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EPA 10 - US, Canada, Mexico

2010 MaxxForce 7
ENGINE SERVICE
®
MANUAL
ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL

®
2010 MaxxForce 7

0000002383

Navistar, Inc.
February 2014
Revision 2

2701 Navistar Drive, Lisle, IL 60532 USA

© 2014 Navistar, Inc. All rights reserved. All marks are trademarks of their respective owners.
ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL I

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Service Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Safety Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3

Engine Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

Mounting Engine on Engine Stand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

Engine Electrical............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141

Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185

Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207

Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263

Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285

Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309

Flywheel Assembly and Flywheel Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367

Power Cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395

Crankcase, Crankshaft, and Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417

Abbreviations and Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443

Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449

Appendix A – Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461

Appendix B – Torques...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .469

Appendix C – Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479


II ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL
ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL 1

Foreword Technical Service Literature


®
Navistar, Inc. is committed to continuous research 1171971R1 MaxxForce 7 Engine Operation
and development to improve products and introduce and Maintenance Manual
technological advances. Procedures, specifications, ®
0000002383 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
and parts defined in published technical service
HD-OBD Engine Service Manual
literature may be altered.
®
0000001681 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
This Engine Service Manual provides a general
HD-OBD Engine Diagnostic
sequence of procedures for out-of-chassis engine
Manual
overhaul (removal, inspection, and installation). For
®
in-chassis service of parts and assemblies, the 0000003382 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
sequence may vary. HD-OBD Hard Start and No Start
Diagnostic Form
NOTE: Photo illustrations identify specific parts
®
or assemblies that support text and procedures; 0000003381 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
other areas in a photo illustration may not be HD-OBD Performance Diagnostic
exact. Form
®
See vehicle manuals and Technical Service 0000003201 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
Information (TSI) bulletins for additional information. HD-OBD Engine Wiring Schematic
Form

Technical Service Literature is revised periodically. If


a technical publication is ordered, the latest revision
will be supplied.
To order technical service literature, contact your
®
International dealer.
All marks are trademarks of their respective owners.
2 ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL

Service Diagnosis • Knowledge of the principles of operation for


engine application and engine systems
Service diagnosis is an investigative procedure that
must be followed to find and correct an engine • Knowledge to understand and do procedures in
application problem or an engine problem. diagnostic and service publications
If the problem is engine application, see specific Technical Service Literature required for Effective
vehicle manuals for further diagnostic information. Diagnosis
If the problem is the engine, see specific Engine • Engine Service Manual
Diagnostic Manual for further diagnostic information.
• Engine Diagnostic Manual
Prerequisites for Effective Diagnosis
• Diagnostics Forms
• Availability of gauges, diagnostic test equipment,
• Electronic Control Systems Diagnostics Forms
and diagnostic software.
• Service Bulletins
• Availability of current information for engine
application and engine systems
ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL 3

Safety Information • Wear appropriate hearing protection.

This manual provides general and specific service • Wear correct work clothing.
procedures essential for reliable engine operation • Do not wear rings, watches, or other jewelry.
and your safety. Since many variations in procedures,
tools, and service parts are involved, advice for all • Restrain long hair.
possible safety conditions and hazards cannot be Fire prevention
stated.
• Make sure charged fire extinguishers are in the
Read safety instructions before doing any service and work area.
test procedures for the engine or vehicle. See related
application manuals for more information. NOTE: Check the classification of each fire
extinguisher to ensure that the following fire
Disregard for Safety Instructions, Warnings, Cautions, types can be extinguished.
and Notes in this manual can lead to injury, death or
damage to the engine or vehicle. 1. Type A — Wood, paper, textiles, and rubbish
2. Type B — Flammable liquids
SAFETY TERMINOLOGY
3. Type C — Electrical equipment
Three terms are used to stress your safety and safe
operation of the engine: Warning, Caution, and Note Batteries

Warning: A warning describes actions necessary to Batteries produce highly flammable gas during and
prevent or eliminate conditions, hazards, and unsafe after charging.
practices that can cause personal injury or death. • Always disconnect the main negative battery
Caution: A caution describes actions necessary cable first.
to prevent or eliminate conditions that can cause • Always connect the main negative battery cable
damage to the engine or vehicle. last.
Note: A note describes actions necessary for correct, • Avoid leaning over batteries.
efficient engine operation.
• Protect your eyes.
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS • Do not expose batteries to open flames or sparks.
Vehicle • Do not smoke in workplace.
• Make sure the vehicle is in neutral, the parking Compressed air
brake is set, and the wheels are blocked before
doing any work or diagnostic procedures on the • Limit shop air pressure for blow gun to 207 kPa
engine or vehicle. (30 psi).

Work area • Use approved equipment.

• Keep work area clean, dry, and organized. • Do not direct air at body or clothing.

• Keep tools and parts off the floor. • Wear safety glasses or goggles.

• Make sure the work area is ventilated and well lit. • Wear hearing protection.

• Make sure a First Aid Kit is available. • Use shielding to protect others in the work area.

Safety equipment Tools

• Use correct lifting devices. • Make sure all tools are in good condition.

• Use safety blocks and stands. • Make sure all standard electrical tools are
grounded.
Protective measures
• Wear protective glasses and safety shoes.
4 ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL

• Check for frayed power cords before using power • Do not smoke in the work area.
tools.
• Do not refuel the tank when the engine is running.
Fluids under pressure
Removal of tools, parts, and equipment
• Use extreme caution when working on systems
• Reinstall all safety guards, shields, and covers
under pressure.
after servicing the engine.
• Follow approved procedures only.
• Make sure all tools, parts, and service equipment
Fuel are removed from the engine and vehicle after all
work is done.
• Do not over fill the fuel tank. Over fill creates a fire
hazard.
ENGINE SYSTEMS 5

Table of Contents

Engine Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Engine Serial Number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Emission Label. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Engine Accessories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Engine Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Standard Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Optional Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Thermal Management Valve (TMV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Chassis-mounted Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Engine Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Air Management System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16


Air Management Components and Air Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Air Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Charge Air Cooler (CAC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Dual Turbocharger Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
High-pressure Turbocharger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature (TC1COT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Thermal Management Valve (TMV) (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Low-pressure Turbocharger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC) Solenoid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
EGR Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
EGR Control Valve and Position Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) and Position Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Aftertreatment (AFT) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
AFT Control System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
AFT Conditions and Responses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25


Fuel System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
High-pressure Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
High-pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Internal Transfer Pump (ITP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
High-pressure Piezo Common Rail (HPCR) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Return Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Low-pressure Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Primary Fuel Filter....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
6 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Secondary Fuel Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29


Fuel Cooler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Fault Detection/Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Engine Lubrication System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30


Lubrication System Components and Oil Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Cooling System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32


Cooling System Components and Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Water Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Front Crankcase Cover Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Thermostats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Deaeration Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Radiator Shutters (220 Horsepower only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Fuel Coolant Valve (FCV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Engine Speed Position System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

Electronic Control System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35


Electronic Control System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Operation and Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Reference Voltage (VREF). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Signal Conditioner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Microprocessor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Microprocessor Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Flash Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
RAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Engine Fan Control (EFC)... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Inlet Air Heater (IAH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Actuator Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Actuators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
H-Bridge Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve and Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
ETV and Engine Throttle Position Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Engine and Vehicle Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Thermistor Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Variable Capacitance Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Micro Strain Gauge (MSG) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Magnetic Pickup Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Potentiometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Inlet Air Heater (IAH) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
ENGINE SYSTEMS 7

Engine Identification Emission Label


Engine Serial Number

Figure 2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


(EPA) Exhaust Emission Label (example)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)


exhaust emission label is on top of the EGR manifold
mixer on the front of the engine. The label includes
the following:
• Advertised brake horsepower ratings
Figure 1 Engine Serial Number
• Engine model code
• Service applications
The engine serial number is stamped on the
crankcase pad, on the rear left side below the cylinder • Emission family and control systems
head. • Year the engine was certified to meet EPA
emission standards
Engine Serial Number Example
6.5HM2YXXXXXXX
Engine Accessories
6.5 – Engine family code
H – Diesel, turbocharged, air-intercooled and The following engine accessories may have
electronically controlled manufacturers' labels or identification plates:
M2 – Motor truck • Air compressor
Y – United States, Huntsville
7 digit suffix – Sequence number • Air conditioning compressor
• Alternator
• Cooling fan clutch
• Power steering pump
• Starter motor
Labels or identification plates include information
and specifications helpful to vehicle operators and
technicians.
8 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Engine Description
®
MaxxForce 7 Features and Specifications
Engine configuration 4 stroke, V8 diesel
3
Displacement 6.4 liters (389 in )
Bore (sleeve diameter) 98.2 mm (3.87 in)
Stroke 105 mm (4.134 in)
Compression ratio 16.5:1
Aspiration Dual Turbocharger and Charge Air Cooled (CAC)
Rated power @ rpm See EPA exhaust emission label
Peak torque @ rpm See EPA exhaust emission label
Engine rotation (facing flywheel) Counterclockwise
Combustion system Direct injection, turbocharged advanced EGR
Fuel system Direct injection, common rail
Cooling system capacity (engine only) 10.23 liters (10.8 quarts US)
Lube system capacity (including filter) 18.9 liters (20 quarts US)
Lube system capacity (overhaul only, with 19.9 liters (21 quarts US)
filter)

Firing order 1-2-7-3-4-5-6-8


ENGINE SYSTEMS 9

Standard Features The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system


® includes an EGR valve, Intake Air Heater (IAH),
The MaxxForce 7 is a V8 engine with a displacement
and Engine Throttle Valve (ETV). The EGR valve
of 6.4 liters (389 cubic inches).
assembly is mounted on the manifold mixer on the
The electronic governor controls the engine rpm front top of the engine. The ETV is installed on the
within a safe and stable operating range for ideal Intake Air Heater (IAH) mounted on the manifold
performance. A low-idle governor prevents the engine mixer.
rpm from dropping below a stable speed to prevent
A gerotor lube oil pump, mounted on the front
stalling when various loads are demanded on the
crankcase bulkhead, is driven by the crankshaft to
engine. A high-idle governor prevents the engine
supply pressurized oil to engine components. All
rpm from going above a safe speed that would cause ®
MaxxForce 7 engines use an engine oil cooler and
internal damage to the engine.
spin-on oil filter. The oil filter is located at the lower
The cylinder heads have four valves per cylinder. driver-side corner of the engine where there is an
Each fuel injector is centrally located between the integrated filter header to the cast-aluminum oil pan.
four valves and directs fuel over the piston bowl for
An open crankcase breather system draws crankcase
improved performance and reduced emissions.
vapors through a breather element. The breather
The camshaft is supported by five bushings pressed element coalesces (separates) and oil migrates
into the crankcase. The camshaft is crankshaft-driven towards the low point in the housing which then
and thrust is controlled by a plate mounted behind the gets returned back to crankcase. Clean blow-by gas
rear bulkhead. (vapors) exit the breather cover and vents out to
atmosphere.
The overhead valve train includes hydraulic roller cam
followers, push rods, rocker arms, and valve bridges The high-pressure fuel system includes a
to open the dual intake and exhaust valves. High-pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP), high-pressure
common rails, and fuel injectors. The ECM
The crankcase is composed of two major matching
electronically controls the injectors, which allows
components. The upper crankcase houses the
multiple injections and more precise fuel delivery
cylinders, main bearing saddles, and oil and coolant
to improve combustion, emissions, and cold-start
passages. Cast or machined. The lower crankcase
performance.
consists of a structural plate with the main bearing
caps machined into it for improved load retention and The low-pressure fuel system uses an electric fuel lift
alignment. pump to draw fuel from the fuel tank(s) to the engine.
This eliminates the need for a hand primer. The pump
The crankshaft is supported by five main bearings,
is located in the primary and secondary fuel module
with fore and aft thrust controlled at the upper half
mounted over the left valve cover. The primary fuel
of the fourth main bearing. Two connecting rods are
filter assembly includes a Water in Fuel (WIF) sensor
attached to each crankshaft rod journal and are offset
and an optional fuel heater. Water and solids are
to minimize vibration. Piston pins are free-floating,
separated from the fuel and the water is collected
allowing the pins free, lateral movement within the
in the water separator bowl. The instrument panel
connecting rod as well as the piston. Piston pins are
WIF lamp illuminates and 'Water in Fuel' message is
held in place with retaining rings.
displayed when water needs to be drained. A manual
One-piece aluminum-alloy pistons are fitted with drain valve is provided in the water separator bowl to
one keystone ring, one rectangular intermediate drain water out. Fuel is discharged to the secondary
compression ring, and a two-piece oil control ring. fuel filter. The secondary fuel filter assembly is
The combustion bowl is located in the piston crown to pressure-regulated and incorporates an air bleed
reduce emissions. All pistons are mated to fractured orifice to automatically purge air introduced into the
cap joint connecting rods. system.
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor and Camshaft A two-stage turbocharger provides boost air pressure
Position (CMP) sensor are used by the Engine Control to the engine for various speed and load conditions.
Module (ECM) to calculate rpm, fuel timing, fuel An electronically controlled solenoid modulates boost
quantity, and duration of fuel injection. air to a wastegate actuator.
10 ENGINE SYSTEMS

The EGR system circulates cooled exhaust into the primary and secondary filter do not provide sufficient
intake air stream in the intake manifold. This cools warming.
the combustion process and reduces the formation of
NOX engine emissions.
® Thermal Management Valve (TMV)
Diamond Logic engine control is a single electronic
control unit that monitors and controls the engine and A TMV is available to enable engine braking and to
chassis components. reduce the amount of time needed to bring the engine
to operating temperature.
A relay-controlled grid heater is used to aid cold,
ambient starting.
A coolant heater raises the temperature of the coolant Chassis-mounted Features
surrounding the cylinders for improved performance
A Charge Air Cooler (CAC) is an air-to-air heat
during cold weather startups.
exchanger which increases the density of the air
charge.
Optional Features The Aftertreatment System processes engine exhaust
so that it meets emission requirements at the tailpipe.
An air compressor is available for applications that
require air brakes or air suspension. • The oxidation catalyst removes oxygen and
hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream.
An optional fuel heater is available and installed in the
primary fuel filter assembly. It warms the supply fuel • The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) captures and
to prevent waxing during cold conditions where the removes particulates in the exhaust stream.
fuel filter module's internal fuel passages between the
ENGINE SYSTEMS 11

Engine Components

Figure 3 Top
1. Pump cover heat shield (right) 9. Crossover tube 17. Draft tube
2. Right exhaust tube assembly 10. Manifold mixer 18. Thermal Management Valve
3. Exhaust turbocharger inlet 11. EGR valve (TMV) (optional)
manifold 12. Inlet Air Heater (IAH)
4. Left exhaust tube assembly 13. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)
5. EGR cooler 14. Turbocharger inlet duct
6. Fuel cooler assembly
7. Fuel filter module housing 15. Turbocharger oil supply tube
8. High-pressure turbocharger 16. Low-pressure turbocharger
assembly assembly
12 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 4 Front
1. Grooved idler pulley 7. Air compressor pulley 14. Front crankcase cover (heater
2. Fan pulley 8. Air compressor bracket return)
3. Flat idler pulley (2) 9. Coolant inlet 15. Thermostat housing (coolant
4. Belt tensioner (if equipped with 10. Water pump pulley outlet)
air compressor) 11. Oil filter assembly 16. Belt tensioner
5. Air compressor 12. Oil pan 17. Alternator bracket
6. Oil fill tube assembly 13. PTO air compressor front pulley
ENGINE SYSTEMS 13

Figure 5 Right
1. Draft tube 7. Vibration damper 13. Power steering pump
2. Breather cover 8. Oil pan 14. Right exhaust tube assembly
3. ETV 9. Lower crankcase 15. Right valve cover
4. Thermostat housing (coolant 10. Upper crankcase 16. Exhaust turbocharger inlet
return) 11. Right exhaust manifold manifold
5. PTO air compressor front pulley 12. Rear crankcase cover assembly
6. Front engine mounting support (flywheel housing)
14 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 6 Left
1. Air compressor assembly 8. Crankcase rear cover (flywheel 14. Vibration damper
2. Filter cap (primary) housing) 15. Front engine mounting support
3. Filter cap (secondary) 9. Upper crankcase 16. PTO air compressor front pulley
4. Fuel cooler 10. Oil pan 17. Oil level gauge tube
5. Fuel pump 11. Lower crankcase 18. Air compressor bracket
6. Left valve cover 12. Left exhaust manifold
7. Left exhaust tube assembly 13. Oil filter
ENGINE SYSTEMS 15

Figure 7 Rear
1. EGR cooler 5. Draft tube 10. Flexplate
2. Exhaust turbocharger inlet 6. Lifting eye 11. Pump cover heat shield (right)
manifold 7. Crankcase rear cover (flywheel 12. Left exhaust tube assembly
3. Low-pressure turbocharger housing) 13. Pump cover heat shield (left)
assembly 8. Oil pan
4. Right exhaust tube assembly 9. Oil filter
16 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Air Management System


Air Management Components and Air Flow

Figure 8 Air Management System (AMS)


1. Air intake manifold 12. Low-pressure turbocharger 21. Turbocharger wastegate valve
2. Inlet Air Heater (IAH) turbine 22. Thermal Management Valve
3. ETV and Engine Throttle 13. High-pressure turbocharger (TMV) (optional)
Position (ETP) sensor turbine 23. DOC Inlet Temperature (DOCIT)
4. Charge Air Cooler Outlet 14. High-pressure turbocharger sensor
Temperature (CACOT) sensor compressor 24. DPF Inlet Temperature (DPFIT)
5. Charge Air Cooler (CAC) 15. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate sensor
6. Turbocharger 1 Compressor Control (TC1WC) actuator 25. DPF Outlet Temperature
Outlet Temperature (TC1COT) 16. EGR Control Valve and EGR (DPFOT) sensor
sensor Position sensor 26. DPF Differential Pressure
7. Air crossover tube assembly 17. EGR cooler (DPFDP) sensor
8. Air inlet 18. Intake Manifold Temperature 27. Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
9. Air filter (IMT) sensor 28. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
10. Mass Air Flow/Air Inlet 19. Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) 29. Exhaust gas
Temperature (MAF/AIT) sensor sensor 30. Intake air
11. Low-pressure turbocharger 20. Exhaust Gas Temperature
compressor (EGT) sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 17

Air Flow are fitted with an optional Thermal Management


Valve (TMV) in the exhaust system between the
Air flows through the air filter assembly and enters
low-pressure turbocharger and the DOC. The purpose
the low-pressure turbocharger. Some vehicles are
of this valve is to enable engine braking and allow
fitted with an optional Thermal Management Valve
faster engine warm-ups.
(TMV) between the air filter and the low-pressure
turbocharger. The purpose of this valve is to enable The high-pressure TC1WC actuator is controlled
engine braking and allow faster engine warm-ups. by the Engine Control Module (ECM) and responds
The compressor in the low-pressure turbocharger to engine loads. During heavy loads, increased
increases pressure, temperature, and density of the exhaust flow turns the turbine wheel faster. This
intake air before it enters the air crossover tube. increased speed turns the compressor impeller faster
From the air crossover tube assembly, air enters and supplies greater boost pressure to the intake
the high-pressure turbocharger. The high-pressure manifold. To prevent too much boost from building,
turbocharger compressor further increases the the wastegate valve diverts exhaust away from the
pressure, temperature, and density of the intake air. turbine wheel. Conversely, when engine load is light,
The high-pressure Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control the flow of exhaust decreases and less air is forced
(TC1WC) solenoid and the TC1WC actuator control into the intake manifold. Therefore, the wastegate
the output of the high-pressure turbocharger by valve forces more exhaust towards the turbine wheel
adjusting the wastegate valve inside the turbocharger. to compensate.
From the high-pressure turbocharger, air enters the
Charge Air Cooler (CAC). Cooled compressed air
flows from the CAC through the ETV and Exhaust Gas Charge Air Cooler (CAC)
Recirculation (EGR) mixer into the intake manifold.
Air from the dual stage turbocharger assembly
If the EGR valve is open, some exhaust gas mixes passes through a network of heat exchanger tubes
with compressed intake air inside the EGR mixer and inside the CAC before entering the ETV. Outside
flows into the cylinders. If the EGR valve is closed, air flows through the CAC and cools the charged
only compressed intake air flows into the cylinders. air. Cooled intake air improves the fuel-to-air ratio
during combustion. This results in improved emission
After combustion, exhaust gas is forced through
control and power output.
the exhaust manifolds to the EGR cooler and
turbochargers. Some exhaust gas is cooled in the
EGR cooler and flows through the EGR valve to the
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT)
intake air stream. When exhaust gas mixes with air
Sensor
and fuel, it reduces the formation of Nitrogen Oxides
(NOX) engine emissions. The rest of the exhaust gas The CACOT is a thermistor-style sensor that
flows through the high-pressure turbocharger turbine measures charged-air temperature entering the
and then through the low-pressure turbocharger Engine Throttle Valve (ETV). As temperature
turbine. The high-pressure turbine is on the same increases, resistance drops, causing the voltage
shaft as the high-pressure turbocharger compressor signal interpreted by the Engine Control Module
and compresses the mixture of filtered air. The (ECM) to vary. The ECM monitors this signal for
low-pressure turbocharger turbine is on the same Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system control and
shaft as the low-pressure compressor. Some vehicles Charge Air Cooler (CAC) performance.
18 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 9 Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature


(CACOT) Sensor
1. CACOT Sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 19

Dual Turbocharger Assembly

Figure 10 Dual Turbocharger Assembly


1. Low-pressure turbocharger 7. Turbocharger oil supply tube 14. TC1WC solenoid
2. Low-pressure turbocharger 8. Air inlet 15. TC1WC solenoid electrical
turbine outlet 9. Relief-to-duct tube assembly connector
3. Exhaust inlet 10. Wastegate tube assembly 16. Low-pressure turbocharger
4. High-pressure turbocharger 11. Boost solenoid tube assembly drain tube
5. Crossover tube 12. High-pressure turbocharger
6. High-pressure turbocharger drain port
compressor outlet 13. TC1WC actuator
20 ENGINE SYSTEMS

®
MaxxForce 7 engines are equipped with an Thermal Management Valve (TMV) (optional)
electronically controlled dual turbocharging system.
The TMV is a “smart” valve in the exhaust and is
This system provides high levels of charge air
used as an engine retarder / brake and to reduce
pressure to improve engine performance and reduce
the amount of time needed to bring the engine to
emissions. The dual turbocharger assembly is
operating temperature. The TMV detects faults
connected to the turbocharger exhaust inlet manifold.
internally and reports them to the ECM via the Control
Because of its ability to generate very high charge
Area Network (CAN) bus. To prevent the valve from
air pressure levels and to prevent Charge Air Cooler
overheating, it is cooled by engine coolant.
(CAC) overloading conditions, the system is fitted
with a spring-loaded turbocharger wastegate valve.
The turbocharger wastegate valve is actuated by Low-pressure Turbocharger
boost air pressure. Boost air pressure to the TC1WC
The low-pressure turbine is attached directly to the
actuator is controlled by an electronically controlled
output of the high-pressure turbine. The exhaust
TC1WC solenoid, based on a Pulse Width Modulation
gases enter the low-pressure turbine housing and
(PWM) signal supplied by the Engine Control Module
exit through the low-pressure turbine outlet. Fresh air
(ECM).
from the air filter enters the low-pressure compressor
where it is compressed and air from the low-pressure
compressor is piped directly to the high-pressure
High-pressure Turbocharger
compressor inlet.
The high-pressure turbocharger assembly is
equipped with a wastegate valve that regulates
turbocharger boost by controlling the amount of Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)
exhaust gases that pass through the high-pressure Solenoid
turbine. When the boost demand is high, or when
The TC1WC solenoid controls the TC1WC actuator
the boost demand reaches a predetermined value,
by regulating the boost control air supply based on a
the TC1WC actuator opens the wastegate valve.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal received from
This allows part of the exhaust gas flow to bypass
the ECM.
the high-pressure turbine. Compressed air from
the low-pressure compressor housing enters the With no PWM signal, the TC1WC solenoid is open
high-pressure turbine compressor through the air and control air is supplied to the TC1WC actuator
crossover tube. Where it is further compressed and maintaining it in the open position. When an increase
sent to the charge air cooler. in the charge air pressure is required, the ECM
supplies PWM voltage to close the TC1WC solenoid.
When the TC1WC solenoid closes, it interrupts the
Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature control air supply to the TC1WC actuator and at the
(TC1COT) Sensor same time relieves the air pressure from the TC1WC
actuator by allowing it to vent to the turbocharger inlet
The TC1COT is a thermistor-style sensor that
duct. The TC1WC actuator then closes, resulting in
measures charged-air temperature leaving the
increased charge air pressure.
turbocharger compressor before the Charge Air
Cooler (CAC). As temperature increases, resistance
drops, causing the voltages interpreted by the Engine
Control Module (ECM) to vary. The ECM monitors
this signal for engine protection.
ENGINE SYSTEMS 21

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System

Figure 11 EGR System


1. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) 4. EGR cooler 7. EGR valve connector
2. Inlet Air Heater (IAH) 5. Distribution duct
3. EGR valve 6. Manifold mixer

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an EGR Flow


emission-control technology, which significantly
Some exhaust from the turbocharger inlet manifold
reduces Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) emissions. The EGR
flows into the EGR cooler. Exhaust from the EGR
system is also used to adjust the fuel-to-air ratio for
cooler flows into a manifold mixer, through the EGR
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration.
valve, and then into the intake manifold.
NOX gas forms during a reaction between nitrogen
When EGR is required, the EGR valve opens, allowing
and oxygen at the high temperatures of combustion.
cooled exhaust gases to enter the intake manifold to
By mixing exhaust gases with the inlet air, peak
be mixed with filtered intake air. The exhaust gases
combustion temperature is reduced thus reducing the
are then recycled through the combustion process.
formation of NOX emissions.
22 ENGINE SYSTEMS

EGR Control Valve and Position Sensor drives the poppet valve assembly, while driving the
position sensor. The poppet valve assembly has two
valve heads (poppets) on a common shaft.
Exhaust flow enters the EGR valve elbow housing and
enters the EGR valve. Exhaust flows through the two
valve poppets into the manifold mixer, where it mixes
with incoming air from the air inlet throttle valve. The
mixed air goes into the intake manifold and cylinders.

Figure 12 EGR Valve


1. Direct Current (DC) motor
2. Electrical connector
Figure 13 EGR Closed Loop Operation
3. Exhaust outlet 1. ECM
4. Exhaust inlet 2. Measured position
5. Exhaust outlet 3. Compare with desired position
6. Poppet valve assembly 4. Adjust duty cycle
5. Duty cycle
6. EGR valve
The EGR valve uses a DC motor to control the 7. Position sensor
position of the poppet valve assembly. The motor 8. Voltage
ENGINE SYSTEMS 23

the default state of the ETV is opened. When air flow


needs to be restricted, the ETV is commanded to close
by the ECM.
The ECM monitors the Aftertreatment System. The
ECM controls the ETV during AFT regeneration and
purge. The ETV is controlled to restrict intake air,
which increases the exhaust temperature to clean the
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The ETV is also used
to help drive more EGR during normal operation.

Figure 14 EGR Control


1. ECM
2. Position sensor
3. EGR valve
4. 5 volts
5. Analog voltage
6. 0 volts
7. Output signal

Figure 15 ETV
The EGR valve consists of two major components: 1. DC motor
a valve body and an actuator motor. A Hall-effect 2. Throttle blade
position sensor monitors valve movement. The EGR 3. Inlet air intake
valve assembly is mounted on the manifold mixer on 4. Electrical connector
the front top of the engine.
The EGR motor receives the desired EGR position
from the ECM to position the valve for exhaust gas The ETV uses a DC motor to control the position of
recirculation. The EGR position sensor provides the throttle blade. The motor drives the throttle blade,
feedback to the ECM on the valve position. while at the same time the position sensor is being
read. The ETV consists of two major components, the
valve body and actuator motor. A Hall-effect position
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) and Position Sensor sensor monitors valve movement.
ETV regulates the amount of fresh air flow coming
into the system. When the engine needs fresh air,
24 ENGINE SYSTEMS

• Controls engine operating parameters to make


regeneration automatic
• Maintains vehicle and engine performance during
regeneration

Sensors
Sensors produce a representative electronic signal
based on temperature and pressure. It is used by the
control system to regulate the aftertreatment function.
The sensors measure temperature and pressure in
the exhaust flow.

