgK

If there are several wall and/or ceiling materials T1 ¼ 27 C (300 K)

in the compartment, an area-weighted average ρ1 ¼ 1.18 kg/m3

for hk should be used. Ao ¼ 1.8 m 0.6 m ¼ 1.08 m2

The limitations as stated by McCaffrey g ¼ 9.8 m/s2

et al. on the use of this method for estimating Ho ¼ 1.8 m

temperatures are as follows: Q_ ¼ 750 kW

1. The correlation holds for compartment upper- AT ¼ Awalls þ Afloor þ Aceiling Aopenings

layer gas temperatures up to approximately ¼ 4 ð3 2:4Þ þ ð3 3Þ þ ð3 3Þ 1:08

600 C. ¼ 28:8 m2 þ 9m2 þ 9m2 1:08m2

2. It applies to steady-state as well as time- ¼ 45:72m2

dependent fires, provided the primary tran-

sient response is the wall conduction The wall heat loss coefficient, hk, is a func-

phenomenon. tion of time.

3. It is not applicable to rapidly developing fires (a) Calculate the thermal penetration time, tp.

in large enclosures in which significant fire ρc

δ2

growth has occurred before the combustion tp ¼

products have exited the compartment. k 2

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1005

ρ ¼ Wall material density (1440 kg/m3)

k ¼ 0.48 103 kW/mK The Foote, Pagni, and Alvares method follows

c ¼ 0.84 kJ/kgK the basic correlations of McCaffrey, Quintiere,

δ ¼ 0.016 m and Harkleroad and adds data for forced-

tp ¼ 161.3 s ventilation fires. Using Equation 30.10 and not

(b) Calculate hk at 10, 60, and 600 s. introducing an expression for doorway flow

For t<tp (10, 60 s), results in the expression [16]

1=2 !0:72

hk ¼

kρc

kρc ¼ 0:581 ΔT g Q_ hk AT 0:36

t ¼ 0:63

T1 m_ g c p T 1 m_ g c p

1. At t ¼ 10 s, ð30:17Þ

0:581 1=2 where

hk ¼ ¼ 0:24 kW=m2K ΔTg ¼ Upper gas temperature rise above

60

ambient (K)

2. At t ¼ 60 s, T1 ¼ Ambient air temperature (K)

Q_ ¼ Energy (heat) release rate of the fire (kW)

0:581 1=2 ṁg ¼ Compartment mass ventilation rate (kg/s)

hk ¼ ¼ 0:098 kW=m2K

60 cp ¼ Specific heat of gas (kJ/kgK)

3. For t > tp (600 s) at t ¼ 600 s, hk ¼ Effective heat transfer coefficient

(kW/m2K)

k 0:48 103 AT ¼ Total area of the compartment-enclosing

hk ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:03 kW=m2 K surfaces (m2)

δ 0:016

The coefficient and exponents are based on

data from well-ventilated tests in a compartment

(c) Calculate the compartment temperature at with a 6 4 m floor area and a height of 4.5 m

the three times using Equation 30.12. with ventilation rates of 110–325 g/s. The com-

1. At t ¼ 10 s, partment exhaust was through a 0.65 0.65 m

" #2=3 duct located 3.6 m above the floor. Four air

750

ΔT g ¼ 480 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ inlet openings were 0.5 0.12 m high, with

9:8 ð1Þ ð1:18Þ ð300Þ ð1:08Þ 1:8 centerlines 0.1 m above the floor. A methane gas

" #1=3 burner fire in the center of the floor with heat

ð0:24Þ ð45:72Þ

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ release rates of 150–490 kW resulted in upper

9:8 ð1Þ ð1:18Þ ð1:08Þ 1:8

gas temperatures of approximately 100–300 C.

¼ 480ð0:47Þ2=3 ð2:05Þ1=3 Foote et al. have shown that the correlation for

¼ 227 K forced-ventilation fires agrees well with the data

presented by McCaffrey et al. for free ventilation

2. At t ¼ 60 s, fires with

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

¼ 307 K

temperature in a 5 5 m floor area and 4-m-high

ΔT g ¼ 480ð0:47Þ2=3 ð0:26Þ1=3 compartment having 0.025-m (1-in.) thick

¼ 453 K concrete walls. The forced-ventilation rate is

1006 W.D. Walton et al.

2.4 m3/s of air (5000 cfm). Perform the calculation Quintiere, and Harkleroad for naturally

for t>tp. The fire size is given as 1000 kW; ambi- ventilated compartments. Beyler offers an

ent air conditions at 300 K. Using Equation 30.17, improved correlation for compartments where

!0:72

the forced-ventilation flow rate is known

ΔT g Q_ hk AT 0:36 [17, 18]. This method begins by applying the

¼ 0:63

T1 m_ g c p T 1 m_ g c p conservation of energy in the upper layer of a

compartment. Combining Equations 30.8 and

where 30.9 yields

Q_ ¼ 1000 kW

T1 ¼ 300 K Q_ ¼ m_ g c p T g T 1 þ hk AT T g T 1

cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK ð30:18Þ

AT ¼ 4 (5 4) + 2 (5 5) ¼ 105 m2

ṁg ¼ (2.4 m3/s) (1.18 kg/m3) ¼ 2.8 kg/s where:

Calculate hk for t > tp. For 0.025-m-thick Q_ ¼ Energy (heat) release rate of the fire (kW)

concrete, ṁg ¼ Gas flow rate out the opening (kg/s)

δ ¼ 0.025 m cp ¼ Specific heat of gas (kJ/kgK)

ρ ¼ 2000 kg/m3 Tg ¼ Temperature of the upper gas layer (K)

k ¼ 1.4 103 kW/mK T1 ¼ Ambient temperature (K)

cp ¼ 0.88 kJ/kgK hk ¼ Effective heat transfer coefficient

(kW/m2K)

ρc

δ2

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing

tp ¼

k 2 surfaces (m2)

Rearranging Equation 30.18 yields

ð2; 000Þ ð0:88Þ 0:025 2

¼

1:4 103 2

Q_

¼ 196s for t > t p ΔT g ¼ ð30:19aÞ

m_ g c p þ hk AT

k

hk ¼ or

δ

1:4 103 ΔT g m_ g c p 1

¼ ¼ ð30:19bÞ

0:025 Q_ 1 þ ðhk AT Þ=m_ g c p

¼ 0:056 kW=m2 K

where ΔT g ¼ T g T 1 .

