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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

 Water resources engineering has its root in the task of  Cagayan Valley has highest potential source of groundwater
supplying water for human use, removing water when humans  Northern Mindanao has highest potential source of surface
are finished using it and developing methods of avoiding water water
damage from excess water.  Central Visayas has lowest potential source for groundwater
 Specific kind of civil engineering that involve design of new and surface water
systems and equipment that help manage human water  2025, only 1907 cu.m of fresh water would be available to each
resources person each year in Philippines, 2nd to the lowest among
 Some touch water treatment facilities, underground well and Southeast Asian countries with fresh water availability
natural springs
 Engineering for both water supply management and water State of Water Resources in Cavite
excess management  The province has six watersheds which are as follows:
 Analysis and design of water problems: hydraulic and 1. Bacoor River Watershed
hydrologic processes 2. Imus River Watershed
o Pipe flow 3. Labac-Alemang River Watershed
o Open channel flow 4. San Juan River Watershed
o Groundwater flow 5. Canas River Watershed
 Biological, Physical and Social Sciences 6. Maragondon River Watershed

HISTORY  Watersheds have several tributaries generally flowing from


 Has evolved over the past 9000 to 10000 years as humans have Tagaytay City to Manila Bay with stretches from municipality of
developed knowledge and techniques for building hydraulic Bacoor City up to Ternate
structures to convey and store water  Bacoor, Imus, General Trias, Dasmariñas, Naic, Tanza and
 Egyptians and Mesopotamians built irrigation networks Ternate, hundreds of artesian and deep wells provide water
 World’s oldest large dam was Sadd-el-kafara dam in Egypt supply for domestic and irrigation purposes
between 2950 and 2690 BC (flood control)  Extraction of water from groundwater sources may cause:
 Oldest known pressurized water distribution (2000 BC) was in 1. Salt water intrusions
the ancient city of ancient water systems throughout the world 2. Groundwater level depletion
was in the ancient city of Knossos on Crete
 Numerous springs and waterfalls can also be found in Cavite
ANCIENT DAMS province that is observed to be used for domestic and tourism
 Sadd-el-Kafara Dam, Egypt (2800-2600 BC) use. Especially during summer, these areas are flocked by locals
 Great Dam of Marib, Yemen (1750-1700 BC) and tourist for picnic and gatherings (Arganda&Mesina, 2013)

EARTH’S WATER RESOURCES These include:


 The Earth’s water resources includes rivers, lakes, oceans and 1. Balite Spring (Amadeo)
groundwater aquifers which supply water for irrigation, 2. Saluysoy Spring (Alfonso)
drinking, sanitation, industry and provides habitat for aquatic 3. Talon Butas Falls (General Aguinaldo)
life forms (Scanlon, 2007). 4. Saluysoy Falls (Alfonso)
5. BaliteFalls (Amadeo
WATER RESOURCES 6. MalibiclibicFalls (General Aguinaldo)
 Only 0.78% of all the water in Earth, which is coming from
surface and ground water, is available for consumption of all
living things. However, due to rapid growth of population and
industrialization, there is an increasing and conflicting demand
of water for different uses. Supply and access to water is one of
the challenges the humanity face today (Almaden, 2014).

State of Water Resources in the Philippines


 Sources of water:
o Atmospheric water
o Surface water
o Groundwater resources
 18 major river basins
 79 lakes with Laguna Lake as the largest lake with area of
3,813.2 sq m.
 Several groundwater basins are underlain by various rock
formations all around the country and some basins can be
found on Southern Luzon and Cavite-Batangas-Laguna basins
 Groundwater contributes 14% of total water resource potential
of the country
Groundwater|Surface Water
Southern Luzon 1,410 | 6,370
*values in million cubic meters
HYDROLOGY Streamflow measurements
 Study of waters of the Earth  Current meter method. The volumetric flow rate of the stream
 Occurrence, circulation, distribution, properties and reaction to will be computed using a digital current meter. The formula for
environment volumetric flow rate is:

