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In the Name of God

Computer Aided
Engineering
Instructor:
Dr. M. Khajehzadeh
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


Deformation of a body can be described by a displacement field {u} as a
function of position:
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


By applying moment equilibrium, only 6 independent components are
needed to describe the stress state at a certain point:
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


The strain is a quantity used to describe how material is stretched and twisted.
Only 6 independent components are needed to describe the strain state at a
certain point:
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


In structural analysis, we use following quantities to describe the response of a
structure subjected to environmental condition:

These 15 quantities are not independent each other. We must establish 15


equations to solve these 15 quantities. These equations are called Governing
Equations, since the govern the structure’s behaviors:
• (a) Strain-displacement relations
• (b) Stress-strain relations
• (c) Equilibrium Equations
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

(a) Strain-Displacement relations

(b) Stress- Strain relations (Hook’s Law)


Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


(c) Equilibrium Equations

Note; It is possible to replace stress components in the equilibrium equations


by strain components and in turn replace the strain components by
displacement components. We can solve the three differential equations for
three displacement components.
This is how the finite element software solve the problems!
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)


A basic idea of the finite element methods is:

(a) to divide the entire structural body into many smaller and geometrically
simpler bodies, called elements.
(b) the equilibrium equations of each element can be written down.
(c) all the equilibrium equations are then solved simultaneously.
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Basic Idea)

In static cases, the system of equilibrium equations has following form:

• The displacement vector {D} contains displacements of all degrees of


freedom.

• The force vector {F} contains forces acting on all degrees of


freedom.

• The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. In a special
case when the structure is a spring, {F} as external force, and {D} as the
deformation of the spring, then [K] is the spring constant.
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Procedure)

1. Given the bodies' geometries, material properties, support conditions,


and loading conditions.
F

2. Divide the bodies into elements.


(1) (2) (3) (4)

(5) (6) (7) (8)

(9) (10) (11) (12)

3. Establish the equilibrium equation: [K] {D} = {F}


3.1 Construct the [K] matrix, according to the elements' geometries and
the material properties.
3.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated, according to the loading
conditions.
3.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. Some component, however,
are known, according to the support conditions.
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Procedure)

4. Solve the equilibrium equation. Now, the nodal displacements {d} of


each element are known.

5. For each element:

5.1 Calculate displacement fields {u}, using an interpolating method,


{u} = [N] {d}. The interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape
functions.

5.2 Calculate strain fields according to the strain-displacement


relations.
5.3 Calculate stress fields according to the stress-strain relations
(Hooke's law).
Introduction

Finite Element Modeling (Shape Function)

Shape functions serve as interpolating functions, allowing the calculation


of displacement fields (functions of X, Y, Z) from nodal displacements
(discrete values):

For elements with nodes at vertices, the interpolation must be


linear and thus the shape functions are linear (of X, Y, Z).
Introduction

Convergence Test (FEM)

 How small do I need to make the


elements before I can trust the F
solution?

 It will be necessary to conduct


convergence tests:
1. Begin with a mesh discretization
and then observe the solution.

2. Repeat the problem with a finer


mesh and then compare the results
with the previous test.

3. If the results differ by a large


amount however, it will be necessary to
try a finer mesh yet!
Introduction

Convergence Test (FEM)

 Finer meshes come with :


 More calculation time
 Large memory requirements (both disk and RAM)

 It is desired to find the minimum number of elements


that give you a converged solution

 Stresses will converge more slowly than the


displacement, so it is not sufficient to examine the
displacement convergence!
Introduction

ANSYS

- A general purpose finite element modeling package

- Solving a wide variety of mechanical problems:

(a)static/dynamic structural analysis


(b)both linear and non-linear structural analysis
(c) heat transfer
(d)fluid problems
(e) Acoustic
(f) electro-magnetic
Introduction

ANSYS Solution Stages:

a finite element solution may be broken into the following


three stages:

1.Preprocessing (defining the problem)

The major steps in preprocessing are given below:

(a) Define key points/lines/areas/volumes


(b) Define element type and material/geometric properties
(c) Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required

Note:
The amount of detail required will depend on:
1D, 2D, axi-symmetric, 3D
Introduction

ANSYS Solution Stages:

a finite element solution may be broken into the following


three stages:

2. Solution
Here we specify
• the loads (point or pressure)
• constraints (translational and rotational)
• solve the resulting set of equations.
Introduction

ANSYS Solution Stages:

a finite element solution may be broken into the following


three stages:

3. Post Processing

Further processing and viewing of the results:


• Lists of nodal displacements

• Element forces and moments

• Deflection plots

• Stress contour diagrams


Introduction

Starting up ANSYS

Starting up ANSYS in Windows is


simple:
• Start Menu
• All Programs
• ANSYS 14.5
• Mechanical APDL 14.5
Introduction

Starting up ANSYS Workbench

Starting up ANSYS Workbench in


Windows is simple:
• Start Menu
• All Programs
• ANSYS 14.5
• Workbench 14.5
Introduction

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Introduction

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Utility Menu
The Utility Menu contains functions that are available
throughout the ANSYS session, such as file controls,
selections, graphic controls and parameters.

Input Window

The Input Line shows program prompt messages and


allows you to type in commands directly.
Introduction

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Toolbar
The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute
commonly used ANSYS commands. More push buttons
can be added if desired

Main Menu

The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions,


organized by preprocessor, solution, general
postprocessor, design optimizer.
Introduction

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

1.Main Window:
Graphics Window
The Graphic
Window is where
graphics are shown
and graphical
picking can be
made.
Introduction

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 14.5 contains 2 windows:

2. Output Window

The Output Window


shows text output
from the program,
such as listing of data
etc.
Introduction

ANSYS Interface

There are two methods to use ANSYS:

1.Graphical Interface
This is done by means of the graphical user interface or
GUI.

2.Command File Coding

• Entire analysis can be described in a small text file


• Enables easy model modifications
• Minimal file space requirements
Introduction

ANSYS Files

Database file (*.db)


This file stores the geometry, boundary conditions and any
solutions.
You need only activate the resume command to proceed
from where you last left off.
Backup of the database files are saved as *.dbb format.

Error file (*.err)

Listing of all error and warning messages.


Introduction

ANSYS Files

Log file (*.log)


Listing of all equivalent ANSYS command line commands
used during the current session.

Output of all ANSYS operations (*.out)


This is what normally scrolls in the output window during an
ANSYS session.
Introduction

ANSYS Files

Saving Your Job


To save your model:
Select Utility Menu Bar
File
Save As Jobname.db
where jobname is the name that you specified.
Resuming a Previously Saved Job

There are two methods to do this:


(a)Select Utility Menu
File
Resume Jobname.db
(b) Select Utility Menu
File
Resume from
select your job from the list that appears
Introduction

Finite Element Method using CAD Softwares and ANSYS

The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be


demonstrated here:

Step 1. Make the part

- Be aware of your model units

- Note the orientation of the model

- Remove all unnecessary and/or


cosmetic features like rounds,
chamfers, holes, etc.
- You must compromise between
accuracy and available CPU
resources.
Introduction

Finite Element Method using CAD Softwares and ANSYS

The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be


demonstrated here:

Step 2. Save the part

- You can save your work with


IGES ( *.igs)
or
Step (*.stp or *.step)
format in order to import
into Ansys Software.
Introduction

Finite Element Method using CAD Softwares and ANSYS

The transfer of a model from CAD Soft wares to ANSYS will be


demonstrated here:

Step 3. Import the part

You can import your model with:


File
Import
IGES

Browse into file location :


Select the IGES file
Press ok