0:72

ΔT g 1, 000 A nondimensional temperature rise is

¼ ð0:63Þ

T1 ð2:8Þ ð1Þ ð300Þ defined as

ð0:056Þ ð105Þ 0:36 ΔT g m_ g c p

ΔT* ð30:20Þ

ð2:8Þ ð1Þ

Q_

¼ 164 K ventilation losses is defined as

T g ¼ 164 þ 300 K ¼ 464 K

hk A T

Y* 1 þ ð30:21Þ

m_ g c p

Method of Beyler and Deal

By plotting ΔT* as a function of ΔY* for data

Beyler and Deal compared a number of methods with experiments with known ventilation rates

for naturally ventilated compartments to test data Beyler and Deal developed a correlation for the

and recommend the method of McCaffrey, effective heat transfer coefficient of

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1007

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ !

kρc k δ ¼ 0.25 m

hk ¼ 0:4max ; ð30:22Þ ρ ¼ 2000 kg/m3

t δ

k ¼ 1.4 103 kW/mK

where c ¼ 0.88 kJ/kgK

k ¼ Thermal conductivity of the compartment

k 1:4 103

surface (kW/mK) hk ¼ 0:4 ¼ 0:4

ρ ¼ Density of the compartment surface (kg/m3) δ 0:25

c ¼ Specific heat of the compartment surface ¼ 0:0224 kW=m2 K

material (kJ/kgK)

δ ¼ Thickness of the compartment surface (m) (b) Calculate the compartment temperature

t ¼ Exposure time (s) using Equation 30.19a.

The expression switches from transient to 1000

steady state at a thermal penetration time of T g 300 ¼

ð2:8Þ ð1:0Þ þ ð0:224Þ ð105Þ

tp ¼ (ρc/k)δ2 rather than tp ¼ (ρc/k)(δ/2)2 used

by McCaffrey et al. and Foote et al. For the data T g ¼ 494 K

set Beyler and Deal evaluated, the standard error

for their method was 29 K as compared to 51 K Method of Peatross and Beyler

for the method of Foote et al., even though the

equation uses only one fitting constant. The correlations used in the McCaffrey,

Beyler and Deal demonstrated that this Quintiere, and Harkleroad method and the Beyler

method works for ventilation to the lower part and Deal method are based on the assumption of

of the compartment (with or without a plenum) normal insulating wall materials. For highly con-

as well as for ventilation to the upper part of the ductive walls such as steel, Peatross and Beyler

compartment. The Beyler and Deal method was suggest the use of an alternative heat transfer

based on data up to 2000 s into fire tests. At coefficient [19]. Using a lumped mass analysis

longer times, the heat loss model breaks down. for heat transfer through the wall that is appro-

priate for a highly conductive wall yields

Example of Beyler and Deal Method Estimate

the temperature in a 5 5 m floor area and 00 dT w

4-m-high compartment with 0.025-m (1-in.) mw c ¼ hg T g T w h1 T w ð30:23Þ

dt

thick concrete walls. The forced-ventilation rate

is 2.4 m3/s of air (5000 cfm). Perform the calcu- where

00

lation for t > tp. The fire size is given as ṁw ¼ Mass per unit area of the wall (kg/m2)

1000 kW; ambient air conditions at 300 K. c ¼ Specific heat of the wall (kJ/kgK)

Using Equation 30.19a, Tw ¼ Wall temperature (K)

t ¼ Time (s)

Q_ hg ¼ Heat transfer coefficient on the hot side of

Tg T1 ¼

m_ g c p þ hk AT the wall (kW/m2K)

Tg ¼ Upper layer temperature (K)

where

H1 ¼ Heat transfer coefficient on the ambient

Q_ ¼ 1000 kW side of the wall (kW/m2K)

ṁg ¼ (2.4 m3/s) (1.18 kg/m3) ¼ 2.8 kg/s Solving for the wall temperature with the ini-

cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK tial condition of the wall at ambient temperature

T1 ¼ 300 K yields

AT ¼ 4(5 4) + 2(5 5) ¼ 105 m2

hg T g hg þ h1

Tw ¼ 1 exp 00 t ð30:24Þ

(a) Calculate hk for t > tp. For 0.25-m-thick hg þ h1 mw c

concrete,

1008 W.D. Walton et al.

00

The heat transfer through the wall, q_ , may be The hk calculated with this method can be used

expressed in terms of the heat transfer to the hot directly in the Beyler and Deal method. It must

side of the wall or in terms of an overall effective be multiplied by 2.5 for use in the McCaffrey,

heat transfer coefficient, hk. Quintiere, and Harkleroad method to account for

the 0.4 fitting constant in the hk in the Beyler and

00 Deal method.

q_ ¼ hg T g T w ¼ hk T g T 1 ð30:25Þ

for Forced Ventilation Estimate the tempera-

ture in a 5 5 m floor area and 4-m-high com-

h2g hg þ h1

hk ¼ hg 1 exp t partment having 0.00635-m (0.25-in.) thick,

hg þ h1 ρδc

0.5 % carbon steel walls. The forced-ventilation

ð30:26Þ rate is 2.4 m3/s of air (5000 cfm). Perform the

calculation for t ¼ 200 s. The fire size is given as

where 1000 kW; ambient air conditions at 300 K. Using

ρ ¼ Density of the wall material (kg/m3) Equation 30.19a,

δ ¼ Thickness of the wall (m)

hk ¼ Overall effective heat transfer coefficient Q_

Tg T1 ¼

W/m2K m_ g c p þ hk AT

From the above equations it can be seen that

where

hg h1 Q_ ¼ 1000 kW

hk ¼ at t¼1

hg þ h1 ṁg ¼ (2.4 m3/s) (1.18 kg/m3) ¼ 2.8 kg/s

cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK

hk ¼ hg at t¼0 T1 ¼ 300 K

AT ¼ 4(5 4) + 2(5 5) ¼ 130 m2

From a number of experiments, Peatross and

Beyler found the heat transfer coefficients of (a) Using Equation 30.27, calculate hk for t

30 W/m2K for hg and 20 W/m2K for h1. ¼ 200 s. For 0.25-m-thick, 0.5 % carbon

Substituting these values yields steel,

δ ¼ 0.00635 m

50 ρ ¼ 7833 kg/m3

hk ¼ 30 18 1 exp t ð30:27Þ

ρδc c ¼ 0.465 kJ/kgK

50

hk ¼ 30 18 1 exp t

ρδc

50

¼ 30 18 1 exp 200

ð7833Þ ð0:00635Þ ð0:465Þ

¼ 23:7 W=m2 K

using Equation 30.19a.