Figure 16 ETV Closed Loop Operation


Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
1. ECM
2. Measured position The DOC does the following:
3. Compare with desired position • Oxidizes hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide
4. Adjust duty cycle (CO) in exhaust stream
5. Duty cycle
6. ETV • Provides heat for exhaust system warm-up
7. Position sensor • Aids in system temperature management for the
8. Voltage DPF
• Oxidizes NO into NO2 for passive DPF
The ETV motor receives the desired valve position regeneration
from the ECM to position the valve for fresh air flow.
The position sensor provides feedback to the ECM on
valve position. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
The DPF does the following:
Aftertreatment (AFT) System • Captures and temporarily stores carbon-based
The AFT System, part of the larger exhaust system, particulates in a filter
processes engine exhaust to meet emissions • Allows for oxidation (regeneration) of stored
requirements. The AFT system traps particulate particulates once loading gets to a particular level
matter (soot) and prevents it from leaving the tailpipe. (pressure drop)
• Reduces exhaust back pressure for optimized
AFT Control System engine performance by reducing the soot load
through regeneration into ash
The control system performs the following functions:
• Stores noncombustible ash
• Monitors exhaust gases and aftertreatment
system, and controls engine operating
parameters for emission processing and failure
AFT Conditions and Responses
recognition
The operator is alerted audibly or with instrument
• Cancels regeneration in the event of catalyst or
panel indicators of system status. Automatic or
sensor failure
manual regeneration is required when levels of soot
• Monitors the level of soot accumulation in the exceed acceptable limits. For additional information
DPF and adapts engine operating characteristics see the applicable vehicle Operator's Manual and the
to compensate for increased back pressure vehicle visor placard.
ENGINE SYSTEMS 25

Fuel System
Fuel System Components

Figure 17 Fuel System Schematic


1. Fuel tank 14. Engine High Pressure Fuel 21. Fuel Volume Control Valve
2. Fuel filter module housing Pump (HPFP) (FVCV)
3. Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor 15. Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) 22. HPFP
4. Manual water drain sensor (optional) 23. Fuel Pressure Control Valve
5. Fuel heater (Optional) 16. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) (FPCV)
6. Primary fuel filter sensor 24. High-pressure Common Rail
7. Fuel Pump 17. Injector Leak Off (ILO) check (HPCR) (Left)
8. Pressure relief valve valve 25. High-pressure Common Rail
9. Thermal recirculation valve 18. Internal Transfer Pump (ITP) (HPCR) (Right)
10. Liquid fuel cooler 19. ITP regulator 26. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor
11. Secondary fuel filter 20. HPFP cooling and lubrication 27. Engine
12. Pressure regulator flow valve
13. Shutoff valve
26 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 18 High-pressure Fuel System


1. Left rail assembly 5. Right rail assembly 10. Pump left tube assembly
2. Pump return hose connection 6. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor (pump-to-rail)
(pump-to-cooler) 7. Fuel rail-to-injector fuel tube port
3. Filter to pump hose connection (4 for each rail)
(secondary fuel filter-to-pump) 8. HPFP
4. Pump right tube assembly 9. HPFP gear
(pump-to-rail)

High-pressure Fuel System to the HPFP through the Fuel Volume Control Valve
(FVCV). The ITP also provides fuel for cooling and
High-pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) Assembly
lubrication of the HPFP. Fuel is rerouted as pump
The HPFP is a three-piston volumetric pump that return flow through the HPFP cooling and lubrication
supplies fuel at high pressure to both fuel rails. The valve. Pressure is maintained at the inlet of the HPFP
HPFP is mounted in the rear valley on top of the piston pump by an ITP regulator.
engine and is driven by the camshaft.

Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV)


Internal Transfer Pump (ITP)
The FPCV controls the fuel pressure to the fuel rails.
The ITP is part of the HPFP assembly and driven The FPCV is located in the HPFP assembly and is
off the same shaft as the HPFP assembly. The ITP controlled by the ECM. FPCV control depends on fuel
supplies fuel at a slightly higher pressure and flow pressure and fuel temperature.
ENGINE SYSTEMS 27

Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV) The injectors are capable of five injections; two
pre-injection, a main-injection, a post-injection, and
The FVCV regulates the volume of flow sent to the
a late post-injection. Pre-injection and post-injection
HPFP. The FVCV is located in the HPFP assembly
reduce combustion noise, mechanical load, and
and is controlled by fuel rail pressure, via the ECM.
exhaust emissions. The main-injection cycle injects
The FVCV allows just sufficient quantity of fuel to
and atomizes fuel in the combustion chambers for
be delivered to the HPFP depending on engine
combustion. The late post-injection cycle adds fuel to
load, speed, injector quantity, fuel temperature, and
the exhaust to regenerate the aftertreatment system.
number of injections per cycle.
Each injector has an actuator that opens or closes the
injector nozzle holes. Charging the actuator opens
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor the nozzle holes; discharging the actuator closes the
nozzle holes. The ECM charges and discharges each
The FRP sensor monitors fuel pressure in the fuel rails
actuator by energizing the appropriate high-side or
and sends a signal to the ECM. The FRP sensor is
low-side output. The low-side output supplies a return
installed in the right fuel rail. The FRP sensor harness
circuit for each actuator.
is routed through the right Under Valve Cover (UVC)
harness along with the fuel injector connections.
Return Fuel System
High-pressure Piezo Common Rail (HPCR) The return fuel system moves unused fuel from the
System fuel injectors to the fuel cooler. Excess fuel out of
the FVCV and the FPCV mix with fuel from the fuel
The HPFP pumps fuel through separate tubes to each
injectors on the way to the fuel cooler.
fuel rail. Each fuel rail has four fuel tubes, one for
each injector, that maintain constant pressure from the
high-pressure pump to each injector.
28 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 19 Low-pressure Fuel System


1. Injector return hose assembly 9. Fuel filter module housing 14. Fuel heater block-off plate or
2. Filter cap (primary) 10. Fuel inlet from tank fuel heater (optional)
3. Filter cap (secondary) 11. Fuel return to tank 15. Water drain valve
4. Filter-to-pump hose assembly 12. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) 16. Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor
5. Pump-to-cooler hose assembly sensor 17. Fuel Pump
6. Fuel cooler 13. Diagnostic valve (standard) or
7. Coolant supply hose Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP)
8. Coolant return hose sensor (optional)
ENGINE SYSTEMS 29

Low-pressure Fuel System Fuel from the pressure regulator and air bleed orifice
returns to the fuel tank(s).
Fuel Pump
The fuel module has a temperature sensor mounted
A constant-flow electric pump draws fuel from the fuel
in the supply line to the HPFP. A fuel temperature
tank(s) through the primary fuel filter and supplies fuel
sensitive recirculation fuel valve allows some warmer
to the secondary fuel filter. The fuel pump is mounted
recirculated fuel from the fuel cooler to flow to the
at the bottom center of the primary fuel filter.
primary filter when tank fuel is colder. This helps
prevent filter waxing. When fuel temperatures are
Primary Fuel Filter warm to hot, the valve closes and all recirculated fuel
goes into the secondary housing where it mixes with
A 10–micron primary filter removes water and filters fuel from the primary filter, electric pump, and tank.
fuel from the fuel tank(s). The primary filter is above
the low-pressure fuel pump.
Fuel Cooler
Secondary Fuel Filter The combined fuel from the fuel injectors and the
HPFP is cooled by the fuel cooler using engine
A 3–5 micron secondary fuel filter assembly also
coolant. Cooled fuel is then directed to the inlet of the
removes water and filters fuel from the low-pressure
secondary fuel filter.
fuel pump. The filter has an internal drilled air bleed
orifice to automatically remove air from the fuel. The
filtered fuel from the primary fuel filter is mixed with
Fault Detection/Management
the cooled fuel from the fuel cooler and is directed to
a secondary fuel filter. System pressure is maintained The ECM can detect if the output is shorted to ground
by an internal pressure regulator. / battery, the output is open, or if an injector is shorted.
30 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Engine Lubrication System


Lubrication System Components and Oil Flow

Figure 20 Lubrication System


1. Camshaft follower 10. Main bearing 1 and crank pins 17. Engine coolant
2. Piston cooling tube 11. Main bearing 2 and crank pins 18. Oil cooler
3. Air compressor (optional) 12. Main bearing 3 and crank pins 19. Bypass valve
4. Dual turbocharger assembly 13. Main bearing 4 and crank pins 20. Oil filter
5. Cam bearing 1 14. Main bearing 5 and crank pins 21. Bypass valve
6. Cam bearing 2 15. Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) 22. Oil Pump
7. Cam bearing 3 sensor 23. Pressure regulator
8. Cam bearing 4 16. Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) 24. Oil pickup and screen
9. Cam bearing 5 sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 31

The lubrication system is pressure-regulated, full-flow and flows through passages in the (clean side) of
cooled, and full-flow filtered. the oil pan-lower crankcase-upper crankcase, before
going to the oil cooler.
A gerotor oil pump includes an oil pump housing,
cover plate, gerotor assembly (inner and outer gears), Oil pressure is governed by the pressure-regulating
and pressure-regulating valve assembly. The inner valve assembly. The pressure-regulating valve in
rotor gear of the gerotor pump is driven by the the discharge oil flow relieves excess oil pressure by
crankshaft. allowing excess flow back to the suction side of the
gerotor oil pump.
The gerotor oil pump draws and pressurizes oil from
the oil pan through an oil pickup tube and screen. Oil flows from the oil pump into the upper crankcase,
Pressurized oil in the pump flows through passages to a passage in the oil cooler cover, and through the oil
in the oil pump housing, enters a passage in the lower cooler plates; cooled oil flows back to the cooler cover
crankcase dirty side, flows through a passage in the and is distributed to various systems in the engine.
oil pan dirty side to the dirty side of the oil filter. Oil
Each bypass valve ensures full flow of oil to the
is filtered in the oil filter (outside to inside) and flows
engine, if the filter or cooler is restricted, including
from the center of the oil filter into a passage in the
high oil viscosity cold start conditions.
clean side of the oil pan and lower crankcase before
returning to the passage in the clean side of the oil The oil cooler passage directs cooled, filtered oil to the
pump. optional air compressor, oil supply tube to lubricate the
turbocharger bearings, and oil to the main oil galleries.
If the oil cooler is restricted, a bypass valve in the oil
Lubrication oil from the turbocharger drains back to
cooler cover opens; oil bypasses the oil cooler and
the oil pan through slotted passages in the cooler
flows directly to the various systems in the engine. If
cover plate and upper crankcase. The cooler cover
the oil filter element is restricted, a bypass valve in the
has ports for EOP and EOT sensors.
oil filter housing opens; oil bypasses the filter element
32 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Cooling System
Cooling System Components and Flow

Figure 21 Cooling System Schematic


1. Water pump 7. Cross-over 13. Fuel Coolant Valve (FCV)
2. EGR cooler 8. Thermostat 1 14. Secondary radiator
3. Oil cooler 9. Thermostat 2 15. Bypass
4. Air compressor (optional) 10. Heater core 16. Radiator
5. Left cylinder head/crankcase 11. Heater core (optional) 17. Deaeration tank
6. Right cylinder head/crankcase 12. Fuel cooler

The cooling system keeps the engine within a counterclockwise when viewed from the front of the
designated temperature range. engine.
If the dual thermostats are shut, coolant is circulated
through an internal bypass in one of the thermostats.
Water Pump
The vehicle mounted deaeration tank keeps the
The centrifugal water pump is mounted in the front
system full with a line to the suction of the water
crankcase cover. The water pump has a built-in
pump.
reservoir to catch small amounts of coolant that
may seep past the seal. Water pump rotation is
ENGINE SYSTEMS 33

Front Crankcase Cover Flow A passage through the crankcase returns coolant from
the oil cooler directly to the water pump eye.
Pressurized coolant from the water pump flows
through the coolant supply housing in the front cover.
Flow is directed through passages in the crankcase
Thermostats
and ports in the front cover to support cooling system
requirements. Two thermostats are located in the thermostat
housing. If the coolant temperature is above the
• Two passages (left and right) direct coolant
thermostat opening temperature, coolant flows to
through the crankcase front to rear to cool the
the vehicle mounted radiator to be cooled. If the
cylinder walls and then directed up to the cylinder
coolant temperature is below the opening temperature
head through ports in the top deck.
for both thermostats, both thermostats are closed.
• A passage directs coolant from the front cover and Coolant returns back to the water pump through a
through the crankcase to the oil cooler to cool the bypass on one of the thermostats. As the coolant
lubricating oil. temperature increases, the first thermostat starts
to open and allows flow through the radiator. As
• A port in the front cover directs coolant through
coolant temperature continues to increase, the first
tubing to the EGR cooler to cool the exhaust
thermostat will fully open. The second thermostat will
gases.
then start to open, increasing flow to the radiator until
• A port in the front cover directs coolant through both thermostats are fully open.
tubing to the air compressor.
• A port in the front cover directs coolant through
Deaeration Tank
a secondary radiator to the fuel cooler, to cool
unused fuel. The radiator and the coolant system are kept full and
pressurized by the deaeration tank. As coolant in
Hot coolant return flow is directed through passages
the radiator heats up and expands, the level in the
in the crankcase and ports in the front cover to the
deaeration tank goes up and pressure increases. The
coolant return cross-over housing.
deaeration tank also removes air from the cooling
• Two passages (left and right) through the system.
crankcase return coolant from the cylinder heads.
• A port in the coolant return cross-over housing
Radiator Shutters (220 Horsepower only)
returns coolant through tubing from the air
compressor. Closing the radiator shutters keeps the engine warm
during cold weather operation. This provides faster
• A port in the coolant return cross-over housing
warm-up of the passenger cab and faster windshield
returns coolant through tubing from the EGR
defrosting.
cooler.
• A port in the coolant return cross-over housing
returns coolant through tubing from the fuel Fuel Coolant Valve (FCV)
cooler.
The FCV is used to redirect coolant through the fuel
The coolant return housing has one temperature cooler. The ECM uses the Engine Fuel Temperature
sensor point. (EFT) sensor to monitor fuel temperature and controls
the FCV to maintain the desired fuel temperature. The
The coolant return cross-over supplies coolant to the
valve opens automatically allowing coolant to pass
vehicle heater core for cab heating.
through the cooler. The ECM controls this valve in
The coolant return cross-over housing directs coolant cold weather to warm the fuel and also prevents the
to the dual thermostat housing. temperature from getting too hot.
34 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Engine Speed Position System


The Engine Speed Position System provides a
summary of camshaft and crankshaft synchronization
status information to the system. It sets the operating
modes of camshaft and crankshaft acquisition
depending on synchronization status, availability,
and detected failures. The signal source for engine
position is selected on the activated operating mode.
Camshaft and crankshaft signal acquisition is set
passive for a calibrated delay after key-off has
been detected at low engine speed and for another
calibrated delay after a loss of synchronization at low
engine speed. This avoids wrong injection, ignition
and diagnosis with backward rotation after rapid
key-off/on or stalling.

Figure 22 Engine Speed Position System


1. Crankshaft target wheel
2. Camshaft target wheel
3. Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor
4. ECM
5. Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 35

Electronic Control System


Electronic Control System Components

Figure 23 Electronic Control System


1. Engine Coolant Temperature 7. Engine Oil Temperature 1 (EOT) 11. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) and
(ECT) sensor sensor position sensor
2. Mass Air Flow/Air Inlet 8. Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) 12. EGR Control Valve and position
Temperature (MAF/AIT) sensor sensor sensor
3. Engine Control Module (ECM) 9. Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) 13. High Pressure Fuel Pump
4. Crankshaft position (CKP) sensor (HPFP)
sensor 10. Accelerator Pedal Position 14. Exhaust Gas Temperature
5. Camshaft position (CMP) sensor (APP) sensor (EGT) sensor
6. Engine Fuel Temperature sensor
36 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Figure 24 Electronic Control System


1. Exhaust Gas Recirculation 7. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor 14. DOC Inlet Temperature (DOCIT)
Temperature (EGRT) sensor 8. Fuel Pump sensor
2. Intake Manifold Temperature 9. Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) 15. DPF Inlet Temperature (DPFIT)
(IMT) sensor sensor (optional) sensor
3. Engine Control Module (ECM) 10. Thermal Management Valve 16. DPF Differential Pressure
4. Engine Fan Control (EFC) (TMV) (optional) (DPFDP) sensor
(optional) 11. Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor 17. DPF Outlet Temperature
5. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate 12. Fuel Heater (optional) (DPFOT) sensor
Control (TC1WC) solenoid 13. Transmission Outlet 18. Engine Coolant Level (ECL)
6. Inlet Air Heater (IAH) relay Temperature (manual) sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 37

Operation and Function • Background calculations are normally variables


that change at slower rates. Engine temperature
The Engine Control Module (ECM) monitors and
is an example.
controls the engine to ensure maximum performance
and adherence to emissions standards. The ECM Suspect Parameter Numbers (SPN) and Fault Mode
has four primary functions: Indicators (FMI) are set by the microprocessor if inputs
or conditions do not comply with expected values.
• Provides reference voltage (VREF)
Diagnostic strategies are also programmed into the
• Conditions input signals
ECM. Some strategies monitor inputs continuously
• Processes and stores control strategies and command the necessary outputs for correct
performance of the engine.
• Controls actuators

Reference Voltage (VREF) Microprocessor Memory


The ECM supplies a 5-volt VREF signal to input The ECM microprocessor includes Flash Memory and
sensors in the electronic control system. By Random Access Memory (RAM).
comparing the 5-volt VREF signal sent to the sensors
with their respective returned signals, the ECM
determines pressures, positions, and other variables Flash Memory
important to engine and vehicle functions. Flash memory is a nonvolatile form of memory that
The ECM supplies three independent circuits for is electrically erasable and re-programmable. ROM
VREF: (Read Only Memory) was used when the program
(control strategy and calibration) was built into the
• VREF supplies 5 volts to engine sensors physical silicon or was burnt in with a one time
• VREF supplies 5 volts to vehicle aftertreatment programming. In ROM, the program is fixed, and to
change it you physically have to change the hardware.
• VREF supplies 5 volts to fuel injector control With Flash memory, you can keep reprogramming it.
Flash memory is used to update vehicles in the field
Signal Conditioner (over public CAN) with new calibrations, software bug
fixes, or new features.
The signal conditioner in the internal microprocessor
converts analog signals to digital signals, squares up Flash memory includes the following:
sine wave signals, or amplifies low-intensity signals to • Vehicle configuration, modes of operation, and
a level the ECM microprocessor can process. options
• Engine Family Rating Code (EFRC)
Microprocessor
• Engine warning and protection modes
The ECM microprocessor stores operating
instructions (control strategies) and value tables
(calibration parameters). The ECM compares stored RAM
instructions and values with conditioned input values
to determine the correct operating strategy for all RAM stores temporary information for current engine
engine operations. conditions. Temporary information in RAM is lost
when the ignition switch is turned to OFF or when
Continuous calculations in the ECM occur at ECM power is interrupted. RAM information includes
two different levels or speeds: Foreground and the following:
Background.
• Engine temperature
• Foreground calculations are faster than
background calculations and are normally more • Engine rpm
critical for engine operation. Engine speed control • Accelerator pedal position
is an example.
38 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Engine Fan Control (EFC) • ETV and Position Sensor


The purpose of the engine fan is to prevent engines in • TC1WC Actuator
trucks with smaller cooling systems from overheating
• Engine Fan Control (EFC)
and to act as a vehicle retarding device.
• Exhaust Throttle
The electrically controlled viscous fan drive consists
of a fluid port that controls the amount of fluid flow • Inlet Air Heater (IAH)
which in turn leads to rotation of the fan. The opening
• Exhaust Back Pressure Valve (EBPV)
and closing of the valve is activated with a pulse-width
modulated output (PWM) from the ECM.
The valve is wired to Vehicle Power (VPWR) on one H-Bridge Circuit
side and is connected to a switching low side driver in
The EGR valve and ETV actuator motors are
the ECM.
operated by an H-Bridge (bipolar) circuit in each valve
assembly.
Inlet Air Heater (IAH) An H-Bridge circuit operates like putting a power
source on one side of a motor and connecting the
The IAH is primarily used to assist the engine in
other side of the motor to a ground. This turns the
starting under cold weather conditions. In addition,
motor. By shifting the leads on the motor, it will turn in
it helps to reduce white smoke emissions by heating
the opposite direction.
the incoming air.
To control the motor in both forward and reverse with a
The ECM controls a relay through a 12V digital high
processor, you need an H-Bridge. Relays configured
side driver. When the relay coil is charged with 12
in this fashion make an H-Bridge. The high side
volts, the high current contacts inside are drawn
drivers are the relays that control the positive voltage
together. This completes an electric circuit between
to the motor. This is called sourcing current. The low
the IAH and the vehicle's battery.
side drivers are the relays that control the negative
The ECM disables the relay by outputting zero volts. voltage to sink current to the motor. Sinking current
With no voltage across the relay coil, the contacts is the term for connecting the circuit to the negative
separate and the connection to the battery is broken, side of the power supply, which is usually ground.
shutting down the IAH.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve and


Actuator Control Control
The ECM controls the actuators by applying a The EGR valve controls the flow of exhaust gases to
low-level signal (low-side driver) or a high-level signal the intake manifold. The EGR valve is integrated with
(high-side driver). When switched on, both drivers an EGR Position (EGRP) sensor.
complete a ground or power circuit to an actuator.
The ECM controls the EGR valve with a Pulse Width
Actuators are controlled in three ways, determined by Modulation (PWM) signal through H-Bridge circuitry.
the kind of actuator.
The ECM controls motor speed using PWM. The EGR
• A duty cycle (percent time on / off) is closed by driving the EGR High (EGRH) circuit high.
When driving the EGRH high, this causes EGR Low
• A controlled pulse width
(EGRL) circuit to go low.
• Switched on or off
Variable voltage is needed to move the valve and
minimal voltage is needed to maintain its position.
Actuators
The ECM controls engine operation with the following:
• EGR Valve and Position Sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 39

ETV and Engine Throttle Position Sensor A thermistor sensor changes electrical resistance with
changes in temperature. Resistance in the thermistor
The ETV is used to control air/fuel mixture during a
decreases as temperature increases, and increases
regeneration process of the aftertreatment system.
as temperature decreases. Thermistors work with a
The ETV is also used to ensure a smooth engine shut
resistor that limits current in the ECM to form a voltage
down by restricting air flow to the engine at shut down.
signal matched with a temperature value.
The ECM controls the ETV with a Pulse Width
The top half of the voltage divider limits current inside
Modulation (PWM) signal through H-Bridge circuitry.
the ECM. A thermistor sensor has two electrical
The ECM controls motor speed using PWM. The connectors, signal return and ground. The output of
Engine Throttle Valve is close by driving the ETV a thermistor sensor is a nonlinear analog signal.
circuit high. When driving the ETV high, this causes
Thermistor type sensors include the following:
ETV circuit to go low.
• Engine Coolant Temperature 1 (ECT) sensor
Variable voltage is needed to move the valve and
minimal voltage is needed to maintain its position. • Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor
• Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor
Engine and Vehicle Sensors • EGT sensor
Thermistor Sensors • EGRT sensor
• DOC Inlet Temperature (DOCIT) sensor
• DPF Inlet Temperature (DPFIT) sensor
• DPF Outlet Temperature (DPFOT) sensor
• Transmission Outlet Temperature (manual)
sensor
• Mass Air Flow/Air Inlet Temperature (MAF/AIT)
sensor
• Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) sensor

Figure 25 Thermistor Sensors


1. 5 Volts
2. 0 Volts
3. ECM
4. Microprocessor
5. VREF
6. Ground
7. Temperature sensor
40 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Variable Capacitance Sensors • Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) sensor


• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor

Micro Strain Gauge (MSG) Sensor

Figure 26 Variable Capacitance Sensors


1. Sensor
2. 0 Volts
3. 5 Volts
4. ECM
5. Microprocessor Figure 27 MSG Sensor
6. VREF 1. Pressure Sensor
7. Ground 2. 0 Volts
3. 5 Volts
4. ECM
Variable-capacitance sensors measure pressure. The 5. Microprocessor
pressure measured is applied to a ceramic material. 6. VREF
The pressure forces the ceramic material closer to a 7. Ground
thin metal disk. This action changes the capacitance
of the sensor.
The sensor is connected to the ECM by three wires: A Micro-Strain Gauge (MSG) sensor measures
pressure. Pressure to be measured exerts force on
• VREF a pressure vessel that stretches and compresses
• Signal to change resistance of strain gauges bonded to
the surface of the pressure vessel. Internal sensor
• Signal return (ground) (SIG GND) electronics convert the changes in resistance to a
The sensor receives the VREF and returns an analog ratiometric voltage output.
signal voltage to the ECM. The ECM compares the The sensor is connected to the ECM by three wires:
voltage with pre-programmed values to determine
pressure. • VREF

The operational range of a variable capacitance • Signal


sensor is linked to the thickness of the ceramic disk. • Signal return (ground) (SIG GND)
The thicker the ceramic disk, the more pressure the
sensor can measure. The sensor is powered by VREF received from the
ECM and is grounded through the ECM to a common
Variable Capacitance type sensors include the sensor ground.
following:
MSG Sensors
• Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) sensor
• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor
• Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor
ENGINE SYSTEMS 41

Magnetic Pickup Sensors Potentiometer

Figure 28 Magnetic Pickup Sensors (typical)


Figure 29 Potentiometer
1. Crankshaft Timing Disk
1. Ground
2. CKP Sensor
2. ECM
3. Camshaft with Peg
3. Microprocessor
4. CMP Sensor
4. VREF
5. ECM
5. 5 Volts
6. CKP signal
6. 0 Volts
7. CMP signal
7. Accelerator pedal

A magnetic pickup sensor generates an alternating


frequency that indicates speed. Magnetic pickups A potentiometer is a variable-voltage divider that
have a two-wire connection for signal and ground. senses the position of a mechanical component.
This sensor has a permanent magnetic core A reference voltage is applied to one end of
surrounded by a wire coil. The signal frequency is the potentiometer. Mechanical, rotary, or linear
generated by the rotation of gear teeth that disturb motion moves the wiper along the resistance
the magnetic field. material, changing voltage at each point. Voltage is
proportional to the amount of mechanical movement.
Magnetic Pickup Sensors
Potentiometer
• Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor
• Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor
• Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor
42 ENGINE SYSTEMS

Switches Switches indicate position or condition. They operate


open or closed, regulating the flow of current. A switch
can be a voltage input switch or a grounding switch. A
voltage input switch supplies the ECM with a voltage
when it is closed. A grounding switch grounds the
circuit when closed, causing a zero voltage signal.
Grounding switches are usually installed in series with
a current limiting resistor.
Switches
• Engine Coolant Level (ECL) switch
• Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor

Figure 30 Switch
1. Accelerator pedal
2. Accelerator Pedal Position (APP)
3. VREF
4. Microprocessor
5. ECM
6. Ground
ENGINE SYSTEMS 43

Inlet Air Heater (IAH) System

Figure 31 IAH System


1. ECM 4. Inlet Air Heater (IAH) 8. ECT sensor
2. IAHD - Inlet Air Heater 5. IAH relay 9. Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet
Diagnostics 6. B+ at alternator motor post Temperature (MAF / AIT) sensor
3. IAHC - Inlet Air Heater Control 7. Ground 10. WAIT TO START lamp

The IAH system warms the incoming air to aid cold The engine is ready to start when the WAIT TO START
engine starting and reduce exhaust emissions during lamp is turned off by the ECM. The ECM turns the
warm-up. IAH on for a predetermined amount of time, based on
ECT, AIT, and BAP. The IAH can remain on while the
The ECM activates the IAH by energizing the IAH
engine is running to reduce exhaust emissions and
relay while monitoring programmed conditions for
white smoke during engine warm-up.
engine coolant temperature, air inlet temperature,
and atmospheric pressure. If the ECT is above 50 °C (122 °F), the IAH will not
reactivate when restarting the engine unless the AIT
The ECM controls the WAIT TO START lamp and IAH
is 10 °C (50 °F) or colder.
relay separately.
44 ENGINE SYSTEMS
MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND 45

Table of Contents

Engine Preparation......................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47


Cleaning the Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Draining Coolant and Engine Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

Mounting Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

Special Torque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51


46 MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND
MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND 47

Engine Preparation Cleaning the Engine


1. Cap all engine openings to prevent water and
degreasing agents from entering engine.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine 2. Cover exposed electrical connections and Engine
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard Control Module (ECM), using plastic and duct
to human health and the environment. tape.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
3. Clean engine using an appropriate detergent
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
mixed in the correct ratio and a hot pressure
with applicable regulations. Recycle
washer or similar cleaning equipment.
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
applicable regulations.
Draining Coolant and Engine Oil
NOTE: Before mounting engine on Engine Stand,
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or do steps 1 through 11.
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, make sure the engine has cooled before
removing components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or Figure 32 Coolant Drain Plug (Right side)
death, make sure the engine is supported before
removing mounting hardware.
NOTE: See manufacturer's instructions for
specific directions on safe use of Engine Stand
and Engine Stand Mounting Bracket.
48 MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND

Figure 34 Oil Pan Drain Plug


Figure 33 Coolant Drain Plug (Left side)

6. Remove oil pan drain plug and drain oil.


1. Put coolant drain pan under the left and right drain
7. Inspect oil drain plug and seal. Replace if
plugs.
necessary.
2. Remove coolant drain plugs, discard O-rings, and
8. Lubricate drain plug seal with clean engine oil.
drain coolant.
9. After oil has drained, install oil drain plug.
3. After coolant has drained, put new O-ring on
each drain plug and install plugs. Tighten plugs 10. Tighten oil pan drain plug to special torque (page
to special torque (page 51). 51).
4. Recycle or dispose of coolant, according to 11. Recycle or dispose of oil, according to applicable
applicable regulations. regulations.
5. Put oil drain pan beneath oil drain plug.
MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND 49

Mounting Engine
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, use a chain hoist rated for the weight of the
engine. Follow manufacturer's installation and
safety instructions, and attach safety latch lifting
hooks to lifting eyes on the engine.
1. Attach hoist hook lifting bracket to engine lifting
eyes. Secure safety catches on hoist hooks
before lifting engine.

