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PPO - Reservoir Performance - Part 1 - S92018

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AND OPTIMISATION

PDB 4313

RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE - PART 1 1

PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION

By

haizatulhafizah.hus@utp.edu.my

Office : J3-02-25

2

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Describe the interaction of the reservoir system and its effect on the overall

production system.

3

LECTURE CONTENTS

4

INTRODUCTION

What causes

well to flow?

5

INTRODUCTION

OR

6

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS

7

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

𝒌𝑨

𝒒=− ∆𝒑

𝝁𝑳

Where:

q = flowrate, cm3

This is effectively a friction

k = formation permeability, darcies pressure drop relationship

A = cross-sectional area, cm2 with the addition of

permeability to account for

-∆𝑝 = pressure drop, atmospheres

the flow resistance of the sand

μ = fluid viscosity, centipoise

L = pipe length, cm

8

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

LINEAR FLOW – for constant area open to flow

Table 1: Units for Darcy’s Law

Units

𝐶𝑘𝐴 𝑝1 −𝑝2 Variable Symbol Darcy Field

𝑞= Flow rate q cc/sec bbl/day

𝜇𝐿

Permeability k darcys md

Area A cm2 ft2

𝑘𝐴 Pressure drop -∆p atm psi

𝑞 = −0.001127 ∆𝒑

𝜇𝐿 Viscosity µ cp cp

Length L cm ft

The value for C is 1.0 for Darcy Units and 1.127 x 10-3 for Field Units. 9

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

RADIAL FLOW

is converging radially into a relatively

small hole.

Area open to flow not constant.

flow at any radius is 𝐴 = 2𝜋𝑟ℎ

10

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

OIL FLOW

For steady state laminar flow condition

11

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

OIL FLOW

For pseudo-steady state flow condition

12

WELL PERFORMANCE EQUATIONS -

DARCY`S LAW

GAS FLOW

For stabilized flow, PSC = 14.7 psia and TSC = 5200R

13

PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

14

PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

Productivity index (PI) is defined as flowrate divided by reservoir pressure

drop (drawdown).

In simple word, PI means how easily fluid flow through the rock.

15

EXERCISE

A well that is producing from a reservoir having average pressure of 3200 psig

produced at a rate of 290 STB/day when bottomhole flowing pressure was

2450 psig.

Calculate:

1. The productivity index (PI)

2. The producing rate if Pwf is decreased to 2180 psig

3. The bottomhole pressure necessary to obtain an inflow of 350 STB/day

4. The inflow rate if Pwf is reduced to zero (AOF or Qomax)

16

PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CONCEPT

17

PERMEABILITY ALTERATION AND

TURBULENCE

18

SKIN

19

FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVITY INDEX

Permeability

𝑘ℎ

Reservoir 𝑃𝐼∞

Thickness 𝜇

Viscosity

20

FACTORS AFFECTING IPR

Shrinkage of the oil as gas is evolved when pressure on the oil decreases

Depletion

21

DRIVE MECHANISMS

gas drive drive

22

SUMMARY

23

Have you achieved the

learning outcomes today?

Any thoughts?

24

THANK YOU

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photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.

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