For compartments with no ventilation the

1, 000

T g 300 ¼ quasi-steady approximation used in many of the

ð2:8Þ ð1:0Þ þ ð0:0237Þ ð130Þ methods is not appropriate since the conditions

T g ¼ 470 K in the compartment will not reach steady state.

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1009

Beyler applied a nonsteady energy balance to the which include the fitting coefficient. Beyler

closed compartment expressed by the differential used data with a maximum temperature rise of

equation [17] 150 C to develop this correlation.

dT

mc p ¼ Q_ hk AT ΔT g ð30:28Þ Example of Beyler Method Estimate the

dt temperature in a 5 5 m floor area and 4-m-high

where “closed” compartment having 0.025-m (1-in.)

Q_ ¼ Energy (heat) release rate of the fire (kW) thick concrete walls. Perform the calculation for t

m ¼ Mass of the gas in the compartment (kg) ¼ 120 s. The fire size is given as 100 kW; ambient

cp ¼ Specific heat of gas (kJ/kgK) air conditions at 300 K. Using Equation 30.29,

ΔTg ¼ Tg – T1 2K 2 pﬃ pﬃ

K1

T1 ¼ Ambient temperature (K)

hk ¼ Effective heat transfer coefficient where

(kW/m2K) T1 ¼ 300 K

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing t ¼ 120 s

surfaces (m2)

ρ ¼ Density of the compartment surface (kg/m3) (a) Calculate K1 using Equation 30.30.

δ ¼ Thickness of the compartment surface (m) pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2ð0:4 kρcÞAT

t ¼ Exposure time (s) K1 ¼

In this case a “closed” compartment has suffi- mc p

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ

cient leaks to prevent pressure buildup, but the 2 0:4 1:4 103 ð2; 000Þ ð0:88Þ ð130Þ

leakage is ignored. The mass of the fuel is ¼

ð118Þ ð1:0Þ

ignored, and the initial temperature is assumed

¼ 1:3834

to be ambient temperature. For constant heat

release rate, the solution to Equation 30.28 is where

2K 2 pﬃ pﬃ

m ¼ (100 m3) (1.18 kg/m3) ¼ 118 kg

ΔT g ¼ 2 K 1 t 1 þ eK1 t ð30:29Þ cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK

K1

ρ ¼ 2000 kg/m3

where k ¼ 1.4 103 kW/mK

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ c ¼ 0.88 kJ/kgK

2ð0:4 kρcÞAT AT ¼ 130 m2

K1 ¼ ð30:30Þ

mc p (b) Calculate K2 using Equation 30.31.

Q_ Q_ 100

K2 ¼ ð30:31Þ K2 ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:84746

mc p mc p ð118Þ ð1:0Þ

where where

k ¼ Thermal conductivity of the compartment m ¼ (100 m3) (1.18 kg/m3) ¼ 118 kg

surface (kW/mK) cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK

c ¼ Specific heat of the compartment surface (c) Calculate the compartment temperature

material (kJ/kgK) using Equation 30.29.

ð1:3834Þ2

T g ¼ 312:5 K

1010 W.D. Walton et al.

Methods for Predicting Postflashover CO2, H2O, and N2.

Compartment Fire Temperatures

79

Cx H y Oz þ wO2 þ w N2

Method of Babrauskas 21

y 79

The following method is based on the work of ! xCO2 þ H2 O þ w N2 ð30:35Þ

2 21

Babrauskas [20, 21]. The upper gas temperature,

Tg, is expressed according to a series of factors, where

each one accounting for a different physical

phenomenon: 2x þ 2y=2 z

w¼ ð30:36Þ

2

T g ¼ T 1 þ ðT* T 1 Þ θ1 θ2 θ3 θ4 θ5

and

ð30:32Þ

½w þ wð3:76Þ 28:97

where T* is an empirical constant ¼ 1725 K, and r¼ ð30:37Þ

the factors θ are in Equations 30.38, 30.43, 30.45, 12:01x þ 1:00y þ 16:00z

30.46, 30.48 and 30.49.

At stoichiometry ϕ ¼ 1, and it is greater than

1 for fuel-rich burning and less than 1 for fuel-

Burning Rate Stoichiometry, θ1 The dimen-

lean conditions.

sionless stoichiometric coefficient ϕ is defined as

The effect of ϕ on gas temperatures was

m_ f evaluated by numerical computations using the

ϕ¼ ð30:33Þ

m_ f , st COMPF2 computer program [22]. The efficiency

factor, θ1, accounts for deviation from stoichiom-

where ṁ is the fuel mass pyrolysis rate (kg/s), etry and is shown in Fig. 30.4. It is seen that the

and ṁf,st is the stoichiometric mass burning rate fuel-lean and the fuel-rich regimes exhibit a very

(i.e., no excess fuel and no excess oxygen). different dependence. For the fuel-lean regime,

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ the results can be approximated by

0:5Ao H o

m_ f , st ¼ ð30:34Þ

r θ1 ¼ 1:0 þ 0:51 ln ϕ for ϕ < 1 ð30:38Þ

where the ratio r is such that 1 kg fuel + r kg Similarly, in the fuel-rich regime a suitable

air ! (1 + r) kg products. The value of r is read- approximation is

ily computable for fuels containing carbon,

hydrogen, and/or oxygen from the chemical θ1 ¼ 1:0 0:05ðln ϕÞ5=3 for ϕ > 1 ð30:39Þ

of equivalence ratio

Fuel lean

0.6 (1 – θ1) = 0.51 (lnφ)

(1 – θ1)