Figure 36 Mounting Bolts for Engine Stand


Mounting Bracket
1. M10 x 30 class 10.9 mounting bolts (4)
2. Engine Stand Mounting Bracket

2. Position Engine Stand Mounting Bracket (page


51) on right side of engine. Secure bracket plate
with four M10 x 30 class 10.9 mounting bolts and
washers. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page
Figure 35 Engine Stand Mounting Bracket
473).

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, use metric Class 10.9 or SAE grade 8
bolts when mounting the Engine Stand Mounting
Bracket to the engine and Engine Stand. See
instructions included with Engine Stand Mounting
Bracket.
50 MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND

3. Mount engine on Engine Stand (page 51) using


four class 10.9 mounting bolts.
4. Slowly release tension from engine hoist.
5. Remove hoist safety chain hooks from engine
lifting eyes.

Figure 37 Mounting Engine to Engine Stand


1. Engine Stand Mounting Bracket
2. M10 x 30 class 10.9 mounting bolts (4)
3. Engine Stand
MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND 51

Special Torque

Crankcase coolant drain plug (M16) 20 N·m (15 lb·ft)


Oil pan drain plug (M14) 44 N·m (32 lb·ft)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Engine Stand OTC1750A
Engine Stand Mounting Bracket ZTSE4507
52 MOUNTING ENGINE ON ENGINE STAND
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 53

Table of Contents

Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

Location of Engine Electronic Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

Description of Engine Electronic Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60


Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Engine Control Module (ECM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Fuel Heater (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Intake Air Heater (IAH) ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Thermal Management Valve (TMV) (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature (TC1COT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC) Solenoid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Intake Air Heater (IAH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor and Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor. . . . . . . . .75
Thermal Management Valve (TMV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature (TC1COT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC) Solenoid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor and Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
54 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79


Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Engine Harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Harness Channel Shield Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay and Relay Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

Cleaning and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90


Main Engine Wiring Harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Harness Retainers and Stud Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Sensors and Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Engine Control Module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay and Relay Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Harness Channel Shield Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Engine Harness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor and Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC) Solenoid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature (TC1COT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Thermal Management Valve (TMV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor and Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor. . . . . . . .105
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Intake Air heater (IAH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT) Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

Special Torque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111


ENGINE ELECTRICAL 55

®
Diagnostics and Troubleshooting • 0000003381 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
Publications HD-OBD Performance Diagnostic Form
®
• 0000001681 2010 MaxxForce
®
7 Engine • 0000003201 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
Diagnostic Manual (EPA 10) 2013 HD-OBD HD-OBD Engine Wiring Schematic Form
®
• 0000003382 MaxxForce 7 (EPA 10) with
HD-OBD Hard Start and No Start Diagnostic
Form
56 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Location of Engine Electronic


Components

Figure 38 Electronic Components – Front


1. Engine Control Module (ECM) 2. Exhaust Gas Recirculation 3. Engine Coolant Temperature
Temperature (EGRT) sensor (ECT1) sensor
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 57

Figure 39 Electronic Components – Left


1. Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor
2. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor
3. Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor
4. Fuel Pump
58 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Figure 40 Electronic Components – Right


1. Thermal Management Valve 2. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor 4. Crankshaft Position (CKP)
(TMV) (under valve cover) sensor
3. Engine Control Module (ECM)
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 59

Figure 41 Electronic Components – Top


1. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) sensor
2. Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature
(TC1COT) sensor
3. Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT)
sensor
4. Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor
5. Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor
6. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve
7. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)
solenoid
8. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
9. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)
10. TC1WC actuator
11. Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) sensor
12. Engine Control Module (ECM)
13. Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) sensor
14. IAH relay
15. Thermal Management Valve (TMV) (optional)
60 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Description of Engine Electronic identifies the position of the cam by locating a peg on
Components the cam.

Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) The CMP sensor is installed in the front left side of the
Sensor lower crankcase.
NOTE: When ordering this long CMP sensor, make
sure it is the one pictured. This sensor is used in
other Navistar, Inc. engines to sense crankshaft
position.
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor

Figure 42 CACOT Sensor

The CACOT is a thermistor sensor. The CACOT


sensor provides a feedback signal to the ECM
indicating CACOT in the intake air mixer.
The CACOT sensor is installed in the intake air mixer,
located on the front of the engine.

Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor

Figure 44 CKP Sensor

The CKP sensor is a magnetic pickup sensor that


provides the Engine Control Module (ECM) with a
signal that indicates crankshaft speed and position.
As the crankshaft turns, the CKP sensor detects a
60-tooth timing disk on the crankshaft. Teeth 59 and
60 are missing. By comparing the CKP signal with the
Camshaft Position (CMP) signal, the ECM calculates
engine rpm and timing requirements.
The CKP sensor is installed in the front right side of
Figure 43 CMP Sensor the lower crankcase.
NOTE: When ordering this short CKP sensor,
The CMP sensor is a magnetic pickup sensor make sure it is the one pictured. This sensor
that provides the ECM with a signal that indicates is used in other Navistar, Inc. engines to sense
camshaft position. As the cam rotates, the sensor camshaft position.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 61

Engine Control Module (ECM) Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor

Figure 46 ECT1 Sensor

The ECT1 sensor is a thermistor sensor. The ECM


monitors the ECT1 signal and uses this information
Figure 45 Engine Control Module (ECM) for the instrument panel temperature gauge, coolant
compensation, and the Engine Warning Protection
System (EWPS).
The Engine Control Module (ECM) monitors and
controls the engine to ensure maximum performance The ECT1 sensor is installed in the front crankcase
and adherence to emissions standards. The ECM cover, near the alternator bracket.
has four primary functions:
• Provides reference voltage (VREF)
• Conditions input signals
• Processes and stores control strategies
• Controls actuators
The ECM is installed on the right side of engine
compartment on the air cleaner bracket.
62 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor

Figure 48 EOT Sensor


Figure 47 EOP Sensor

The EOT sensor is a thermistor sensor. The ECM


The EOP sensor is a variable capacitance sensor. monitors the EOT signal and uses this information for
The ECM monitors the EOP signal for reference the instrument panel oil temperature gauge.
only. The ECM uses the EOP signal to control the
instrument panel oil pressure gauge. For Engine The EOT sensor is installed on the oil cooler cover on
Warning Protection System (EWPS) warning, the top of the engine.
EOP sensor lights the red ENGINE warning lamp for
low oil pressure. The EOP sensor closes a circuit to
ground after engine oil pressure reaches 34 to 48 kPa Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor
(5 to 7 psi). When the pressure is above 48 kPa (7
psi) the gauge reads normal. If the oil pressure drops
below 41 kPa (6 psi) the gauge reads 0 kPa (0 psi).
The EOP sensor is installed on the oil cooler cover on
top of the engine.

Figure 49 EFT Sensor

The EFT sensor is a thermistor sensor. The ECM


monitors the EFT sensor signal for the high-pressure
fuel pump Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV) control,
Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV) control and
injector timing and control.
The EFT sensor is installed in the base of the fuel filter
module housing on upper left side of engine.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 63

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor

Figure 51 EGT Sensor

Figure 50 EGR Valve The EGT is a thermistor sensor. The EGT sensor
provides a feedback signal to the ECM indicating
exhaust gas temperature.
The EGR valve assembly consists of a valve and an
actuator motor. The actuator motor has a Hall effect The EGT sensor is installed on the turbo exhaust inlet
position sensor to monitor valve movement. manifold rear top of the engine.

The EGR valve assembly receives the desired EGR


position from the Engine Control Module (ECM) to Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT)
activate the valve for exhaust gas recirculating. The Sensor
EGR valve provides feedback to the ECM on the valve
position. The ECM interprets the feedback signal and
sends the command using a pulse width modulated
signal to the actuator motor. The closed loop control
system uses the EGR position signal.
The EGR valve assembly is mounted on the manifold
mixer on the front top of the engine.

Figure 52 EGRT Sensor

The EGRT is a thermistor sensor. The EGRT sensor


provides a feedback signal to the ECM indicating
exhaust gas temperature in the manifold mixer.
64 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

The EGRT sensor is installed on the manifold mixer The ETV, a variable position actuator, restricts intake
on the front top of the engine. air flow to help heat the exhaust aftertreatment during
regeneration. The ETV changes valve position in
response to ECM signals. The ETV contains an
Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) internal position sensor that monitors valve position
and transmits a position signal to the ECM.
The ETV is mounted to the Intake Air Heater (IAH) on
the manifold mixer on the front top of the engine.

Figure 53 Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)


ENGINE ELECTRICAL 65

Fuel Heater (optional) Fuel Pump

Figure 54 Fuel Heater Figure 55 Fuel Pump

The fuel heater warms incoming fuel to prevent fuel The low-pressure fuel pump is a constant-flow electric
waxing, and improves performance and fuel economy pump that draws fuel from the fuel tank(s) through the
during cold weather start-up. primary fuel filter and supplies fuel to the secondary
fuel filter.
The fuel heater is thermostatically controlled and turns
on at approximately 7 °C (44.6 °F) and turns off at The low-pressure fuel pump is installed in the fuel filter
approximately 21 °C (69.8 °F). module on the upper left side of engine.

The fuel heater is installed in the fuel filter module on


the upper left side of engine.
66 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor Intake Air Heater (IAH)

Figure 56 FRP Sensor

Figure 57 Intake Air Heater (IAH)


The FRP sensor is a variable capacitance sensor.
The ECM monitors the FRP signal to determine the
Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV) and Fuel Pressure
The IAH is an electric grid heater. The IAH system
Control Valve (FPCV) operation. The ECM monitors
warms the incoming air to aid cold engine starting and
the FRP signal to determine the fuel injection pressure
reduce exhaust emissions during warm-up.
for engine operation. The FRP sensor provides
feedback to the ECM for closed loop FRP control. The IAH is installed on the manifold mixer on the front
top of the engine.
The FRP sensor is installed in the fuel rail under the
right valve cover.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 67

Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay The IMP sensor is a variable capacitance sensor.
The ECM monitors the IMP signal to determine intake
manifold pressure (boost). This information is used
to control the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve
and determine fueling calculations.
The IMP sensor is installed (above the IMT sensor)
in the top of the right valve cover and intake manifold
base assembly, under the low-pressure turbocharger
assembly.

Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor

Figure 58 Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay

The IAH relay delivers VBAT to the Intake Air Heater.


The ECM activates the IAH by energizing the IAH
relay while monitoring programmed conditions for
engine coolant temperature, air inlet temperature,
and atmospheric pressure. The ECM controls the
WAIT TO START lamp and IAH relay separately.
Figure 60 IMT Sensor
The IAH relay is mounted to the relay support installed
on top of the right valve cover.
The IMT sensor is a thermistor sensor. The ECM
monitors the IMT signal to control injector timing
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor and fuel rate during cold starts. The ECM also uses
the IMT signal to control Exhaust Gas Recirculation
(EGR) valve position and intake throttle control.
The IMT sensor is installed (below the IMP sensor)
in the top of the right valve cover and intake manifold
base assembly, under the low-pressure turbocharger
assembly.

Figure 59 IMP Sensor


68 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT) Thermal Management Valve (TMV) (optional)
Sensor

Figure 61 MAF / AIT Sensor


Figure 62 TMV

The MAF / AIT sensor measures the volume, density,


and temperature of air entering the engine at any Some vehicles are fitted with an optional Thermal
given time. Management Valve (TMV) in the exhaust system
between the low-pressure turbocharger and the DOC.
The ECM uses this information to calculate the correct The TMV is an actuator used to increase exhaust
amount of EGR during engine operation. The MAF back-pressure to enable engine braking and allow
sensor assembly also contains the AIT sensor. The faster engine warm-ups.
AIT monitors the temperature of the air entering
the intake system. The MAF and AIT sensors are
integrated into this single component. The ECM Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature
determines the volume, density, and temperature of (TC1COT) Sensor
the incoming air by processing input signals from the
MAF and AIT sensors.
The MAF / AIT sensor is installed in the vehicle air
cleaner assembly.

Figure 63 TC1COT sensor

The TC1COT is a thermistor sensor. The TC1COT


sensor provides a feedback signal to the ECM
indicating TC1COT in the turbocharger 1 outlet pipe.
The TC1COT sensor is installed in the turbocharger 1
outlet pipe, located on top of the engine.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 69

Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)


Solenoid

Figure 65 TC1WC Actuator

Figure 64 TC1WC Solenoid


The TC1WC actuator is part of the turbocharger
assembly on top of the engine.
The TC1WC solenoid controls the TC1WC actuator
by regulating the boost control air supply based on a
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal received from Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor
the ECM. Signals from the ECM are in response to
engine speed, required fuel quantity, boost, exhaust
back pressure, and altitude.
The TC1WC solenoid is mounted on top of the engine
on the oil cooler cover, near the TC1WC actuator.

Figure 66 WIF Sensor

The WIF sensor is a switch sensor that the ECM uses


to detect water in the primary fuel filter. The WIF
sensor signal is monitored by the ECM; when water
is in the fuel, the message ‘Water in Fuel’ is displayed
on the instrument panel.
The WIF sensor is installed in the fuel filter module
housing on upper left side of engine.
70 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Removal Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT)


Sensor

GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine


fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
applicable regulations.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


Figure 67 MAF / AIT Sensor
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing 1. MAF / AIT sensor
diagnostic or service procedures. 2. Vehicle air cleaner assembly
3. 5-pin engine harness connector
WARNING: To prevent personal injury 4. Torx screw (2)
or death, remove ground cable from negative
terminal of main battery before disconnecting
or connecting electrical components. Always 1. Push release tab down on the 5-pin engine
connect ground cable last. harness connector and pull connector from the
MAF / AIT sensor.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 2. Remove two Torx screws that mount the MAF /
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin. AIT sensor.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
3. Remove the MAF / AIT sensor.
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids. 4. Remove and discard O-ring.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not tug on NOTE: Anytime the MAF / AIT sensor is
wiring harnesses; if resistance is felt, find the problem disconnected, the MAF Sensor Test must be run
and free connectors or clips. to auto-calibrate the MAF / AIT sensor.

The MAF Sensor Test is in the “Performance


Diagnostics” section of the 0000001681
®
MaxxForce 7 Engine Diagnostic Manual.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 71

Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT) Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
Sensor

Figure 69 CKP Sensor


1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. M6 x 14 bolt
Figure 68 CACOT Sensor 3. CKP sensor
1. CACOT sensor
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. Clamp 1. Push release tab down on the 2-pin engine
harness connector and pull connector from the
CKP sensor.
1. Open clamp on engine harness. 2. Remove M6 x 14 bolt from CKP sensor.
2. Pull out red CPA lock, press release tab on 2-pin 3. Remove CKP sensor and discard sensor O-ring.
engine harness connector, and pull connector
from CACOT sensor.
3. Remove CACOT sensor from intake mixer
housing.
72 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor

Figure 70 CMP Sensor Figure 71 ECT1 Sensor


1. CMP sensor 1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. 2-pin engine harness connector 2. Clamp
3. M6 x 14 bolt 3. ECT1 sensor

1. Push release tab down on the 2-pin engine NOTE: Remove alternator bracket. See Alternator
harness connector and pull connector from the and Refrigerant Compressor Mounting Bracket
CKP sensor. (page 268)
2. Disconnect engine harness connector from CMP 1. Open clamp on engine harness.
sensor.
2. Pull out yellow CPA lock and press release tab
3. Remove M6 x 14 bolt from CMP sensor. on 2-pin engine harness connector, and pull
connector from ECT1 sensor.
4. Remove CMP sensor and discard both sensor
O-rings. 3. Remove ECT1 sensor and discard sensor O-ring.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 73

Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) 1. Push back release tab on 6-pin engine harness
connector and pull connector from the ETV.
2. Disconnect engine harness connector from ETV.
3. See Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) (page 122) for
removal.

Figure 72 Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)


1. ETV
2. 6-pin engine harness connector
74 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Intake Air Heater (IAH) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Assembly

Figure 73 Intake Air Heater (IAH) Figure 74 EGR Valve Assembly


1. IAH 1. EGR valve assembly
2. Boot 2. 6-pin engine harness connector

1. Pull back boot on engine harness connection to


1. Push back release tab on 6-pin engine harness
the IAH.
connector and pull connector from the EGR valve
2. Remove nut and ring terminal connection from assembly.
stud bolt.
2. See EGR Valve Assembly (page 117) for removal
3. See Intake Air Heater (page 122) for removal. of EGR valve assembly.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 75

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT) Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor and
Sensor Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor

Figure 75 EGRT Sensor


Figure 76 IMT and IMP Sensors
1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. Clamp 1. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. EGRT sensor 2. IMP sensor
4. Manifold mixer 3. 3-pin engine harness connector
4. Clamp
5. IMT sensor
1. Open clamp on engine harness.
2. Pull out red CPA lock and press release tab NOTE: See Air Duct Assembly, Relief Tube
on 2-pin engine harness connector, and pull Assembly, Wastegate Tube Assembly, and TC1WC
connector from EGRT sensor. solenoid (page 156) for removal of air duct
3. Remove EGRT sensor and discard O-ring. assembly.
1. Remove air duct assembly.
2. Open clamp on engine harness.
3. Push release tab down on 2-pin engine harness
connector and pull connector from IMT sensor.
4. Pull out release tab on the 3-pin engine harness
connector, and pull connector from the IMP
sensor.
5. Remove IMT and IMP sensors and discard
O-rings.
76 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Thermal Management Valve (TMV)


NOTE: Drain cooling system prior to removing
TMV.

GRAPHIC-12361-4ADAE2D0
Figure 78 TMV
1. M8 x 16 bolt (2)
2. TMV engine harness connector
Figure 77 V-band Clamp and Coolant Line 3. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
1. TMV 4. TMV support spacer
2. V-band clamp 5. TMV support
3. Coolant tube

3. Disconnect TMV engine harness connector from


1. Remove coolant tube from TMV. TMV.

2. Loosen T-bolt on V-band clamp and remove 4. Remove two M8 x 16 bolts from TMV and support.
V-band clamp from TMV. 5. Remove two M6 x 25 bolts and TMV support
spacers from TMV support. Remove support
from engine.
6. Remove TMV from engine.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 77

Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)


(TC1COT) Sensor Solenoid

Figure 80 TC1WC Solenoid


1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. TC1WC solenoid
Figure 79 TC1COT Sensor
1. Clamp
2. 2-pin engine harness connector NOTE: See Air Duct Assembly, Relief Tube
3. TC1COT sensor Assembly, Wastegate Tube Assembly, and TC1WC
Solenoid (page 156) for removal of TC1WC
solenoid.
1. Open clamp on engine harness.
1. Remove air duct assembly.
2. Pull out red CPA lock, press release tab on 2-pin
2. Push down the metal clip on the 2-pin engine
engine harness connector, and pull connector
harness connector and disconnect connector
from TC1COT sensor.
from TC1WC solenoid.
3. Remove TC1COT sensor from turbocharger 1
3. Remove TC1WC solenoid.
outlet.
78 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor and Engine 5. Remove EOP sensor and discard sensor O-ring.
Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor

Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor

Figure 81 EOT Sensor and EOP Sensor


1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. 3-pin engine harness connector Figure 82 Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor
3. EOP sensor
1. WIF sensor
4. EOT sensor
2. Clamp
3. 2-pin engine harness connector
1. See Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer (page
122) for removal of manifold mixer.
1. Open clamp on engine harness.
2. Pull out yellow CPA lock and press release tab
on 2-pin engine harness connector, and pull 2. Push release tab down on the 2-pin engine
connector from EOT sensor. harness connector and pull connector from the
WIF sensor.
3. Remove EOT sensor and discard sensor O-ring.
3. Remove WIF sensor and discard O-ring seal.
4. Pull out release tab on the 3-pin engine harness
connector, and pull connector from the EOP
sensor.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 79

Fuel Pump Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure


(FDP) Sensor (optional)

Figure 83 Fuel Pump


Figure 84 Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel
1. 2-pin engine harness connector Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (optional)
2. Fuel pump
1. Fuel heater
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
1. Push release tab down on the 2-pin engine 3. FDP sensor
harness connector and pull connector from the 4. 2-pin engine harness connector
fuel pump. 5. Filter cooler pump module support

2. See Fuel Pump (page 230) for removal.


1. Pull up latch on 2-pin engine harness connector
and pull connector from the fuel heater.
2. See Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel Delivery
Pressure (FDP) Sensor (optional) (page 232) for
removal.
3. Pull out release tab on the 3-pin engine harness
connector, and pull connector from the FDP
sensor.
4. Remove FDP sensor and discard O-ring.
80 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor

Figure 85 EFT Sensor Figure 86 Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)


Sensor
1. EFT sensor
2. 2-pin engine harness connector 1. EGT sensor
3. Clamp 2. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. Connector on EGT sensor

1. Open clamp on engine harness.


1. Pull out red CPA lock, press release tab on 2-pin
2. Pull out yellow CPA lock, press release tab engine harness connector, and pull connector
on 2-pin engine harness connector, and pull from EGT sensor.
connector from EFT sensor.
2. Remove EGT sensor from turbo exhaust inlet
3. Remove EFT sensor and discard O-ring. manifold.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 81

Engine Harness

WARNING: To prevent personal injury


or death, remove ground cable from negative
terminal of main battery before disconnecting
or connecting electrical components. Always
connect ground cable last.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not tug on
wiring harnesses; if resistance is felt, find the problem
and free connectors or clips.

Figure 88 Engine Harness to IAH Relay


1. Ring terminal (power)
2. M6 nut (2)
3. Plug connector
4. Ring terminal (IAH) (2)
5. IAH relay

3. Remove two M6 nuts that secure ring terminals to


IAH relay.
Figure 87 Harness Channel Shield Assembly 4. Remove ring terminals and plug connector from
(upper and lower) IAH relay.
1. M6 x 14 bolt
2. Harness channel shield assembly (upper and lower)
3. M6 nut (3)

1. Remove M6 x 14 bolt.
2. Remove three M6 nuts.
82 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Figure 89 Harness Connection to Right Valve Figure 90 Harness Connection to Lower


Cover Crankcase
1. Right Under Valve Cover (UVC) harness 1. Harness fir zip retainer
2. Harness fir zip retainer (2) 2. Tie strap
3. Tie strap (2)
4. Stud clip (2)
5. 12-way engine harness injector connector 8. Cut and remove tie strap, without cutting fir zip
retainer.

5. Pull out red CPA lock, push down on latch on


12-way engine harness injector connector, and
pull connector from right Under Valve Cover
(UVC) harness.
6. Cut and remove tie straps, without cutting fir zip
retainers.
7. Disengage plastic stud clips.

Figure 91 Jet Pump Tube Assembly and Tie


Strap to Distribution Duct
1. Fir zip retainer (2)
2. Tie strap
3. Jet pump tube assembly

9. Separate jet pump tube assembly from fir zip


retainer secured to engine harness.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 83

10. Without cutting fir zip retainer, cut and remove


tie strap that secures engine harness to the
distribution duct.

Figure 93 Harness Channel Shield


1. Harness channel shield
Figure 92 Harness Channel Shield Assembly 2. Injector hose assembly
(front) 3. .25 hose clip (3)

1. M6 x 16 bolt
2. M6 x 16 stud bolt (2) 12. Separate hose clip from harness channel shield,
3. Harness channel shield manifold mixer, and bracket on heater supply
tube.

11. Remove M6 x 16 bolt and two M6 x 16 stud bolts


that secure the harness channel shield to the
manifold mixer.

Figure 94 Engine Harness to Injector Hose


Assembly and Tie Straps to Left Valve Cover
1. Injector hose assembly
2. Engine harness clip
3. Harness fir zip retainer (2)
4. Tie strap (2)
84 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

13. Without cutting fir zip retainer, cut and remove two
tie straps that secure engine harness to left valve
cover.
14. Separate engine harness clip from injector hose
assembly.

Figure 95 Engine Harness and Tie Strap to Left


Valve Cover
1. Engine harness
2. Harness fir zip retainer
3. Tie strap

15. Without cutting fir zip retainer, cut and remove


tie strap that secure engine harness to left valve
cover.
16. Separate engine harness from left valve cover.

Figure 96 Engine Harness to High-Pressure


Pump Harness
1. 3-pin engine harness connector
2. High-pressure pump harness
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 85

17. Push down release tab on 3-pin engine


harness connector and pull connector from the
high-pressure pump harness connector.
18. Pull back cam lever lock on 98-way engine
harness connector and pull connector from the
ECM.
19. Remove engine harness from engine and vehicle.

Harness Channel Shield Assemblies


NOTE: Only remove harness channel shields from
engine harness, if required for harness repair.

Figure 97 Removal of Harness Channel Shield


1. Harness channel shield
2. Tie strap (5)

1. Cut and remove five tie straps and separate


harness channel shield from engine harness.
86 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay and Relay Support

Figure 98 Removal of Upper Harness Channel


Shield
1. Upper harness channel shield Figure 100 IAH Relay
2. M5 x 10 socket head bolt (4)
1. M6 x 14 bolt
2. IAH relay
3. Relay support
2. Remove four M5 x 10 socket head bolts.
3. Remove upper harness channel shield.
1. Remove M6 x 14 bolt that secures IAH relay to the
relay support and remove relay.

Figure 99 Removal of Lower Harness Channel


Shield
1. Lower harness channel shield
2. Tie strap (4)

4. Cut and remove four tie straps and separate lower


harness channel shield from engine harness.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 87

Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor


NOTE: The FRP sensor is installed in the right fuel
rail.

Figure 101 Relay Support


1. Jet pump tube assembly
2. Clip (2)
3. M6 x 14 bolt
4. Relay support Figure 102 Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor
5. M6 nut 1. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor
2. Fuel rail
3. UVC Connector to FRP sensor (right harness only)
2. Pull out two clips on jet pump tube assembly and
move up and away from stud bolts in valve cover.
3. Remove M6 x 14 bolt and M6 nut. NOTE: See procedures in the “Cylinder Heads,
Valve Covers, and Valve Train” section to remove
4. Remove relay support. the right valve cover (page 315).
1. Disconnect UVC Connector from FRP sensor,
using Injector Connector Release Tool (page
111).
2. Remove FRP sensor from right fuel rail.
3. Remove and discard FRP sensor gasket from
FRP sensor.

Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses


88 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Figure 103 UVC Harness (typical)


1. Fuel rail 4. Fuel injector assembly 6. UVC connector to FRP sensor
2. Right UVC harness connectors (4) (right harness only)
3. Pass-through overmold plug 5. Fuel injector (4)

NOTE: See procedures in the “Cylinder Heads, 2. Disconnect electrical connectors from fuel injector
Valve Covers, and Valve Train” section to remove assemblies using Injector Connector Release
valve covers (page 315). Tool (page 111).
1. If not previously disconnected, disconnect UVC
Connector from FRP sensor (right harness only),
using Injector Connector Release Tool (page 111).
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 89

3. Disengage the UVC harness, secured by four


semi-circular clips, from fuel rail.
4. Depress two latches in the pass-through overmold
plug, and pull the UVC harness to the inside of
valve cover and intake manifold base to release
and remove the UVC harness.
5. Remove and discard O-ring seal from
pass-through overmold plug.

