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A Study of Synchronous Motor Drive

using Static Frequency Converter


Ho-Seon Ryu, Bong-Suck Kim, Joo-Hyun Lee, Ik-Hun Lim
Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract- SFC (Static Frequency Converter) system has Network


Converter
DC Link
Reactor
Machine
Converter
been used as drive of large synchronous machine in many
industry applications. But many papers have been presented
on the control algorithm of SFC system, not the acceleration
and start-up but the rated speed operation with line
connection and the braking operation with regeneration
which is used in the industry. This paper presents all control
algorithms for the large synchronous machine connected
with SFC system. The experimental results show that the Fig. 1. Scheme of load commutated inverter
proposed several algorithms are proper and effective.
TABLE I.
RELATIONS OF SWITCHING SEQUENCE AND OUTPUT CURRENT
I. INTRODUCTION
A variety of systems have been devised over the years Mode model mode2 Mode3 mode4 mode5 mode6
for starting synchronous machines and gas turbines. The
curre
choice of control methods depended on the particular T6,T1 T1,T2 T2,T3 T3,1T4 T4, T5 T5,T6
requirements and conditions in the supply network. In nt
case of gas turbines, for instance, the rotating exciter or
separate DC motor has been used. For pumped storage Ia Idc Idc 0 -Idc -Idc 0
plants, on the other hand, it was normal to mount an lb -Idc 0 Idc Idc 0 -Idc
induction type pony motor on the main shaft of the
machine group. Recently, however, a general system has Ic 0 -Idc -Idc 0 Idc Idc
been developed, the static starting device, which is
adaptable to any specific requirement. In addition, the III. OPERATING MODE
static starting device is not only capable of starting the The Characteristic about driving curve of Synchronous
synchronous motor up to a rated speed, but also of motor fed by LCI system can be represented by Fig. 2.
breaking the motor to a standstill. The synchronous Driving ranges is divided by speed driving, synchronizing,
machine is started from standstill by applying a phase braking and regenerating mode
synchronized, variable frequency generated by Load A. Driving Mode
Commutated Inverter (LCI) system. The starting system
can be located remotely from the motor with one start-up The current of bridge MC is commutated by the motor
system applied for several motors. The system can also be voltage. The motor current, therefore, lags behind the
used for driving, braking, or reversing large synchronous voltage and the synchronous machine is overexcited. At
zero frequency, the amplitude of the motor voltage is
machines. Many papers have been presented about the therefore zero and commutation of the current in bridge
control algorithm of SFC system, not only the acceleration MC is not possible. For this reason, at low frequency the
and start-up but also the rated speed operation with line motor is driven by pulse operation. Therefore during pulse
connection and the braking operation with regeneration operation, the period of '0' DC link current is existed.
which is used in the industry[l][2][3]. A full description Commutation is then not controlled by the motor voltage
of this system is given in this paper. The experimental but by the supply side bridge NC.
results show that the proposed algorithm is proper and
effective.
II. ANALYSIS OF LCI SYSTEM[1]
LCI system is consisted of Network Converter (NC),
Machine Converter (MC) and DC link Reactor. LCI
system can be represented in Fig. 1. In the LCI system, the
inverter output current contains fundamental and
harmonic components because the gating of one thyristor
establishes the 1200 conduction pattern. One mode t[niin]
operates during 60 degree. The relations of switching
sequence and output current can be represented by table 1. Fig.2. Characteristic about driving curve of LCI system-
synchronous motor