0.4

Fuel rich

(1 – θ1) = 0.05 (lnφ) 1.67

0.2

0

–1.6 –1.2 –0.8 –0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

lnφ

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1011

diameter

(1 – θ1)

0.1

0.01

0.1 1.0 10

(–lnη)

If heat release rate, Q, σ ¼ Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.67 1011

ṁ, is used, then kW/m2K4)

Tb ¼ Liquid boiling point temperature (K)

Q_ This expression unfortunately requires an esti-

ϕ¼ ð30:40Þ

Q_ stoich mate for Tg to be made, so for the pool fire case, a

certain amount of iteration is necessary. The

And since the stoichiometric heat release rate is

relationship above is plotted in Fig. 30.5.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Q_ ¼ 1, 500Ao Ho ð30:41Þ

Wall Steady-State Losses, θ2 The next effi-

then ciency factor, θ2, accounts for variable groups

of importance involving the wall surface (which

Q_

ϕ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð30:42Þ is defined to include the ceiling) properties: area

1, 500Ao H o

AT(m2), thickness L (m), density ρ (kg/m3), ther-

The value of Q_ can be determined from Chap. 26. mal conductivity k (kW/mK), and heat capacity

A separate procedure is necessary for pool cp(kJ/kgK). This factor is given as

fires, due to the strong radiative coupling. Here "

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ2=3 1=3 #

Ao H o L

θ2 ¼ 1:0 0:94 exp 54

θ1 ¼ 1:0 0:092ðln ηÞ1:25 ð30:43Þ AT k

where ð30:45Þ

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ao H o 0:5Δh p and is shown in Fig. 30.6.

η¼

ð30:44Þ

Af rσ T 4 T 4

g b

Wall Transient Losses, θ3 For the transient

where case, Equation 30.45 predicts the asymptotic

Δhp ¼ Heat of vaporization of liquid (kJ/kg) temperature value. An additional time-dependent

Af ¼ Pool area (m2) factor, however, is needed (Fig. 30.7).

1012 W.D. Walton et al.

steady-state losses

0.6

Values for

0.

0.

00

0.5 01 L

(m2·0 C/W)

5

0.

0 K

02

0. .05

0.4 1

(1 – θ2)

0.

0.

2

1. 5

0.3 2. 0

0

0.2

0.1

0

0.001 0.01 0.1

A h (m1/2)

Aw

0.0 Values for

transient losses 00

0.0 2 t

0.6 00 (m4.0 C 2/W 2)

0. 5 ρC

00

0. 1

00

0.5 0. 2

00

0. 5

0. 01

0.4

(1 – θ3)

02

0.

05

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.001 0.01 0.1

A h (m1/2)

Aw

Ao H o t is not a serious limitation, since the method is

θ3 ¼ 1:0 0:92 exp 150 only designed for postflashover fires.

AT κρc

For transient fires, the possibility of two sepa-

ð30:46Þ rate effects must be considered. First, the wall

where loss effect, represented by Equation 30.46, in all

κ ¼ Thermal conductivity of wall (W/mK) fires exhibits a nonsteady character. Second, the

c ¼ Specific heat of wall (J/kgK) fuel release rate may not be constant. Since in the

If only steady-state temperatures need to be calculational procedure the previous results are

evaluated, then θ3 ¼ 1:0. not stored, it is appropriate to restrict consider-

Wall effects for t just slightly greater than ation to fires where ṁf does not change drasti-

zero are not well modeled with the above cally over the time scale established by θ3. This

relationships for θ2 θ3; however, this condition “natural” time scale can be determined as the

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1013

ultimate value, that is, at θ3 ¼ 0.63, and is

1:5 The area of structural surface to which heat is lost

AT

t ¼ 2:92 106 ðκρcÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð30:47Þ is expressed by (AT – Ao). For a given fire load,

Ao H o compartments with different values of AT, Ao,

and height Ho will have a different heat balance,

Opening Height Effect, θ4 The normalization and thus the temperatures in the compartments

of burning rate and wall loss quantities with the will differ. This is illustrated in Fig. 30.10, which

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ventilation factor Ao H o does not completely shows how temperature varies with

determine the total heat balance. An opening of a ð AT Ao Þ

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

given Ao Ho can be tall and narrow or short and Ω¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ao H o

squat. For the shorter opening, the area will have

to be larger. Radiation losses are proportional For low values of Ω (i.e., high ventilation), the

to the opening area and will, therefore, be higher rate of heat release is at a maximum, but the heat

for the shorter opening. By slight simplification, loss from the window is also large and the resul-

a representation for θ4 can be made as tant temperature is low. For high values of Ω (i.e.,

low-ventilation areas), there is little heat loss to

θ4 ¼ 1:0 0:205H 0:3

o ð30:48Þ the outside, but the rate of heat release is also

small and the resultant temperature is, again, low.

as shown in Fig. 30.8. The curve in Fig. 30.11 has been derived from

many experimental fires conducted internation-

Combustion Efficiency, θ5 The fire compart- ally by CIB [10]. For design purposes, Law has

ment is viewed as a well, but not perfectly, stirred defined it as follows:

reactor. Thus a certain “unmixedness” is present.

A maximum combustion efficiency, bp, can be ð1 e0:1Ω Þ

T gðmaxÞ ¼ 6, 000 pﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð CÞ ð30:50Þ

used to characterize this state. Since the model Ω

assumes infinitely fast kinetics, any limitations where

can also be included here. Data have not been

available to characterize bp in real fires, but ð AT Ao Þ

Ω¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

agreement with measured fires can generally be Ao H o

obtained with bp values in the range 0.5–0.9. The and

effect of bp variation can be described by AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing

θ5 ¼ 1:0 þ 0:5 ln b p ð30:49Þ surfaces (m2)

Ao ¼ Area of opening (m2)

as shown in Fig. 30.9. Ho ¼ Height of opening (m)

window height

(1 – θ4)

(1 – θ4) = 0.205Ho−0.3

0.1

0.1 1.0 10

Window height, Ho (m)

Fig. 30.9 Effect of bp, the 0.5

maximum combustion

efficiency

(1 – θ5)

0.10

0.05

0.1 1.0

(1 – lnbp )

temperature during fully

1200

developed period measured

in experimental fires in

Temperature (°C)

compartments

600

0

30 60

At – Ao

(m–1/2)