Figure 104 Right Under Valve Cover (UVC)


Harness
1. Semi-circular clip (4)
2. Pass-through overmold plug
3. O-ring seal
90 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Cleaning and Inspection Harness Retainers and Stud Clips


Main Engine Wiring Harness If harness fir zip retainers or stud clips were damaged
or missing during removal of the engine harness,
1. Carefully inspect wiring harness for worn conduit,
install new fir zip retainers or stud clips.
frayed insulation or heat damage to wires. Repair
or install new engine harness, if necessary.
2. Check engine wiring harness connectors, Sensors and Valves
connector covers, seals, and cover shields
1. Check all connector pins on sensors or valves. If
for cracks, cuts or worn areas. Install new
connector pins are bent or corroded, install a new
connectors, connector covers, seals, and cover
sensor or valve.
shields, if necessary.
2. Remove scale or carbon build up.
3. Inspect sensor and valve connectors for cracked
connector bodies, bent or loose pins, chafing, 3. Check for body cracks and leakage.
and damaged or missing O-rings. Install new
4. If orifices or valves are plugged, replace sensors
connectors, if necessary.
or valves.
4. Inspect each connector for the following
conditions and replace, if necessary:
Engine Control Module
• Corroded connectors and green, gray, or
white deposits on metal terminals. 1. Inspect rubber seal on harness connector and in
ECM pin recesses.
• Terminals incorrectly latched in connector
body or pushed back relative to other 2. Check for bent pins in ECM connections.
terminals in same connector.
• Make sure that each connector has its seals
in place. During disassembly, a seal may
pull off of its connector and remain in mating
socket of a sensor or actuator. A connector
assembled without the correct seals can
be contaminated with moisture and have
corroded terminals, causing a poor electrical
connection.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 91

Installation
Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses

Figure 105 Right Under Valve Cover (UVC)


Harness
1. Semi-circular clip (4)
2. Pass-through overmold plug
3. O-ring seal

1. Coat a new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber


Lubricant or equivalent (page 111), and install
O-ring onto pass-through overmold plug.
92 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Figure 106 UVC Harness (typical)


1. Fuel rail 4. Fuel injector assembly 6. UVC breakout from UVC
2. Right UVC harness connectors (4) harness (right harness only)
3. Pass-through overmold plug 5. Fuel injector (4) 7. No. 3 injector tube assembly

Lubricate the opening in valve cover and intake 4. Connect electrical connectors to fuel injector
manifold base, for the Pass-through overmold plug, assemblies.
with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent (page
5. For right side only, connect UVC breakout to FRP
111).
sensor.
2. Install the UVC harness assembly (inside to
NOTE: See procedures in the “Cylinder Heads,
out) through the opening valve cover and intake
Valve Covers, and Valve Train” section to install
manifold base and push the pass-through
right valve cover (page 357).
overmold plug into the opening.
3. Engage four semi-circular clips and clip the UVC
harness to the fuel rail.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 93

Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor Intake Air Heater (IAH) Relay and Relay Support

Figure 107 Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor Figure 108 Relay Support
1. Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor 1. Jet pump tube assembly
2. Fuel rail 2. Clips (2)
3. UVC Connector to FRP sensor (right harness only) 3. M6 x 14 bolt
4. UVC breakout from UVC harness 4. Relay support
5. No. 3 injector tube assembly 5. M6 nut

1. Lubricate a new FRP sensor gasket with clean 1. Position relay support onto right valve cover.
diesel fuel and install gasket onto FRP sensor.
2. Install M6 x 14 bolt and M6 nut.
2. Install FRP sensor into right fuel rail and tighten to
special torque (page 111). 3. Tighten M6 x 14 bolt and M6 nut to standard
torque (page 473).
3. Connect UVC connector to FRP sensor.
4. Position jet pump tube assembly and push two
NOTE: See procedures in the “Cylinder Heads, clips onto stud bolts.
Valve Covers, and Valve Train” section to install
valve covers (page 357).
94 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Harness Channel Shield Assemblies

Figure 109 IAH Relay


1. M6 x 14 bolt Figure 110 Installation of Lower Harness
2. IAH relay Channel Shield
3. Relay support
1. Lower harness channel shield
2. Tie strap (4)
5. Position IAH relay onto relay support.
6. Install M6 x 14 bolt to secure IAH relay to relay 1. Install four new tie straps to secure engine
support. harness to lower harness channel shield.
7. Tighten M6 x 14 bolt to standard torque (page
473).
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 95

4. Tighten M5 x 10 socket head bolts to special


torque (page 111).

Figure 111 Installation of Upper Harness


Channel Shield
1. Upper harness channel shield Figure 112 Installation of Harness Channel
2. M5 x 10 socket head bolt (4) Shield
1. Harness channel shield
2. Position upper harness channel shield onto lower 2. Tie strap (5)
harness channel shield.
3. Install four M5 x 10 socket head bolts to secure 5. Install five new tie straps to secure engine harness
upper harness channel shield to lower harness to harness channel shield.
channel shield.
96 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Engine Harness 2. Connect 3-pin engine harness connector to


high-pressure pump harness.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury
or death, remove ground cable from negative
terminal of main battery before disconnecting
or connecting electrical components. Always
connect ground cable last.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not tug on
wiring harnesses; if resistance is felt, find the problem
and free connectors or clips.
1. Position engine harness on engine.

Figure 114 Engine Harness and Tie Strap to Left


Valve Cover
1. Engine harness
2. Harness fir zip retainer
3. Tie strap

3. Engage engine harness to left valve cover.


4. Install a new tie strap to secure engine harness to
Figure 113 Connection of Engine Harness to fir zip retainer in left valve cover.
High-Pressure Pump Harness
1. 3-pin engine harness connector
2. High-pressure pump harness
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 97

Figure 115 Engine Harness to Injector Hose


Figure 116 Harness Channel Shield
Assembly and Tie Straps to Left Valve Cover
1. Harness channel shield
1. Injector hose assembly
2. Injector hose assembly
2. Engine harness clip
3. .25 hose clip (3)
3. Harness fir zip retainer (2)
4. Tie strap (2)

7. Engage hose clip to harness channel shield,


manifold mixer, and bracket on heater supply
5. Connect engine harness clip to injector hose
tube.
assembly.
6. Install two tie straps to secure engine harness to
fir zip retainer in left valve cover.

Figure 117 Harness Channel Shield Assembly


(front)
1. M6 x 16 bolt
2. M6 x 16 stud bolt (2)
3. Harness channel shield

8. Install one M6 x 16 bolt and two M6 x 16 stud


bolts to secure the harness channel shield to the
manifold mixer.
98 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

9. Tighten M6 x 16 bolt and two M6 x 16 stud bolts


to standard torque (page 473).

Figure 118 Engine Harness Connection to


Lower Crankcase
1. Harness fir zip retainer
2. Tie strap

10. Install new tie strap to secure engine harness to


fir zip retainer in lower crankcase.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 99

Figure 119 Harness Connection to Right Valve Figure 120 Jet Pump Tube Assembly and Tie
Cover Strap to Distribution Duct
1. Right Under Valve Cover (UVC) harness 1. Fir zip retainer (2)
2. Harness fir zip retainer (2) 2. Tie strap
3. Tie strap (2) 3. Jet pump tube assembly
4. Stud clip (2)
5. 12-way engine harness injector connector
14. Install a new tie strap to secure engine harness to
fir zip retainer in distribution duct.
11. Engage plastic stud clips.
15. Push jet pump tube assembly onto fir zip retainer
12. Install new tie straps to secure engine harness to secured to engine harness.
fir zip retainers in right valve cover.
13. Connect 12-way engine harness injector
connector to right Under Valve Cover (UVC)
harness and push in red CPA lock.
100 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

18. Install three M6 nuts.


19. Install M6 x 14 bolt.
20. Tighten three M6 nuts and M6 x 14 bolt to
standard torque (page 473).

Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor

Figure 121 Engine Harness to IAH Relay


1. Ring terminal (power)
2. M6 nut (2)
3. Plug connector
4. Ring terminal (IAH) (2)
5. IAH relay

16. Install ring terminals and plug connector to IAH


relay. Figure 123 Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
Sensor
17. Install two M6 nuts and tighten to standard torque
(page 473). 1. EGT sensor
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. Connector on EGT sensor

1. Install EGT sensor into turbo exhaust inlet


manifold and tighten to special torque (page 111).
2. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to EGT
sensor and push in red CPA lock.

Figure 122 Install Harness Channel Shield


Assembly (upper and lower)
1. M6 x 14 bolt
2. Harness channel shield assembly (upper and lower)
3. M6 nut (3)
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 101

Fuel Heater (optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure Fuel Pump


(FDP) Sensor (optional)

Figure 125 Fuel Pump


Figure 124 Fuel heater (optional) and Fuel
Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (optional) 1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. Fuel pump
1. Fuel heater
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. FDP sensor 1. See Fuel Pump (page 242) for installation.
4. 2-pin engine harness connector
5. Filter cooler pump module support 2. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to fuel
pump.

1. Lubricate a new O-ring with clean diesel fuel and


install O-ring onto FDP sensor.
2. Install FDP sensor and tighten to special torque
(page 111).
3. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to FDP
sensor.
4. See Fuel Heater (page 241) for installation.
5. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to fuel
heater.
102 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) Sensor

Figure 127 EFT Sensor


Figure 126 Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor
1. EFT sensor
1. WIF sensor
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. Clamp
3. Clamp
3. 2-pin engine harness connector

1. Lubricate a new O-ring with clean diesel fuel and


1. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with clean diesel fuel
install O-ring onto EFT sensor.
and install O-ring onto WIF sensor.
2. Install EFT sensor and tighten to special torque
2. Install WIF sensor and tighten to special torque
(page 111).
(page 111).
3. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to EFT
3. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to WIF
sensor and push in yellow CPA lock.
sensor.
4. Close clamp on engine harness.
4. Close clamp on engine harness.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 103

Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) Sensor and Engine Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)
Oil Pressure (EOP) Sensor Solenoid

Figure 129 TC1WC Solenoid


Figure 128 EOT Sensor and EOP Sensor
1. 2-pin engine harness connector
1. 2-pin engine harness connector 2. TC1WC solenoid
2. 3-pin engine harness connector
3. EOP sensor
4. EOT sensor NOTE: See TC1WC solenoid, Wastegate Tube
Assembly, Relief Tube Assembly, and Air Duct
Assembly (page 174) for installation of TC1WC
1. Lubricate a new sensor O-ring with clean engine solenoid.
oil and install O-ring onto EOP sensor.
1. Install TC1WC solenoid.
2. Lubricate a new sensor O-ring with clean engine
oil and install O-ring onto EOT sensor. 2. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to
TC1WC solenoid.
3. Install EOT sensor and EOP sensor on oil cooler
assembly. Tighten sensors to special torque 3. Install air duct assembly.
(page 111).
4. Connect 3-pin engine harness connector to EOP
sensor.
5. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to EOT
sensor and push in yellow CPA lock.
6. See EGR Manifold Mixer (page 131) for
installation of manifold mixer.
104 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Turbocharger 1 Compressor Outlet Temperature Thermal Management Valve (TMV)


(TC1COT) Sensor

GRAPHIC-12361-4ADAE2D0
Figure 130 TC1COT Sensor Figure 131 TMV
1. Clamp 1. M8 x 16 bolt (2)
2. 2-pin engine harness connector 2. TMV engine harness connector
3. TC1COT sensor 3. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
4. TMV support spacer
5. TMV support
1. Install TC1COT sensor into turbocharger 1 outlet
pipe, located on top of the engine.
1. Move TMV into place for installation.
2. Push 2-pin engine harness connector onto
TC1COT sensor until you hear a click, then push 2. Using two M6 x 25 bolts and TMV support
in red CPA lock tab. spacers, install TMV support. Tighten bolts to
special torque.
3. Re-install clamp onto engine harness.
3. Install two M8 x 16 bolts into TMV. Tighten bolts
to special torque.
4. Connect TMV engine harness connector to TMV.
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 105

Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) Sensor and


Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) Sensor

Figure 132 V-band Clamp and Coolant Line


Figure 133 IMT and IMP Sensors
1. TMV
2. V-band clamp 1. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. Coolant tube 2. IMP sensor
3. 3-pin engine harness connector
4. Clamp
5. Install coolant tube onto TMV. Tighten tube to 5. IMT sensor
special torque.
6. Install V-band clamp between TMV and 1. Lubricate a new sensor O-ring with P-80® Rubber
turbocharger assembly. Tighten t-bolt on V-band Lubricant or equivalent (page 111) and install
clamp to special torque. O-ring onto IMT sensor.
2. Lubricate a new O-ring with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 111) and install
O-ring onto IMP sensor.
3. Install IMT and IMP sensors. Tighten sensors to
special torque (page 111).
4. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to IMT
sensor.
5. Connect 3-pin engine harness connector to IMP
sensor.
6. Close clamp on engine harness.
NOTE: See Air Duct Assembly, Relief Tube
Assembly, Wastegate Tube Assembly, and TC1WC
solenoid (page 174) for installation of air duct
assembly.
7. Install air duct assembly.
106 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve Assembly
Sensor

Figure 134 EGRT Sensor


Figure 135 EGR Valve Assembly
1. 2-pin engine harness connector
1. EGR valve assembly
2. Clamp
2. 6-pin engine harness connector
3. EGRT sensor
4. Manifold mixer
1. See EGR Valve Assembly (page 139) for
installation.
1. Lubricate a new O-ring with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 111) and install 2. Connect 6-pin engine harness connector to EGR
O-ring onto EGRT sensor. valve assembly.

2. Install EGRT sensor into manifold mixer and


tighten to special torque (page 111). Intake Air heater (IAH)

3. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to EGRT


sensor and push in red CPA lock.
4. Close clamp on engine harness.

Figure 136 Intake Air Heater (IAH)


1. IAH
2. Boot
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 107

1. See Intake Air Heater (page 134) for installation.


2. Install ring terminal of engine harness and nut
onto stud bolt in the IAH. Tighten nut to standard
torque (page 473).
3. Push boot onto engine harness connection.

Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)

Figure 137 Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)


1. ETV
2. 6-pin engine harness connector

1. See Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) (page 135) for


installation.
2. Connect 6-pin engine harness connector harness
to ETV.
108 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) Sensor Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor

Figure 138 ECT1 Sensor Figure 139 CMP Sensor


1. 2-pin engine harness connector 1. CMP sensor
2. Clamp 2. 2-pin engine harness connector
3. ECT1 sensor 3. M6 x 14 bolt

1. Lubricate a new sensor O-ring with P-80® Rubber 1. Lubricate two new sensor O-rings with clean
Lubricant or equivalent (page 111) and install engine oil and install O-rings onto CMP sensor.
O-ring onto ECT1 sensor.
2. Install CMP sensor into front left side of
2. Install ECT1 sensor into left side of front cover. crankcase.
Tighten sensor to special torque (page 111).
3. Install M6 x 14 bolt to CMP sensor. Tighten bolt
3. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to ECT1 to special torque (page 111).
sensor and push in yellow CPA lock.
4. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to CMP.
4. Close clamp on engine harness.
NOTE: If alternator bracket was removed, install
alternator bracket. See Alternator and Refrigerant
Compressor Mounting Bracket (page 282).
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 109

Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT)
sensor

Figure 140 CKP Sensor


1. 2-pin engine harness connector
2. M6 x 14 bolt
3. CKP sensor
Figure 141 CACOT Sensor
1. CACOT sensor
2. 2-pin engine harness connector
1. Lubricate a new sensor O-ring with clean engine 3. Clamp
oil and install O-ring onto CKP sensor.
2. Install CKP sensor into front right side of lower
crankcase. 1. Install CACOT sensor into intake mixer housing,
located on front of the engine.
3. Install M6 x 14 bolt to secure CKP sensor. Tighten
bolt to special torque (page 111). 2. Push 2-pin engine harness connector onto
CACOT sensor until you hear a click, then push
4. Connect 2-pin engine harness connector to CKP. in red CPA lock tab.
3. Re-install clamp onto engine harness.
110 ENGINE ELECTRICAL

Mass Air Flow / Air Inlet Temperature (MAF / AIT) 1. Lubricate a new O-ring with P-80® Rubber
Sensor Lubricant or equivalent (page 111) and install
O-ring onto MAF / AIT sensor.
2. Install the MAF/AIT sensor to the vehicle air
cleaner assembly.
3. Install two Torx screws to secure the MAF / AIT
sensor and tighten Torx screws to special torque
(page 111).
4. Connect 5-pin engine harness connector to the
MAF / AIT sensor.
NOTE: Anytime the MAF / AIT sensor is
disconnected, the MAF Sensor Test must
be run to auto-calibrate the sensor. See
“Performance Diagnostics” section in the
®
0000001681 MaxxForce 7 Engine Diagnostic
Manual.

Figure 142 MAF / AIT Sensor


1. MAF / AIT sensor
2. Vehicle air cleaner assembly
3. 5-pin engine harness connector
4. Torx screw (2)
ENGINE ELECTRICAL 111

Special Torque

Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor bolt 10 N·m (89 lb·in)


Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor bolt 10 N·m (89 lb·in)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT)
38 N·m (30 lb·ft)
Sensor
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor 44 N·m (32 lb·ft)
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor 12 N·m (106 lb·in)
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor 12 N·m (106 lb·in)
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor 7 N·m (62 lb·in), then turn one hex flat
Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) sensor 12 N·m (106 lb·in)
MAF / AIT Torx screw 1 N·m (10 lb·in)
Upper harness channel shield bolt, M5 x 10 4 N·m (35 lb·in)
Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor 20 N·m (15 lb·ft)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Injector Connector Release Tool ZTSE6074
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
112 ENGINE ELECTRICAL
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 113

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

Removal. . . ................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .117


EGR Valve Assembly.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
EGR Cooler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
EGR Mixer Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
EGR Coolant Supply and Return Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127


EGR System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Manifold Mixer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooler Pressure Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
EGR Leak Detection Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Installation and Testing of EGR Cooler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
EGR Coolant Supply and Return Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
EGR Manifold Mixer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
EGR Cooler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
EGR Valve Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .140

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140


114 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 115

Exploded Views

Figure 143 EGR Cooler


1. Turbo inlet gasket 7. Worm drive clamp (2) 13. EGR coolant return tube
2. M10 x 30 bolt (3) 8. Air cooler hose 14. O-ring seal
3. M8 x 50 bolt (4) 9. O-ring (6) 15. Manifold mixer assembly
4. M8 x 50 stud bolt (4) 10. EGR coolant supply pipe 16. M8 x 50 bolt (2)
5. EGR cooler assembly 11. M6 x 25 bolt (4) 17. M6 x 30 bolt (4)
6. EGR vent elbow 12. Elbow connector (2) 18. Distribution duct
116 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 144 Manifold Mixer and Distribution Duct


1. M6 X 20 bolt (3) 7. Intake throttle gasket (5) 13. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
2. EGR valve assembly 8. EGR mixer bushing (2) 14. M6 x 25 stud bolt
3. O-ring, No. 2-140 9. Distribution duct 15. Intake throttle valve
4. O-ring, No. 2-226 (2) 10. Split seam bushing (2) 16. Intake air heater
5. Manifold mixer 11. M6 x 35 bolt (5) 17. Inlet duct to intake manifold
6. M8 x 35 bolt (4) 12. Distribution duct gasket (2) gasket
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 117

Removal EGR Valve Assembly

GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine


fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
applicable regulations.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.
Figure 145 EGR Valve Assembly
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set 1. DC motor
parking brake, and block wheels before doing 2. T-30 Torx screw (4)
diagnostic or service procedures. 3. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
4. Inspection cover
5. Manifold mixer
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, make sure that the engine has cooled
before removing components.
1. Remove inspection cover from EGR valve.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 2. Remove four T-30 Torx screws from DC motor and
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. remove DC motor from EGR valve.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). 3. Remove three M6 x 20 bolts that secure EGR
valve assembly to manifold mixer.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids.
NOTE: See the following sections for removal of
components.
• Engine Electrical
• Dual Turbocharger
• Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
• Fuel System

Figure 146 EGR Valve Puller


118 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

4. Position lower section of EGR Valve Puller (page


140) onto EGR valve and install four M6 x 35 bolts.
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
5. Turn lower section of EGR Valve Puller to break
seal on EGR valve.

Figure 147 Installation of Lower Section of EGR


Valve Puller
1. EGR Valve Puller
2. M6 x 25 bolt (4)
3. EGR valve
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 119

Figure 148 Installation EGR Valve Puller


1. Puller screw 2. Upper section of EGR valve 3. Bolt
puller 4. Nut

6. Position upper section of EGR Valve Puller and CAUTION: To prevent damage to the EGR valve, do
install puller screw into lower section of EGR not over tighten T-30 Torx bolts.
Valve Puller.
9. Position DC motor onto EGR valve; install and
7. Hold puller screw and turn nut clockwise to hand tighten four T-30 Torx screws.
remove EGR valve from manifold mixer.
10. Install inspection cover onto EGR valve.
8. Remove EGR Valve Puller.
120 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

EGR Cooler

Figure 149 EGR Cooler


1. Manifold mixer 4. M6 x 25 bolt 7. M8 x 50 stud bolt (4)
2. No. 56 worm drive clamp (2) 5. M8 x 50 bolt (4) 8. M10 x 30 bolt, high temperature
3. Air cooler hose 6. EGR cooler assembly (3)

NOTE: Do not remove EGR cooler end caps prior 4. Remove three M10 x 30 bolts from EGR cooler
to inspection. Removing end caps will result in flange.
rejection of warranty claim.
5. Lift up on turbocharger connection end of EGR
1. Loosen worm drive clamp on air cooler hose cooler assembly to disengage the O-ring seal
(manifold mixer end). nipple, before pulling outward to disengage the
air cooler hose and EGR tubes.
2. Remove M6 x 25 bolt from connector elbow on
EGR coolant return tube.
3. Remove four M8 x 50 bolts and four M8 x 50 stud
bolts securing EGR cooler.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 121

CAUTION: To prevent damage to TC1WC solenoid,


do not disconnect the end of the boost to solenoid tube
assembly from the TC1WC solenoid. Disconnect only
the end of the boost to solenoid tube assembly from
the Intake Air Heater (IAH).
1. Disconnect boost to solenoid tube assembly from
the IAH; leave other end connected to TC1WC
solenoid.
2. Disconnect jet pump boost tube assembly from
IAH.

Figure 150 Coolant Gasket and O-ring Seal


1. EGR cooler
2. Turbocharger inlet gasket
3. O-ring seal nipple
4. O-ring seal

6. Remove and discard turbocharger inlet gasket.


7. Remove and discard O-ring seal from EGR cooler.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not remove
end caps from EGR cooler assembly.
EGR Mixer Assembly

Figure 152 Wiring Harness Bolts


1. Wiring harness stud-bolt
2. M6 x 14 wiring harness bolts (2)

NOTE: Some engines are equipped with an M6


stud-bolt securing harness conduit to engine.
Clearance between stud-bolt and cooling fan is
very small (approximately 4mm) and contact with
fan can occur. If wiring harness is secured with
stud-bolt, replace stud-bolt with M6 x 16 bolt.
NOTE: Some engines were built with M6 x 16
harness retaining bolts that are too long and can
bottom out when tightened. If bolts securing
Figure 151 Boost Tube Connections wiring harness measure M6 x 16, replace with M6
1. Boost to solenoid tube assembly x 14 bolts.
2. Jet pump boost tube assembly 3. Remove two wiring harness bolts.
3. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
122 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

6. Remove four M8 x 35 bolts.


7. Remove the IAH.

Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer

Figure 153 Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)


1. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
2. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)
3. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
Figure 155 Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer
4. M6 x 25 stud bolt
1. Inlet duct gasket
2. Manifold mixer
4. Remove two M6 x 25 bolts and one M6 x 25 stud 3. M8 x 50 bolt (2)
bolt retaining the ETV to the IAH. 4. Distribution duct

5. Remove ETV and discard intake throttle gasket.


1. Remove and discard inlet duct gasket.
2. Remove two M8 x 50 bolts from distribution duct.

Figure 154 Intake Air Heater (IAH)


1. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
2. M8 x 35 bolt (4)
3. Intake throttle gasket
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 123

Figure 156 Distribution Duct Flange to Left


Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly Figure 157 Distribution Duct Flange to Right
Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly.
1. M6 x 30 bolt (2)
2. M6 x 25 bolt 1. Distribution duct
3. Injector hose assembly 2. M6 x 30 bolt (2)
4. Distribution duct

5. Remove two M6 x 30 bolts from distribution duct


3. Remove M6 x 25 bolt from injector hose assembly. flange to right valve cover and intake manifold
base assembly.
4. Remove two M6 x 30 bolts from distribution duct
flange to left valve cover and intake manifold base 6. Remove distribution duct and manifold mixer
assembly. assembly.
7. Install Intake Manifold Mixing Bowl Covers (page
140) onto left and right intake manifold base
assembly.
124 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 158 Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer Assembly


1. Distribution duct gasket (2) 2. M6 x 35 bolt (5) 3. Split seam bushing (2)

8. Remove and discard two distribution duct gaskets 10. Remove five M6 x 35 bolts that secure the
from distribution duct. distribution duct to the manifold mixer assembly.
9. Remove and discard two split seam bushings.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 125

EGR Coolant Supply and Return Tubes

Figure 159 EGR Manifold Mixer Bushings


1. Manifold mixer Figure 160 EGR Coolant Supply and Return
2. Intake throttle gasket (4) Tubes
3. EGR mixer bushing (2)
4. Distribution duct 1. Valve cover intake manifold base
2. M6 x 25 bolt (3)
3. EGR coolant return tube
11. Separate manifold mixer and two EGR mixer 4. EGR coolant supply tube
bushings from distribution duct. 5. Front cover

12. Remove and discard four intake throttle gaskets.


1. Remove M6 x 25 bolt from EGR coolant return
tube to front cover.
2. Remove EGR coolant return tube.
3. Remove M6 x 25 bolt from EGR coolant supply
tube to valve cover intake manifold base.
4. Remove M6 x 25 bolt from EGR coolant supply
tube to front cover.
5. Remove EGR coolant supply tube.
126 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 161 EGR Coolant Supply and Return


Tubes
1. Connector elbow (2)
2. O-ring (6)
3. EGR coolant return tube
4. EGR coolant supply tube

6. Separate EGR coolant supply tube and coolant


return tube from connector elbow.
7. Remove and discard six O-rings.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 127

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing 5. Clean EGR coolant supply and EGR coolant
return ports in front of front crankcase cover
EGR System Components
assembly.
NOTE: Do not remove EGR cooler end caps prior
6. Inspect all EGR system components for cracks
to inspection. Removing end caps will result in
and damage. Install new components if
rejection of warranty claim.
necessary.
1. Clean all gasket material and carbon deposits
off of EGR cooler and exhaust manifold mating
surfaces. Manifold Mixer
2. Clean gasket mating surfaces of EGR cooler and Clean manifold mixer with steam or suitable
EGR valve elbow housing. non-caustic solvents.
3. Clean gasket mating surfaces of EGR valve Clean contact areas of EGR O-ring in manifold mixer
assembly and remove all carbon deposits, using housing. Make sure carbon debris is removed above
EGR Valve Brush (page 140). and below contact areas of manifold mixer.
4. Clean all corrosion from ends of all EGR valve
assembly coolant pipes and tubes.
128 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Cooler Pressure NOTE: Clean all sealing surfaces on the EGR
Test cooler. This will ensure proper sealing of all tools,
and will eliminate any error in procedure.
The following procedure is used in order to diagnose a
leaking EGR cooler. The procedure uses air pressure NOTE: To reduce the chance of damage to EGR
while the operator looks for leaks in the form of cooler, set pressure regulator (KL20020-13) to 45
bubbles in water while using the EGR leak detection psi before connecting it to system and beginning
kit. test.

