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REVIEW

OF PHILIPPINE

HISTORY
JEREZA,GUILA T.

BSA 1-1
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Poblacion II, Malinta, Valenzuela

ARTICLE 1
Hiroo Onoda, the last Japanese soldier to give himself in: “When I surrendered, the past
seemed like a dream”
When Japanese soldier Hiroo Onoda stumbled out of the Philippine jungle in 1974,
the world had been transformed beyond his imagination. The American enemy he
fought against had become a military ally of the country he fought for. Japan had
been transformed from pariah militarist state to peaceful superpower. One of the few
things than remained unchanged was Onoda himself.

Even after learning that he had battled on for three decades against an invisible
enemy long after World War II ended in 1945, hunted by Philippine police and a
succession of Japanese search parties, he remained unrepentant. “Every minute of
every day, for 30 years, I served my country,” he said afterwards. “I have never even
wondered if that was good or bad for me as an individual.”

Trained to survive behind enemy lines, and to never surrender, Second Lt. Onoda killed
perhaps 30 innocent people and wounded up to 100 during his time on the Philippine
island of Lubang. Holed up in the jungle and surviving on bananas and coconuts, he
became notorious among locals, resisting every attempt to lure him out. Letters and
even family photographs were dropped from planes; relatives and friends flown from
Japan to plead over loudspeakers. All were ignored.

was told to cease fighting, “everything went black.”

“I felt like a fool,” he later wrote. “What had I been doing all these years?”

Onoda arrived back in Japan to a hero’s welcome, feted for his resourcefulness and
selfless dedication to a cause the country had long abandoned. His military bearing
and dignity triggered nostalgia and even sadness among many Japanese for the
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values they had lost in the rush to post-war prosperity. But Onoda was quickly
disappointed by what he saw.

Japan had been neutered in defeat, its military defanged by the US-penned
constitution, its people left with “no confidence in their culture or themselves".

The emperor, in whose name he had fought what he thought was a sacred war, had
been stripped of his god-like status and reduced to a mere symbol of the state.

Onoda found common cause with ultra-conservatives who denied Japan was an
aggressor and said it had no choice but to attack the rest of Asia. He bitterly blamed
“left-wing propaganda” for promoting war guilt in Japanese schools.

“I don’t blame the United States for this,” he wrote. “They wanted a weak Japan, and
their mission is accomplished.”

Onoda wrote a best-selling book, “No Surrender: My Thirty Year War,” bought a car with
the proceeds and travelled around Japan before leaving behind its prosperity and
materialism in 1975 and moving to Brazil to become a farmer. He returned with his new
wife in the 1980s to set up a survival-skills youth camp. He continued to be feted in
Japan, though largely by the conservatives and revisionists who adopted him.

Once asked why he had survived when so many Japanese soldiers had been killed or
starved across Asia, he said it was because he was competitive, young and healthy
and had nothing to do but focus on this orders.

“I was determined to fulfill my mission,” he said. “When I surrendered, the past seemed
like a dream.”
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PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
What do you know about the topic ?
My mother side personally came from Occidental Mindoro, Lubang Island to be
specific where this event happened. That’s why I choose this part of history because I
have a little prior knowledge about this. A lot of resident in our province know this story
including my mother who’s currently in 4th grade that time. She always told us this story
that a Japanese soldier named Hiroo Onoda who’s hiding inside the jungle of Lubang
Island for more than 29 years. He becomes the last soldier who surrenders after World
War II.
According to what I know as the Japan surrendered in 1945, the ending of World
War II. But this Japanese soldier named Hiroo Onoda did not know that the war was
already ended since he was hiding up in the mountains of Lubang island. When he
finally emerged in the jungle in 1974 and returned to Japan, he becomes a devoted
soldier in Japan. And according to my mother during his stay in our province Onoda
create bad impression to the people since they are hiding from American troops that
time Onoda and his team did everything to survive including stealing of resident’s food
and attacking them to their houses to steal rice and such. For 29 years, going to the
jungle was no easy task for the residents because somewhere in the expense was
Onoda, he lone surviving Japanese guerrilla who continued to carry out his military
orders Onoda and his men did everything to survive in the jungle and prepare d
themselves to fight till the end. Surrender was not an option to them. For many years
since World War II, Hiroo Onoda and his three Japanese soldiers lived off the resources
of the jungle and of the residents of Lubang Island – armed with warriors instincts of
survival, force intimidation.
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ADDITIONAL KNOWLEDGE

What new information did you get? What do you learn?

After reading the article I learn that it was Lt. Hiroo Onoda’s choice to not
surrender that time. Onoda remained on the island because he did not believe that the
war is over unlike in what I know that they did not know that the war is over. They we’re
given letter for them to surrender but it were his pride and love for his country to now
surrender to American soldiers. I am not informed that they killed residents from my
province I just know that they steal food but not killed. It was already former President
Ferdinand Marcos Regime when he surrenders. After he returned to Japan he was
greeted a hero which I totally did not understand why he become a hero if he killed
innocent people from my province.
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IMPLICATIONS/ REACTIONS
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ARTICLE 2

The Marcos Diary : A Lust for Power, an Eye on Glory

It came to Ferdinand Marcos like a shiver in the dawn.

"I am president. I am the most powerful man in the Philippines. All that I have dreamt of I
have," he wrote one April morning early in his second term as president.

"More accurately, I have all the material things I want of life--a wife who is loving and is
a partner in the things I do, bright children who will carry my name, a life well lived, all.

"But I feel a discontent."