A o Ho

0.15

rate of burning during fully

(D/W ) (kg·s–1·m–5/2)

in experimental fires in

compartments

0.10

0.05

Ao Ho

mf

0.00

0 30 60

A t – Ao

(m–1/2)

Ao H o

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1015

This equation represents an upper limit of fire value of ṁf depends on L and the type of fuel.

temperature rise for a given Ω. However, if the For example, domestic furniture has a free-

fire load is low, this value may not be obtained. burning fire duration of about 20 min, giving

The importance of the effect of fire load also τ ¼ 1200 s and m_ f ¼ L=1200.

depends on Ao and AT, and can be expressed as The temperatures discussed above are

averages measured during the fully developed

T g ¼ T gðmaxÞ 1 e0:05Ψ ð CÞ ð30:51Þ period of the fire. It is assumed that all fires are

ventilation controlled, with the simple relation-

where

ship for rate of burning given by Equation 30.53,

Tg ¼ Average temperature in the compartment

which is near stoichiometric burning, and it is

( C)

assumed that combustion of 1 kg of wood

where

releases 18.8 MJ in total.

L

Ψ¼

½Ao ðAT Ao Þ 0:5 Method of Delichatsios et al.

Delichatsios’ proposed a method assuming

where L is the fire load (wood) in kg. that [23];

The effect of the fire on the structure depends 1. determination of uniform maximum gas tem-

not only on the value of Tg but also on the perature in the compartment for adiabatic

duration of heating. The effective fire duration, conditions

τ, in seconds, is given by 2. determination of an average heat flux to the

compartment boundary during the develop-

L

τ¼ ð30:52Þ ment of the fire

m_ f 3. a transient thermal model for the response

where ṁf is the rate of burning measured in kg/s. of the compartment boundary to account

Equation 30.7 implies that the smaller the for heat losses to the boundary of the

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ compartment.

value of Ao H o the lower the rate of burning

First, gas temperature in the compartment is

and the longer the duration. Assuming a com-

defined from the following equation at quasi-

plete burnout, therefore, the effect on the struc-

steady conditions:

ture tends to be more severe for large values of Ω

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

For design purposes the following equation Q_ c ¼ m_ g c p T *g T 1 þ σAo T *4

g T1

4

experimental results [11]:

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ where

m_ f ¼ 0:18Ao Ho ðW=DÞ 1 e0:036Ω ξ < 60

Q_ c ¼ Heat release rate inside the compartment

ð30:53Þ (kW)

ṁg ¼ Flow rate of gases out of the compartment

where

(kg/s)

W ¼ Compartment width (m)

Tg* ¼ Adiabatic temperature leaving through the

D ¼ Compartment depth (m)

opening (K)

1=2 T1 ¼ Ambient temperature (K)

m_ f D

ξ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Ao ¼ Area of the opening (m2)

Ao H o W

Assuming ventilation controlled fire, the heat

Equation 30.53 is shown in Fig. 30.11 over the release rate inside the enclosure can be calcu-

range where the data lie. Both equations are for lated using following equation.

ventilation-controlled fires. When there is ample pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ventilation, so that the fuel is free burning, the Q_ c ¼ 1, 500Ao Ho ð30:55Þ

1016 W.D. Walton et al.

The mass flow rate of hot gas out of the opening instances, the energy release must be less than

can be given by the equation below. stoichiometric. The method does not take into

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ account that the actual mass loss rate may be

m_ g ¼ 0:5Ao Ho ð30:56Þ greater than stoichiometric, with the excess fuel

where burning outside the compartment. A computer

Ho ¼ Height of opening (m) program, SFIRE (versions 1 through 3), is avail-

Substituting Equations 30.55 and 30.56 into able to perform this method. The results from

Equation 30.54, the following energy balance the computer program have been compared with

equation is obtained for the case of ventilation a large number of full-scale fire experiments,

controlled fires. both in the fuel- and ventilation-controlled

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

regimes, with good agreement between theory

1, 500Ao Ho ¼ 0:5Ao H o C p T *g T 1 and experiment. It should be added, however,

that most of the experiments involved wood crib

þ σAo T *4

g T 4

1 fires, which inherently burn slower and

produce less excess fuel load than furnishings

ð30:57Þ

and other combustibles found in practical

Equation 30.57 can be solved by using simple fire loads. In the Swedish method, the fire

numerical inversion to obtain the adiabatic tem- load is expressed in relation to AT as Q_ ¼

perature. As for Equation 30.57, the adiabatic 18:8 L=AT MJ=m2 .

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

temperature depends only on Ao H o . The design curves approved by the Swedish

From the dimensional analysis, authorities were computed on the basis of

0 1 systemized ventilation-controlled heat-release

pﬃ

Tg T1 t Q _c

¼ function@pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

A: curves taken from Magnusson and Thelandersson

T *g T 1 ðkρcÞw AT T * T 1 [12]. Figure 30.12 shows some typical curves.

g

The curves are calculated for wall, floor, and

ð30:58Þ ceiling materials with “normal” thermal

where properties from an energy balance which assumes

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment enclosing a uniform temperature in the compartment.

surfaces (m2)

Compared to the experimental data, the model Japanese Method

for gas temperature in the enclosure is proposed

below for the growing period of fire before burn- The McCaffery’s method (Equation 30.12)

out occurs, was originally derived for fuel-controlled fires

0 11=2 [24]. However, the formula was extended to

pﬃ

Tg T1 t Q_c calculate the temperature of ventilation controlled

¼ 0:5@pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

A fires as well [25]. The fire temperature in the com-

T *g T 1 ðkρcÞw AT T * T 1

g partment and fire duration are calculated by

ð30:59Þ !2=3

Q

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

T f ¼ 1, 280 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ t1=6 þ T 1

AT kρc Ao H o

Swedish Method ð30:60Þ

and Thelandersson [12], is based on the conven-

tional mass and energy balance equations.