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE Q = AV
 Freshwater supply is renewed by hydrologic cycle, which is an where:
immense distillation system Q = volumetric flow rate in m3/s,
 Water evaporated from the oceans is transported by moving air A = cross sectional area in m2,
masses V = velocity from current meter in m/s
 When moisture bearing air is cooled to its dew point
temperature, the vapor condenses into water droplets forming  Float Method. Float method will be used to determine surface
a fog or cloud velocity when the stream has a low water level. A buoyant
 2/3 of precipitation that reaches land surface is returned to the object will be dropped in the start point and the time it reaches
atmosphere by evaporation from water surfaces, soil and plant the end mark will be recorded.
transpiration
 1/3 returns to ocean through surface or underground channels Q = Ak(d/t)
 < 10% of moisture that passes at any given point on the where:
earth’s surface is precipitated Q = volumetric flow rate in m3/s,
 Hydrology – focused on rate of exchange of water between A = cross sectional area in m2,
these cycles, including rate with time and place k = coefficient ranging from 0.66 to
0.75 depending on channel depth,
HYDROLOGIC SYSTEMS d = distance from start to end
 Hydrologic systems – structure or volume in space surrounded point in m,
by a boundary, accepting water and other inputs, operates on t = time travelled by the buoyant
them internally and produces them as outputs object in s
o Boundary – surface in 3D enclosing a volume or structure
 Example is hydrologic cycle and storm-rainfall-runoff process  Bucket Method. Volumetric flow rate of springs outlets will be
on watershed measured using volumetric method. A bucket with known
o Input – rainfall; output- streamflow; boundary – volume will be used and the time to fill the container will be
watershed divide recorded.
 Three synonymous terms referring to topographic area that
collects and discharge streamflow: Q = V/t
1. Drainage basins where:
2. Catchments Q = volumetric flow rate in m3/s,
3. Watershed V = volume of the bucket in m3,
t = time recorded to fill the container
PRECIPITATION in s
 Includes all water that falls from the atmosphere to the surface
EVAPORATION
 Rainfall and Snow/Hail
 Transfer of water from liquid to vapor state
 Primary input to determine runoff from watershed and
 Measured using an evaporation pan (4 ft in diameter and 10 in
resulting streamflow
deep)
 Varies in space and time as result of atmospheric conditions
TRANSPIRATION
Measurement of Precipitation
 Plants remove water from soil through their roots, transport
 Rain gauge
water through the plant and discharge it through pores in
 In a large area:
leaves
o Arithmetic-mean method
 Rate is same as evaporation from free water surface if supply of
o Thiessen method
water in plant is not limited
o Isohyetal method
 Evapotranspiration – total evaporation
 Arithmetic mean method – calculates areal precipitation using
arithmetic mean of all points or areal measurements
INFILTRATION
considered in analysis
 Water penetrating into soil
 Thiessen method – graphical technique calculating station
 Rate is influenced by condition of soil surface, vegetation cover
weights based on relative areas of each measurement station.
and soil properties (porosity, hydraulic conductivity and
The individual weights are multiplied by station observation
moisture content)
and the values are summed to obtain areal average
precipitation  Become soil moisture, subsurface flow (unsaturated flow) and
groundwater flow (saturated flow)
 Isohyetal method – graphical technique which involves drawing
estimated lines of equal rainfall over an area based on point  Water table – interference between saturated and unsaturated
measurements. The magnitude and extent of the resultant flow
rainfall areas of rainfall areas are considered versus the area in  Unsaturated flow – water flow through a porous medium
question in order to estimate areal precipitation values where some of voids are occupied by air
 Saturated Flow – occurs when voids are filled with air
WATER ENGINEERING  Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary
STREAM – Body of water w/ current moving to a lower level in o 14 836 ha
channel bed. o Includes vast complex of freshwater marshes and water-
