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Part 1 of CAE lecture notes of Dr. Mohsen Khajehzade ar AUT

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Computer Aided

Engineering

Instructor:

Dr. M. Khajehzadeh

Introduction

Deformation of a body can be described by a displacement field {u} as a

function of position:

Introduction

By applying moment equilibrium, only 6 independent components are

needed to describe the stress state at a certain point:

Introduction

The strain is a quantity used to describe how material is stretched and twisted.

Only 6 independent components are needed to describe the strain state at a

certain point:

Introduction

In structural analysis, we use following quantities to describe the response of a

structure subjected to environmental condition:

equations to solve these 15 quantities. These equations are called Governing

Equations, since the govern the structure’s behaviors:

• (a) Strain-displacement relations

• (b) Stress-strain relations

• (c) Equilibrium Equations

Introduction

Introduction

(c) Equilibrium Equations

by strain components and in turn replace the strain components by

displacement components. We can solve the three differential equations for

three displacement components.

This is how the finite element software solve the problems!

Introduction

A basic idea of the finite element methods is:

(a) to divide the entire structural body into many smaller and geometrically

simpler bodies, called elements.

(b) the equilibrium equations of each element can be written down.

(c) all the equilibrium equations are then solved simultaneously.

Introduction

freedom.

freedom.

• The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. In a special

case when the structure is a spring, {F} as external force, and {D} as the

deformation of the spring, then [K] is the spring constant.

Introduction

and loading conditions.

F

(1) (2) (3) (4)

3.1 Construct the [K] matrix, according to the elements' geometries and

the material properties.

3.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated, according to the loading

conditions.

3.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. Some component, however,

are known, according to the support conditions.

Introduction

each element are known.

{u} = [N] {d}. The interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape

functions.

relations.

5.3 Calculate stress fields according to the stress-strain relations

(Hooke's law).

Introduction

of displacement fields (functions of X, Y, Z) from nodal displacements

(discrete values):

linear and thus the shape functions are linear (of X, Y, Z).

Introduction

elements before I can trust the F

solution?

convergence tests:

1. Begin with a mesh discretization

and then observe the solution.

mesh and then compare the results

with the previous test.

amount however, it will be necessary to

try a finer mesh yet!

Introduction

More calculation time

Large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)

that give you a converged solution

displacement, so it is not sufficient to examine the

displacement convergence!

Introduction

ANSYS

(b)both linear and non-linear structural analysis

(c) heat transfer

(d)fluid problems

(e) Acoustic

(f) electro-magnetic

Introduction

three stages:

(b) Define element type and material/geometric properties

(c) Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required

Note:

The amount of detail required will depend on:

1D, 2D, axi-symmetric, 3D

Introduction

three stages:

2. Solution

Here we specify

• the loads (point or pressure)

• constraints (translational and rotational)

• solve the resulting set of equations.

Introduction

three stages:

3. Post Processing

• Lists of nodal displacements

• Deflection plots

Introduction

Starting up ANSYS

simple:

• Start Menu

• All Programs

• ANSYS 14.5

• Mechanical APDL 14.5

Introduction

Windows is simple:

• Start Menu

• All Programs

• ANSYS 14.5

• Workbench 14.5

Introduction

1.Main Window:

Introduction

1.Main Window:

Utility Menu

The Utility Menu contains functions that are available

throughout the ANSYS session, such as file controls,

selections, graphic controls and parameters.

Input Window

allows you to type in commands directly.

Introduction

1.Main Window:

Toolbar

The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute

commonly used ANSYS commands. More push buttons

can be added if desired

Main Menu

organized by preprocessor, solution, general

postprocessor, design optimizer.

Introduction

1.Main Window:

Graphics Window

The Graphic

Window is where

graphics are shown

and graphical

picking can be

made.

Introduction

2. Output Window

shows text output

from the program,

such as listing of data

etc.

Introduction

ANSYS Interface

1.Graphical Interface

This is done by means of the graphical user interface or

GUI.

• Enables easy model modifications

• Minimal file space requirements

Introduction

ANSYS Files

This file stores the geometry, boundary conditions and any

solutions.

You need only activate the resume command to proceed

from where you last left off.

Backup of the database files are saved as *.dbb format.

Introduction

ANSYS Files

Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands

used during the current session.

This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an

ANSYS session.

Introduction

ANSYS Files

To save your model:

Select Utility Menu Bar

File

Save As Jobname.db

where jobname is the name that you specified.

Resuming a Previously Saved Job

(a)Select Utility Menu

File

Resume Jobname.db

(b) Select Utility Menu

File

Resume from

select your job from the list that appears

Introduction

demonstrated here:

cosmetic features like rounds,

chamfers, holes, etc.

- You must compromise between

accuracy and available CPU

resources.

Introduction

demonstrated here:

IGES ( *.igs)

or

Step (*.stp or *.step)

format in order to import

into Ansys Software.

Introduction

demonstrated here:

File

Import

IGES

Select the IGES file

Press ok

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