1 FL Ar

The fire itself is not modeled; heat release tD ¼ ð30:61Þ

where 60 Q

rate curves are provided as input and, in all

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1017

1200

Ao Ho /At = 0.02 m–1/2 Ao Ho /At = 0.04 m–1/2

1000

Qt = 250 MJ/m2

600

50 100 150 200 100 200 300 400

400 37.5 75

25 50

200 12.5 25

Tg (°C)

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (hr)

1200

Ao Ho /At = 0.08 m–1/2 Ao Ho /At = 0.12 m–1/2

1000

Qt = 1000 MJ/m2 Qt = 1500 MJ/m2

800

600

200 400 600 800 300 600 900 1200

400

225

150 150

200 100

50 75

1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (hr)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Fig. 30.12 Examples of gas temperature-time curves of area, At, and the opening factor Ao H o =At . Fire compart-

postflashover compartment fires for different values of the ment, type A—from authorized Swedish standard

fire load density Q_ t MJ per unit of total internal surface specifications [12]

Q ¼ Heat release rate by combustion (MW) The heat release rate is calculated by the

AT ¼ Internal surface area of compartment burning type index (fraction of ventilation factor

enclosure (m2) to surface area of fuel),

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

kρc ¼ Thermal inertia of compartment enclo- pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ao H o

sure (kW.s1/2/m2.K) χ¼ : ð30:62Þ

Afuel

Ao ¼ Area of window opening (m2)

Ho ¼ Height of window opening (m) The fuel surface area was assumed to follow the

T1 ¼ Initial and ambient temperatures ( C) following formula [26].

FL ¼ Fire load density (MJ/m2) 1=3

Ar ¼ Floor area of the room (m2) Afuel ¼ 0:26FL Aroom ð30:63Þ

tD ¼ Fire duration (min.) Using burning type index, the heat release rate is

calculated by

8

>

> 1:6χ ðχ 0:081Þ

<

Q ¼ Afuel 0:13 ð0:081 < χ 0:1Þ ð30:64Þ

>

>

:

2:5χexpð11χ Þ þ 0:048 ð0:1 < χ Þ

1018 W.D. Walton et al.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

maximum temperature of a room; 3 m width concrete with kρc ¼ 1:75 kW s1=2 =m2 K. Per-

3 m in floor depth 2.4 m high with a door form calculation until burnout.

opening installed at 1.8 m high 0.6 m wide. The fuel surface area and ventilation

The internal surface area is 31.32 m2. The fire factors are

load density is 720 MJ/m2.

1=3

Afuel ¼ 0:26 FL Aroom ¼ 0:26 7201=3 ð3 3Þ ¼ 21:0 m2

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ao Ho ¼ 0:6 1:8 1:8 ¼ 1:45 m5=2

The burning type index is For example, the fire temperature at fire

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ duration is

Ao H o 1:45

χ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:069

Afuel 21:0 T f ¼ 522 46:61=6 þ 20 ¼ 1, 009 C

As χ < 0.081, fire is ventilation-controlled. The

heat release rate and fire duration are

Predicting Flashover

Q ¼ Afuel 1:6χ ¼ 21:0 1:6 0:069 ¼ 2:32MW

1 FL Ar 1 720 3 3 One use of predicted compartment fire

tD ¼ ¼ ¼ 46:6 min:

60 Q 60 2:32 temperatures is estimating the likelihood of

flashover. The methods used are similar to those

Combining the results, the fire temperature in the

used in the prediction of temperature. In one case,

compartment can be calculated by the following

that of McCaffrey et al., the method is simply an

equation as shown in Fig. 30.13.

extension of the temperature calculation.

!2=3

Q

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

T f ¼ 1, 280 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ t1=6 þ T 0

AT kρc Ao H o Method of Babrauskas

2=3

2:32

¼ 1, 280 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃpﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ t1=6 þ 20 Babrauskas uses the energy balance for the upper

31:32 1:75 1:45

layer given in Equation 30.8, where the gas flow

¼ 522t1=6 þ 20 rate out of the opening is approximated by [27]

temperature-time curve

calculated by Japanese 1000

method

Temperature (°C)

800

600

400

200

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

Time(min)

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1019

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

m_ g 0:5Ao Ho ð30:65Þ Q_ ¼ 0:5 Q_ stoich

The primary energy loss is assumed to be which, substituting into Equation 30.68 yields

radiation to 40 % of the wall area, which is at pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Q_ ¼ 750Ao Ho ð30:69Þ

approximately ambient temperature:

The 33 test fires used had energy release rates

qloss ¼ εσ T 4g T 41 ð0:40AT Þ ð30:66Þ from 11 to 3840 kW, with fuels primarily of wood

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

and polyurethane. Ventilation factors Ao H o

where ranged from 0.03 to 7.51 m5/2, and surface area

ε ¼ Emissivity of the hot gas to ventilation factor ratios

σ ¼ Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.67 1011

kW/m2K4 AT

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Combining Equations 30.8, 30.65 and 30.66, Ao H o

using a gas temperature for flashover of 873 K, a ranged from 9 to 65 m1/2.

specific heat of air of 1.0 kJ/kgK, an emissivity

of 0.5, and assuming the correlation between Example of Babrauskas’s Method Calculate

compartment wall and opening area of the heat release rate necessary to cause flashover,

AT using the method of Babrauskas. Assume the

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 50 same room as in the McCaffrey et al. method

Ao H o

example for predicting compartment fire

yields a minimum Q_ required for flashover, temperatures. From Equation 30.69

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q_ ¼ 750Ao Ho

Q_ ¼ 600Ao Ho ð30:67Þ

where

The airflow into the compartment has been Ao ¼ 1.08 m2

approximated as Ho ¼ 1.8 m

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Q_ ¼ (750)(1.08)(1.8)1/2 ¼ 1087 kW

0:5Ao Ho

Method of McCaffrey, Quintiere,

completely with this air is known as the stoichio-

and Harkleroad

metric amount. For most fuels, the heat released

per mass of air consumed is a constant approxi-

The method of McCaffrey, Quintiere, and

mately equal to 3000 kJ/kg. Therefore, the

Harkleroad for predicting compartment fire

stoichiometric heat release rate can be Q_ stoich temperatures may be extended to predict the

calculated: energy release rate of the fire required to result

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ in flashover in the compartment.