 Tandawan Stream is a stream and is located in province of course w/ numerous shallow lakes and pond.
Davao del Norte, Davao, Philippines.  Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park
o 33 200 ha
RIVER – One of the sources of fishes, crabs and other healthy foods o Located in the middle of the Central Sulu Sea about 150 km
that we eat. It is also one of the main sources of water that we need southeast of Puerto Princesa City.
every day and irrigation systems in large farms.  Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park
o 22 202 ha
TOP 10 LONGEST RIVERS IN THE PHILIPPINES o In Palawan is the unique in the biogeographic region because
TOP 10 Davao River 160 km Davao, Mindanao it connects a range of important ecosystems from the
TOP 9 Chico River 174.67 km Kalinga mountain-to-the-sea.
TOP 8 Abulog River 175 km Kalinga  Las Piñas- Parañaque Critical Habitat and Ecotourism Area
TOP 7 Abra River 178 km Benguet (LPPCHEA)
TOP 6 Agno River 206 km Pangasinan o A 175 ha coastal urban wetland and bird sanctuary situated
TOP 5 Pampanga River 260 km Central Luzon within the metropolis at Metro Manila.
TOP 4 Pulangi River 320 km Bukidnon
TOP 3 Agusan River 350 km Eastern RESERVOIRS – is an artificial lake where water is stored. Most
Mindanao reservoirs are formed by constructing dams across rivers. A reservoir
TOP 2 Rio Grande de Mindanao (Mindanao River) can also be formed from natural lake whose outlet is dammed to
373 km Southern control water level. People used reservoir because amount of water
Mindanao in river varies. Reservoir can also be used to control flooding by
TOP 1 Cagayan River (Rio Grande Cagayan) limiting amount of water flowing down the river. During drought, it
505 km Cagayan Valley is used for water crops and fishing. Some of the dams that create
reservoir are used to generate electricity.
The Pasig River is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de
Bay to Manila Bay.  Pantabangan Dam is one of the water reservoir found in the
Length: 27 km Philippines. The dam, considered to be one of the biggest dams
Basin Area: 570 sq. km in Asia and clearest in the Philippines is located at the town of
Mouth: Manila Bay Pantabangan in the province of Nueva Ecija.
Source: Laguna de Bay  Ipo Dam Reservoir is a gravity concrete water reservoir dam
Country: Philippines found in the Philippines located in Bulacan City.
LAKE – is a large water reservoir. It is a body of water surrounded by  San Juan Reservoir currently operates by Manila Water
large mass. Many lakes are product of volcanoes. Many freshwater Company (MWC), which is the East Sector Concessionaire of
foods like fishes, eels, crabs, shrimps etc. MWSS, is composed of two reservoirs, with capacity of 94.60
ML and 56 ML.
TOP 10 BIGGEST LAKES IN THE PHILIPPINES  The water line of the Angat Reservoir in the Philippines falls
TOP 10 Buhi Lake 1707 ha Camarines Sur well below the vegetation line during a 2004 drought. Drought
TOP 9 Pulangi Lake 1 985 ha Bukidnon are not generally associated with the Philippines, but during El
TOP 8 Bato Lake 2 810 ha Camarines Sur Niño cycles, much of the country experiences moderate-to-
TOP 7 Pantabangan Lake severe dry periods that can last for a season or more.
5923 ha Nueva Ecija  San Roque Dam (San Manuel Pangasinan)
TOP 6 Buluan Lake 6134 ha Maguindanao & - commissioned in 2003
Sultan Kudarat - 200 m high and 1.2km long embankment
TOP 5 Naujan Lake 8125 ha Oriental Mindoro - Longest hydro installation in South East Asia
TOP 4 Mainit Lake 17340 ha Surigao del Norte - 3rd largest in entire Asia
& Agusan del Norte - 12th largest dam in the world
TOP 3 Taal Lake 23 420 ha Batangas - It is a central clay-core rockfill dam w/ a compacted fill
TOP 2 Lanao Lake 34000 ha Lanao del Sur volume totaling nearly 40 million cubic meters.
TOP 1 Laguna de Bay 93000 ha Rizal & Laguna - At its nominal crest of El. 295.0 the Dam length is 1130m.
- The Dam consist of combines earth gravel fill and rock fill
WETLANDS – is a place where land is covered by water, either salt, shell zones, filter, drain and transition zones.
fresh or somewhere in between. It provide a range ecosystem - The impermeable core is a cla gravel blend.
services that benefit the society including water filtration, storm - 1200 meters of gallery length are 3m wide by 4.5m high with