At the pinnacle of his political career, Marcos remained a man hungry for power and
the validation of history--a man frustrated by the limitations of democracy. Whispering
the future, his discontent would grow into the full misery of defeat and disgrace.

Special Ally, Special Problem

Ferdinand E. Marcos, special ally of the United States, would become its special
problem. He would turn an American-tailored democracy into a dictatorship, be driven
into exile, take refuge in Hawaii and, finally, be accused by a U.S. grand jury of
plundering his homeland and the Filipino people.

A photocopy of more than 2,500 pages of his handwritten diary was obtained by The
Times through Manila government sources. A spokesman for Marcos said the former
president could not comment because of ill health. In the past, Marcos objected to The
Times' publication of excerpts from this diary as part of a story detailing his plans to
declare martial law. He called that story an "invasion of privacy."

The Marcos diary, apparently abandoned when he fled Manila in February, 1986, was
discovered about a year ago, sources said, by Philippine government investigators. The
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journal was known to exist because Marcos previously had shown portions of it to
diplomats and at least one journalist. Its original pages, handwritten mostly in blue and
black ink, were found in 30 file boxes stored in the care of presidential security officials,
the sources told The Times.

Issue of Security

Most of the entries after the mid-1970s are missing. The sources who provided the
documents deleted additional pages, in part, they said, to protect Philippine national
security.

Sample pages of the photocopy have been inspected by an expert in document


authentication, who found "virtually everything" about the samples consistent with
documented examples of Marcos' handwriting. Because the sources could provide
only photocopies--and no access to the original diary pages in Manila--the expert
could not rule out the possibility of some inauthentic pages being added. However, to
ensure accuracy, The Times independently verified details from historical accounts and
through interviews with participants in events Marcos described.

The diary offers a unique insight into the Marcos personality. It shows the hidden traits of
a dictator whom the United States and five of its Presidents--beginning with Lyndon B.
Johnson and ending with Ronald Reagan--considered a valued Pacific partner. It
demonstrates that it was Marcos' personality, as much as his country's overwhelming
social problems, that made this alliance problematic from the start.

Marcos' journal reveals an insecure but ambitious man who fell easy prey to the
temptation of unchecked authoritarian power.

The attraction of authoritarianism haunted Marcos for many months before the end of
1972, when he finally imposed martial law, arrested hundreds of his critics and political
opponents and established what he would call a "democratic dictatorship."
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When he expressed his discontent on that morning of April 3, 1971, he was already well
on his way toward declaring martial law. Here, from the diary of a dictator, is a story of
how his fascination with authoritarian rule moved from fantasy to reality.

Despite a landslide victory in his campaign for an unprecedented second term as


president, Marcos did not enjoy any honeymoon in the days following his Jan. 1, 1970,
inauguration.

The press reported allegations of corruption and election fraud; a soothsayer predicted
he would be assassinated before spring; there were rumors of a planned U.S.-supported
military coup, and violent street demonstrations drove both Marcos and his wife,
Imelda, into seclusion inside Malacanang Palace in Manila.

Outside, workers hastily constructed fortifications against mob assaults. Inside, Marcos
tried on bulletproof vests. He was a virtual prisoner of Malacanang when, shortly before
midnight, Marcos wrote:

January 28, 1970

"The pattern of subversion is slowly emerging. The danger is now apparent to me but not
to most people. (I see) the conspiracy to grab power and assassinate me ... the
terrorism ... the pink intellectuals, writers, professors and students and fellow travelers.
"And I am certain this is just the beginning. The newspapermen I have on my list are
busy placing the government in disrepute and holding it in contempt before the
people. . . . The slow chipping at the people's confidence in government authority (will
continue).
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PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
What do you know about the topic ?

Lately, our professor provided us to watch a seminar about the Batas military or the
regime of Former president Marcos. The term of Ferdinand Marcos was the most
controversial in the Philippine history. Marcos was an intellectual, capable of initiating
unimaginable ideas for himself and for his country. He served in the military and
assembled medals of prestige and honors

http://www.talonggo.com/2016/01/fray-botod-by-graciano-lopez-jaena-is.html.

https://kahimyang.com/kauswagan/articles/831/today-in-philippine-history-december-
18-1856-graciano-lopez-jaena-was-born-in-jaro-iloilo

https://kahimyang.com/kauswagan/articles/790/today-in-philippine-history-december-
2-1899-the-battle-of-tirad-pass-took-place

http://ourhappyschool.com/literature/jose-rizal%E2%80%99s-essays-and-articles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iloilo_City

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaro_Cathedral

https://www.google.com.ph/search?ei=dRSnW_S_IorLvgTzy764BQ&q=bas%C3%ADlica+
menor+del+santo+ni%C3%B1o+in+cebu+history&oq=Bas%C3%ADlica+Menor+del+Sant
o+Ni%C3%B1o+in+Cebu+hi&gs_l=psy-
ab.3.1.33i21k1j33i160k1l3.11487.12037.0.14563.3.3.0.0.0.0.178.509.0j3.3.0..3..0...1.1.64.psy-
ab..0.3.509...0i22i30k1.0.02kF6_QEIfI

https://www.britannica.com/topic/history-of-Philippines
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https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=marcos+regime+reaction+paper&oq=marcos+
regime+re&aqs=chrome.1.69i57j0l4.6852j1j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

https://www.scribd.com/doc/60383488/PolSci-Martial-Law-Reaction-Paper

https://www.scribd.com/document/318531642/Reaction-Paper-Ferdinand-Marcos

https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/63582.html

https://hstreasures.com/reaction-paper-41490/

https://www.studymode.com/subjects/reaction-paper-about-ferdinand-marcos-
page1.html