1-4244-0121-6/06/$20.00 (C2006 IEEE 1496 EPE-PEMC 2006, Portoro2, Slovenia


In the driving mode, the Network Converter (NC) on C. Braking Mode
the input side is functioning as a rectifier. The Machine The need for generated control occurs when
Converter (MC) on the motor side operates as a line disconnected a line to a synchronous motor. Some of the
commutated inverter. energy generated by the motor may be dissipated as heat
The driving control block diagram can be represented losses in the motor or distribution wiring. The rest of the
by Fig. 3. The current and voltage reference is developed energy will be transferred through the DC bus to the
by speed and current controller which is used by PI source line.
controller. This control scheme is similar with DC motor In this paper, Braking mode control is performed
drive. optimally within the rated current by using the method of
The firing angle of NC is obtained by the Cosine the analysis of the power equivalent circuit. The
method which can be described by (1). Equivalent circuit of LCI system can be represented by
Fig. 5 [6].
a = cos-L Vdcref (1) The diode is characteristics of only direction current
t1.35 x V,
flow.
where c : firing angle of NC Ko is average voltage of MC DC output. The back
Vdcref DC voltage reference EMF is proportionate in motor speed, therefore it is
Vs : supply voltage
expressed at the price which doubles a constant in speed.
1) Machine Converter (MC) control
B. Synchronization The MC is operated as a rectifier in some other way
with driving mode. MC operates a rated current regulator,
The motor is accelerated by the SFC until the rated so it applies a same control scheme like that with driving
speed is almost reached. At this time, Line connection is mode.
performed. During synchronization mode, the phase angle 2) Network Converter (NC) control
of NC and MC voltage is detected. So line connection is The function of NC is operated as an inverter to flow
performed when phase angle is same and NC voltage is the current of LCI system for the regeneration in the
zero crossing. And the SFC is still driving the motor and braking mode region.
thus paralleled with the supply system in short period.
Therefore stability of system at the line connection time is Therefore Vd cos oc < Ko cos y condition must be
improves. The Control block diagram of line connection satisfied for the proper regeneration.
can be represented by Fig. 4. In the steady state the DC current can be derived by (2)
as shown in Fig. 5.
synchronous shaft
motor
/ \.N
position
encoder I K(ocos y - V cos
oc (2)
RL±RI +RC

Vd cosO = Koo- Id(RL± RI +RC) (3)

RC RL RI

VdcOs aKwcos7

feedback / speed

Fig.3. Driving control block diagram of LCI system


Fig.5. Equivalent circuit of LCI system

where RC Network Converter (NC) resistance


RL: DC Link resistance
RI: Machine Converter (MC) resistance
Vd cos cc : NC output voltage
Vd : average voltage of DC output
c : firing angle of NC
Kcocosy : the output voltage of MC
K constant value
Fig.4. Control block diagram of line connection for the synchronization
0o motor speed
y firing angle of MC

