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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B

ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – 150 Items


(2:30 P.M. TO 5:30 P.M. = 3 HOURS)

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:

1. This test booklet contains 150 test questions for ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION.
2. Read INSTRUCTIONS TO EXAMINEES printed on your answer sheet.
3. Shade only one (1) box for each question on your answer sheets. Two or more boxes shaded will
invalidate your answer.
4. AVOID ERASURES.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Samuel Daniel:__________Elizabeth Barett Browning: Sonnet 43


A. The Lie C. Sonnets to Celia
B. Sonnets to Delia D. The Tempest
2. Who wrote “The Gullivers Travel”?
A. Jonathan Swift C. Miguel de Cervantes
B. Samuel Daniel D. Robert Frost
3. Don Quixote, hero of Cervantes immortal novel, rode forth
A. to see his king and country C. to see the world and seek a fortune
B. in quest of the holy grail D. to defend the oppressed and right the
wrong
4. A component of a semantic web that shows the relationships that strands have with each other
is known as ________.
A. strand support C. web strands
B. strand ties D. core questions
5. A sound converted electronically into a numerical system achieve better sound reproduction is
called_______.
A. Analog sound C. Sound blaster
B. Digital sound D. Electronic sound
6. Determining central metaphor, understanding imagery, and explaining conflicts are concepts
tested in what type of literature tests?
A. Literary information C. Both A and B
B. Literary interpretations D. None of the above
7. When teachers prepare the objectives of a language curriculum, they should consider
_______?
A. what the learners are expected to do in C. the learners ‘ capacity to meet the
school teachers’ requirements in class
B. what the learners should do as citizens D. what the learners are expected to do in
of this country the real world

8. Aside from listening, speaking, reading and writing, what other skill should be included in the
language curriculum of secondary schools in the Philippines?
A. reporting C. presenting
B. researching D. viewing
9. This book written by Henry David Thoreau is viewed not only as a philosophical treatise on
labor, leisure, self reliance, and individualism, but also as an influential piece of nature writing.
What is the title of the book?
A. Walden C. Mending Wall
B. The Red Badge of Courage D. the Warden
10. ”The Pilgrims Progress” written by John Bunyan and English religious writer is regarded as
one of the most significant work of religious English Literature in the ________century.
A. 15th C. 20th
B. 16 th D. 17th

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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
11. Ms. Ramos was going to administer a test to her fourth year high school students .She
wanted to test both the listening and speaking skills of students. Also, she wanted to make
sure that the test she constructed has content validity .Content validity in a language test
refers to _____.
A. The evaluation of students based on a C. the consistency of scoring by two or more
criterion. scorers.
B. The consistency and dependability of D. The ability of the test to measure what has
test results. been taught.
12. Which is an example of a learning task having direct authenticity?
A. small group discussion C. filling in a blank application form
B. role playing D. simulation
13. Which poem of Walt Whitman was popularized in modern culture by the movie Dead Poets
Society?
A. When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom C. O Captain! My Captain!
B. Bayou Folk D. Invictus
14. In a listening activity, Mrs David makes her students complete a tree diagram .Which process
does it refer to?
A. Identification and Retention C. Selective Completion
B. Guided Selection D. Transferring Information
15. An advantage of using computers in a writing class is that student’s ______.
A. are easy to supervise C. can easily edit their works
B. will work quietly D. will learn how to type
16. What alternative assessment could be used to check on the student’s knowledge on drama?
A. Ask the students to have a play C. Ask the students to research on the
production. different styles of plays in the world.
B. Ask the students to sit for an D. Ask the students to watch a play.
examination for a pen and paper test.
17. In preparing a literature test, the literary skills should be equated to tasks. Which of the
following tasks could best be used to assess the skill in recognizing the characteristics of a
short story?
A. Who are the characters? C. What is the story all about?
B. Describe the setting D. All of the above

18. When materials in the real world are brought to the classroom to expose learner’s language in
real use, the materials are considered _______.
A. suitable C. graded
B. appropriate D. authentic