Q_ stoich ¼ 3, 000 m_ g ¼ 3, 000 0:5Ao H o

Equation 30.12 can be rewritten as

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

¼ 1, 500Ao H o " #1=2

ð30:68Þ pﬃﬃﬃ ΔT g 3 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

_

Q¼ g c p ρ1 T 1

2

h k AT Ao H o

480

From this derivation, it is shown that the min-

ð30:70Þ

imum Q_ required for flashover equals 0:4 Q_ stoich .

Comparing these results with fire tests, Selecting an upper gas temperature of 522 C

Babrauskas found that the data fall within a and ambient temperature of 295 K or ΔTg ¼

range of Q_ ¼ 0:3 Q_ stoich to Q_ ¼ 0:7 Q_ stoich . 500 C for flashover, and substituting values for

A best fit of the data suggests the gravitational constant (g ¼ 9.8 m/s2), the

1020 W.D. Walton et al.

specific heat of air (cp ¼ 1.0 kJ/kgK), and the Method of Thomas

density of air (ρ1 ¼ 1.18 kg/m3), and rounding

607.8–610 yields Thomas uses the energy balance for the upper

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1=2 layer shown in Equation 30.8, where the gas flow

Q_ ¼ 610 hk AT Ao H o ð30:71Þ rate out of the opening is approximated by [2]

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

where m_ g 0:5Ao Ho ð30:73Þ

hk ¼ Effective heat transfer coefficient

Thomas develops an expression for q_ loss which

(kW/m2K)

assumes the area for the source of radiation for

AT ¼ Total area of the compartment surfaces (m2)

roughly cubical compartments is AT/6:

Ao ¼ Area of opening (m2)

Ho ¼ Height of opening (m) AT

A

T

Using Equation 30.13 yields a slightly differ- q_ loss hc T g T w þ εσ 2T 4g T 4floor

2 6

ent value, 623.6 rounded to 620, of the leading ð30:74Þ

coefficient because of the difference in the value

used for the specific heat of air: where

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1=2 AT ¼ Total area of the compartment-enclosing

Q_ ¼ 620 hk AT Ao H o ð30:72Þ surfaces (m2)

hc ¼ Convective heat transfer coefficient

The use of either 610 or 620 is acceptable (kW/m2K)

within the accuracy of the expression. Tw ¼ Temperature of the upper walls (K)

Tfloor ¼ Temperature of the floor (K)

Example of McCaffrey et al.’s Method Estimate From experimental data, Thomas developed

the energy release rate required for flashover of a an average for q_ loss of 7.8 AT. Using an upper

compartment. Assume the same room as in the layer temperature of 577 C or a ΔTg of 600 C

McCaffrey et al. method example for predicting for flashover criterion and cp ¼ 1.26 kJ/kgK

compartment fire temperatures. Assuming yields an expression for the minimum rate of

ΔTg ¼ 500 C as a condition for flashover, and energy release for flashover:

air properties at 295 K, use Equation 30.71 and pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

assume the compartment has heated for a period Q_ ¼ 7:8AT þ 378Ao Ho ð30:75Þ

of time that exceeds the thermal penetration time.

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1=2

Q_ ¼ 610 hk AT Ao Ho Comparison of Methods for Predicting

Flashover

where

Babrauskas has compared the effect of room wall

k 0:48 103 area on the energy release required for flashover,

hk ¼ ¼ ¼ 0:03 kW=m2 K

δ 0:016 using the above methods [28]. The results of his

comparisons, along with some experimental data

for rooms with gypsum board walls, are shown in

AT ¼ 45.72 m2

Fig. 30.14. The graph shows the energy required

Ao ¼ 1.08 m2

for flashover as a function of compartment wall

Ho ¼ 1.8 m

area, both normalized by the ventilation factor

Therefore, pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Ao Ho . The method of Babrauskas used in this

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ1=2 graph is based on Equation 30.32 with T1 ¼ 25

Q_ ¼ 610 ð0:03Þ ð45:72Þ ð1:08Þ 1:8

C and Tg ¼ 600 C. Babrauskas observes that

¼ 860 kW over the range of compartment sizes of most

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1021

room wall area (gypsum 50% of stoichiometric line Thomas

walls) on the heat required Babrauskas

for flashover

1.0

1400

Q /Ao Ho (kW·m–5/2)

1200 0.8

1000

0.6

800

600 0.4

400

0.2

200

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Aw

(m–1/2)

Ao H o

interest, all of the methods produce similar k thermal conductivity of the wall

results. The method of McCaffrey et al. diverts (kW/mK)

from the others for small room sizes. Babrauskas L fire load, wood (kg)

notes that all of the methods are a conservative m mass of the gas in the compartment

representation of the data. (kg/s)

ṁa mass flow rate of air into an opening

(kg/s)

Nomenclature ṁg gas flow rate out the opening (kg/s)

ṁf mass burning rate of fuel (kg/s)

Aceiling area of compartment ceiling (m2) ṁf,st stoichiometric mass burning rate of

Af pool fire area (m2) fuel (kg/s)

Afloor area of compartment floor (m2) m_ 00w mass per unit area of the wall (kg/m2)

Ao area of openings (m2) q_ loss net radiative and convective

AT total area of the compartment heat transfer from the upper gas layer

enclosing surfaces (m2) (kW)

Awalls area of compartment walls (m2) _

Q energy (heat) release rate of the fire

bp maximum combustion efficiency (kW)

c specific heat of the wall (kJ/kgK) _

Q stoich

stoichiometric heat release rate (kW)

Cd orifice constriction coefficient

t time (s)

cp specific heat of gas (kJ/kgK)

tp thermal penetration time (s)

D compartment depth (m)

Tb liquid boiling point (K)

g acceleration due to gravity, 9.8 m/s2

Tfloor temperature of the floor (K)

hc convective heat transfer coefficient

Tg temperature of the upper gas layer

Δhc effective heat of combustion of the

(K)

fuel (kJ/kg)

Tp thermal penetration time (s)

hg heat transfer coefficient on the hot side

Tw wall temperature (K)

of the wall (kW/m2K)

T1 ambient temperature (K)

hk effective heat transfer coefficient

W compartment width (m)

(kW/m2K)

Wo width of opening (m)

h1 heat transfer coefficient on the ambient

Xd height of the interface (m)

side of the wall (kW/m2K)

XN height of neutral plane (m)

Ho height of opening (m)

1022 W.D. Walton et al.

Greek Letters sure,” Combustion Science and Technology, 12, pp.

