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ABSTRACT

Low back pain was still found in the community. It also found among workers of
various types of work. Workers of the finishing department which work manually
(manual handling) has a high risk of experiencing low back pain. If not
anticipated, this can lead to a decrease in productivity. Other risk factors such as
age, sex, length of service, body mass index, physical activity and a history of
back injury also affect the occurrence of low back pain. This study aims to
determine the relationship between age, sex, length of service and weight with low
back pain. The research design used in this study is cross-sectional, located in PT
X West Java with a sample of 80 people. The results of this research showed the
prevalence of low back pain in the workers of finishing department at PT X 70%.
This research technique analyze use Chi-Square test with a significant level α =
0.05. The result of bivariate analysis of age with low back pain complaints
showed p value = 0.556 that means no relationship, the sex with low back pain
complaints showed p value = 0.407 that means no relationship, the working
period with low back pain complaint showed p value = 0.444 that means no
relationship, and the weight of the load with low back pain complaints showed p
value = 0.143 that means no relationship.

Keywords: low back pain, age, sex, length of service, weight

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ABSTRAK

Nyeri punggung bawah masih menjadi keluhan yang banyak dijumpai di


masyarakat. Hal ini juga banyak djumpai pada pekerja dari berbagai jenis
pekerjaan. Pekerja bagian finishing yang bekerja secara manual (manual
handling) memiliki risiko tinggi mengalami nyeri punggung bawah. Jika tidak
diantisipasi, hal ini dapat menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan produktivitas.
Faktor risiko lain seperti umur, jenis kelamin, masa kerja, indeks massa tubuh,
aktivitas fisik dan riwayat cedera punggung juga mempengaruhi terjadinya nyeri
punggung bawah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara
umur, jenis kelamin, masa kerja dan berat beban dengan nyeri punggung bawah.
Desain penelitian yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional,
berlokasi di PT X Jawa Barat dengan besar sampel 80 orang. Hasil penelitian
didapatkan prevalensi nyeri punggung bawah pada pekerja bagian finishing di PT
X sebesar 70%. Analisis hubungan menggunakan uji Chi-Square dengan tingkat
signifikan α= 0.05. Hasil analisis bivariat faktor umur dengan keluhan nyeri
punggung bawah menunjukkan nilai p = 0.556 yang berarti tidak ada hubungan,
jenis kelamin dengan keluhan nyeri punggung bawah menunjukkan nilai p =
0.407 yang berarti tidak ada hubungan, masa kerja dengan keluhan nyeri
punggung bawah menunjukkan nilai p = 0.444 yang berarti tidak ada hubungan,
dan berat beban dengan keluhan nyeri punggung bawah menunjukkan nilai p =
0.143 yang berarti tidak ada hubungan.

Kata-kata kunci : nyeri punggung bawah, umur, jenis kelamin, masa kerja, berat
beban