19. What type of literature test is this question? Who is the author of “One Hundred Years of
Solitude”?
A. Essay type C. Question and Answer
B. Matching type D. Fill in the blanks
20. Which of the following questions describe a process –oriented assessment of reading
comprehension?
A. What strategies are used? C. How much?
B. How well? D. A and B
21. What type of test allows the examinees to choose the best answer from a group of choices?
A. Fill in the blanks C. Multiple choice
B. Completion D. Essay type
22. A teacher who wants to conduct an intensive drilling of basic sentence pattern should
________.
A. assign pair work C. explain grammar rules
B. demonstrate the lesson D. do pattern practice
23. A teacher who believes in the Communicative Approach uses authentic language materials
such as advertisements newspapers, signs, etc., because _____________
A. They are cheap C. They are readily available
B. Communicative activities in real life can D. Learners are familiar with them
be built around them
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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
24. Herbert Coleridge:OxfordDictionary__________:Scientific method
A. Francis Bacon C. Robert Herrick
B. Jon Donne D. Mark Twain
25. Who wrote the poem “The Road not Taken”?
A. Walt Whitman C. Emily Dickinson
B. Stephen Crane D. Robert Frost
nd
26. When a learner tries out with a competent 2 language speaker the rules of language he/she
has formulated, he/she is____________.
A. Practicing C. Generalizing
B. Reviewing D. Hypothesis testing
27. Geoffrey Chaucer is well known for being the “Father of English Literature” because of his
masterpiece entitled__________.
A. Dream of the rood C. Canterbury Tales
B. Everyman D. Pardoners Tale
28. What is the most appropriate “while listening” activity for a text describing a family tree
consisting of three generations?
A. Copying a family tree C. Completing a family tree
B. Writing down names D. Writing the family history
29. Ralph Waldo Emerson :Transcendentalism Ezra Pound:___________
A. Modernism C. Imaginism
B. Transcendentalism D. Realism

30. The goal of English language teaching in the Philippines is to produce learners who______
A. Can confidently speak in English C. Can communicate accurately ,fluently and
appropriately
B. Have mastery of English pronunciation D. Can use English in proper context
and grammar
31. In audio – lingual method, why are mistakes in pronunciation and grammar immediately
corrected?
A. To make learners conscious of their C. So that the behavior don’t become habits
mistakes
B. To develop accuracy and fluency D. So that learners will practice more
32. Slum dog millionaire: SimonBeaufuy
A. Ben Johnson C. Giovanni Boccaccio
B. Benerable Bede D. Sir Thomas Moore
33. ””To the Memory of My Beloved Master William Shakespeare “ is a famous work of
A. Ben Johnson C. James Boswell
B. Samuel Daniel D. John Bunyan
34. An approach to teaching grammar where rules are given only after students have done
intensive pattern practice in various contents is called ________.
A. Functional C. Formal
B. Deductive D. Inductive
35. Author or Compiler of “le mort de Arthur”
A. Edgar Allan Poe C. Sir Thomas Johnson
B. Sir Thomas Malory D. Guy de Maupassant
36. In audio – lingual method, why are mistakes in pronunciation and grammar immediately
corrected?
A. To make learners conscious of their C. So that the behavior don’t become habits
mistakes
B. To develop accuracy and fluency D. So that learners will practice more
37. What principle in materials preparation provide for continuous and cumulative learning?
A. balancing C. evaluating
B. sequencing D. structuring
38. Which type of scoring should a teacher use if his primary concern is to measure the over –all
communicative effectiveness of the test?
A. Analytical Scoring C. Holistic Scoring
B. Impressionistic Scoring D. Both A and B
39. Which poem by William Ernest Henley answers the question “Do human control their own
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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
lives”?
A. Remember C. The Precious Stones
B. Invictus D. The Alderking
40. What way of reading is done if the students are asked to predict outcomes and interpret?
A. reading the lines C. reading beyond the lines
B. reading between the lines D. B and C
41. After the first week of classes, Ms. Bautista, Language Testing professor gave a Quiz and one
of the questions was: What is the instrument or tool that provides a quantitative description of
an observed phenomenon? What is the expected answer?
A. an evaluation C. a test
B. an assessment D. a measurement
42. Student A shows lip movement and head nodding while reading. Which speed-reading
deterrent does he have?
A. word for word reading C. regression
B. backtracking D. wool gathering

