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H2 Further Mathematics 2018 Prelim Exam Paper 1 Question

Answer all questions [100 marks].


1 Solve the recurrence relation xn2  2 xn1  4 xn , n  0 , with initial conditions x0  3 ,
1 1

x1  0, expressing xn in terms of trigonometric functions. [4]

Let T :  4   3 be a linear transformation represented by the matrix


2  1 3 2 1
 
A   2 1 3 3 
 0 7 1 5 
 
(i) Find a basis for the kernel of T. [2]

(ii) State the dimension of the range space of T. [1]

 1  2
   
9 1
Let u    and v    .
 8  2
 4   1
   
(iii) State whether the following sets are linear spaces. For the sets that are linear
spaces, give a basis, and for the sets that are not, give a reason why they are
not linear spaces.
(a) T u :   
(b) T u  v :   
(c) T  u   v :    [3]
(iv) Describe the geometrical interpretation of the set
T u   v  :  ,    . [2]
3 The complex number z satisfies both the conditions
 3  4i 
z  6  8i  z  12  16i and arg    0.
 z  6  8i 
(i) Sketch the locus of the points representing the complex number z on an
Argand diagram. [3]
Hence, find the exact range of values of arg( z  6) . [2]

(ii) The complex number z1  a  8i , where a   , satisfies the equation


z  6  8i  z  12  16i . Find the value of a. [2]


 
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(iii) The locus of points representing the complex number w with equation
w  b  r , where b is a fixed complex number and r is a real number, passes
through points  6,8 ,  a,8 and  9,12  . Find the area of the locus of points
which satisfy the inequality
wb  r . [2]
4 Bipolar speakers are used to enhance create a surround sound experience. They are have
two or more sound drivers producing sound on opposite sides of a speaker cabinet,
creating a sound field. The drivers are wired in phase with the opposite pair, so that a
bipolar speaker creates a small region of diffuse sound.

Bipolar speaker y

O x

Region of 
Figure A diffuse sound 
Figure B

Figure A shows a cross-section of a bipolar speaker. The dotted lines represent the
boundary of the sound field produced by the bipolar speaker. The unshaded region in the
centre of the sound field is the region of diffuse sound.
The sound field produced by the bipolar speaker can be modelled by the area enclosed
by curve C, with polar equation
 3 
r  p cos   , π    5π ,
 2 3 3
as shown in Figure B. The bipolar speaker is located at the pole O.

(i) Find, in terms of p, the outer perimeter of sound field produced by the
bipolar
speaker.
[4]

(ii) Find the exact area of the part of the sound field which does not have diffuse
sound. [3]

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(iii) The entrance of a semi-circular hall is located at the midpoint of the
diameter, and a bipolar speaker is placed there. Reflected sound from the
walls can interfere with the sound produced by the speaker, so the hall must
be large enough to contain the entire sound field. Find the equation of the
curve representing the curved wall of the hall with the smallest possible
radius. [2]

5 (i) Show that d cot 1 x   1


. [1]
dx 1  x2

(ii) Show that


1
sin  cot 1 x  
1  x2
and find a similar expression for cos  cot 1 x  . [2]

(iii) Show that, for all positive values of x,


1
cos  k cot 1 x   x sin  k cot 1 x    sin   k  1 cot 1 x  . [2]
 
1 x 2

(iv) Hence, prove by mathematical induction that


 1  n  1! sin n cot 1 x
n 1
dn
tan 1 x   
1  x 2 
n 2
dx n

for all positive integers n. [4]

6 Let
C  1  cos 2  cos 4  cos 6    cos 20 ,
S  sin 2  sin 4  sin 6    sin 20 .
sin11 i10
(i) Show that C  iS  e for all   nπ, n   . [3]
sin 

sin 21 1
(ii) Hence, show that cos 2  cos 4  cos 6    cos 20   . [3]
2sin 2

10
sin 21 cos 21cos 21
(iii) Deduce that  r sin 2r 
r 1 4sin 2

4sin
. [3]