EGR Leak Detection Kit

Figure 163 EGR Leak Detection Kit Components


(Installed)
1. KL20040-5
2. KL20040-3
3. KL20040-2
4. KL20040-1
5. KL20040-4

KL20040-1 Installation
1. Before installing component, back knurled knob
Figure 162 EGR Leak Detection Kit out several turns to ensure there is enough
1. KL20040-3 EGR Cooler Inlet Tool (End Seal [small
clearance for proper tool installation.
diameter]) 2. Line up tool with hole, and tighten knurled knob
2. KL20040-4 EGR Gas Outlet Tool (End Seal [large down into threaded hole.
diameter])
3. KL20040-2 EGR Turbocharger Inlet Flange Tool
NOTE: To prevent damage to O-ring, tighten
(Flange End Seal Leak Detection)
knurled knob to hand-tight.
4. KL20040-5 EGR Cooler Vent Tool (small port plug) 3. Tighten knurled knob in order to compress O-ring
5. KL20040-1 EGR Coolant Return Tool (Single Hole seal against inside of pipe.
Seal Air Inlet)
6. KL20020-13 air regulator
KL20040-3, KL20040-4, and KL20040-5 Installation
4. Before installing component, back knurled knob
out several turns to ensure there is enough
Installation and Testing of EGR Cooler clearance for proper tool installation.
CAUTION: This tool kit uses compressed air at high 5. Slide tool onto pipe and hook lower part of tool
pressures. Use extreme caution during testing. For onto outside of pipe.
safety, ensure all fittings are tight. Do not stand in front
of fittings while under pressure. 6. Turn knurled knob slowly, ensuring that center of
tool aligns with center of pipe.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 129

NOTE: To prevent damage to O-ring, tighten Pressurize the System


knurled knob to hand-tight.
13. Connect KL20020-13 to KL20040-1 (installed on
7. Tighten knurled knob in order to compress O-ring cooler).
seal against inside of pipe.
NOTE: Very small leaks may take up to 5 minutes
KL20040-2 Installation to appear. Test for sufficient amount of time
before recording results.
8. Before installing component, back knurled knob
out several turns to ensure there is enough 14. Place end of hose connected to KL20040-2
clearance for proper tool installation. into a container of water to a depth of at least
0.375 in. (marked on hose with red dye). Keep
9. Set tool over flange, allowing flange into tool
system pressurized while observing end of hose
opening.
submerged inside container. Bubbles indicate a
10. Turn tool clockwise until flange contacts stops leak.
inside tool.
NOTE: Ensure test results are recorded.
NOTE: To prevent damage to O-ring, tighten
Disassembly
knurled knob to hand-tight.
15. Disconnect compressed air line from KL20040-1.
11. Tighten knurled knob in order to compress O-ring
seal against inside of pipe. 16. Remove all tools from EGR cooler. Clean EGR
cooler.
KL20020-13 Installation
17. Refer to Installation located in the Engine Service
12. Connect pressurized air line to regulator assembly
Manual for installation of EGR cooler.
and verify air pressure is regulated to 45 psi (310
kPa). If pressure is not regulated to 45 psi (310
kPa), adjust pressure accordingly.
130 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Installation
EGR Coolant Supply and Return Tubes

Figure 165 EGR Coolant Supply and Return


Tubes
1. Valve cover intake manifold base
2. M6 x 25 bolt (3)
Figure 164 EGR Coolant Supply and Return
3. EGR coolant return tube
Tubes
4. EGR coolant supply tube
1. Connector elbow (2) 5. Front cover
2. O-ring (6)
3. EGR coolant return tube
4. EGR coolant supply tube 3. Lubricate new O-rings with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 140). Install O-rings
onto EGR coolant return tube and insert tube end
1. Lubricate O-ring with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or into front cover.
equivalent (page 140). Assemble EGR coolant
return tube, new O-ring, and connector elbow. 4. Install M6 x 25 bolt through tube flange into front
cover and tighten to standard torque (page 473).
2. Lubricate O-ring with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or
equivalent (page 140). Assemble EGR coolant 5. Lubricate new O-rings with P-80® Rubber
supply tube, new O-ring, and connector elbow. Lubricant or equivalent (page 140). Install O-rings
onto EGR coolant supply tube and insert tube end
into front cover and valve cover intake manifold
base.
6. Install two M6 x 25 bolts: one into front cover
and one into valve cover intake manifold base.
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 131

EGR Manifold Mixer

Figure 166 EGR Manifold Mixer Bushings


1. Manifold mixer
2. Intake throttle gasket (4)
3. EGR mixer bushing (2)
4. Distribution duct

1. Lubricate four new Intake throttle gaskets with


P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent (page
140). Install intake throttle gaskets onto each
EGR mixer bushing.
132 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 167 Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer Assembly


1. Distribution duct gasket (2) 2. M6 x 35 bolt (5) 3. Split seam bushing (2)

2. Assemble manifold mixer, two EGR mixer 3. Install two new distribution duct gaskets.
bushings, distribution duct, and install five M6 x
35 bolts. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page
473).
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 133

Figure 169 Distribution Duct Flange to Right


Figure 168 Installation of Split Bushings
Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
1. Split seam bushing (2)
1. Distribution duct
2. Distribution duct
2. M6 x 30 bolt (2)

4. Install two new split seam bushings to the original


5. Position distribution duct and manifold mixer
position (centered).
assembly and install two M6 x 30 bolts
(distribution duct flange to right valve cover and
intake manifold base assembly).
134 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 171 Distribution Duct and Manifold Mixer


1. Inlet duct gasket
Figure 170 Distribution Duct Flange to Left
2. Manifold mixer
Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
3. M8 x 50 bolt (2)
1. M6 x 30 bolt (2) 4. Distribution duct
2. M6 x 25 bolt
3. Injector hose assembly
4. Distribution duct 10. Install two M8 x 50 bolts into manifold mixer and
tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
11. Install new inlet duct gasket.
6. Install two M6 x 30 bolts (distribution duct flange
to left valve cover and intake manifold base
assembly).
7. Tighten two M6 x 30 bolts to standard torque
(page 473).
8. Install M6 x 25 bolt to secure injector hose
assembly.
9. Tighten M6 x 25 bolt to standard torque (page
473).

Figure 172 Intake Air Heater (IAH)


1. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
2. M8 x 35 bolt (4)
3. Intake throttle gasket

12. Install the IAH.


13. Install four M8 x 35 bolts to secure the IAH.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 135

14. Tighten M8 x 35 bolts to standard torque (page


473).
15. Lubricate new intake throttle gasket with P-80®
Rubber Lubricant or equivalent (page 140). Install
intake throttle gasket.

Figure 174 Wiring Harness Bolts


1. M6 x 14 bolt
2. M6 x 16 bolt
Figure 173 Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)
1. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
2. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV)
NOTE: Some engines are equipped with an M6
3. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
stud-bolt securing harness conduit to engine.
4. M6 x 25 stud bolt
Clearance between stud-bolt and cooling fan is
very small (approximately 4mm) and contact with
fan can occur. If wiring harness is secured with
16. Install two M6 x 25 bolts and one M6 x 25 stud bolt stud-bolt, replace stud-bolt with M6 x 16 bolt.
to retain the ETV. NOTE: Some engines were built with M6 x 16
17. Tighten M6 x 25 bolts and stud bolt to standard harness retaining bolts that are too long and can
torque (page 473). bottom out when tightened. If bolts securing
wiring harness measure M6 x 16, replace with M6
x 14 bolts.
18. Install two M6 x 14 harness retention bolts.
19. Tighten both bolts to standard torque (page 473).
136 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

20. Install jet pump boost tube assembly to the IAH.


21. Install boost to solenoid tube assembly to the IAH.

Figure 175 Boost Tube Connections


1. Boost to solenoid tube assembly
2. Jet pump boost tube assembly
3. Intake Air Heater (IAH)
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 137

EGR Cooler

Figure 176 Coolant Gasket and O-ring Seal


1. EGR cooler
2. Turbocharger inlet gasket
3. O-ring seal nipple
4. O-ring seal

1. Lubricate new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber


Lubricant or equivalent (page 140). Install O-ring
on nipple of EGR cooler.
138 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Figure 177 EGR Cooler


1. Manifold mixer assembly 4. M6 x 25 bolt 7. M8 x 50 stud bolt (4)
2. No. 56 worm drive clamp (2) 5. M8 x 50 bolt (4) 8. M10 x 30 bolt, high temperature
3. Air cooler hose 6. EGR cooler assembly (3)

2. Install two worm drive clamps on air cooler hose. 7. Tighten M10 x 30 bolts to standard torque (page
473).
3. Slide air cooler hose onto EGR cooler assembly.
8. Tighten M8 x 50 bolts and M8 x 50 stud bolts to
4. Slide air cooler hose onto manifold mixer inlet,
standard torque (page 473).
while positioning turbocharger connection end of
EGR cooler assembly to engage the O-ring seal 9. Tighten worm drive clamp to special torque (page
nipple and align with EGR coolant return tube. 140).
5. Install new turbocharger inlet gasket and install 10. Install M6 x 25 bolt to secure EGR coolant return
three M10 x 30 bolts (finger tight) to secure EGR tube to EGR cooler.
cooler flange to flange on turbocharger exhaust
11. Tighten M8 x 35 bolt to standard torque (page
inlet manifold.
473).
6. Install four M8 x 50 bolts (finger tight) and four M8
x 50 stud bolts (finger tight) to secure EGR cooler.
EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM 139

EGR Valve Assembly


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
power tools to remove or install EGR system nuts and
bolts. Threads will be damaged if installed or removed
too quickly.

Figure 179 EGR Valve Assembly


1. EGR valve assembly
2. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
3. Manifold mixer

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, vacuum loose


ash, carbon deposits, and debris from the manifold
Figure 178 EGR Valve O-rings mixer before installing the EGR valve.
1. O-ring, No. 2-140 2. Vacuum loose ash, carbon deposits, and debris
2. O-ring, No. 2-226 (2) from the manifold mixer.
3. Install EGR valve assembly.
1. Lubricate No. 2-140 O-ring and two No. NOTE: Make sure EGR valve assembly is fully
2-226 O-rings with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or seated.
equivalent (page 140).
4. Install three M6 x 20 bolts to secure EGR valve
assembly.
5. Tighten M6 x 20 bolts to standard torque (page
473).
140 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION (EGR) SYSTEM

Special Torque

Worm drive clamp 3.5 N·m (31 lb·in)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


EGR Leak Detection Kit KL20040NAV
• EGR Coolant Return Tool (Single Hole Seal Air Inlet) KL20040-1
• EGR Turbocharger Inlet Flange Tool (Flange End Seal KL20040-2
Leak Detection)
• EGR Cooler Inlet Tool (End Seal {small diameter}) KL20040-3
• EGR Gas Outlet Tool (End Seal {large diameter}) KL20040-4
• EGR Cooler Vent Tool (Small Port Plug) KL20040-5
• Air Regulator KL20020-13
EGR Valve Bore Cleaning Brush ZTSE4753
EGR Valve Puller ZTSE6010
Intake Manifold Mixing Bowl Covers (Intake Plate Covers) ZTSE6034
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 141

Table of Contents

Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Exhaust Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Exhaust Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Left Exhaust Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Right Exhaust Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Pump Cover Heat Shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Dual Turbocharger Heat Shields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Air Duct Assembly, Relief Tube Assembly, Wastegate Tube Assembly, and TC1WC Solenoid. . .155
Dual Turbocharger Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160


Dual Turbocharger Assembly and Related Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Dual Turbocharger Assembly Cleaning and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Check Free Rotation and Housing Rub. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Check Axial End Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
TC1WC Wastegate Actuator Set Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Exhaust Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Manifold Warp Test for Exhaust Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Dual Turbochargers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
TC1WC Solenoid, Wastegate Hose Assembly, Relief Tube Assembly, and Air Duct
Assembly....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Dual Turbocharger Heat Shields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Pump Cover Heat Shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Exhaust Manifolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Right Exhaust Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Left Exhaust Manifold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Exhaust Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .184

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184


142 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 143

Description
Exploded Views

Figure 180 Dual Turbocharger


1. M10 x 142 stud (2)
2. M10 nut (2)
3. M10 x 55 bolt (2)
4. Turbo bolt spacer
5. Turbocharger assembly
6. Exhaust gasket (2)
7. M8 x 27 bolt (6)
8. Right exhaust tube assembly
9. V-band clamp (2)
10. V-band gasket (2)
11. Turbo exhaust inlet manifold
12. Left exhaust tube assembly
13. M10 nut (3)
14. Turbo inlet gasket
15. Right pump cover heat shield
16. M6 x 14 bolt (3)
17. Left pump cover heat shield
18. M8 x 12 bolt
19. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
144 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 181 Dual Turbocharger


1. M6 x 14 bolt (3) 12. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (2) 21. HP turbo drain tube
2. Turbo oil supply tube assembly 13. Boost to solenoid tube assembly 22. Exhaust sealing ring
3. M6 x 10 bolt (6) 14. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate 23. O-ring seal
4. LP turbo heat shield Control (TC1WC) solenoid 24. Turbocharger 1 Compressor
5. M6 x 20 bolt (3) 15. Relief to duct tube assembly Outlet Temperature (TC1COT)
6. Crossover tube 16. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate sensor
7. LP turbo seal Control (TC1WC) actuator 25. HP turbo assembly
8. Air duct assembly 17. M8 x 16 bolt (3) 26. HP turbo heat shield
9. Turbo inlet clamp 18. M10 nut (4) 27. SPL turbo seal (3)
10. LP turbo assembly 19. Turbo stud (4) 28. M6 x 10 bolt
11. Wastegate hose assembly 20. LP turbo drain tube
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 145

Figure 182 Right Exhaust Manifold (Left Similar)


1. Dual port gasket 5. Heat shield spacer (3) 9. M8 x 50 bolt (4)
2. Single port gasket (2) 6. Heat shield 10. Exhaust manifold bolt spacer (4)
3. Exhaust Manifold 7. M8 x 12 bolt (3)
4. Exhaust manifold stud bolt (4) 8. M8 nut
146 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Removal
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, make sure the engine and turbocharger
have cooled before removing the turbocharger.
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
to human health and the environment. death, remove the ground cable from the negative
Handle all fluids and other contaminated terminal of the main battery before disconnecting
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance or connecting electrical components. Always
with applicable regulations. Recycle connect the ground cable last.
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
applicable regulations.
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or and rags contaminated with engine fluids.
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual. NOTE: See the following sections for removal of
components.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or • Engine Electrical
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
diagnostic or service procedures. • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
• Fuel System
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 147

Exhaust Tubes

Figure 183 Exhaust Tubes


1. M10 nut (3) 3. Right exhaust tube assembly 5. Left exhaust tube assembly
2. Turbo exhaust inlet manifold 4. M8 x 27 bolt (6)

1. Remove three M10 nuts. 4. Remove turbocharger exhaust inlet manifold,


right exhaust tube assembly, and left exhaust
2. Remove three M8 x 27 bolts securing right
tube assembly – as a group.
exhaust tube assembly to right exhaust manifold.
3. Remove three M8 x 27 bolts securing left exhaust
tube assembly to left exhaust manifold.
148 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 184 Turbocharger Exhaust Inlet Manifold and Right and Left Exhaust Tube Assemblies
1. Turbocharger inlet gasket 4. V-band clamp (2) 7. Left exhaust tube assembly
2. Turbo exhaust inlet manifold 5. Exhaust gasket (2)
3. V-band gasket (2) 6. Right exhaust tube assembly

5. Remove and discard turbocharger inlet gasket. 8. Remove and discard two V-band clamps and two
V-band gaskets.
6. Remove and discard exhaust gasket from right
and left exhaust tube assembly.
7. Loosen two V-band clamps and separate right and
left exhaust tube assemblies from turbocharger
exhaust inlet manifold.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 149

Exhaust Manifolds
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not reuse
exhaust manifold bolts and stud bolts.
Left Exhaust Manifold

Figure 187 Left Exhaust Manifold


1. Left exhaust manifold
2. M8 x 40 stud bolt (4)
3. M8 x 50 bolt (4) and spacer (4)

Figure 185 Left Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield


1. M8 nut 4. Remove and discard four M8 x 40 exhaust
2. Heat shield manifold stud bolts and four M8 x 50 exhaust
3. M8 x 12 bolt (3) manifold bolts.
5. Remove four exhaust bolt spacers.

1. Remove and discard three M8 x 12 heat shield


bolts and one M8 heat shield nut.
2. Remove left exhaust manifold heat shield.

Figure 188 Exhaust Manifold Gaskets


1. Single port gasket (2)
2. Dual port gasket

Figure 186 Left Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield 6. Remove left exhaust manifold and discard two
Spacers single port gaskets and one dual port gasket.

3. Remove three threaded heat shield spacers.


150 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Right Exhaust Manifold

Figure 191 Right Exhaust Manifold

Figure 189 Right Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield 1. Right exhaust manifold
2. M8 x 50 bolt (4) and spacer (4)
1. Heat shield 3. M8 x 40 stud bolt (4)
2. M8 x 12 bolt (3)
3. M8 nut
4. Remove and discard four M8 x 50 exhaust
manifold bolts and four M8 x 40 exhaust manifold
1. Remove and discard three M8 x 12 heat shield stud bolts.
bolts and one M8 heat shield nut.
5. Remove four exhaust bolt spacers.
2. Remove right exhaust manifold heat shield.

Figure 192 Exhaust Manifold Gaskets


1. Dual port gasket
Figure 190 Right Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield 2. Single port gasket (2)
Spacers

6. Remove right exhaust manifold and discard two


3. Remove three right exhaust manifold heat shield single port gaskets and one dual port gasket.
threaded spacers.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 151

Pump Cover Heat Shields 1. Remove M8 x 12 bolt from right pump cover heat
shield that overlaps left pump cover heat shield.
2. Remove two M6 x 25 bolts and one M6 x 14 bolt
from right pump cover heat shield and remove
shield.
3. Remove two M6 x 14 bolts from left pump cover
heat shield and remove shield.

Figure 193 Pump Cover Heat Shields


1. M6 x 14 bolt (3)
2. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
3. Right pump cover heat shield
4. M8 x 12 bolt
5. Left pump cover heat shield
152 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Dual Turbocharger Heat Shields

Figure 194 Turbocharger Heat Shields


1. M6 x 10 bolt (6) 2. Low-pressure turbocharger heat 3. High-pressure turbocharger heat
shield shield

1. Remove three M6 x 10 bolts from high-pressure 3. Remove three M6 x 10 bolts from low-pressure
turbocharger heat shield. turbocharger heat shield.
2. Remove high-pressure turbocharger heat shield. 4. Remove low-pressure turbocharger heat shield.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 153

Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube Assembly

GRAPHIC-121-4CE70D31
Figure 195 Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube Assembly
1. M6 x 14 bolt (3)
2. Turbocharger oil supply tube
assembly

1. Remove three M6 x 14 bolts securing 2. Remove turbocharger oil supply tube assembly.
turbocharger oil supply tube assembly.
154 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 196 Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube Assembly and O-ring Seals
1. Turbocharger oil supply tube
assembly
2. O-ring seal (3)

3. Remove and discard three O-ring seals.


DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 155

Figure 197 Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube Ports


1. Oil supply tube port in oil cooler 2. Oil supply tube port in 3. Oil supply tube port in
cover low-pressure turbocharger high-pressure turbocharger
assembly assembly

4. Block turbo oil supply tube port in oil cooler cover Air Duct Assembly, Relief Tube Assembly,
with Turbo Oil Supply Blockoff (page 184). Wastegate Tube Assembly, and TC1WC Solenoid
5. Block oil supply tube port for low-pressure
turbocharger assembly and high-pressure
turbocharger assembly with Turbo Oil Supply
Blockoff Plugs (page 184).

Figure 198 Relief Tube Assembly


1. Relief tube assembly
2. Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)
solenoid
3. Boost tube assembly
4. Air duct assembly
156 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

1. Remove relief tube assembly from air duct CAUTION: To prevent damage to TC1WC solenoid,
assembly and TC1WC solenoid. do not disconnect end of wastegate hose from
TC1WC solenoid. Disconnect only the end of
wastegate hose from TC1WC actuator.
4. Remove two M5 x 12 socket head bolts.
5. Disengage hose clamp from wastegate hose, and
remove wastegate hose from TC1WC actuator.
Leave other end connected to TC1WC solenoid.
6. Remove two M5 x 12 socket head bolts.
7. Remove TC1WC solenoid.

Dual Turbocharger Assembly

Figure 199 Turbocharger Inlet Clamp

2. Loosen turbocharger inlet clamp and remove air


duct assembly.
3. Cover opening of turbocharger assembly air inlet
with Cap Kit (page 184).

Figure 201 Turbocharger


1. M10 x 55 bolt (2)
2. Low-pressure turbocharger assembly
3. M10 nut (2)
4. High-pressure turbocharger assembly

Figure 200 TC1WC Solenoid 1. Remove and discard two M10 x 55 bolts.

1. Hose clamp 2. Remove two M10 nuts.


2. TC1WC actuator
3. Wastegate hose
4. Crimp clamp
5. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (2)
6. TC1WC solenoid
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 157

6. Remove nut closest to rod end.

Figure 202 Dual Turbocharger and Turbocharger Figure 204 TC1WC Wastegate Actuator Bolts
Oil Drain Gasket 1. M8 x 16 bolt (3)
1. Dual turbocharger 2. TC1WC actuator
2. Turbocharger oil drain gasket

7. Remove three M8 x 16 bolts and TC1WC actuator.


3. Remove dual turbocharger and discard
turbocharger oil drain gasket.
4. Put turbocharger on a bench for additional
disassembly.

Figure 205 Crossover Tube


1. Crossover tube
2. High-pressure turbocharger assembly
Figure 203 Wastegate Actuator Clip
3. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
1. Wastegate actuator clip
2. Nut (2)
8. Remove three M6 x 20 bolts from crossover tube
flange.
5. Use flat head screw driver to pry off wastegate
actuator clip covering actuator nuts. 9. Remove crossover tube.
158 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

11. Remove and discard O-ring seal from


low-pressure turbocharger.

Figure 206 Low-Pressure Turbocharger Seal,


Crossover Tube, and O-ring Seal
1. Low-pressure turbocharger
2. Low-pressure turbocharger seal Figure 207 Turbocharger Drain Tubes
3. Crossover tube 1. Low-pressure turbocharger
4. O-ring seal 2. High-pressure turbocharger
5. High-pressure turbocharger 3. Low-pressure turbocharger drain tube

10. Remove low-pressure turbocharger seal and 12. Remove and discard low-pressure turbocharger
discard. drain tube.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 159

14. Separate and remove low-pressure turbocharger


from high-pressure turbocharger.

Figure 208 Low-Pressure Turbocharger


Assembly
1. Low-pressure turbocharger assembly Figure 209 Exhaust Sealing Ring
2. M10 nut (4)

15. Remove exhaust sealing ring from high-pressure


13. Remove four M10 nuts from flange of turbocharger assembly.
low-pressure turbocharger.
160 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing for impeller and compressor wheel contact in
housings. Shaft, impeller, and compressor wheel
Dual Turbocharger Assembly and Related Parts
must rotate freely.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or • if metal-to-metal contact or interference is


death, wear safety glasses with side shields. detected, replace turbocharger assembly.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). • If metal-to-metal contact is not detected, do the
NOTE: Do not use a caustic solution following procedures.
on turbocharger assemblies and related Disassembly
components.
1. Clean piping between turbocharger assemblies
and air cleaner assembly with soap and water.
Dry all piping with filtered compressed air.
2. Clean air inlet piping and connecting hoses with
filtered compressed air.
3. Clean oil supply tube and oil drain tube with
suitable solvent and a nylon brush. Dry tubes with
filtered compressed air. Replace any damaged
tubes.

Dual Turbocharger Assembly Cleaning and


Inspection
1. Inspect turbocharger assemblies for cracks and
leaks. Replace if necessary.
2. Inspect compressor impeller and turbine wheel for
blade erosion, bending, breakage, or deposits.
Replace turbocharger assembly if damaged.
Figure 210 Turbocharger Marking
NOTE: Replace turbocharger assembly if blades
are bent. Do not straighten bent wheel blades. 1. Paint mark

3. Rotate High-Pressure (HP) and Low-Pressure


(LP) turbocharger shafts by hand and check 4. Paint mark HP V-band clamp to aid in installation.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 161

Figure 211 Turbocharger Marking Figure 212 Wastegate Actuator Rod Marking
1. Bearing housing 1. Wastegate actuator rod assembly clip
2. Paint mark on bearing housing 2. Wastegate actuator rod assembly nut
3. Paint mark on compressor cover
4. Compressor cover
7. Mark wastegate actuator rod assembly clip and
rod with paint.
5. To aid in installation, mark compressor cover with
8. Remove wastegate actuator rod assembly clip
paint as shown.
from turbocharger assembly.
6. To aid in installation, mark bearing housing with
9. Mark wastegate actuator rod assembly nut and
paint as shown.
rod with paint.
10. Remove wastegate actuator rod assembly nut
from turbocharger assembly.
162 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

12. Remove turbocharger crossover tube and


turbocharger crossover tube seal from
turbocharger assembly. Discard turbocharger
crossover tube seal.

Figure 213 Crossover Tube Mounting


1. Bolt (3)
2. Turbocharger assembly

Figure 215 Wastegate Actuator


11. Remove three bolts from turbocharger assembly.
1. Wsategate actuator assembly
2. Bolt (3)
3. Crossover tube O-ring
4. HP turbocharger assembly

13. Remove and discard turbocharger crossover tube


O-ring from HP turbocharger assembly.
14. Remove three bolts from wastegate actuator
assembly.
15. Remove wastegate actuator assembly and
wastegate actuator rod from turbocharger
assembly.

Figure 214 Crossover Tube


1. Crossover tube
2. Crossover tube seal
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 163

17. Tap on HP compressor cover with rubber mallet to


unseat compressor cover from bearing housing.
Finish loosening V-band clamp and remove
compressor cover along axis of turbocharger
shaft.

Figure 216 V-Band Clamp


1. HP compressor cover
2. V-band clamp
3. Bearing housing

Figure 217 HP Compressor Cover O-ring


NOTE: Not removing V-band clamp at this time
will help prevent compressor cover hitting 1. Compressor cover O-ring
compressor wheel when cover is unseated.
16. Loosen V-band clamp securing HP compressor 18. Remove and discard O-ring from bearing housing.
cover to bearing housing. Do not remove V-band
clamp. 19. Match new V-band clamp to old V-band clamp and
paint a mark on new V-band clamp, opposite the
CAUTION: To prevent contact between compressor mark on old V-band clamp. Discard old V-band
cover and aluminum vanes of compressor wheel, the clamp an nut.
compressor cover must be removed along the axis of
the turbocharger shaft. If the vanes are damaged, a
new turbocharger must be installed.
164 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 218 HP Compressor Cover Figure 219 HP Compressor Housing


1. HP compressor cover 1. Bearing housing
2. Diffuser face
3. Compressor vane wheel
CAUTION: To avoid damage to compressor cover,
do not use metal tools to remove coked oil deposits
from cover. Use wooden or plastic tools to remove 21. Place lint-free cloth under bearing housing to
deposits. absorb solvent and catch debris from cleaning
process.
NOTE: A parts washer should work well to clean
compressor cover. CAUTION: To avoid damage to compressor housing,
do not use metal tools to remove coked oil deposits
20. Clean coked oil from turbocharger compressor
from diffuser face. Use wooden or plastic tools to
cover with non-metallic scraper, suitable solvent,
remove deposits.
and lint-free cloth.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
allow cleaning solvent to contact bearings behind
compressor wheel.
NOTE: A scraper may be used to removed coked
oil from diffuser face prior to cleaning with
solvent.
22. Clean diffuser face and compressor vanes
with non-metallic scraper, suitable solvent, and
lint-free cloth.
CAUTION: To avoid compressor damage, do not use
compressed air to dry diffuser face.
23. After removing all coked oil deposits from HP
turbocharger compressor cover and diffuser face,
wipe remaining residue with damp, lint-free cloth
and dry thoroughly before beginning assembly
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 165

procedure. Do no use compressed air to dry


components.
24. Repeat steps 16 to 23 for LP compressor.
Assembly

Figure 221 LP Compressor Cover


1. LP compressor cover

29. Position LP compressor cover squarely on


bearing housing. Align to dowel pin and paint
Figure 220 LP Compressor Housing
mark that was made during removal.
1. Dowel pin (2)
2. Compressor cover O-ring
3. Bearing housing

25. Clean mating surface of bearing housing and


dowel pins with suitable solvent and lint-free
cloth.
26. Lubricate O-ring with P-80® lubricant or
equivalent.
27. Install new LP compressor cover O-ring on
bearing housing.
28. Place new V-band clamp loosely on bearing
housing and loosely install new V-band nut on
new V-band clamp.

Figure 222 LP Compressor V-band Clamp


1. LP turbocharger V-band clamp
166 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

30. Slowly tighten V-band clamp nut to 111 lb-in (12.5 33. Lubricate O-ring with P-80® lubricant or
N•m) to seat V-band clamp. equivalent.
31. Repeat steps 25 to 30 for HP compressor cover. 34. Install new turbocharger crossover tube O-ring on
HP turbocharger assembly.

Figure 223 Wastegate Actuator


Figure 224 Crossover Tube
1. Wastegate actuator assembly
2. Bolt (3) 1. Crossover tube
3. Crossover tube O-ring 2. Crossover tube seal
4. HP turbocharger assembly

35. Install new turbocharger crossover tube seal to


32. Install turbocharger wastegate actuator and rod turbocharger crossover tube.
assembly on HP turbocharger assembly with
three bolts. Tighten bolts to 115 lb-in (13 N•m).
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 167

Figure 225 Crossover Tube Mounting Figure 226 Wastegate Actuator Rod Assembly
Clip
1. Bolt (3)
2. Turbocharger assembly 1. Wastegate actuator rod assembly clip

36. Install turbocharger crossover tube on 37. Adjust wastegate actuator assembly. Refer to
turbocharger assembly with three bolts. Tighten (TC1WC Wastegate Actuator Set Procedure,
bolts to 115 lb-in (13 N•m). page 169).
38. Install wastegate actuator rod assembly clip.

Check Free Rotation and Housing Rub


1. Place turbocharger assembly on a bench with the
shaft in a horizontal position.
168 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Check Axial End Play

Figure 227 Free Rotation of Turbocharger


Assembly Shaft
Figure 228 Axial End Play
2. Turn turbine shaft by hand and check for wheel
rub in each housing.
1. Install dial indicator with magnetic base (page
The wheels must rotate freely. If there is any 184). Push turbine shaft away from dial indicator.
rubbing or interference, replace turbocharger Put tip of dial indicator on turbine shaft end and
assembly. zero the indicator.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 169

2. Manually move turbine shaft toward and then


away from dial indicator. If turbine shaft axial end
play exceeds specifications (page 184), replace
turbocharger assembly.

TC1WC Wastegate Actuator Set Procedure


NOTE: If the entire high-pressure turbocharger
assembly is replaced, the TC1WC actuator does
not need any adjustment, since it was set at the
factory.

Figure 230 Wastegate Actuator Rod and Nuts


1. Wastegate actuator rod
2. Inner nut
3. Pivot block
4. Lever arm
5. Outer nut

2. Loosely install outer rod nut.


3. Fully seat TC1WC wastegate actuator on valve
seat of wastegate port and hold closed.
Figure 229 TC1WC Actuator
4. Run inner nut up to linkage pivot block until it sits
1. Wastegate actuator nipple firmly against block, then run outer nut to other
2. TC1WC actuator side of pivot block.