43. The effect of testing on teaching and learning is called _____.


A. Backwash Effect C. Ripple Effect
B. Hawthorne Effect D. Newton Effect of Learning
44. What is the goal of teaching English in the Philippines?
A. Students should have mastery of the C. Students can confidently speak in English.
structure of English.
B. Students should have native-like accent. D. Students can communicate fluently and
appropriately.
45. Which of the following is an example of sequencing materials?
A. bottom to top C. whole to parts
B. top to bottom D. by stages
46. The language curriculum in the Philippines aims to develop the linguistic, sociolinguistic,
discourse and strategic competence of student’s .Which syllabus is responsive to this goal?
A. notional- functional C. natural approach
B. procedural D. communicative competence
47. Mr. Ramos is a teacher in the provincial high school .He prefers to give his students objective
tests. Which of the following can be considered as a traditional form of assessment?
A. portfolios C. conferences
B. journals D. pen-paper test
48. What are the characteristics of a competent translator?
I. vocabulary wealth
II. familiarity with the topic/register
III. proficiency in source and target language
IV. thorough knowledge of the cultural background of the source and target language
A. I only C. I, II and III
B. I and II D. I , II, III , and IV
49. If the story loves to tell the history of their characters, they adore the concept of ______.
A. Habit of art C. Flashback
B. Dramaturgy D. Media res
50. When a translator interprets verbal signs of the source language by using the words of the
target language, the translator is said to be using what type of translation?
A. Transmutation C. Interlingual translation
B. Intersemiotic translation D. Intralingual translation
51. It is an expression that was once fresh enough to create a clear picture in the reader’s mind
but now lost its vitality through constant use.
A. Cliché C. Imperexia
B. Precis D. Yupster’s line
52. This approach exposes the inner life of a character or a couple like peeling the layers of an
onion.
A. The onion approach C. The sensory approach
B. The deductive approach D. The maturity approach

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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
53. When a translator recodes window to durungawan , he is using what technique of
translation?
A. Calque C. Borrowing
B. Literal D. Modulation

54. The kind of conflict wherein the phrase with which we describe such indecision suggest
dramatic tension.
A. Simple C. Inner
B. Multiple D. Triangular
55. One of the elements of creative non-fiction wherein the reader is taken on a journey into the
mind and personality of the writer.
A. Veracity C. Literal presence
B. Flexibility of form D. Personal presence
My dog, Reuben likes to roam the hills. Every day, he walks with me to the bus, then he heads out
through the fields .One day, as he ran towards the hills, he saw a rabbit going towards a barn,.
Reuben ran after the rabbit and into the barn.
56. After having the child read the above paragraph, the teacher asks the child, “Where did the
dog go?”In this case, what is the teacher assessing?
A. Phonics C. Fluency
B. Syntax D. Comprehension
Time is a pair of scissors When the lost section is done
And life, a bolt of brocade The scraps are committed to a bonefire.
57. The key idea express in the lines above is the _____________.
A. Transitoriness of life C. desctruction of beauty
B. beauty of life D. cruelty of time
58. When an editor cleans up the translated text to make it stand alone, he is said to be on what
phase?
A. transcoding C. editing
B. recording D. proofreading
59. All of the following are characteristics of ESP except…
A. goal-oriented C. discipline-specific
B. teacher-oriented D. based on students’ needs
60. Base on classical Literary Theory, the aim of literatura to entertain is also known as
__________.
A. utile C. gabbana
B. dulce D. mimesis
61. A good text translation has the following features except…
A. grammatically correct C. follows the rules on discourse and
stylistics
62. When second language learners of English pronounce violet as viloyet, ask as aks, they
exhibit a speech behavior that exemplifies a morphophonemic change known as _______.
A. assimilation C. deletion
B. epenthesis D. metathesis
63. According to current linguistic theories, which of the following is the best definition of the
meaning of a word?
A. its general, dictionary definition C. its corresponding idea in the mind
B. its object to which it refers D. its use in a particular situation
64. Before I had an internet connection, I used to _________ to the library two or three times a
week.
A. go C. going
B. went D. gone

Time is a pair of scissors When the lost section is done


And life, a bolt of brocade The scraps are committed to a bonefire.
65. The key idea express in the lines above is the _____________.
A. Transitoriness of life C. desctruction of beauty
B. beauty of life D. cruelty of time