7 Consider the function f  x   0.51x  sin x, x   .


(i) Show that the equation f  x   0 has a root  where 1    2 . [2]

(ii) Use linear interpolation once to estimate  . [2]


 
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(iii) Use the Newton-Raphson method with an initial guess of x  2 to estimate


 correct to 3 significant figures. [3]

(iv) Describe what happens when the Newton-Raphson method is used with an
initial guess of x  1 , and explain it using a graph. [3]

8 A small cup is to be made based on the shape of the curve y  f  x , where


f  x   sin  x 2  for all positive real values of x. The internal volume of the cup can be
modelled by the volume of the solid of revolution formed when the area bounded by the
curve, the y-axis, and the line y  1 is rotated 2π radians around the y-axis.

(a) Find the exact internal volume of the cup. [4]

(b) The cup is filled with water until the diameter of the water surface is
2 sin 1 r units, where r is a positive constant.
(i) Show that the surface area of the cup in contact with the water is given
by
r
 1
2π  sin 1 y  dy . [3]

0 4 1  y 2

(ii) Explain why the trapezium rule or Simpson’s rule cannot be used
directly to find an approximate value for the integral in (i) when
r 1. [2]

(iii) When r  0.5 , use Simpson’s rule with four strips to find an
approximate numerical value for the surface area of the cup in contact
with the water. [3]

9 x2 y 2
A hyperbola with eccentricity e has equation   1 where 0  b  a . The point P
a 2 b2
with coordinates  a sec  , b tan   lies on the hyperbola.
Show that the equation of the tangent to the hyperbola at point P is
bx sec   ay tan   ab . [2]

(a) If the tangent intersects an asymptote of the hyperbola at point S, and


intersects the other asymptote of the hyperbola at point T, show that
PS  PT . [3]

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x2 y 2
(b) If the tangent passes through one of the foci F of the ellipse   1,
a 2 b2
show that
(i) the tangent is parallel to either y  x or y   x , [3]

(ii) the tangent’s point of contact with the hyperbola lies on the directrix
of the ellipse corresponding to
F. [2]

(c) The tangent and normal at P intersect the y-axis at points A and B
respectively. Show that the circle with diameter AB passes through the foci
of the hyperbola. [5]
10 The population of a species of fish living in a Great Lake at time t years is y t  units.
The rate of change of the fish population, y  t  , is modelled by the differential
equation
y  t   ay  cy2  H ,

where H is the harvesting rate and the term cy 2 accounts for overcrowding in the
lake.
Several models were studied to determine acceptable harvesting rates to sustain
both the fish population and the fishing industry.

(a) Model A: The effects of overcrowding are ignored, i.e., c  0 .


(i) Find y t  and explain the effect on fish population for different values
of the initial population
y  0 . [3]

(ii) Explain if this a good model for the long term size of the population
of fish in the lake. [1]

(b) Model B: There is overcrowding but no harvesting, i.e., c  0 and H  0 .


(i) Without solving the differential equation, find the carrying capacity of
the lake and explain what the carrying capacity means in this
context. [2]

(ii) Explain how the carrying capacity might change if the fish population
in a particular year is suddenly doubled due to the introduction of fish
of the same species from another
region. [1]


 
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(c) Model C: There is harvesting, and a  1 and c  .
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(i) Suppose each fishing corporation catches an average of 2 units of fish
per year. What is the largest number of fishing corporations that can
fish in the lake each year, such that fishing industry in that region is
still sustainble? [2]

(ii) Suppose the number of fishing corporations fishing in the lake each
year is that given in (i). Discuss, by referring to y  t  , the long term
behaviour of the fish population in the lake for different values of the
initial population y  0  . [3]

(d) Suppose harvesting and restocking of fish in the lake happens in periodic
cycles, so that
1 2
y  t   y  y  0.2sin t .
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If the initial population y  0  was 6 units, use Euler’s Method with two
steps to estimate the size of the fish population in the lake after one year. [3]

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