protection, flood control and recreation. shotcrete lining.
- The section located at the lowest level of the foundation is
 Naujan Lake National Park in Oriental Mindoro reinforced with a formed concrete lining to accommodate
o 14 568 ha potentially higher ground water pressures.
o the fifth largest lake in the Philippines ( 14km by 7km)
SEA – the Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east and northeast of the DAMS IN THE PHILIPPINES
Philippines occupying an estimated surface area of 2 million sq.mi of o Agusan
the western part of the North Pacific Ocean. o Ambuklao
OCEAN – The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the earth’s oceanic o Angat
divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the o Aragon
Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in o Binga
the west and the Americas in the east. o Buhisan
o Bustos
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES o Caliraya
 A structure submerged or partially submerged in any body of o Casecnan
water, which disrupts the natural flow of water. They can be o Ipo
used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow. o La mesa
o Laiban
RESERVOIR o Lumot
 Man-made or natural lake o Magat
 Man made dams are made when dams are constructed across o Molino
rivers or enclosing an area filled with water o Pantabangan
 Depending on purpose of reservoir, operators fill a completed o San Roque
reservoir with water, let water flow on through the dam and o Wawa
downstream, or leave reservoir site empty until needed
 Two types: PURPOSE OF A DAM
o Impoundment (On-stream) Dams are built for the following purposes:
o Off-stream  Irrigation and drinking water
 Power supply
ON-STREAM  Navigation
 Storage dams and reservoirs have many uses including drinking  Flood control
water supply, flood protection, drought management. The
design depends on the uses and considerations such as local TYPES OF DAMS
environment conditions, geology, topography, a river’s flow,  Gravity Dam
fish habitat and adjacent structures. o Self-weight resist the force exerted on it; made of concrete
1. Retaining wall holds water in structure. o Must consist of mass so heavy that water in reservoir cannot
2. Spillway controls release of water when it reaches a certain push dam downstream or tip it over
level. o Thicker at base and thin near surface of reservoir
3. Emergency spillway manages high-flow events by moving o Particularly used on narrow openings between hills with very
extra water downstream. steep side slope
4. Sluiceway/sluice gate releases water and sediment that o Example: Wawa Dam, Ipo Dam
collects at the bottom of the toe of a reservoir.
5. Hydroelectric generating station produces electricity from  Earthen Dam
flowing water. o Made of locally available materials, such as soils, gravels, etc
o Slopes are flatter than concrete gravity dams; close to
OFF-STREAM natural slope of pile of rocks
 Reservoirs divert water from a river and temporarily store it in o Example: Pantabangan Dam
the watershed. Storage facilities can be reservoirs, wetlands, or
even groundwater aquifers.  Rockfill Dam
1. Main channel gate opens and closes and can partially block o Use variable sizes of boulders and rocks to provide stability
the flow of the river. and an impervious membrane to provide water tightness
2. Diversion gate channel allows the blocked water to flow to a o Example: San Roque Dam
storage facility.
3. Channel weir ensures enough water goes toward diversion  Arch Dam
channel when main channel gate is closed, can also reduce o Constructed in form of an arch supported on abutment
river flow speed. o Suitable for V-shaped valley
o Example: Pantabangan Dam
RESERVOIRS AND DAMS
 RESERVOIR – provide water storage  Buttress Dam
o Dry – store water temporarily, usually during high flow river o Consists of a number of buttresses or piers dividing the space
events into number of spans
o Wet – store water year round for purposes including drinking o Buttress – solid walls constructed parallel to water flow with
water specified thickness at regular intervals; transmitting water
 DAM – keep water in the reservoir designed to take advantage pressure from
of the landscape’s ability to hold water o Example: Roseland Dam (South-Eastern France)