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De Vega

Subject: Assignment no.1 Course: Strength of Materials

Structures or Redundant Structures for analysis of structures to find forces based on criteria

discussed below.

foundations and so on, which remains in equilibrium. It has to satisfy the fundamental criteria of

strength, stiffness, economy, durability and compatibility, for its existence.

Any structure is designed for the stress resultants of bending moment, shear force, deflection,

torsional stresses, and axial stresses. If these moments, shears and stresses are evaluated at

various critical sections, then based on these, the proportioning can be done.

Evaluation of these stresses, moments and forces and plotting them for that structural

component is known as analysis. Determination of dimensions for these components of these

stresses and proportioning is known as design.

Determinate structures are analysed just by the use of basic equilibrium equations. By this

analysis, the unknown reactions are found for the further determination of stresses.

Redundant or indeterminate structures are not capable of being analysed by mere use of

basic equilibrium equations. Along with the basic equilibrium equations, some extra conditions

are required to be used like compatibility conditions of deformations etc to get the unknown

reactions for drawing bending moment and shear force diagrams.

Example of determinate structures are: simply supported beams, cantilever beams, single

and double overhanging beams, three hinged arches, etc.

Examples of indeterminate structures are: fixed beams, continuous beams, fixed arches, two

hinged arches, portals, multistoried frames, etc.

Special methods like strain energy method, slope deflection method, moment distribution

method, column analogy method, virtual work method, matrix methods, etc are used for the

analysis of redundant structures.

Indeterminate Structures

statics alone, i.e. . A statically indeterminate structure may

be classified as:

1(a) and (b)).

2. Internally indeterminate, (example: trusses shown in figure-1(c) and (d)).

3. Both externally and internally indeterminate, (example: trussed beams, continuous

trusses shown in figure-1 (e) and (f)).

Figure.1

A structure is usually externally indeterminate or redundant if the reactions at the supports can

not be determined by using three equations of equilibrium,

i.e. . In the case of beams subjected to vertical loads only,

two reactions can be determined by conditions of equilibrium.

Therefore, simply supported cantilever and overhanging beams shown in figure 2 are statically

determinate structures.

Figure 2

If however a beam rests on more than two supports or in addition any of the end support is

fixed, there are more than two reactions to be determined. These reactions can not be

determined by conditions of equilibrium alone. The degree of indeterminacy or redundancy is

given by the number of extra or redundant reactions to be determined.

The beam shown in figure 3 (a) is statically indeterminate to one degree because there are

three unknown reactions and statics has only two reactions. The beam in figure 3(b) is statically

redundant to two degree. The beam in figure 3(c) is redundant to three degree and the beam in

figure 3(d) is redundant to four degrees.

Figure 3

A portal frame is statically determinate if there are only three external reactions, because there

are three conditions of equilibrium for such a system. The portal frame shown in figure 4 are

statically determinate because there are only three reactions to be determined.

If a portal frame has more than three reactions it is statically indeterminate, the degree of

indeterminacy or redundancy being equal to the number of redundant or extra reactions to be

determined.

Therefore, the portal frames of figure 5(a) and (b) are redundant by one degree, that of figure

5(c) is redundant by two degrees, that of figure 5(d) is redundant by three degrees, and that of

figure 5(e) is redundant by 5 degrees.

Figure 4

Figure 5

The statically indeterminate beams and frames can be analysed by strain energy method, three

moment equation, slope deflection method or moment distribution method.

Internally Indeterminate Structures

m=2j – 3

A truss having more than (2j – 3) members is statically indeterminate or redundant, the degree

of indeterminacy or redundancy being equal to the number of extra members.

Figure 6

Thus the truss shown in figure 6(a) is statically redundant by one degree because there are 14

members and 8 joints.

= 14 – (16 – 3) = 1

Similarly, the truss shown in figure 6(b) is internally redundant by two degrees.

A truss is statically determinate, both externally and internally when

(a) All the reactions can be determined from the conditions of equilibrium,

namely , and

The truss shown in figure 7 is externally indeterminate to one degree because the numbers of

reactions to be determined are three, and the conditions of equilibrium reduces to two,

namely . This truss is also internally indeterminate to one degree

because there is one extra member.

Figure 7

Difference Between Determinate and Indeterminate Structures

Equilibrium conditions are fully adequate to Conditions of equilibrium are not adequate

1

analyze the structure. to fully analyze the structure.

Bending moment or shear force at any

2 is independent of the material property of the

section depends upon the material property.

structure.

The bending moment or shear force at any The bending moment or shear force at any

3 section is independent of the cross-section or section depends upon the cross-section or

moment of inertia. moment of inertia.

5 No stresses are caused due to lack of fit. Stresses are caused due to lack of fit.

Extra conditions like compatibility of

displacements are required to analyze the

6 displacements are not required to analyze the

structure along with the equilibrium

structure.

equations.

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