1. Connect shop air pressure input line with air


pressure regulator to the TC1WC actuator nipple.
170 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

7. Release pressure from TC1WC actuator.

Figure 231 Magnetic Dial Indicator


1. Actuator rod end Figure 232 Wastegate Actuator Clip
2. Dial indicator tip
1. Wastegate actuator clip
2. Nut (2)
5. Use a dial indicator with magnetic base (page
184) to measure travel of actuator rod. Place
indicator tip against end of actuator rod parallel 8. Install actuator clip over lever arm assembly.
to the axis of the actuator rod. 9. Disconnect pressure input line to actuator nipple.

Set Point Pressure Extension


kPa (psig) mm (inches) Exhaust Manifolds

Set point 96.5 ± 3 0 Exhaust manifolds are one piece castings and may be
cleaned with steam or suitable non-caustic solvents.
(14.0 ± 0.5) (0)
A 110.3 ± 3 2.02 ± 2.01
Manifold Warp Test for Exhaust Manifolds
(16.0 ± 0.5) (0.0795 ± .079)
1. Use a straightedge and feeler gauge to check
B 144.8 ± 3 5.97 ± 2.59
seating surface flatness for right and left exhaust
(21.0 ± 0.5) (.235 ± .102) manifolds.
C 193.1 ± 3 10.71 ± 1.87 2. Check for flatness – across left and right and
diagonally. See specifications (page 184).
(28.0 ± 0.5) (.4215 ± .074)
3. If specifications are not met, do not resurface
6. Check TC1WC actuator set point: exhaust manifold, replace exhaust manifold.
• If set point is above limit, tighten top nut and
loosen bottom nut, and recheck hysteresis.
• Follow above steps until set point meets
specification.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 171

Installation 2. Join low-pressure turbocharger and


high-pressure turbocharger.
Dual Turbochargers
3. Install four M10 nuts to secure low-pressure
turbocharger to high-pressure turbocharger.
Tighten M10 nuts to standard torque (page 473).

Figure 233 Exhaust Sealing Ring

1. Install new exhaust sealing ring. Figure 235 Turbocharger Drain Tube
1. Low-pressure turbocharger
2. High-pressure turbocharger
3. Low-pressure turbocharger drain tube

4. Lubricate new low-pressure turbocharger drain


tube with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent
(page 184) and install drain tube.

Figure 234 Low-Pressure Turbocharger


Assembly
1. Low-pressure turbocharger assembly
2. M10 nut (4)
172 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 236 Low-Pressure Turbocharger Seal,


Crossover Tube, and O-ring Seal
Figure 237 Crossover Tube
1. Low-pressure turbocharger
1. Crossover tube
2. Low-pressure turbocharger seal
2. High-pressure turbocharger assembly
3. Crossover tube
3. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
4. O-ring seal
5. High-pressure turbocharger
7. Install crossover tube.
8. Install three M6 x 20 bolts to secure crossover
5. Lubricate new low-pressure turbocharger seal
tube flange to high-pressure turbocharger.
with P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent (page
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
184). Install low-pressure turbocharger seal into
high-pressure turbocharger.
6. Lubricate new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 184). Install O-ring
seal into low-pressure turbocharger.

Figure 238 Wastegate Actuator Bolts


1. M8 x 16 bolt (3)
2. TC1WC actuator

9. Remove outer nut, thread down inner nut, slide


actuator rod into pivot block, and position TC1WC
actuator against mounting flange.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 173

10. Install three M8 x 16 bolts to secure TC1WC


actuator. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page
473).
NOTE: See TC1WC Actuator Set Procedure (page
169).

Figure 240 Turbocharger


1. M10 x 55 bolt (2)
2. Low-pressure turbocharger assembly
Figure 239 Dual Turbocharger and Turbocharger 3. M10 nut (2)
Oil Drain Gasket 4. High-pressure turbocharger assembly

1. Dual turbocharger
2. Turbocharger oil drain gasket 12. Install two M10 x 55 bolts. Tighten bolts to
standard torque (page 473).
11. Install new turbocharger oil drain gasket and dual 13. Install two M10 nuts. Tighten nuts to standard
turbocharger onto engine. torque (page 473).
174 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

TC1WC Solenoid, Wastegate Hose Assembly,


Relief Tube Assembly, and Air Duct Assembly

Figure 242 Turbocharger Inlet Clamp


1. Tab on inlet flange of low-pressure turbocharger
2. Tab on duct cuff
Figure 241 TC1WC solenoid 3. Duct cuff
1. Hose clamp 4. Turbocharger inlet clamp
2. TC1WC actuator
3. Wastegate hose
4. Crimp clamp 4. Align duct cuff with tab on inlet flange of
5. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (2) low-pressure turbocharger and install air duct
6. TC1WC solenoid assembly.
5. Rotate clamp to engage narrow slot in clamp with
tab on duct cuff and tighten turbocharger inlet
1. Install TC1WC solenoid. clamp to special torque (page 184).
2. Install two M5 x 12 socket head bolts. Tighten
bolts to standard torque (page 473).
3. Connect wastegate hose to TC1WC actuator with
hose clamp.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 175

Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube

Figure 243 Relief Tube Assembly


1. Relief tube assembly Figure 244 Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube and
2. TC1WC solenoid O-ring Seals
3. Boost tube assembly 1. Turbocharger oil supply tube
4. Air duct assembly 2. O-ring seal (3)

6. Install relief tube assembly to air duct assembly 1. Lubricate three new O-ring seals with P-80®
and TC1WC solenoid. Rubber Lubricant or equivalent (page 184) and
install O-rings seals.
2. Remove plugs from three oil supply tube ports.
176 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

GRAPHIC-121-4CE70D31
Figure 245 Turbocharger Oil Supply Tube
1. M6 x 14 bolt (3)
2. Turbocharger oil supply tube
assembly

3. Lubricate oil supply tube port of each turbocharger 4. Install turbocharger oil supply tube assembly.
assembly with clean engine oil and spin
5. Install three M6 x 14 bolts securing turbocharger
compressor wheel several times to coat bearings
oil supply tube. Tighten bolts to standard torque
with oil. Refill supply tube port of each
(page 473).
turbocharger assembly up to oil supply tube
assembly mounting surface.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 177

Dual Turbocharger Heat Shields

Figure 246 Dual Turbocharger Heat Shields


1. M6 x 10 bolt (6) 2. Low-pressure turbocharger heat 3. High-pressure turbocharger heat
shield shield

1. Position high-pressure turbocharger heat shield. Pump Cover Heat Shields


2. Install three M6 x 10 bolts to secure high-pressure
turbocharger heat shield. Tighten bolts to
standard torque (page 473).
3. Position low-pressure turbocharger heat shield.
4. Install three M6 x 10 bolts to secure low-pressure
turbocharger heat shield. Tighten bolts to
standard torque (page 473).

Figure 247 Pump Cover Heat Shields


1. M6 x 14 bolt (3)
2. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
3. Right pump cover heat shield
4. M8 x 12 bolt
5. Left pump cover heat shield
178 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

1. Position left pump cover heat shield over pump 3. Install M8 x 12 bolt and M6 x 14 bolt to secure
and install two M6 x 14 bolts. Tighten bolts to overlapping heat shields. Tighten bolts to
standard torque (page 473). standard torque (page 473).
2. Position right pump cover heat shield over pump
and install two M6 x 25 bolts and one M6 x 14 bolt.
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 179

Exhaust Manifolds
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, hand
torque all nuts and bolts of the exhaust manifolds.
The exhaust manifold hardware has a special
high-temperature coating, which will be damaged by
air tools.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not reuse
exhaust manifold bolts or stud bolts.
NOTE: Do not apply anti-seize compound to
threads.
Right Exhaust Manifold

Figure 249 Right Exhaust Manifold


1. Right exhaust manifold
2. M8 x 50 bolt (4) and spacer (4)
3. M8 x 40 stud bolt (4)

2. Install four exhaust bolt spacers, four new M8 x 50


exhaust manifold bolts, and four M8 x 40 exhaust
manifold stud bolts.
3. Hand tighten bolts and stud bolts.

Figure 248 Exhaust Manifold Gaskets (Right


Ride)
1. Dual port gasket
2. Single port gasket (2)

1. Position new single port gaskets, new dual port


gasket, and right exhaust manifold on engine.
180 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Figure 250 Torque Sequence for Right Exhaust


Manifold Bolts and Stud Bolts Figure 252 Right Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield
1. Heat shield
4. Tighten bolts and stud bolts as follows: 2. M8 x 12 bolt (3)
3. M8 nut
• If cylinder head is new, tighten bolts and stud
bolts to 30 N·m (22 lb·ft) following torque
sequence. Retighten bolts and stud bolts to 6. Install right exhaust manifold heat shield.
30 N·m (22 lb·ft) using same sequence.
7. Install three new M8 x 12 heat shield bolts and a
• If cylinder head is used, tighten bolts and new M8 heat shield nut. Tighten bolts and nut to
stud bolts to 25 N·m (18 lb·ft) following torque special torque (page 184).
sequence. Retighten bolts and stud bolts to
25 N·m (18 lb·ft) using same sequence.
Left Exhaust Manifold

Figure 253 Exhaust Manifold Gaskets (Left Side)


Figure 251 Right Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield
Spacers 1. Dual port gasket
2. Single port gasket (2)

5. Install three right exhaust manifold heat shield


threaded spacers. Tighten spacers to special 1. Position new single port gaskets, new dual port
torque (page 184). gasket, and right exhaust manifold on engine.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 181

• If cylinder head is used, tighten bolts and


stud bolts to 25 N·m (18 lb·ft) following torque
sequence. Retighten bolts and stud bolts to 25
N·m (18 lb·ft) using same sequence.

Figure 254 Left Exhaust Manifold


1. Left exhaust manifold
2. M8 x 40 stud bolt (4)
3. M8 x 50 bolt (4) and spacer (4)
Figure 256 Left Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield
Spacers
2. Install four exhaust bolt spacers, four new M8 x 50
exhaust manifold bolts, and four M8 x 40 exhaust
manifold stud bolts. 5. Install three left exhaust manifold heat shield
3. Hand tighten bolts and stud bolts. threaded spacers. Tighten spacers to special
torque (page 184).

Figure 255 Torque Sequence for Left Exhaust


Manifold Bolts and Stud Bolts
Figure 257 Left Exhaust Manifold Heat Shield
1. M8 nut
4. Tighten bolts and stud bolts as follows:
2. Heat shield
• If cylinder head is new, tighten bolts and stud bolts 3. M8 x 12 bolt (3)
to 30 N·m (22 lb·ft) following torque sequence.
Retighten bolts and stud bolts to 30 N·m (22 lb·ft)
using same sequence. 6. Install left exhaust manifold heat shield.
182 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

7. Install three new M8 x 12 heat shield bolts and a


new M8 heat shield nut. Tighten bolts and nut to
special torque (page 184).

Exhaust Tubes

Figure 258 Turbocharger Exhaust Inlet Manifold and Right and Left Exhaust Tube Assemblies
1. Turbocharger inlet gasket 4. V-band clamp (2) 7. Left exhaust tube assembly
2. Turbo exhaust inlet manifold 5. Exhaust gasket (2)
3. V-band gasket (2) 6. Right exhaust tube assembly

1. Install two new V-band gaskets and two new 3. Loosely secure V-band clamps.
V-band clamps.
2. Join right and left exhaust tubes to turbocharger
exhaust inlet manifold.
DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING 183

Figure 259 Exhaust Tubes


1. M10 nut (3) 3. Right exhaust tube assembly 5. Left exhaust tube assembly
2. Turbo exhaust inlet manifold 4. M8 x 27 bolt (6)

4. Position turbocharger inlet gasket between turbo 8. Tighten three M10 nuts (on turbocharger studs) to
exhaust inlet manifold and turbocharger and standard torque (page 473).
loosely install three M10 nuts on turbocharger
9. Tighten three M8 x 27 bolts (installed for right
studs.
exhaust tube assembly) to standard torque (page
5. Position exhaust gasket between right exhaust 473).
tube assembly and right exhaust manifold and
10. Tighten three M8 x 27 bolts (installed for left
loosely install three M8 x 27 bolts.
exhaust tube assembly) to standard torque (page
6. Position exhaust gasket between left exhaust tube 473).
assembly and left exhaust manifold and loosely
install three M8 x 27 bolts.
7. Pretighten V-band clamps to 14 N·m (124 lb·in),
loosen clamp nuts two full turns (720°), and
tighten clamp nuts to 12 N·m (106 lb·in).
184 DUAL TURBOCHARGER, EXHAUST MANIFOLDS, AND PIPING

Specifications

Dual Turbocharger
Turbine shaft axial end play 0.05 - 0.10 mm (0.002 - 0.004 in)
Turbocharger wastegate actuator bolts 13 N·m (115 lb-in)
Turbocharger crossover tube bolts 13 N·m (115 lb-in)

Exhaust Manifold
Maximum allowable warpage 0.08 mm (0.003 in)

Special Torque

Turbocharger Clamps
Turbo air inlet duct clamp 5 N·m (48 lb·in)
Turbocharger assembly exhaust outlet V-clamps See tightening steps in procedure.
Turbocharger V-band clamps 12.5 N·m (111 lb-in)

Exhaust Manifolds
Exhaust manifold bolts, M8 x 50 See tightening steps in procedure.
Exhaust manifold stud bolts, M8 x 40 See tightening steps in procedure.
Exhaust manifold heat shield threaded spacers 30 N·m (21 lb·ft)
Heat shield bolts, M8 x 12 30 N·m (21 lb·ft)
Heat shield nut, M8 30 N·m (21 lb·ft)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Cap kit (All) Obtain locally
Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
Turbo Supply Blockoff Plugs (silicone) ZTSE6012
Turbo Oil Supply Blockoff (Steel) ZTSE6013
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 185

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Air Compressor Coolant Supply and Return Hoses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Air Compressor Oil Supply Tube, Oil Supply and Return Hose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Air Compressor Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Belt Tensioner, Flat Idler Pulleys, and Secondary Freon Compressor Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Lifting Eye and Optional Belt Tensioner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .194
Air Compressor Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Power Steering Suction and Pressure Tube Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Power Steering Pump............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196

Cleaning and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197


All Components.................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Power Steering Pump Idler Gear Backlash Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Power Steering Pump............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Power Steering Suction and Pressure Tube Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Air Compressor Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Lifting Eye and Optional Belt Tensioner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .200
Belt Tensioner, Flat Idler Pulleys, and Secondary Freon Compressor Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Air Compressor Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Air Compressor Oil Return Hose, Oil Supply Hose, Oil Supply Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Air Compressor Coolant Supply and Return Hoses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .205

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205


186 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 187

Exploded Views
188 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Figure 260 Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump


1. Lifting eye (for engines w/o air 9. Secondary freon compressor 19. Tube clamp plate
compressor) bracket – see NOTE 20. M6 nut
2. M10 x 25 bolt (3) (for engines 10. M10 x 30 bolt (3) 21. Suction power steering tube
w/o air compressor) 11. Crank PTO for air compressor 22. Tube support
3. Air compressor assembly and air pulley 23. M8 x 20 bolt
compressor bracket assembly 12. Tube support strap 24. Tube clamp pad
4. M10 x 120 bolt (3) 13. Projection weld stud 25. CTB 1 in diameter clamp (2)
5. Belt auto tensioner (w/o air 14. Tube pressure power steering 26. Power steering suction hose
compressor) 15. M6 x 25 bolt 27. Power steering suction tube
6. M10 x 80 bolt 16. Tube clamp saddle assembly
7. M8 x 90 bolt (2) 17. M8 x 30 stud bolt (3) 28. Power steering pump assembly
8. M12 x 110 bolt 18. Tube clamp pad 29. M10 x 30 bolt (2)

NOTE: If engine has 2-bolt bracket, upgrade


to 3-bolt bracket. Refer to AFC 13915 for
instructions.
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 189

Figure 261 Air Compressor


1. Hose clamp (6) 10. M18 connector assembly 19. Air compressor bracket
2. 90° M18 adj str thd elbow (2) 11. Belt grooved 6 pk tensioner 20. Air compressor gasket
3. (O-ring) seal (4) 12. M10 x 80 bolt 21. Air compressor oil supply hose
4. Air compressor assembly 13. Flat idler pulley assembly (2) 22. Flare to M10 90 degree elbow
5. M10 x 45 12 point screw 14. M10 x 30 shoulder bolt (2) 23. Air compressor oil supply tube
6. Elbow 15. Air compressor oil return hose assembly
7. M10 x 30 12 point screw (3) 16. 1/2 in hose to M18 connector 24. Oil outlet fitting
8. Air compressor pulley assembly 25. O-ring seal
9. Air compressor coolant supply 17. O-ring seal 26. Air compressor coolant return
hose 18. Herbie™ size R clip (4) hose
190 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Removal NOTE: See removal of oil fill support bracket and


oil fill hose assembly (page 319).
Air Compressor Coolant Supply and Return
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine Hoses
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
applicable regulations.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures. Figure 262 Air Compressor Coolant Supply and
Return Hoses
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
1. Hose clamp (4)
death, make sure that the engine has cooled
2. M18 elbow assembly (2)
before removing components.
3. Air compressor coolant supply hose
4. Herbie™ size R clip (2)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 5. M18 connector assembly (2)
death, remove the ground cable from the negative 6. Air compressor coolant return hose
terminal of the main battery before disconnecting
or connecting electrical components. Always
connect the ground cable last. 1. Remove two Herbie™ size R clips.
2. Loosen hose clamps and remove coolant return
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or and supply hoses from front crankcase cover
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin. and air compressor connections. If necessary,
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash remove convoluted tube conduits.
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids. 3. If necessary, remove two M18 elbow assemblies
from air compressor and discard O-rings.
NOTE: See the following sections for removal of
components prior to this section: 4. If necessary, remove two M18 connector
assemblies from front cover and discard O-rings.
• Engine Electrical
• Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
• Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and
Piping
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 191

Air Compressor Oil Supply Tube, Oil Supply and


Return Hose

Figure 264 Air Compressor Oil Supply Hose

Figure 263 Air Compressor Oil Supply Tube 1. Air compressor oil supply hose
Assembly and Oil Supply Hose 2. 45° flare to M10 90° elbow

1. Oil outlet fitting assembly


2. M8 x 70 bolt 5. Loosen oil supply hose fitting and disconnect oil
3. Air compressor oil supply tube assembly supply hose from 90° elbow.
4. Air compressor oil supply hose assembly
5. Oil supply tube support 6. If necessary, remove 90° elbow.

1. Loosen air compressor oil supply hose fitting


and disconnect oil supply hose from the air
compressor oil supply tube assembly.
2. Remove M8 x 70 bolt that secures the oil supply
tube support to the oil cooler cover.
3. Loosen air compressor oil supply hose fitting and
disconnect oil supply tube assembly from oil outlet
fitting assembly.
4. If necessary, remove oil outlet fitting assembly
and O-ring seal. Discard O-ring seal.
192 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Air Compressor Assembly

Figure 265 Air Compressor Oil Return Hose


1. Hose clamp (2)
Figure 266 Air Compressor, Air Compressor
2. Air compressor oil return hose
Pulley, and Front Mounting Screws
3. Herbie™ size R clip (2)
1. Air compressor pulley
2. Shaft nut
7. Remove two Herbie™ size R clips. 3. M10 x 30 12 point screw (2)
8. Loosen two hose clamps and pull the air
compressor oil return hose off the press-in
1. Remove two M10 x 30 12 point screws.
connector in the air compressor bracket and off
the connector in the oil pan.
9. If necessary, remove convoluted tube conduit.
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 193

Belt Tensioner, Flat Idler Pulleys, and Secondary


Freon Compressor Bracket

Figure 267 Air Compressor Rear Mounting


Screws
1. M10 x 45 12 point screw
Figure 268 Belt Tensioner Assembly, Flat Idler
2. M10 x 30 12 point screw
Pulleys, and (Secondary Freon Compressor
3. Air compressor gasket
Bracket)
1. Air compressor bracket
2. Remove M10 x 45 and M10 x 30 12 point screws. 2. 6 pk grooved belt tensioner
3. M10 x 80 bolt
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 4. Flat idler pulley assembly (2)
death, get help when removing or installing the 5. M10 x 30 shoulder bolt
air compressor. 6. M8 x 90 bolt (2)
7. M12 x 110 bolt
3. Remove air compressor assembly. 8. 3-bolt secondary freon compressor bracket – see
4. Remove and discard air compressor gasket. NOTE

NOTE: If engine has 2-bolt bracket, upgrade


to 3-bolt bracket. Refer to AFC 13915 for
instructions.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not twist
the belt tensioner; damage to the locating pin may
occur, resulting in improper alignment of the belt
tensioner.
1. Remove M10 x 80 bolt from belt tensioner and
remove belt tensioner.
2. Remove M10 x 30 shoulder bolt from each flat
idler pulley assembly and remove two flat idler
pulley assemblies.
3. Remove two M8 x 90 bolts and one M12 x 110
bolt securing the secondary freon compressor
bracket.
4. Remove secondary freon compressor bracket.
194 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Lifting Eye and Optional Belt Tensioner 3. Remove M10 x 80 bolt that secures the belt
tensioner.
4. Remove belt tensioner.

Air Compressor Bracket

Figure 269 Lifting Eye and Optional Belt


Tensioner
1. M10 x 25 bolt (3)
2. Lifting eye
3. M10 X 80 bolt Figure 270 Air Compressor Bracket
4. Secondary freon compressor bracket (optional)
5. Belt tensioner (optional) 1. Air compressor bracket
2. M10 x 120 bolt (3)

1. Remove three M10 x 25 bolts that secure the


lifting eye. 1. Remove three M10 x 120 bolts and air
compressor bracket.
2. Remove lifting eye.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not twist
the belt tensioner; damage to the locating pin may
occur, resulting in improper alignment of the belt
tensioner.
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 195

Power Steering Suction and Pressure Tube


Assemblies

Figure 272 Power Steering Suction Tube


Assembly, Power Steering Pressure Tube
Assembly, and Tube Clamp Saddle

Figure 271 Power Steering Suction Tube 1. Power steering pressure tube assembly
Assembly, Power Steering Pressure Tube 2. M8 x 30 stud bolt (2)
Assembly, and Tube Support 3. Tube clamp plate
4. Tube clamp saddle
1. Power steering suction tube assembly 5. Power steering suction tube assembly
2. M8 x 20 bolt
3. Tube support
4. Power steering pressure tube assembly NOTE: Support power steering tubes before
removing M8 x 30 stud bolts.

1. Remove M8 x 20 bolt from tube support. 4. Remove two M8 x 30 stud bolts from tube clamp
saddle.
2. Loosen flared tube nut on power steering suction
tube assembly. 5. Disconnect and remove steering suction tube
assembly and power steering pressure tube
3. Loosen flared tube nut on pressure power assembly.
steering tube assembly.
6. Cover power steering ports, ends of power
steering suction tube assembly, and power
steering pressure tube assembly with caps in
Cap Protector Kit (page 205). If plastic caps are
not available, cover openings with tape.
196 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Power Steering Pump 2. Remove power steering pump from crankcase


rear cover.

Figure 273 Power Steering Pump


1. M10 x 30 bolt (2)
2. Power steering pump assembly
Figure 274 O-ring on Power Steering Pump

1. Remove two M10 x 30 bolts from power steering


3. Remove and discard O-ring.
pump.
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 197

Cleaning and Testing Power Steering Pump Idler Gear Backlash


Measurement
All Components
1. Clean foreign material from gasket surfaces of air
compressor and air compressor bracket. Use a
scraper to remove gasket from gasket surfaces.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
2. Wash air compressor bracket. Dry with filtered
compressed air.
3. Wash power steering pump gear with a stiff brush
and suitable solvent. Dry with filtered compressed
air.

Figure 275 Power Steering Idler Gear Backlash

1. Attach dial indicator with magnetic base to


crankcase rear cover.
2. Place indicator tip against power steering idler
gear assembly.
3. Rotate gear by hand in one direction and zero the
dial indicator.
4. Rock power steering idler gear assembly back
and forth and verify that backlash reading is within
specification (page 205).
198 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Installation 2. Install power steering pump on crankcase rear


cover and secure with two M10 x 30 bolts.
Power Steering Pump
3. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).

Power Steering Suction and Pressure Tube


Assemblies

Figure 276 Power Steering Pump O-ring

Figure 278 Power Steering Suction Tube


1. Lubricate a new O-ring with P-80® Rubber
Assembly, Power Steering Pressure Tube
Lubricant or equivalent (page 205) and install
Assembly, and Tube Clamp Saddle
O-ring onto power steering pump assembly.
1. Pressure power steering pressure tube assembly
2. M8 x 30 stud bolt (2)
3. Tube clamp plate
4. Tube clamp saddle
5. Power steering suction tube assembly

1. Hold power steering tube assemblies in place with


a clamp and install two M8 x 30 studs and tighten
to standard torque (page 473).

Figure 277 Power Steering Pump Assembly and


Bolts
1. M10 x 30 bolt (2)
2. Power steering pump assembly
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 199

4. Connect power steering pressure tube to the


power steering pump and tighten flared tube nut
to special torque (page 205).

Air Compressor Bracket

Figure 279 Power Steering Suction Tube


Assembly, Power Steering Pressure Tube
Assembly, and Tube Support
1. Power steering suction tube assembly
2. M8 x 20 bolt
3. Tube support
4. Pressure power steering pressure tube assembly Figure 280 Air Compressor Bracket
1. Air compressor bracket
2. M10 x 120 bolt (3)
2. Install M8 x 20 bolt through the tube support and
tighten to standard torque (page 473).
3. Connect power steering suction tube assembly to 1. Position air compressor bracket, install three M10
the power steering pump and tighten flared tube x 120 bolts, and tighten bolts to standard torque
nut to special torque (page 205). (page 473).
200 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Lifting Eye and Optional Belt Tensioner Belt Tensioner, Flat Idler Pulleys, and Secondary
Freon Compressor Bracket

Figure 281 Lifting Eye and Optional Belt


Tensioner Figure 282 Belt Tensioner Assembly, Flat Idler
Pulleys, and (Secondary Freon Compressor
1. M10 x 25 bolt (3) Bracket)
2. Lifting eye
3. M10 X 80 bolt 1. Air compressor bracket
4. Secondary freon compressor bracket (optional) 2. 6 pk grooved belt tensioner
5. Belt tensioner (optional) 3. M10 x 80 bolt
4. Flat idler pulley assembly (2)
5. M10 x 30 shoulder bolt
1. Position lifting eye, install three M10 x 25 bolts, 6. M8 x 90 bolt (2)
and tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473). 7. M12 x 110 bolt
8. 3-bolt secondary freon compressor bracket
2. Position belt tensioner with locating dowel into
bracket hole, install M10 x 80 bolt, and tighten bolt
to standard torque (page 473). 1. Position secondary freon compressor bracket.
2. Install two M8 x 90 bolts and one M12 x 110 bolt
securing secondary freon compressor bracket.
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
3. Install two flat idler pulley assemblies and two M10
x 30 shoulder bolts. Tighten bolts to standard
torque (page 473).
4. Position grooved belt tensioner with locating
dowel into bracket and install M10 x 80 bolt.
Tighten bolt to standard torque (page 473).
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 201

Air Compressor Assembly

Figure 284 Air Compressor, Air Compressor


Figure 283 Air Compressor Rear Mounting Pulley, and Front Mounting Screws
Screws
1. Air compressor pulley
1. M10 x 45 12 point screw 2. Shaft nut
2. M10 x 30 12 point screw 3. M10 x 30 12 point screw (2)
3. Air compressor gasket

4. Install two M10 x 30 12 point screws finger tight.


1. Install a new air compressor gasket.
5. Tighten four 12 point screws to special torque
(page 205).
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, get help when removing or installing the
air compressor.
2. Position air compressor assembly onto air
compressor bracket.
3. Install M10 x 45 and M10 x 30 screws finger tight.
202 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

Air Compressor Oil Return Hose, Oil Supply 3. If removed, install convoluted tube conduit over
Hose, Oil Supply Tube air compressor oil return hose.
4. Install two Herbie™ size R clips.