165–175 (1976).

8. P.H. Thomas and A.J.M. Heselden, “Fully Developed

δ thickness of the wall (m) Fires in Single Compartments,” Fire Research Note

ε emissivity of the hot gas No. 923, Fire Research Station, Borehamwood, UK

ρ density of the wall (kg/m3) (1972).

9. K. Kawagoe, “Fire Behaviour in Rooms,” Report of the

ρ1 ambient air density (kg/m3) Building Research Institute, No.27, Building Research

σ Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 1011 Institute, Ministry of Contruction, Japan (1958).

kW/m2K4 10. P.H. Thomas and A.J.M. Heselden, “Fully Developed

Fires in Single Compartments,” CIB Report No. 20, A

Co-operating Research Programme of the Conseil

Subscripts International du Batiment, Joint Fire Research Orga-

nization Fire Research Note 923/197.

a air 11. M. Law, Structural Engineering, 61A, 1, p. 25 (1983).

b boiling 12. S.E. Magnusson and S. Thelandersson, “Temperature-

Time Curves of Complete Process of Fire Develop-

d thermal discontinuity ment. Theoretical Study of Wood Fuel Fires in

f fuel Enclosed Spaces,” Civil Engineering and Building

g gas Construction Series No. 65, Acta Polytechnica

N neutral plane Scandinavia, Stockholm, Sweden (1970).

13. B.J. McCaffrey, J.G. Quintiere, and M.F. Harkleroad,

o opening “Estimating Room Fire Temperatures and the Likeli-

stoich stoichiometric hood of Flashover Using Fire Test Data Correlations,”

T total Fire Technology, 17, 2, pp. 98–119 (1981).

w wall 14. J.G. Quintiere, “A Simple Correlation for Predicting

Temperature in a Room Fire,” NBSIR 83-2712,

1 ambient National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC

(June 1983).

Superscripts 15. J.R. Lawson and J.G. Quintiere, “Slide-Rule

Estimates of Fire Growth,” NBSIR 85-3196,

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC

. per unit time (s1) (June 1985).

00

per unit area (m1) 16. K.L. Foote, P.J. Pagni, and N.J. Alvares, “Tempera-

ture Correlations for Forced-Ventilated Compartment

Fires,” in Proceedings of the First International Sym-

posium, International Association for Fire Safety Sci-

References ence, Hemisphere Publishing, Newport, Australia,

pp. 139–148 (1986).

1. D. Drysdale, “The Pre-Flashover Compartment Fire,” 17. C. Beyler, “Analysis of Compartment Fires with

An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, John Wiley and Forced Ventilation,” Fire Safety Science—

Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 278–303 (1985). Proceedings of the Third International Symposium,

2. P.H. Thomas, “Testing Products and Materials for Elsevier Science, New York, pp. 291–300 (1991).

Their Contribution to Flashover in Rooms,” Fire and 18. S. Deal and C. Beyler, “Correlating Preflashover

Materials, 5, 3, pp. 103–111 (1981). Room Fire Temperatures,” Journal of Fire Protection

3. K. Suzuki, K. Harada, T. Tanaka, “A Multi-Layer Engineering, 2, 2, pp. 33–88 (1990).

Zone Model for Predicting Fire Behavior in a Single 19. M.J. Peatross and C.L. Beyler, “Thermal Environ-

Room”, Fire Safety Science - Proceedings of the 7th mental Prediction in Steel-bounded Preflashover

International Symposium on Fire Safety Science, Compartment Fires,” in Fire Safety Science—

Worcester, June 2002, pp. 851–862, 2003 Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium,

4. NFPA 259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat International Association for Fire Safety Science,

of Building Materials Boston, pp. 205–216 (1994).

5. C. Huggett, “Estimation of Rate of Heat Release by 20. V. Babrauskas, “A Closed-Form Approximation for

Means of Oxygen Consumption Measurements,” Fire Post-Flashover Compartment Fire Temperatures,”

and Materials, 4, 2, pp. 61–65 (1980). Fire Safety Journal, 4, pp. 63–73 (1981).

6. J. de Ris, Fire Radiation—A Review, Tech. Report 21. V. Babrauskas and R. B. Williamson, “Post-Flashover

FMRC, RC78-BT-27, Factory Mutual Research Cor- Compartment Fires: Basis of a Theoretical Model,”

poration, Norwood, MA, pp. 1–41 (1978). Fire and Materials, 2, 2, pp. 39–53 (1978).

30 Estimating Temperatures in Compartment Fires 1023

22. V. Babrauskas, “COMPF2—A Program for Calculat- 28. V. Babrauskas, “Upholstered Furniture Room

ing Post-Flashover Fire Temperatures,” NBS TN 991, Fires—Measurements, Comparison with Furniture

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (1979). Calorimeter Data, and Flashover Predictions,” Jour-

23. M. Delichatsios, Y. P. Lee, P. Tofilo (2009) A new nal of Fire Science, 2, pp. 5–19 (1984).

correlation for gas temperature inside a burning enclo-

sure. Fire Safety Journal 44(8):1003–1009

24. Ministry of construction of Japan, Notification 1430, William D. Walton is retired from the Building and Fire

2000 Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and

25. K. Matsuyama, T. Fujita, H. Kaneko, Y. Ohmiya, Technology.

T. Tanaka, T. Wakamatsu, “A Simple Predictive

Method for Room Fire Behavior”, Fire Science and Philip H. Thomas was with the Fire Research Station,

Technology, Vol. 18 (1998) No. 1 Borehamwood, England.

26. K. Aburano, H. Yamanaka, Y. Ohmiya, K. Suzuki,

T. Tanaka, T. Wakamatsu, “Survey and Analysis on Yoshifumi Ohmiya is a professor in the department of

Surface Area of Fire Load”, Fire Science and Tech- architecture, graduate school of science and technology,

nology, Vol. 19 (1999) No. 1 Tokyo University of Science.

27. V. Babrauskas, “Estimating Room Flashover

Potential,” Fire Technology, 16, 2, pp. 94–104 (1980).

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