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The nominal parameters of the synchronous machine B. Synchronization Mode
are shown in Table 2 for the experiments, the stator During the synchronization mode, Line Connection is
terminal voltage is back EMF because the stator circuit is performed. Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 show the characteristics of
open from any network. line connection. The waveform in Fig. 8 illustrates the line
Vqe is to be measured to calculate Kot=0 which is the connection when phase angle of NC and MC is same and
output voltage of MC during the braking mode. Vqe is the voltage is zero crossing. Therefore the waveforms of the
motor voltage, the stator current and motor speed in Fig. 9
q-axis voltage in the synchronous reference frame [7],[8]. show the usefulness of the proposed line connection
The formula can be obtained as following: algorithm.
Kco( = fx 3
(4) C. Braking Mode
Fig. 10 shows the characteristics of the braking mode
During the braking operation Kcot>O is proportional to control. Fig. 10(a) shows the speed response about the
the motor speed. Therefore Kot>O can be derived by change of the speed reference from 1,800 to 0 rpm.
Fig. 10 (b) shows the DC link current which is controlled in
=Wtpm
W
K(ot> xK ot=0 (5) rated current. The characteristics tics of this motor speed,
rated DC link current is to verify the avail ability for braking
where Wpm is the actual motor speed, and W,ated is the control
rated speed.
V. CONLUSION
The reference voltage (VdCC ref ) of NC can be
determined by (3) to converter the kinetic energy of the SFC (Static Frequency Converter) system has been used
as driving large synchronous machine in many industry
motor to the supply system as shown in Fig. 6.
applications. But many papers have been presented on the
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS control algorithm of SFC system, not the acceleration and
start-up but the rated speed operation with line connection
The nominal parameters of the synchronous machine are
and the braking operation with regeneration which is used
shown in Table 2 for the experiments in the industry. This paper presented a full description of
A. Driving Mode the synchronous motor drive in connected with SFC
Fig. 7 shows the control characteristics of the driving system. Specially the line connection method by detecting
mode. Fig. 7(a) is the speed response of the step changes voltage phase and the braking method with regeneration
for starting the synchronous machine from 0 to 1800rpm. by analyzing equivalent circuit was presented. Experiment
At very low speed range the amplitude of the stator results show the validity of the proposed control
voltage is too small to commutate the stator current, the algorithms for operating the SFC system.
pulse operation is employed.
But at the higher speed range, the stator current is TABLE 2
NOMINAL PARAMETERS OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
naturally commutated by means of its own back EMF.
And the synchronous motor runs up to the rated speed as
shown in Fig. 7(a). Fig. 7(b) is DC link current of LCI. Poles
This waveform shows the difference between the pulse Rated power 900[W] Stator resistance 4
operation and the machine-controlled operation. And the Rated voltage 400[V] Xbase 8.5 [ Q ]
waveform of Fig. 7 (c) is the stator current of A phase. Rated current 1 [A] D-axis 133.3 [ Q]
Rated speed 1800[rpm] inductance 205%
Field current 1.15 [A] Q-axis 140%
in ctan ce

sh aft
position
encoder

synchronous
motor

machine
converter

ts
DC link
reactor

netw ork
converter

Fig.6. Control block diagram of the braking mode

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2400
fT 1
-

1800

-~~~~~~~~~~\_
/ ;J \: \
I ilA ii/\ 0r 18\
-- ;
WrPn [rpm] I
A
- - -~sec
-

- - -(a) Motor speed

i.
18 00

1 75
Wrpm
Q ~~~~~[sec 5 [rpm]
I1cc[A]
(b)
DC oLin cufent -

I
-0.25 0 [sec] I
Fig.9. Motor line voltage, current, speed of line connection
IP
1.6 "_k
2400 I
~~~~~~~I IIIIIII

1800 '
a [A] VWp m
[rpm]
0
-1.6 I

0 [sec] 5
° [ sec] 55
(c) Motor A phase current (a) Motor speed
Fig.7 Characteristics of the driving mode including the pulse operation

II 1.-uILL.I I I
1.75

I
Va m =A
Idc
[A] S-1i. 1 11~~~I
1'j'1 1 1 Ilk,,
IVa_m
- 0.25 _E TI
I I i 0 [ sec] 5

0 [sec] 1 (b) DC Link current


Fig. 10. Characteristics of braking mode
Fig 8. Motor phase line voltage, phase source voltage

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Peregrinus Ltd., 1988 pp.202-274 synchronous motors for high torque operation", IEEE Tran.
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starting pumped storage plant, synchronous condensers and gas 1155
turbine sets", Brown Boveri Rev., 61, 1974 (9/10), pp. 440-447. [6] P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, Inc,
[3] 0. Kolb, F. Pender, V. Suchanek, "Static starting equipment for pp. 500-523, 2003.
gas turbosets", Brown Boveri Rev., 66, 1979 (2), pp.104-112 [7] A. E. Fitzerald, Charles Kingsley, Jrad Stephen D. Umars, Electric
[4] R.S. Colby, M.D. Otto, J.T. Boys, "Analysis of LCI synchronous Machinery, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983.
motordrives with finite DC link inductance", Electric Power [8] P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electrical Machinery, McGraw-Hill
Applications, IEE Proceedings B, Vol.140, Nov. 1993, pp.379-386 Book Company, 1987.

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