Figure 285 Air Compressor Oil Return Hose Figure 286 Air Compressor Oil Supply Hose to
1. Hose clamp (2) Air Compressor
2. Air compressor oil return hose 1. Air compressor oil supply hose
3. Herbie™ size R clip 2. 45° flare to M10 90° elbow

1. Install hose clamps on the air compressor oil 5. If removed, install 45° flare to M10 90 degree
return hose. elbow and tighten to special torque (page 205).
2. Push air compressor oil return hose on the air 6. Connect air compressor oil supply hose to 45°
compressor bracket fitting and on the fitting in the flare to M10 90 degree elbow and tighten nut to
oil pan. Locate hose clamps to secure hose to special torque (page 205).
fittings.
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 203

Air Compressor Coolant Supply and Return


Hoses

Figure 287 Air Compressor Oil Supply Tube


Assembly and Oil Supply Hose
1. Oil outlet fitting assembly
2. M8 x 70 bolt
3. Air compressor oil supply tube assembly
4. Air compressor oil supply hose assembly Figure 288 Air Compressor Coolant Supply and
5. Oil supply tube support Return Hoses
1. Hose clamp (4)
2. M18 elbow assembly (2)
7. If the oil outlet fitting assembly was removed, 3. Air compressor coolant supply hose
lubricate a new O-ring seal with a light coat of 4. ™ size R clip (2)
clean engine oil, and install O-ring seal onto oil 5. M18 connector assembly (2)
outlet fitting. 6. Air compressor coolant return hose
8. Install oil outlet fitting assembly into oil cooler
cover and tighten fitting to special torque (page
205). 1. If the M18 elbow assembly was removed,
lubricate a new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber
9. Connect oil supply tube assembly to oil outlet Lubricant or equivalent (page 205), and install
fitting assembly. Tighten fitting to special torque O-ring seal onto M18 elbow.
(page 205).
2. Install M18 elbow assembly into air compressor
10. Install M8 x 70 bolt to secure the oil supply and elbow to special torque (page 205).
tube support to oil cooler cover. Tighten bolt to
standard torque (page 473). 3. If the M18 connector assembly was removed,
lubricate a new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber
11. Connect oil supply hose to air compressor oil Lubricant or equivalent (page 205), and install
supply tube assembly. Tighten fitting to special O-ring seal onto M18 connector.
torque (page 205).
204 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP

4. Install M18 connector assembly into front cover


and tighten to special torque (page 205).
5. Connect air compressor coolant return and supply
hoses. If necessary, install convoluted tube
conduits. Locate hose clamps to secure hose to
fittings.
6. Install two Herbie™ size R clips to secure coolant
return and supply hoses.
NOTE: See installation of oil fill support bracket
and oil fill hose assembly (page 357).

Figure 289 Air Compressor Coolant Supply and


Return Hoses
1. Hose clamp (4)
2. M18 elbow assembly (2)
3. Air compressor coolant supply hose
4. Herbie™ size R clip (2)
5. M18 connector assembly (2)
6. Air compressor coolant return hose
AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP 205

Specifications

Power Steering Pump


Backlash: Power steering idler gear assembly 0.066 - 0.290 mm (0.0026 - 0.0114 in)

Special Torque

Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump


Air compressor to air compressor bracket bolts, M10 x 30
72 N·m (53 lb·ft)
and M10 x 45
Connector assembly, M18 (for air compressor coolant return
25 N·m (18 lb·ft)
and supply hoses)
Elbow assembly, M18 (for air compressor coolant return and
25 N·m (18 lb·ft)
supply hoses)

Air compressor oil supply hose fitting nut 20 N·m (177 lb·in)

Air compressor pulley nut 120 N·m (88 lb·ft)


Oil outlet fitting assembly 25 N·m (18 lb·ft)
Power steering suction tube assembly flared tube nut 166 N·m (122 lb·ft)
Power steering pressure tube assembly flared tube nut 87 N·m (64 lb·ft)
45° flare to M10 90° elbow 19 N·m (14 lb·ft)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Cap Protector kit (All) Obtain locally
Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
206 AIR COMPRESSOR AND POWER STEERING PUMP
FUEL SYSTEM 207

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
High-pressure Fuel Tube Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Draining the Low-pressure Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to Pump Hose Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Injector Return Hose Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
High-pressure Fuel Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Fuel Injectors and Fuel Rail Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return Hose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler Pump Module Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and Fuel Housing Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve, Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel Temperature
(EFT) Sensor.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (Optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
Fuel Filter and Fuel Hose Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
Fuel Filter in Low-Pressure Line at High-Pressure Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234

Flushing the Low-pressure Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve, Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel Temperature
(EFT) Sensor.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .240
Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (Optional). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
Fuel Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and Fuel Housing Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler Pump Module Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return Hose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
High-Pressure Fuel Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Fuel Injectors and Fuel Rail Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Injector Return Hose Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .254
Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to Pump Hose Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Priming the High-pressure Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .260


208 FUEL SYSTEM

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261


FUEL SYSTEM 209

Exploded Views

Figure 290 Fuel Filter Module Removal


1. M12 nut (2) 6. M8 x 35 bolt 11. M6 x 28 bolt
2. Bonded seal washer (8) 7. M12 banjo bolt (2) 12. M6 x 16 bolt
3. Fuel filter module 8. Hose Clamp 13. Closed clamp
4. M6 nut (2) 9. M12 to 3/8 hose fitting assembly 14. Fuel coolant supply tube
5. M6 x 20 bolt 10. O-ring seal 15. O-ring seal
210 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 291 Fuel Filter Module


1. 0.25 inch hose clip (3) 13. Fuel cooler 24. Fuel housing cover gasket
2. 0.375 inch hose clip (2) 14. Filter to pump hose assembly 25. Fuel housing cover
3. Injector return hose assembly 15. M6 x 14 hex flange bolt 26. M5 x 18 screw (9)
4. Bonded seal washer (6) 16. Hose clamp 0.5 in 27. Primary fuel element O-ring
5. M12 nut (2) 17. Cushion dash clamp 11 28. Primary filter assembly
6. Pump to cooler hose assembly 18. M8 x 20 thread forming screw 29. Primary fuel cap O-ring
7. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (5) 30. Filter cap (primary)
8. Cushion dash clamp 8 19. Fuel cooler coolant gasket (2) 31. M12 banjo bolt (2)
9. Fuel check valve assembly 20. Fuel gasket 32. M6 x 25 bolt
10. Filter cap (secondary) 21. Fuel filter module housing
11. Fuel cap secondary O-ring 22. Fuel O-ring
12. Secondary fuel element 23. Fuel thermal bypass valve
assembly assembly
FUEL SYSTEM 211

Figure 292 Fuel Filter Module


1. Fuel filter module housing 12. Fuel O-ring 25. No. 10 rolled thread screw (3)
2. Pressure regulator valve 13. Fuel heater port cover 26. Fuel pump
assembly 14. Hose Clamp (2) 27. Pump cover and housing O-ring
3. O-ring seal 15. Coolant return hose 28. Pump body and housing O-ring
4. M16 straight thread plug 16. Heater assembly (optional) 29. Diagnostic valve
5. W/valve O-ring (2) 17. Hose support assembly 30. W/probe O-ring
6. Water drain stem 18. Hose clip (2) 31. Water in Fuel (WIF) Sensor
7. Water drain retainer 19. M12 to 3/8 hose fitting assembly 32. O-ring seal.
8. M5 x 18 screw (9) 20. O-ring seal 33. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT)
9. M6 screw (5) 21. Clamp Sensor
10. Coolant filter support module 22. M6 x 16 bolt (2)
11. Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) 23. O-ring seal
sensor (optional) 24. Fuel coolant supply tube
212 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 293 High-Pressure Fuel System


1. M12 nut (2) 7. M6 x 25 bolt (5) 13. Fuel pump gear
2. Bonded seal washer (4) 8. High-pressure fuel pump cover 14. M10 x 55 bolt (3)
3. Pump to cooler hose assembly 9. Lower high-pressure pump 15. High-pressure fuel pump
4. M6 x 20 bolt (2) cover gasket assembly
5. 1/4 tube clamp (2) 10. Pump cover gasket 16. Right high-pressure fuel tube
6. Left high-pressure fuel tube 11. Fuel pump gear bolt assembly
assembly 12. Fuel pump gear washer 17. Filter to pump hose assembly
FUEL SYSTEM 213

Figure 294 Fuel Injectors Per Cylinder Head (typical)


1. High-pressure fuel tube 4. Fuel rail to injector tube 7. Injector hold down clamp
assembly assembly (4) assembly (4)
2. Fuel rail assembly 5. Fuel injector body (4) 8. Combustion gasket (4)
3. M8 x 30 bolt (2) 6. Fuel injector seal (4)
214 FUEL SYSTEM

Removal • Engine Electrical


• Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
• Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine Piping
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard
to human health and the environment. • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
Handle all fluids and other contaminated • Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and High-pressure Fuel Tube Assemblies
other contaminated materials according to NOTE: See removal procedure for Balance Duct
applicable regulations. and Balance Tube Flange (page 315) before doing
the following procedures.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the "Safety death, whenever any fuel line (tubing) in the
Information" section of this manual. high-pressure fuel system is removed, it must be
replaced with new.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, disconnect the main battery negative
terminal before disconnecting or connecting
electrical components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash Figure 295 Right High-Pressure Fuel Tube
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing Assembly
and rags contaminated with engine fluids. 1. 1/4 tube clamp
2. Tube nut (2)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 3. M6 x 20 bolt
death, do not smoke and keep fuel away from 4. Right high-pressure fuel tube assembly
flames and sparks.
NOTE: See the following sections for removal of 1. Remove M6 x 20 bolt that secures clamp on right
components prior to this section: high-pressure fuel tube assembly.
FUEL SYSTEM 215

Figure 297 Left High-Pressure Fuel Tube


Assembly
Figure 296 Fuel Fitting Wrench (typical) 1. Tube nut (2)
2. M6 x 20 bolt
1. High-pressure Fuel Pump Wrench
3. Left high-pressure fuel tube assembly
2. Fitting on high-pressure fuel pump
4. 1/4 closed clamp

2. Completely loosen tube nuts on right


high-pressure fuel tube assembly. 6. Remove M6 x 20 bolt.

3. Install High-pressure Fuel Pump Wrench (page 7. Install High-pressure Fuel Pump Wrench (page
261) onto fitting on high-pressure fuel pump. 261) onto fitting on high-pressure fuel pump.

4. Remove and discard right high-pressure fuel tube 8. Completely loosen tube nuts on left high-pressure
assembly. fuel tube assembly.

5. Install Fuel System Caps (page 261). Cap 9. Remove and discard left high-pressure fuel tube
high-pressure fuel pump port and fuel rail port. assembly.
10. Install Fuel System Caps (page 261). Cap
high-pressure fuel pump port and fuel rail port.
216 FUEL SYSTEM

Draining the Low-pressure Fuel System 6. After fuel is drained, remove container and
recycle or dispose of fuel according to applicable
1. Clean the primary fuel filter cap, secondary
regulations.
fuel filter cap, and fuel filter module assembly
to prevent debris entering fuel system when 7. Remove hose and close water drain valve.
removing caps.
8. Turn the primary fuel filter cap clockwise to seat
the cap to the fuel filter module assembly, but do
not tighten to torque.

Figure 298 Water Drain Valve


Figure 299 Removal of Secondary Fuel Filter
1. Primary fuel filter cap Cap and Fuel Element Filter
2. Fuel filter module assembly
3. Secondary fuel filter cap 1. Secondary fuel filter cap
4. Water drain valve 2. Secondary fuel element filter
3. Fuel filter module assembly

2. Loosen the primary fuel filter cap


counterclockwise three and one-half turns to vent 9. Remove the secondary fuel filter cap and fuel
the fuel filter module assembly. element filter to allow fuel to drain to the tank.

3. Attach a hose to the end of the water drain valve. 10. Reinstall the secondary fuel filter cap and fuel
element filter to seat the cap to the fuel filter
4. Position a suitable container under the water drain module assembly, but do not tighten to torque.
valve and put end of hose into container.
5. Open water drain valve and drain fuel.
FUEL SYSTEM 217

Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to Pump Hose


Assemblies

Figure 301 Quick Connectors and Cap Nuts


1. Injector return hose assembly
2. Quick connector
Figure 300 Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to
3. Pump to cooler hose assembly
Pump Hose Assemblies
4. M12 cap nut (2)
1. Pump to cooler hose assembly 5. Filter to pump hose assembly
2. M6 x 14 bolt
3. Filter to pump hose assembly
4. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (2) 3. Loosen M12 cap nuts that secure the filter to
pump hose assembly and pump to cooler hose
assembly to the high-pressure fuel pump.
1. Remove M6 x 14 bolt and M5 x 12 socket head
bolt that secure filter to pump hose assembly.
2. Remove M5 x 12 socket head bolt that secures
pump to cooler hose assembly.
218 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 302 M12 Cap Nuts and Bonded Seal Figure 303 Pump to Cooler Hose Assembly
Washer 1. Fuel check valve
1. Pump to cooler hose assembly 2. Pump to cooler hose assembly
2. M12 cap nut (2) 3. Dash 8 Cushioned hose clamp
3. Bonded seal washer (4)
4. Filter to pump hose assembly
7. Remove fuel check valve.
8. Remove Dash 8 Cushioned hose clamp from
4. Remove M12 cap nut and two M12 bonded
pump to cooler hose assembly, if replacing hose.
seal washers that secure pump to cooler hose
assembly. Discard bonded seal washers. 9. Remove M12 cap nut and two M12 banjo washers
that secure filter to pump hose assembly. Discard
5. Using a Fuel Line Disconnect Tool, disconnect
banjo washers.
quick connector between injector return hose
assembly and pump to cooler hose assembly. 10. Use a Spring Lock Coupling Disconnect Tool
Also using tool, disconnect quick connector (page 261) to disconnect quick connector on
between pump to cooler hose assembly and fuel filter to pump hose assembly to fuel filter module
cooler. housing.
6. Remove pump to cooler hose assembly 11. Remove filter to pump hose assembly.
FUEL SYSTEM 219

Figure 304 Filter to Pump Hose Assembly


Figure 306 Hose Clips on Injector Return Hose
1. Filter to pump hose assembly Assembly
2. .5 in hose clamp
3. Dash 10 cushioned hose clamp 1. .375 in hose clip (2)
2. Injector return hose assembly

12. If required, remove dash 11 cushioned hose


clamp and .5 in hose clamp from filter to pump 1. Disconnect .375 in hose clips that secure injector
hose assembly, if replacing hose. return hose assembly to fuel filter module.

13. Install Fuel System Caps (page 261). Cap


high-pressure pump ports, hose assembles, fuel
filter module port, and fuel cooler port.

Injector Return Hose Assembly

Figure 307 Injector Return Hose Assembly,


Banjo Bolts, Bonded Seal Washers
1. Injector return hose assembly
2. M12 Banjo bolt (2)
3. Bonded seal washer (4)

Figure 305 Injector Hose Assembly 2. Remove two M12 banjo bolts and four bonded
seal washers.
1. M12 banjo bolt (2)
2. Injector return hose assembly 3. Remove injector return hose assembly.
220 FUEL SYSTEM

High-pressure Fuel Pump Assembly

Figure 308 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Cover Figure 309 Location of RTV Sealant

1. High-pressure fuel pump cover 1. Fuel pump cover


2. M8 x 12 bolt 2. Crankcase mating surface
3. M6 x 25 bolt (5)
4. Closed clamp
3. Using a thin, sharp blade scraper, cut RTV sealant
between two joining surfaces of crankcase and
fuel pump cover assembly.
1. Remove M8 x 12 bolt and closed clamp
that secure the high-pressure pump harness
assembly to the high-pressure fuel pump cover.
2. Remove five M6 x 25 bolts from the high-pressure
fuel pump cover.

Figure 310 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Cover and


Gaskets
1. High-pressure fuel pump cover
2. Pump cover gasket
3. Lower high-pressure pump gasket

4. Remove high-pressure fuel pump cover.


FUEL SYSTEM 221

5. Remove and discard the pump cover gasket and


lower high-pressure pump gasket.

Figure 312 High-Pressure Pump Harness


Assembly
Figure 311 Harness Retainer on High-Pressure
1. C-clip
Pump Harness Assembly
2. Connector (black)
1. Harness fir zip retainer 3. Yellow CPA
2. High-pressure pump harness assembly 4. Snapper clip
3. Tie strap 5. Pass-through overmold plug
6. High-pressure pump harness assembly
7. Connector (orange)
6. Cut and remove tie strap from harness fir zip
retainer in left valve cover.
7. Unlock yellow CPA on orange connector and
black connector; disconnect both connectors
from high-pressure pump.
8. Disconnect C-clip and snapper clip; separate the
high-pressure pump harness assembly from the
high-pressure pump.
9. Push in pass-through overmold plug and harness
assembly from the outside of crankcase and pull
harness assembly out.
222 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 313 O-ring on Pass-Through Overmold


Plug Figure 315 Engine Wiring Harness Guide
1. O-ring 1. M6 x 14 bolt (2)
2. Pass-through overmold plug 2. Engine wiring harness guide

10. Remove O-ring from pass-through overmold plug 12. Only if required, remove two M6 x 14 bolts and
and harness assembly. Discard O-ring. engine wiring harness guide.

Figure 316 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Gear


1. Index hole
Figure 314 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Assembly
2. Fuel pump gear bolt
1. M10 x 55 socket head bolt (3) 3. Fuel pump gear washer
2. High-pressure fuel pump assembly 4. Fuel pump gear
5. High-pressure fuel pump assembly with dowels

NOTE: Care must be taken to not drop the bolts


into the crankcase. NOTE: Do steps 12–15 only if replacing the
11. Remove three M10 x 55 bolts and high-pressure high-pressure pump gear.
fuel pump assembly.
FUEL SYSTEM 223

13. Insert a 1/4 inch steel punch into the index hole on 14. Remove fuel pump gear bolt and washer.
the high-pressure fuel pump assembly to prevent
15. Remove fuel pump gear.
the fuel pump gear from turning.
NOTE: The fuel pump gear bolt has left-hand
threads.
224 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Injectors and Fuel Rail Assemblies 4. Loosen four tube nuts on fuel rail. Remove and
discard four fuel rail to injector tube assemblies.
NOTE: See procedures to remove valve covers
in the “Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve 5. Cover outlet ports of fuel rail with Fuel System
Train” section (page 315) before removing fuel Caps (page 261).
injector and rail assemblies.
6. Cover fuel injector ports with Fuel System Caps
1. Remove Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor from (page 261).
right fuel rail. See page (page 87).
2. Remove Under Valve Cover (UVC) harnesses
(page 88).

Figure 318 Fuel Rail Assembly (typical)


1. Fuel rail
2. M8 x 30 bolt (2)
Figure 317 Fuel Rail to Injector Tube Assemblies
(typical)
7. Remove two M8 x 30 bolts.
1. Fuel rail to injector tube assembly (4)
2. Tube nut (8) 8. Remove fuel rail assembly.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, remove
injectors before removing cylinder head.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
death, whenever any fuel line (tubing) in the power tools to remove or install fuel injector clamp
high-pressure fuel system is removed, it must be bolts. Threads will be damaged if a bolt or nut is
replaced with new. rotated too quickly.
3. Use a wrench to hold fuel injector fittings and
loosen four tube nuts from fuel injectors.
FUEL SYSTEM 225

Figure 320 Fuel Injector Seal and Combustion


Figure 319 Fuel Injector Assembly (typical)
Gasket
1. Fuel injector assembly (4)
1. Fuel injector seal
2. Injector clamp bolt (4)
2. Plastic protective cap
3. Injector hold down clamp (4)
3. Combustion gasket

9. Loosen injector clamp bolt to extract fuel injector


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install new
assembly from cylinder head.
fuel injector seal and combustion gasket if a fuel
10. Remove fuel injector assembly from cylinder head injector is removed.
by lifting fuel injector assembly and injector hold
11. Using a small hand tool, remove and discard
down clamp assembly straight up and out.
combustion gasket. Wipe injector nozzle with a
lint free cloth.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, make sure
the combustion gasket does not remain in the injector
sleeve.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not clean
fuel injectors with solvents or brake cleaner.
12. Clean injector tip with Fuel Injector Tip Cleaning
Brush (page 261).
13. Remove and discard fuel injector seal.
14. Install plastic protective cap over injector tip.
15. Insert fuel injector assembly in Injector Cup (page
261), and place in Fuel Injector Rack Holder (page
261).
16. Repeat steps 9–15 for each fuel injector.
226 FUEL SYSTEM

Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return


Hose

Figure 321 Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return Hose
1. Oil level gauge assembly 4. Hose clamp (2) 7. Oil level tube gauge gasket
2. Oil level gauge tube with support 5. Coolant return hose
3. M6 x 16 bolt 6. Hose clip (2)

1. Remove oil fill support bracket and oil fill hose 4. Remove oil level tube gauge gasket.
assembly (page 319).
5. Open hose clips, loosen hose clamps on coolant
2. Remove oil level gauge assembly. return hose, and remove hose.
3. Remove M6 x 16 bolt from oil level gauge tube
and remove oil level gauge tube.
FUEL SYSTEM 227

Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly

Figure 322 Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly


1. M6 x 16 bolt (2) Figure 324 Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly
2. Fuel coolant supply tube assembly
1. Fuel filter cooler assembly
2. M8 x 35 bolt (2)
1. Remove two M6 x 16 bolts and fuel coolant supply 3. Filter cooler pump module support
tube assembly. 4. M6 nut (2)
5. Hose bracket assembly
6. M6 x 20 bolt

1. Remove M6 nut from filter cooler pump module


support.
2. Remove two M8 x 35 bolts that secure the fuel
filter cooler assembly.
3. Remove fuel filter cooler assembly with filter
cooler pump module support.
4. Remove M6 x 20 bolt, M6 nut, and hose bracket
assembly.

Figure 323 Fuel Coolant Supply Tube and O-ring


Seal
1. Fuel coolant supply tube
2. O-ring seal

2. Remove O-ring seal from fuel coolant supply tube


and discard O-ring seal.
228 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler


Pump Module Support

Figure 325 Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler Pump Module Support
1. Fuel filter module housing 4. Fuel cooler 6. Filter cooler pump module
2. Fuel cooler coolant gasket (2) 5. M8 x 20 thread forming screw support
3. Fuel gasket (5) 7. M6 screw (3)

1. Remove five M8 x 20 screws that secure the fuel 3. Remove three M6 screws that secure the filter
cooler. cooler pump module support and remove module
support.
2. Remove and discard the fuel gasket and two fuel
cooler coolant gaskets.
FUEL SYSTEM 229

Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and


Fuel Housing Cover

Figure 326 Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and Fuel Housing Cover
1. Filter cap (primary) 5. Fuel filter module housing 9. Fuel housing cover gasket
2. Filter cap (secondary) 6. Primary fuel element O-ring 10. Fuel housing cover
3. Fuel cap secondary O-ring 7. Fuel O-ring 11. M5 x 18 screw (9)
4. Secondary fuel element 8. Fuel thermal bypass valve 12. Primary filter assembly
assembly assembly 13. Primary fuel cap O-ring

1. Remove primary fuel filter cap. 5. Remove nine M5 x 18 screws and fuel housing
cover.
2. Remove and discard primary fuel cap O-ring,
primary filter assembly, and primary fuel element 6. Remove and discard fuel housing cover gasket.
O-ring.
7. Remove fuel thermal bypass valve assembly.
3. Remove secondary fuel filter cap.
8. Remove and discard fuel O-ring.
4. Remove and discard fuel cap secondary O-ring
and secondary fuel element assembly.
230 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Pump

Figure 327 Fuel Pump


1. Pump cover and housing O-ring 3. Fuel pump 5. Fuel filter module housing
2. Pump body and housing O-ring 4. No. 10 rolled thread screw (3)

1. Remove three No. 10 rolled thread screws and 3. Remove and discard pump body and housing
fuel pump. O-ring.
2. Remove and discard pump cover and housing
O-ring.
FUEL SYSTEM 231

Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve,


Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel
Temperature (EFT) Sensor

Figure 328 Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve, Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel
Temperature (EFT) Sensor
1. Probe O-ring 4. Pressure regulator valve 7. M6 screw (2)
2. Diagnostic valve assembly 8. Fuel heater port cover
3. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) 5. O-ring seal 9. Fuel O-ring
sensor with O-ring 6. M16 straight thread plug 10. Fuel filter module housing

1. Remove two M6 screws from fuel heater port 6. Remove M16 straight thread plug
cover.
7. Remove and discard O-ring seal.
2. Remove fuel heater port cover.
8. Remove pressure regulator valve assembly.
3. Remove and discard fuel O-ring.
9. Remove Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor
4. Remove diagnostic valve. and O-ring. Discard O-ring.
5. Remove and discard probe O-ring.
232 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure 1. Remove two M6 screws from fuel heater.
(FDP) Sensor (Optional)
2. Remove fuel heater.
3. Remove fuel O-ring from fuel heater and discard
fuel O-ring.
4. Remove FDP sensor.
5. Remove O-ring from FDP sensor and discard
O-ring.

Figure 329 Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel


Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (Optional)
1. Fuel O-ring
2. Heater assembly (optional)
3. O-ring
4. FDP sensor
5. M6 screw (2)
FUEL SYSTEM 233

Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve

Figure 330 Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve
1. Fuel filter module housing 4. Water drain retainer 7. O-ring seal
2. Valve O-ring (2) 5. M5 x 18 screw (2)
3. Water drain stem 6. WIF sensor

1. Remove WIF sensor. 3. Remove two M5 x 18 screws, water drain retainer,


and water drain stem.
2. Remove O-ring seal from WIF sensor assembly.
Discard O-ring seal. 4. Remove and discard two valve O-rings.
234 FUEL SYSTEM

Inspection 1. Remove hex nut from LP fuel line banjo fitting.


Fuel Filter and Fuel Hose Inspection
1. Inspect filter to pump hose assembly and pump
to cooler hose assembly for damage. Install new
pump hose assembly and pump to cooler hose
assembly, if necessary.
2. Inspect fuel coolant supply tube assembly for
damage. Install new fuel coolant supply tube
assembly, if necessary.

Fuel Filter in Low-Pressure Line at High-Pressure


Pump
The following procedure is used to determine if a fuel
filter installation is necessary in the Low-Pressure (LP)
fuel line at the High-Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP).

Figure 332 Bonded Washer Removal


1. M12 bonded seal washer

2. Remove bonded seal washer from LP fuel line.


Upon removal of bonded seal washer from LP fuel
line, inspect for presence of fuel filter. View A (located
below) shows presence of fuel filter in LP fuel line.
View B (located below) shows no fuel filter in LP fuel
line.

Figure 331 LP Fuel Line Removal


1. LP fuel line banjo fitting
2. M12 hex nut
FUEL SYSTEM 235

NOTE: If no fuel filter is present in the LP fuel line,


a new fuel filter should be installed.
CAUTION: If fuel filter is present, inspect filter
condition and determine if clogged. Replace as
necessary.

Figure 335 Fuel Filter

Figure 333 View A (Presence of Fuel Filter)


1. Fuel filter
2. LP fuel line

Figure 336 Fuel Filter Installation


1. Fuel filter inside banjo fitting
2. LP fuel line

Figure 334 View B (No Fuel Filter Present) 3. Install fuel filter into banjo fitting end of LP fuel line.
1. No fuel filter present in banjo fitting
2. LP fuel line
236 FUEL SYSTEM

5. Install M12 hex nut onto LP fuel line banjo fitting


and torque to 18-20 lb ft (25-27 N•m)

Flushing the Low-pressure Fuel


System
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, the
low pressure fuel system must be flushed before
priming or starting the engine, if the diagnostic valve,
Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) sensor or Engine Fuel
Temperature (EFT) sensor were removed. Failure
to correctly flush the low-pressure fuel system may
damage the high-pressure fuel injection system.

Figure 337 Bonded Washer Installation


1. M12 bonded seal washer

4. Place new M12 bonded seal washer on top of


banjo.

Figure 339 Clean Fuel Tank Kit


1. Fuel Filter Purge Line
2. 2.5 Gallon Clean Fuel Tank
3. Return Line

1. Use the Clean Fuel Tank Kit (page 261) for this
procedure.
2. Attach Return Line to the 2.5 Gallon Clean Fuel
Tank.

Figure 338 LP Fuel Line Installation


1. LP fuel line banjo fitting
2. M12 hex nut
FUEL SYSTEM 237

Figure 340 Quick Disconnect on Filter to Pump Figure 341 Fuel Filter Purge Line Connection
Hose Assembly to the Clean Outlet
1. Clean outlet 1. Fuel Filter Purge Line
2. 1/2 inch quick disconnect 2. Return-to-tank hose
3. Filter to pump hose assembly

4. Attach Fuel Filter Purge Line to the clean outlet on


the fuel filter module housing.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, store diesel fuel properly in an approved 5. Connect the other end of the Fuel Filter Purge Line
container designed for and clearly marked DIESEL the Return Line attached to the 2.5 Gallon Clean
FUEL. Fuel Tank.

