You are on page 1of 25

PETROLEUM PRODUCTION

AND OPTIMISATION
PDB 4313
RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE - PART 1 1
PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION

By

HAIZATUL HAFIZAH HUSSAIN


haizatulhafizah.hus@utp.edu.my

Office Ext. : 7373

Office : J3-02-25

2
LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:

 Describe the interaction of the reservoir system and its effect on the overall
production system.

3
LECTURE CONTENTS

 Well performance equations - Darcy’s Law

 Productivity Index Concept

 Factors affecting productivity index and IPR

4
INTRODUCTION
What causes
well to flow?

5
INTRODUCTION

What causes well to flow?

Drawdown (𝑷𝑹 − 𝑷𝒘𝒇 )

OR

Suck from the ROCK!!

6
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS

7
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
𝒌𝑨
𝒒=− ∆𝒑
𝝁𝑳
Where:
 q = flowrate, cm3
This is effectively a friction
 k = formation permeability, darcies pressure drop relationship
 A = cross-sectional area, cm2 with the addition of
permeability to account for
 -∆𝑝 = pressure drop, atmospheres
the flow resistance of the sand
 μ = fluid viscosity, centipoise

 L = pipe length, cm
8
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
LINEAR FLOW – for constant area open to flow
Table 1: Units for Darcy’s Law

Units
𝐶𝑘𝐴 𝑝1 −𝑝2 Variable Symbol Darcy Field
𝑞= Flow rate q cc/sec bbl/day
𝜇𝐿
Permeability k darcys md
Area A cm2 ft2
𝑘𝐴 Pressure drop -∆p atm psi
𝑞 = −0.001127 ∆𝒑
𝜇𝐿 Viscosity µ cp cp
Length L cm ft

Where C is a unit conversion factor.

The value for C is 1.0 for Darcy Units and 1.127 x 10-3 for Field Units. 9
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
RADIAL FLOW

 Calculate flow into a well where the fluid


is converging radially into a relatively
small hole.
 Area open to flow not constant.

Figure 1: Radial flow system (Beggs 2003)

The cross-sectional area open to


flow at any radius is 𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑟ℎ
10
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
OIL FLOW
For steady state laminar flow condition

11
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
OIL FLOW
For pseudo-steady state flow condition

12
WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -
DARCY`S LAW
GAS FLOW
For stabilized flow, PSC = 14.7 psia and TSC = 5200R

13
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

14
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT
 Productivity index (PI) is defined as flowrate divided by reservoir pressure
drop (drawdown).

 In simple word, PI means how easily fluid flow through the rock.

15
EXERCISE

A well that is producing from a reservoir having average pressure of 3200 psig
produced at a rate of 290 STB/day when bottomhole flowing pressure was
2450 psig.

Calculate:
1. The productivity index (PI)
2. The producing rate if Pwf is decreased to 2180 psig
3. The bottomhole pressure necessary to obtain an inflow of 350 STB/day
4. The inflow rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (AOF or Qomax)

16
PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

Figure 3: Semi-log plot of pressure vs. radius (Beggs 2003)


17
PERMEABILITY ALTERATION AND
TURBULENCE

Figure 4: Effects of altered permeability (Beggs 2003)


18
SKIN

Figure 5: Effects of skin factor (Beggs 2003)


19
FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY INDEX

Permeability

𝑘ℎ
Reservoir 𝑃𝐼∞
Thickness 𝜇

Viscosity

20
FACTORS AFFECTING IPR

 A decrease in kro as gas saturation increases

 An increase in oil viscosity as pressure decreases and gas is evolved

 Shrinkage of the oil as gas is evolved when pressure on the oil decreases

 Formation damage or stimulation around the wellbore

 Depletion

21
DRIVE MECHANISMS

Dissolved Gas cap


gas drive drive

Water drive Combination

22
SUMMARY

 Well performance equations - Darcy’s Law

 Productivity Index Concept

 Factors affecting productivity index and IPR

23
Have you achieved the
learning outcomes today?

Any thoughts?

24
THANK YOU

© 2017 INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PETRONAS SDN BHD 25


All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.