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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
66. Base on classical Literary Theory, the aim of literatura to entertain is also known as
__________.
A. utile C. gabbana
B. dulce D. mimesis
67. After serving the police force for thirty years, he eventually went rouge.
A. The case is inevitable. C. The case is lamentable.
B. The case is impossible. D. The case is celebratory.
68. Banks provide ________ service to customers 24 hours a day via ATMs.
A. convenient C. cordial
B. crazy D. controversial
69. Which language system is focused on VOCABULARY?
A. Syntactic C. Semantic
B. Pragmatic D. Phonological
70. The speech intended to persuade or convince the audience that they can succeed is called
A. eulogy C. acceptance speech
B. persuasive speech D. inspirational speech
71. What is the appropriate response to the question, “Did you understand the directions?”
A. “I’m getting there.” C. “Thanks, I certainly did.”
B. “It’s all right.” D. “I’ll think about it.”
72. The government requires that these forms should be submitted before the end of the financial
year.
A. that these forms should be submitted C. for these forms to be submitted
B. that these forms be submitted D. these forms submission
73. In the Road Not Taken, Robert Frost used the line “and my little horse must think it queer…”
Which of the following figures of speech is used by the poet?
A. Simile C. Hyperbole
B. Metaphor D. Personification

74. When preparing for a material for an ESP class, the next step to do after assessing and
analyzing the needs is…
A. test the validity C. identify supplementary text
B. establish specific objectives D. organize the lesson itself
75. When teaching the difference between auxiliary verb and linking verb, it can be pointed out
that______.
A. an auxiliary verb cabstand alone C. a linking verb goes with a main verb
B. a linking verb cannot stand alone D. an auxiliary verb goes with a main verb
76. The morphophonemic process observed when the plural inflection of pictures, frames, malls
and clothes is pronounced as /z/ is called_______.
A. metathesis C. assimilation
B. epenthesis D. deletion

77. Teacher James told his students that they can borrow some words from the source language
when translating . In what instance should the students avoid borrowing words from the
SL?
A. When they can translate the elements of C. When they want to create acceptable
each word stylistic effect on the text
B. When they are translating legal D. When there is a gap between the SL and
documents that contain Latin terms the TL

78. When an editor cleans up the translated text to make it stand alone, he is said to be on what
phase?
A. When they can translate the elements C. When they want to create acceptable
of each word stylistic effect on the text
B. When they are translating legal D. When there is a gap between the SL and
documents that contain Latin terms the TL

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79. A good text translation has the following features except:
A. Grammatically correct C. Follows rules on discourse and stylistics
B. Contains calque and borrowed words D. Textually coherent
80. Beowulf “is cited as one of the __________.
A. oldest poems of English Lit. C. old English poem of Geoffrey Chaucer
B. most famous work of Venerable Bede D. most important work of Anglo Saxon
Literature
81. With CALLA and PTCBL in mind, which syllabus does not belong to the group?
A. natural approach C. notional –functional
B. grammatical D. content-based

82. To teach language skills, Teacher Maria asked her students to draw tables and charts in a
spread sheet. What type of syllabus could Teacher Maria be following?
A. product –oriented C. task –based
B. experiential –based D. content-based
83. Language teaching that involves drills, pattern practice, mimicry, and memorization uphold the
process of _________ in language teaching.
A. monitoring C. habit formation
B. hypothesis testing D. input hypothesis