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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL............................................................................................ i
HALAMAN PERNYATAAN ORISINALITAS ................................................ ii
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN ............................................................................iii
KATA PENGANTAR ....................................................................................... iv
HALAMAN PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI
KARYA ILMIAH........................................................................................... v
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... vi
ABSTRAK ..................................................................................................... vii
DAFTAR ISI ....................................................................................................viii
DAFTAR TABEL ............................................................................................... x
DAFTAR GAMBAR ......................................................................................... xi
DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ..................................................................................... xii
1. PENDAHULUAN ...................................................................................... 1
1.1 Latar Belakang.................................................................................... 1
1.2 Rumusan Masalah .............................................................................. 2
1.2.1 Pernyataan Masalah ................................................................ 2
1.2.2 Pertanyaan Masalah ................................................................ 2
1.3 Hipotesis Penelitian ............................................................................ 3
1.4 Tujuan ................................................................................................. 3
1.4.1 Tujuan Umum ......................................................................... 3
1.4.2 Tujuan Khusus ........................................................................ 3
1.5 Manfaat ............................................................................................... 3
1.5.1 Bagi Responden ...................................................................... 3
1.5.2 Bagi Pabrik Kertas .................................................................. 4
1.5.3 Bagi Ilmu Pengetahuan ........................................................... 4
1.5.4 Bagi Peneliti ........................................................................... 4
2. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ............................................................................. 5
2.1 Anatomi Tulang Belakang .................................................................. 5
2.2 Nyeri ................................................................................................. 12
2.3 Nyeri Punggung Bawah .................................................................... 13
2.3.1 Definisi ................................................................................. 13
2.3.2 Faktor Risiko ........................................................................ 13
2.3.3 Etiologi ................................................................................. 16
2.3.4 Patofisiologi .......................................................................... 18
2.3.5 Klasifikasi ............................................................................. 19
2.4 Kesehatan Kerja ................................................................................ 21
2.4.1 Definisi ................................................................................. 21
2.4.2 Beban Kerja .......................................................................... 21
2.4.3 Beban Tambahan Akibat Lingkungan Kerja ........................ 22
2.4.4 Kapasitas Kerja ..................................................................... 23
2.5 Faal Kerja ......................................................................................... 24
2.6 Ergonomi .......................................................................................... 26
2.7 Manual Material Handling............................................................... 27
2.8 Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) .......................... 30
2.9 Kerangka Teori ................................................................................. 31
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2.10 Kerangka Konsep ............................................................................. 31
3. METODOLOGI PENELITIAN ............................................................. 32
3.1 Desain Penelitian .............................................................................. 32
3.2 Tempat dan Waktu............................................................................ 32
3.3 Populasi dan Sampel Penelitian........................................................ 32
3.4 Perkiraan Besar Sampel .................................................................... 32
3.5 Kriteria Inklusi dan Eksklusi ............................................................ 33
3.6 Cara Kerja Penelitian ........................................................................ 34
3.7 Variabel Penelitian ........................................................................... 34
3.8 Definisi Operasional ......................................................................... 35
3.9 Instrumen Penelitian ......................................................................... 36
3.10 Pengumpulan Data ............................................................................ 36
3.11 Analisis Data .................................................................................... 36
3.12 Alur Penelitian .................................................................................. 37
4. HASIL PENELITIAN ............................................................................. 38
4.1 Karakteristik Responden................................................................... 38
4.2 Hubungan Umur dengan Kejadian Nyeri
Punggung Bawah .............................................................................. 39
4.3 Hubungan Jenis Kelamin dengan Kejadian Nyeri
Punggung Bawah .............................................................................. 39
4.4 Hubungan Masa Kerja dengan Kejadian Nyeri
Punggung Bawah .............................................................................. 40
4.5 Hubungan Berat Beban dengan Kejadian Nyeri
Punggung Bawah .............................................................................. 40
5. PEMBAHASAN ....................................................................................... 42
5.1 Hubungan Karakteristik Responden dengan Kejadian
Nyeri Punggung Bawah .................................................................... 42
5.2 Hubungan Masa Kerja dengan Kejadian Nyeri Punggung
Bawah ............................................................................................... 43
5.3 Hubungan Berat Beban dengan Kejadian Nyeri
Punggung Bawah .............................................................................. 44
5.4 Keterbatasan Penelitian .................................................................... 45
5.4.1 Bias Perancu ......................................................................... 45
6. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN ................................................................ 46
6.1 Kesimpulan ....................................................................................... 46
6.2 Saran ................................................................................................. 46
DAFTAR PUSTAKA ...................................................................................... 48

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 2.1 Klasifikasi Berat Badan Berdasarkan Indeks Massa Tubuh


(IMT) untuk Orang Dewasa ............................................................. 15
Tabel 4.1 Karakteristik Responden ................................................................... 38
Tabel 4.2 Hubungan Umur dengan Kejadian Nyeri Punggung
Bawah ............................................................................................... 39
Tabel 4.3 Hubungan Jenis Kelamin dengan Kejadian Nyeri Punggung
Bawah ............................................................................................... 39
Tabel 4.4 Hubungan Masa Kerja dengan Kejadian Nyeri Punggung
Bawah ............................................................................................... 40
Tabel 4.5 Hubungan Berat Beban dengan Kejadian Nyeri Punggung
Bawah ............................................................................................... 40

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 2.1 Columna Spinalis ............................................................................ 9


Gambar 2.2 Penampang Tulang Belakang ........................................................ 12
Gambar 2.3 Metode Squat Lifting ..................................................................... 29
Gambar 2.4 Metode Semisquat Lifting.............................................................. 29
Gambar 2.5 Metode Stoop Lifting ..................................................................... 29

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