84. A kind of test that focuses at only one element at a time is known as _____.
A. Direct test C. Discrete test
B. Indirect test D. Integrative test
85. What principle in materials preparation provide for continuous and cumulative learning?
A. balancing C. evaluating
B. sequencing D. structuring
86. When a teacher studies skills covered, sequencing and activities presented in a book, he/she
does________.
A. external evaluation C. content evaluation
B. internal evaluation D. physical evaluation
87. Which question best fits a test on literary interpretation?
A. What figure of speech is used in line 1? C. What is the mood of the poem?
B. Who is the persona? D. Where is the story set?
88. Mary and I __________(work) in the same office , but we”re completely different.She
____(like) coffee, but I _____(like) tea. She ______(wash) her car every day, but I never
____(clean) mine. The above item is an example of _________.
A. a cloze selection task C. a vocabulary assessment task
B. a grammatical transformation task D. a form completion task
89. The kind of conflict wherein the phrase with which we describe such indecision suggest
dramatic tension.
A. Simple C. Inner
B. Multiple D. Triangular
90. Which of the following statements is true or false item?
A. The renaissance began in the 15th C. William Shakespeare wrote more than a
century dozen plays
B. Alexander the Great was born in D. The metaphysical poets are not
Australia considered unimportant
91. What translation theory believes that the shape of the target language should be determined
by the function that it is intended to fulfill in the target context?
A. Skopos theory C. Philological theory
B. Linguistic theory D. text-type theory
92. Which of these is not included in the phases of translation?
A. Decoding C. Recoding
B. Transcoding D. Trasmutation
93. Ben Johnson was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. A contemporary of
________
A. William Shakespeare C. Edmund Spencer
B. Samuel Daniel D. None of the above
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94. As predicted by Kristen, the structure that is likely to be acquired late by a second language
learner is shown in the underlined item in ________.
A. The girl is chasing the ducks. C. The son enjoys riding on the carabao.
B. He saw many animals on the farm. D. The family went home happy.

95. On what grounds should a translator opt to use the oblique translation method?
I. Meaning restrictions
II. Grammar features of both languages are equivalent.
III. The text to be translated contains idiomatic expressions.
A. I C. I and III
B. I and II D. I, II and III
96. Which is NOT included in external evaluation?
A. Introduction C. Activities
B. Table of Contents D. Blurbs
97. The 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum for English added one skill to the four macro –
language skills. What is this?
A. dancing C. viewing
B. singing D. both B and C
98. Which syllabus does not belong to the group?
A. process –oriented syllabus C. synthetic syllabus
B. analytic syllabus D. content –based

99. For whom the bell tolls, a novel which tells of an American teacher who joined the anti facist
loyalist army and managed to destroy the bridge was written by
A. O Henry C. Percy Bysche Shelly
B. Ernest Hemingway D. Edgar Allan Poe
100. Reading make a full man ; conference a ready man and writing an exact man ,is an example
of fashionable and balance sentence packed tight with ideas shown in the essay of
A. Richard Steel C. Michael De Montaigne
B. Joseph Addison D. Francis Bacon

101. When including names of characters in a translated text, a translator retained the name in
the SL.
A. Adaptation C. Modulation
B. Equivalence D. Transposition
102. What is the smallest unit of any language that causes a difference in meaning called?
A. Allophone C. Allomorph
B. Phoneme D. Morpheme
103. /t/ , /p/, or /k/ is aspirated as an initial sound when it is followed by________
A. an unstressed syllable C. three syllables
B. two syllables D. a stressed syllable

104. Which minimal pair illustrates that /s/ and /z/ are separate phonemes?
A. seize-see C. juice-peace
B. trace-craze D. lacy-lazy
105. According to Krashen, what is the function of knowledge of grammatical rules in language
performance?
A. output C. input
B. monitor D. affect
106. A teacher who believes that language is a system of structure made up of sounds, words
and sentences is most likely to follow a syllabus that focuses on __________.
A. Communication tasks C. Building blocks of language
B. Functions of language D. Form and function of language
107. What is a distinct characteristic of vowels?
A. Friction is present in the vocal tract. C. Air flows freely through the nasal cavity.
B. There is little obstruction in the vocal D. Vocal cord vibrates.
tract.

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108. What system do students use in capitalization and punctuation rules?
A. Pragmatic C. Phonological
B. Syntactic D. Semantic
109. Filipino learners of English who experience difficulty in producing the initial sound of the
word thunder are likely to replace it with________.
A. /d/ C. /8/
B. /t/ D. /s/
110. Language teaching that involves drills, pattern practice, mimicry and memorization uphold
the process of ___________ in language learning.
A. monitoring C. habit formation
B. hypothesis testing D. input hypothesis
111. The feature change that occurs when incomplete is pronounced /Inkomplit/ is _______.
A. [+ alveolar] becomes [ +velar] C. [+alveolar] becomes [ +palatal]
B. [+velar] becomes [+alveolar] D. [+ palatal] becomes [+alveolar]
112. The word formation process involved in creating the following words from beauty is
____________.
beauty; beautify, beautiful, beautifully
A. derivation C. root creation
B. back formation D. inflection
113. The word formed with a derivational morpheme is _______.
A. acts C. acted
B. active D. acting
114. When teaching the difference between auxiliary verb and linking verb, it can be pointed out
that______.
A. an auxiliary verb can stand alone C. a linking verb goes with a main verb
B. a linking verb cannot stand alone D. an auxiliary verb goes with a main verb
115. Which of the following will influence the pronunciation of ice cream and I scream?
A. stress C. juncture
B. patch D. intonation
116. Which of the following words may be added to this list of words: plays, cleans, and approves,
bothers?
A. realizes C. prepares
B. links D. collects
117. What intonation is used with wh-question ?
A. level C. rising-falling
B. rising D. falling
118. Which of the verbs below would fit the sentence; It _______unfair that she should stay home
to do all the work.
A. needs C. seems
B. tends to D. has to
119. Which of the following sentences is done in acceptable English?
A. Tess is eager to talk to. C. Gilbert cleaned the table up.
B. He desires that you go. D. That she dances well surprises me.
120. What do you portray if you ROLL YOUR EYES?
A. showing anger C. showing dizziness
B. exercising the eyes D. looking for something
121. Which word contains G pronounced as /g/ the hard G sound?
A. gentle C. gate
B. gesture D. giant
122. Which word is accented on the second syllable?
A. nation C. himself
B. rescue D. garment
123. An interior monologue is prepared when
one is ______.
A. reviewing events C. planning
B. making a decision D. arguing

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124. If someone SHRUGS his/her shoulders, which of the following does he/she manifest?
A. impatience C. puzzlement
B. despair D. indifference
125. What kind of homonyms are these words? BARK, BAT, BILL, BOX, FAIR
A. homophones C. homographs
B. homographic homophones D. homophonic homographs
126. Which error is made when the student reads FEATHER for FATHER?
A. graphophonic C. semantic
B. pragmatic D. syntactic
127. Which word is an EXCEPTION to the CVC rule?
A. cup C. bat
B. land D. fork
128. Which sentence states the idea clearly and has no structural error?
A. Red, Gina and I will be going to the party C. He hadn’t been himself lately.
on Sunday.
B. Me and Mila shoul start working on our D. The book which is on the desk is mine.
thesis.
129. There was a QUEUE at the lunch counter.
A. new service strategy C. line of people waiting for their turn
B. slow service D. fast service rendered
130. That was the most CHAOTIC era of the Hundred Years War.
A. helpless C. disgusting
B. unfortunate D. disorderly
131. Astrology is a form of DIVINATION.
A. state of bliss C. unfortunate events
B. sanctification D. foretelling of future events

132. TRANSCENDENTAL meditation is practiced in yoga.


A. momentary C. heavenly
B. interpretative D. supernatural
133. Which word is an EXCEPTION to the rule when two vowels go walking; the first one does
the talking?
A. head C. teach
B. each D. meat
134. They were excited about their holiday because they ___________ abroad before.
A. had never been C. had ever been
B. weren't D. have never been
135. Before they built the flat, that’s where the old garage used ________.
A. to be C. to being
B. being D. being to
136.The following items illustrate the syntactic structure of ________
I. red, white and blue
II. .of the people , for the people, and by the people
III. that the US is into recession and that the Americans are weary of wars
A. predication C. complementation
B. coordination D. modification

137.From this list; frighten, lengthen, beaten, strengthen; the word that follows a different
formation process is _______.
A. frighten C. lengthen
B. beaten D. strengthen
138.The word that is formed from a proper noun is ______.
A. motel C. AIDS
B. edit D. hamburger
139.A sign on front of a friend’s gate says, “Beware of dogs”. The illocutionary force conveyed by
the signage is to _______.
A. give a warning C. make an announcement
B. threaten D. apologize
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ENGLISH SPECIALIZATION – SET B
140.In keeping with the Audiolingual Method, teachers may employ _______in conducting an
intensive oral drill in a given structure.
A. pair work C. pattern practice
B. explanation of rules D. simulation and role play
141.Which language system is focused on VOCABULARY?
A. Syntactic C. Semantics
B. Pragmatic D. Phonological

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