3. Position a suitable container under the clean 6. Restore electrical power to the system.
outlet on the fuel filter module housing, disconnect 7. Remove the return-to-tank hose from fuel filter
the 1/2 inch quick disconnect, and remove the module housing.
filter to pump hose assembly. Cap the quick
disconnect on the filter to pump hose assembly. 8. Turn ignition key to ON for one Key-ON / Key-OFF
sequence to energize the low pressure fuel pump.
• Key - On for 15 seconds
• Key - Off for 20 seconds
Ensure that fuel is flowing into the 2.5 Gallon
Clean Fuel Tank and check for leaks.
238 FUEL SYSTEM

9. Turn ignition key to ON to repeat seven 12. Remove cap from quick disconnect on the filter to
Key-ON/Key-OFF sequences. pump hose assembly and reconnect the filter to
pump hose assembly to the clean outlet.
• Key - On for 15 seconds
13. Reconnect the return-to-tank hose to fuel filter
• Key - Off for 20 seconds
module housing.
Make sure fuel continues flowing into the 2.5
14. Purge air, that may have been introduced, into
Gallon Clean Fuel Tank and check for leaks.
the system. See Priming the Fuel System after
10. Turn ignition key to OFF to stop low pressure Running Out of Fuel (Section 4 – ENGINE
pump. OPERATION) in the Engine Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
11. Remove the Fuel Filter Purge Line from the clean
outlet. Use a suitable container to catch fuel from 15. Dispose of fuel, according to applicable
the clean outlet. regulations.
FUEL SYSTEM 239

Installation
Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve

Figure 342 Water In Fuel (WIF) Sensor and Water Drain Valve
1. Fuel filter module housing 4. Water drain retainer 7. O-ring seal
2. Valve O-ring (2) 5. M5 x 18 screw (2)
3. Water drain stem 6. WIF sensor

1. Lubricate two new valve O-rings with clean diesel 3. Lubricate new O-ring seal with clean diesel fuel
fuel. and install onto WIF sensor assembly.
2. Install lubricated O-rings, water drain retainer, 4. Install WIF sensor and tighten to special torque
water drain stem, and two M5 x 18 screws. (page 260).
Tighten screws to special torque (page 260).
240 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve,


Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel
Temperature (EFT) Sensor

Figure 343 Fuel Heater Port Cover, Diagnostic Valve, Pressure Regulator, and Engine Fuel
Temperature (EFT) Sensor
1. W/probe O-ring 4. Pressure regulator valve 7. M6 screw (2)
2. Diagnostic valve assembly 8. Fuel heater port cover
3. Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) 5. O-ring seal 9. Fuel O-ring
sensor with O-ring 6. M16 straight thread plug 10. Fuel filter module housing

1. Lubricate a new fuel O-ring with clean diesel fuel 6. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with clean diesel fuel
and install fuel O-ring onto fuel heater port cover. and install onto M16 straight thread plug.
2. Install two M6 screws to secure fuel heater port 7. Install M16 straight thread plug and tighten
cover and tighten screws to standard torque (page standard torque (page 473).
473).
8. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with clean diesel fuel
3. Lubricate a new w/probe O-ring with clean diesel and install onto EFT sensor.
fuel and install O-ring onto diagnostic valve.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, the low
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, the pressure fuel system must be flushed before priming
low pressure fuel system must be flushed before or starting the engine, after installation of the Engine
priming or starting the engine, after installation of the Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor.
diagnostic valve.
9. Install EFT sensor and tighten to special torque
4. Install diagnostic valve and tighten to special (page 260).
torque (page 260).
NOTE: See Flushing the Low-pressure Fuel
NOTE: See Flushing the Low-pressure Fuel System (page 237).
System (page 237).
5. Install pressure regulator valve assembly.
FUEL SYSTEM 241

Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel Delivery Pressure 1. Lubricate a new fuel O-ring with clean diesel fuel
(FDP) Sensor (Optional) and install onto fuel heater.
2. Install fuel heater into fuel filter module housing.
3. Install two M6 screws and tighten screws to
standard torque (page 473).
4. Lubricate a new O-ring with clean diesel fuel and
install onto FDP sensor.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the engine, the low
pressure fuel system must be flushed before priming
or starting the engine, after installation of the Fuel
Delivery Pressure (FDP) sensor.
5. Install FDP sensor and tighten to special torque
(page 260).
NOTE: See Flushing the Low-pressure Fuel
System (page 237).

Figure 344 Fuel Heater (Optional) and Fuel


Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor (Optional)
1. Fuel O-ring
2. Heater assembly (optional)
3. O-ring
4. FDP sensor
5. M6 screw (2)
242 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Pump

Figure 345 Fuel Pump


1. Pump cover and housing O-ring 3. Fuel pump 5. Fuel filter module housing
2. Pump body and housing O-ring 4. No. 10 rolled thread screw (3)

1. Lubricate new pump body and housing O-ring 3. Install fuel pump and three No. 10 rolled thread
with clean diesel fuel, and install O-ring onto fuel screws. Tighten screws to special torque (page
pump. 260).
2. Lubricate new pump cover and housing O-ring
with clean diesel fuel, and install O-ring fuel pump.
FUEL SYSTEM 243

Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and


Fuel Housing Cover

Figure 346 Primary Fuel Filter, Secondary Fuel Filter, and Fuel Housing Cover
1. Filter cap (primary) 5. Fuel filter module housing 9. Fuel housing cover gasket
2. Filter cap (secondary ) 6. Primary fuel element O-ring 10. Fuel housing cover
3. Fuel cap secondary O-ring 7. Fuel O-ring 11. M5 x 18 screw (9)
4. Secondary fuel element 8. Fuel thermal bypass valve 12. Primary filter assembly
assembly assembly 13. Primary fuel cap O-ring

1. Coat a new fuel O-ring with clean diesel fuel Primary Fuel Filter Assembly
and install onto the fuel thermal bypass valve
4. Coat a new O-ring for the primary fuel filter cap
assembly.
with clean diesel fuel and install onto the fuel filter
2. Install fuel thermal bypass valve assembly into cap.
fuel housing cover.
5. Attach fuel filter cap to a new filter assembly, by
3. Install new fuel housing cover gasket, fuel housing pushing the cap onto the filter assembly. The cap
cover, and nine M5 x 18 screws. Tighten fuel will snap onto filter assembly.
housing cover screws to special torque (page
6. Coat the threads of the fuel filter cap with clean
260).
diesel fuel.
244 FUEL SYSTEM

NOTE: Verify that the primary fuel element O-ring Secondary Fuel Filter Assembly
is installed on the bottom of the primary filter
10. Coat a new O-ring for the secondary fuel filter cap
assembly.
with clean diesel fuel and install onto the primary
• If the O-ring is loose or not installed, coat the fuel filter cap.
O-ring with clean diesel fuel and install the O-ring
11. Attach secondary fuel filter cap to a new fuel
in the bottom groove of the primary filter assembly.
element assembly, by pushing the cap onto the
• If the O-ring is installed, coat the O-ring with clean fuel element assembly. The cap will snap into the
diesel fuel. element assembly.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, slowly install 12. Coat the threads of the fuel filter cap with clean
the primary fuel filter cap and filter assembly into the diesel fuel.
fuel filter module housing to prevent distortion of the
13. Secure the fuel filter cap and fuel element
O-ring.
assembly into the fuel filter module housing by
7. Slowly install the primary fuel filter cap and filter turning the secondary fuel filter cap clockwise
assembly into the fuel filter module housing. until finger-tight.
8. Secure the fuel filter cap and filter assembly into 14. Tighten the secondary fuel filter cap to special
the fuel filter module housing by turning the fuel torque (page 260).
filter cap clockwise until finger-tight.
9. Tighten the primary fuel filter cap to special torque
(page 260).
FUEL SYSTEM 245

Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler


Pump Module Support

Figure 347 Fuel Filter Cooler Assembly and Filter Cooler Pump Module Support
1. Fuel filter module housing 4. Fuel cooler 6. Filter cooler pump module
2. Fuel cooler coolant gasket (2) 5. M8 x 20 thread forming screw support
3. Fuel gasket (5) 7. M6 screw (3)

1. Position filter cooler pump module support, install 3. Position fuel cooler, install five M8 x 20 screws,
three M6 screws, and tighten screws to standard and tighten screws to special torque (page 260).
torque (page 473).
2. Install a new fuel gasket and two new fuel cooler
coolant gaskets.
246 FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly

Figure 349 Fuel Coolant Supply Tube and O-ring


Seal
Figure 348 Fuel Filter and Cooler Assembly 1. Fuel coolant supply tube
1. Fuel filter module assembly 2. O-ring seal
2. M8 x 35 bolt (2)
3. Filter cooler pump module support
4. M6 nut (2) 1. Lubricate new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber
5. Hose bracket assembly Lubricant or equivalent (page 261), and install
6. M6 x 20 bolt O-ring seal onto fuel coolant supply tube.

1. Position fuel filter and cooler assembly with filter


cooler pump module support onto engine.
2. Install two M8 x 35 bolts to secure the fuel filter
cooler assembly and tighten bolts to standard
torque (page 473).
3. Install M6 nut to secure filter cooler pump module
support and tighten nut to standard torque (page
473).
4. Install hose bracket assembly, M6 x 20 bolt, and
M6 nut.
5. Tighten M6 x 20 bolt and M6 nut to standard
torque (page 473).
Figure 350 Fuel Coolant Supply Tube Assembly
1. M6 x 16 bolt (2)
2. Fuel coolant supply tube assembly

2. Position fuel coolant supply tube assembly, install


M6 x 16 bolts, and tighten bolts to standard torque
(page 473).
FUEL SYSTEM 247

Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return


Hose

Figure 351 Oil Level Tube Assembly and Coolant Return Hose
1. Oil level gauge assembly 4. Hose clamp (2) 7. Oil level tube gauge gasket
2. Oil level gauge tube with support 5. Coolant return hose
3. M6 x 16 bolt 6. Hose clip (2)

1. Install coolant return hose, close hose clips, and 5. Install oil fill support bracket and oil fill hose
tighten hose clamps to special torque (page 260). assembly (page 357).
2. Install new oil level tube gauge gasket.
3. Install M6 x 16 bolt to secure oil level gauge tube High-Pressure Fuel Pump Assembly
with support and tighten bolt to standard torque
NOTE: If the high-pressure fuel pump gear bolt
(page 473).
was not removed, skip steps 1–4.
4. Install oil level gauge assembly.
248 FUEL SYSTEM

3. Insert a 1/4 inch steel punch into the index hole on


the high-pressure fuel pump assembly to prevent
the fuel pump gear from turning.
4. Tighten gear bolt (counterclockwise) to special
torque (page 260).

Figure 352 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Gear


1. Index hole
2. Fuel pump gear bolt
3. Fuel pump gear washer
4. Fuel pump gear
5. High-pressure fuel pump assembly with dowels

Figure 353 Engine Wiring Harness Guide


NOTE: The fuel pump gear bolt has left-hand
1. M6 x 14 bolt (2)
threads.
2. Engine wiring harness guide
NOTE: After repairing a leak in high-pressure fuel
system, fuel pressure adaptation values must
be reset. See “Diagnostic Software Operation” NOTE: Care must be taken to not drop the bolts
®
section in 0000001681 MaxxForce 7 Engine into the crankcase.
Diagnostic Manual.
5. If previously removed, position engine wiring
1. Install fuel pump gear. harness guide, install two M6 x 14 bolts, and
tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
2. Install fuel pump gear bolt and washer.
FUEL SYSTEM 249

Figure 355 O-ring on Pass-Through Overmold


Plug
Figure 354 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Assembly 1. O-ring
1. M10 x 55 socket head bolt (3) 2. Pass-through overmold plug
2. High-pressure fuel pump assembly

8. Coat new O-ring with P-80® Rubber Lubricant


6. Lower high-pressure fuel pump assembly into or equivalent (page 261), and install onto
crankcase and secure with three M10 x 55 bolts. pass-through overmold plug.
7. Tighten M10 x 55 bolts to standard torque (page
473).
250 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 357 Harness Retainer on High-Pressure


Figure 356 High-Pressure Pump Harness Pump Harness Assembly
Assembly
1. Harness fir zip retainer
1. C-clip 2. High-pressure pump harness assembly
2. Connector (black) 3. Tie strap
3. Yellow CPA
4. Snapper clip
12. Install new tie strap to secure high-pressure pump
5. Pass-through overmold plug
harness assembly to harness fir zip retainer in left
6. High-pressure pump harness assembly
valve cover.
7. Connector (orange)

Lubricate the opening in rear crankcase cover, for


the Pass-through overmold plug, with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 261).
9. Install the high-pressure pump harness assembly
(inside to out) through the opening in rear
crankcase cover, and push the pass-through
overmold plug into the opening.
10. Connect orange and black connectors. Lock
yellow CPA on each connector.
11. Install C-clip and snapper clip to secure harness
assembly.

Figure 358 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Cover and


Gaskets
1. High-pressure fuel pump cover
2. Pump cover gasket
3. Lower high-pressure pump cover gasket

13. Install new pump cover gasket and lower


high-pressure pump cover gasket.
FUEL SYSTEM 251

16. Install M8 x 12 bolt to secure high-pressure pump


harness assembly and tighten bolt to standard
torque (page 473).

Fuel Injectors and Fuel Rail Assemblies

Figure 359 Liquid Gasket (RTV) Application

14. Apply Liquid Gasket (RTV) (page 261) to joining


surfaces of crankcase and fuel pump cover
assembly.
Figure 361 Fuel Injector Seal and Combustion
Gasket
1. Fuel injector seal
2. Plastic protective cap
3. Combustion gasket

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install new


fuel injector seal and combustion gasket if a fuel
injector is removed.
NOTE: After repairing a leak in high-pressure fuel
system, fuel pressure adaptation values must
be reset. See “Diagnostic Software Operation”
®
section in 0000001681 MaxxForce 7 Engine
Diagnostic Manual.
1. Position a new combustion gasket (with the
Figure 360 High-Pressure Fuel Pump Cover
grooved side of gasket facing away from the fuel
1. High-pressure fuel pump cover injector tip) onto injector tip, and seat combustion
2. M8 x 12 bolt gasket with a deep socket.
3. M6 x 25 bolt (5)
2. Lubricate a new fuel injector seal with clean
4. Closed clamp
engine oil and install seal onto fuel injector.

15. Install five M6 x 25 bolts to secure high-pressure


fuel pump cover and tighten bolts to standard
torque (page 473).
252 FUEL SYSTEM

5. Hand start injector hold down clamp bolts.


Pretighten bolts to 2 N·m (18 lb·in).

Figure 362 Fuel Injector Assembly (typical)


1. Fuel injector assembly (4)
2. Injector clamp bolt (4)
3. injector hold down clamp assembly (4) Figure 363 Fuel Rail Assembly (typical)
1. Fuel rail
2. M8 x 30 bolt (2)
3. Remove all Fuel System Caps (page 261) from
fuel rail and fuel injectors and fuel rail.
4. Install fuel injector assembly by lowering fuel 6. Position fuel rail assembly, install two M8 x 30
injector and injector hold down clamp assembly bolts, and tighten bolts to standard torque (page
as one unit into injector bore. 473).

NOTE: Injectors must be fully seated and


moveable, for installation of fuel rail to injector
tube assemblies.
FUEL SYSTEM 253

Figure 365 Torque Sequence for Fuel Rail to


Injector Tube Assemblies (typical)

Figure 364 Fuel Rail to Injector Tube Assemblies


(typical) NOTE: When using a crowfoot extension, make
1. Fuel rail to injector tube assembly (4) sure to adjust the torque settings to compensate
2. Tube nut (8) for any length added to the torque wrench. See
Appendix B - Torques (page 474).
8. Hand start and fully seat nuts on fuel rail to
injector tube assemblies to fuel injector and fuel
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
rail connections; then, use a torque wrench with
death, whenever any fuel line (tubing) in the
a crowfoot extension to pretighten nuts in the
high-pressure fuel system is removed, it must be
sequence shown above to 2 N·m (18 lb·in).
replaced with new.
7. Position four new fuel rail to injector tube
assemblies between fuel injector assemblies and
rail assembly.
NOTE: Hold fuel rail to injector tube
assemblies while hand tightening nuts to
assure correct assembly of joints.

Figure 366 Torque Sequence for Injector Hold


Down Clamps (typical)

9. Tighten injector hold down clamp bolts to 38 N·m


(28 lb·ft).
254 FUEL SYSTEM

13. Install Under Valve Cover (UVC) harnesses.


(page 91).
14. Install Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor into right
fuel rail. (page 93).
NOTE: See procedures in the “Cylinder Heads,
Valve Covers, and Valve Train” section to install
valve covers (page 357).
Injector Return Hose Assembly

Figure 367 Torque Sequence for Fuel Rail to


Injector Tube Assemblies (typical)

NOTE: When using a crowfoot extension make


sure to adjust the torque settings to compensate
for any length added to the torque wrench. See
Appendix B - Torques (page 474).
10. Use a torque wrench with a crowfoot extension
and a second wrench to hold each fuel injector
fitting, and tighten each nut to the in the sequence
shown above to 12 N·m (106 lb·in).
Figure 368 Injector Return Hose Assembly,
11. Use a torque wrench with a crowfoot extension to Banjo Bolts, Bonded Seal Washers
tighten each nut to the fuel rail in the sequence
shown above to 12 N·m (106 lb·in). 1. Injector return hose assembly
2. M12 Banjo bolt (2)
12. Use a torque wrench with a crowfoot extension, 3. Bonded seal washer (4)
tighten all nuts an additional 60° (one nut flat) to
the sequence shown above.
FUEL SYSTEM 255

seal washers and loosely installing a M12 banjo


bolt into the cylinder head. Repeat for other end
of injector return tube assembly.
4. Tighten M12 banjo bolts to special torque (page
260).

Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to Pump Hose


Assemblies
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, flush the filter
to pump hose assembly with clean diesel fuel before
installation.
NOTE: After repairing a leak in high-pressure fuel
system, fuel pressure adaptation values must
Figure 369 Hose Clips on Injector Return Hose be reset. See “Diagnostic Software Operation”
Assembly ®
section in 0000001681 MaxxForce 7 Engine
1. .375 in hose clip (2) Diagnostic Manual.
2. Injector return hose assembly 1. Flush the filter to pump hose assembly with clean
diesel fuel.

1. If necessary install new .375 in hose clips onto


injector return hose assembly.
2. Position injector return hose assembly and push
in .375 in hose clips to secure hose assembly to
the fuel filter module.

Figure 371 Cushioned Hose Clamp and Hose


Clamp on Filter to Pump Hose Assembly
1. Filter to pump hose assembly
2. .5 in hose clamp
3. Dash 11 cushioned hose clamp

Figure 370 Injector Return Hose Assembly


2. Install dash 11 cushioned hose clamp and .5 in
1. M12 banjo bolt hose clamp onto filter to pump hose assembly.
2. Injector return hose assembly

3. Install one end of injector return tube assembly by


sandwiching banjo end between two new bonded
256 FUEL SYSTEM

Figure 372 Pump to Cooler Hose Assembly Figure 374 Quick Connectors and Cap Nuts
1. Fuel check valve 1. Injector return hose assembly
2. Pump to cooler hose assembly 2. Quick connector
3. Dash 8 Cushioned hose clamp 3. Pump to cooler hose assembly
4. M12 cap nut (2)
5. Filter to pump hose assembly
3. Install fuel check valve and tighten to standard
torque (page 473).
NOTE: Make sure quick connectors are fully
4. Install Dash 8 Cushioned hose clamp on pump to
seated when connected. Do not rely on the click
cooler hose assembly.
noise; pull back on hose assembly to ensure a
fully seated connection.
5. Connect quick connector on filter to pump hose
assembly to fuel filter module housing.
6. Loosely install M12 cap nut, two new bonded seal
washers, and filter to pump hose assembly onto
correct high-pressure pump fitting as shown.
7. Connect quick connector on injector return hose
assembly to pump to cooler hose assembly, and
quick connector on pump to cooler hose assembly
to fuel cooler.
8. Loosely install M12 cap nut, two new bonded seal
washers, and pump to cooler hose assembly onto
correct high-pressure pump fitting as shown.
Figure 373 M12 Cap Nuts and Bonded Seal
Washer
1. Pump to cooler hose assembly
2. M12 cap nut (2)
3. Bonded seal washer (4)
4. Filter to pump hose assembly
FUEL SYSTEM 257

9. Install M6 x 14 bolt and M5 x 12 socket head bolt to


secure filter to pump hose assembly. Tighten M6
x 14 bolt and M5 x 12 socket head bolt to standard
torque (page 473).
10. Install M5 x 12 socket head bolt to secures pump
to cooler hose assembly. Tighten M5 x 12 socket
head bolt to standard torque (page 473).
11. Tighten cap nuts, for filter to pump hose assembly
and pump to cooler hose assembly, to special
torque (page 260).
NOTE: See installation procedure for Balance
Duct and Balance Tube Flange (page 361).

Figure 375 Pump to Cooler Hose and Filter to


Pump Hose Assemblies
1. Pump to cooler hose assembly
2. M6 x 14 bolt
3. Filter to pump hose assembly
4. M5 x 12 socket head bolt (2)
258 FUEL SYSTEM

Priming the High-pressure Fuel System fuel system priming procedure in the Engine
Operation and Maintenance Manual.
NOTE: This procedure applies only when the
high-pressure pump is removed or replaced, 6. Engage starter for 20 seconds and allow starter to
or high-pressure fuel tube assemblies from cool for two minutes. Continue to crank the engine
the high-pressure pump to the fuel rails are in 20 second intervals until a stream of fuel (no air)
disconnected. flows at both connections.
NOTE: It is not necessary to reprime the
high-pressure fuel system after removal or
replacement of injectors, fuel rail, rail to injector
lines, or FRP sensor.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
CAUTION: To prevent possible engine damage,
high-pressure fuel tube assemblies from the
high-pressure pump to the fuel rails must be replaced
whenever they are disconnected from the rails or the
high-pressure pump. High pressure high-pressure
fuel tube assemblies should never be reused.
1. Loosely install new high-pressure fuel tube
assemblies between the high-pressure fuel pump
and the fuel rails. Figure 376 Left High-Pressure Fuel Tube
Assembly
NOTE: Put wire tags on the high-pressure fuel
tube assemblies, stating that the tube nuts are 1. Tube nut (2)
loose and the following procedure is required 2. M6 x 20 bolt
before completing this test. 3. Left high-pressure fuel tube assembly
4. 1/4 closed clamp
2. Hand tighten tube nuts to the high-pressure fuel
pump.
7. Pretighten tube nuts, on left high-pressure fuel
3. Do not tighten tube nuts to the fuel rails; leave two
tube assembly, to 2 N·m (18 lb·in).
threads loose.
8. Install M6 x 20 bolt to secure fuel tube assembly
4. Position a suitable container or rag under tube
and tighten bolt to standard torque (page 473).
nuts on high-pressure fuel tube assemblies to fuel
rail. 9. Tighten tube nuts, on left high-pressure fuel tube
assembly, to 12 N·m (106 lb·in).
5. Ensure that the low-pressure fuel system
is primed with fuel. See the low-pressure 10. Turn tube nuts an additional 60° (one nut flat).
FUEL SYSTEM 259

11. Pretighten tube nuts, on right high-pressure fuel


tube assembly, to 2 N·m (18 lb·in).
12. Install M6 x 20 bolt to secure fuel tube assembly
and tighten bolt to standard torque (page 473).
13. Tighten tube nuts, on right high-pressure fuel tube
assembly, to 12 N·m (106 lb·in).
14. Turn tube nuts an additional 60°.
15. After tightening tube nuts on both high-pressure
fuel tube assemblies, remove wire tags and the
engine is ready to start.

Figure 377 Right High-Pressure Fuel Tube


Assembly
1. 1/4 closed clamp
2. Tube nut (2)
3. M6 x 20 bolt
4. Right high-pressure fuel tube assembly
260 FUEL SYSTEM

Specifications

Primary fuel filter type 10 micron with water separation


Secondary fuel filter type 4 micron with water separation

Special Torque

Banjo bolts, M12 25 N·m (18 lb·ft)


High-pressure pump cap nuts 25 N·m (18 lb·ft)

Diagnostic valve 13 N·m (115 lb·in)

Right high-pressure tube assembly nuts See tightening steps in procedure.


Left high-pressure tube assembly nuts See tightening steps in procedure.
Fuel cooler screws, M8 x 20 23 N·m (16 lb·ft)
Fuel housing cover screws, M5 x 18 7 N·m (62 lb·in)
High-pressure fuel pump gear bolt 78 N·m (57 lb·ft)
Fuel rail to injector tube fittings See tightening steps in procedure
Injector clamp bolts See tightening steps in procedure

Coolant return hose clamps 3 N·m (26 lb·in)

Primary fuel filter cap 50 N·m (37 lb·ft)


Secondary fuel filter cap 40 N·m (29 lb·ft)
Water drain retainer screws, M5 x18 7 N·m (62 lb·in)
WIF sensor 2 N·m (18 lb·in)
EFT sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
FDP sensor 18 N·m (159 lb·in)
FUEL SYSTEM 261

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Clean Fuel Source Kit 15-637-01
Cross-over Tube Removal Tool ZTSE6015
Fuel System Caps ZTSE4710
Fuel Injector Rack Holder ZTSE4299B
Fuel Injector Tip Cleaning Brush ZTSE4301
High-pressure Fuel Pump Wrench ZTSE4959
Injector Cup ZTSE4709
Liquid Gasket (RTV) (6 oz. tube) 1830858C1
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
Spring lock coupling disconnect tool Obtain locally
262 FUEL SYSTEM
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 263

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Alternator and Refrigerant Compressor Mounting Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .267
Front Engine Mounting Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
Thermostat Housing and Thermostats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
Fan Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Water Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Crank Power Takeoff (PTO) for Air Compressor Pulley (if equipped). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Vibration Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Front Crankcase Cover Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274


Vibration Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
Vibration Damper Runout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
Front Crankcase Cover and Water Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274
Thermostat Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Front Crankcase Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Vibration Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
Crank Power Takeoff (PTO) for Air Compressor Pulley (if equipped). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
Water Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
Fan Drive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Thermostat Housing and Thermostats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Front Engine Mounting Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
Alternator and Refrigerant Compressor Mounting Bracket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .282

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .284

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284


264 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 265

Exploded Views

Figure 378 Alternator Bracket, Front Engine Mounting Support, Fan Drive, Water Pump, and Vibration
Damper
1. M10 x 70 bolt 11. M8 x 35 bolt (5) 20. Dust cover Idler
2. Fan bearing retainer 12. Water pump pulley 21. M10 x 80 bolt
3. Bearing assembly 13. M8 x 16 bolt (4) 22. Belt tensioner
4. Fan bearing housing 14. Crank PTO for air compressor 23. Alternator and refrigerant
5. Fan pulley mounting hub pulley (if equipped) compressor mounting bracket
6. Fan pulley 15. M10 x 30 bolt (3) 24. M10 x 45 screw (4)
7. M8 x 20 bolt (6) 16. Front engine mounting support 25. Grooved idler pulley assembly
8. M8 x 65 bolt (4) 17. M12 x 70 bolt 26. Vibration damper
9. O-ring seal (size 240) 18. M12 x 70 stud bolt (2) 27. M12 x 59 bolt (4)
10. Water pump assembly 19. Shoulder bolt
266 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Figure 379 Front Crankcase Cover, Tubes, Hoses, and Thermostat Assemblies
1. M6 x 25 bolt (2) 8. M18 O-ring boss plug (2) 14. Thermostat housing
2. Heater supply tube assembly 9. Front crankcase cover 15. M6 x 25 stud bolt
3. O-ring seal 10. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (2) 16. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
4. Front cover gasket 11. M8 x 75 dog point bolt (8) 17. Thermostat assembly (without
5. M33 O-ring plug 12. Thermostat assembly (with bypass)
6. M33 O-ring bypass) 18. M33 plug
7. Seal (2) 13. Thermostat cover gasket
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 267

Removal
WARNING: Failure to observe the following
warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
to human health and the environment. with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing and
Handle all fluids and other contaminated rags contaminated with engine fluids.
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle WARNING: Failure to observe the following
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and warning may cause property damage, personal
other contaminated materials according to injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
applicable regulations. death, do not smoke and keep fuel away from
flames and sparks.
NOTE: See the following service sections for
WARNING: Failure to observe the following
information on removal of components prior to
warning may cause property damage, personal
this section.
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the "Safety • Engine Electrical
Information" section of this manual.
• Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
WARNING: Failure to observe the following • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
warning may cause property damage, personal
• Fuel System
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set Alternator and Refrigerant Compressor Mounting
parking brake, and block wheels before doing Bracket
diagnostic or service procedures.

WARNING: Failure to observe the following


warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, disconnect the main battery negative
terminal before disconnecting or connecting
electrical components.

WARNING: Failure to observe the following


warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. Limit
compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).

Figure 380 Belt Tensioner


1. Belt tensioner
2. M10 x 80 bolt
268 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not twist Front Engine Mounting Support
the belt tensioner; damage to the locating pin may
occur, resulting in improper alignment of the belt
tensioner.
1. Remove M10 x 80 bolt and belt tensioner.

Figure 382 Front Engine Mounting Support


on Engines without (optional secondary freon
compressor bracket)
Figure 381 Alternator and Refrigerant
Compressor Mounting Bracket 1. M12 x 70 stud bolt (2)
2. Front engine mounting support
1. M10 x 45 screw (4) 3. M12 x 70 bolt (2)
2. Alternator and refrigerant compressor mounting
bracket
1. Remove two M12 x 70 stud bolts and two M12 x 70
bolts that secure the front engine mounting
2. Remove four M10 x 45 screws, and the alternator support.
and refrigerant compressor mounting bracket.
2. Remove front engine mounting support.

Figure 383 M12 x 110 Bolt Location for Engines


with (optional secondary freon compressor
bracket)
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 269

NOTE: See (page 193) for removal of M12 x 110 Thermostat Housing and Thermostats
bolt.
3. Remove two M12 x 70 stud bolts and one
M12 x 70 bolt.
4. Remove front engine mounting support.

Figure 384 Thermostat Housing


1. Front crankcase cover
2. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
3. Thermostat housing
4. M6 x 25 stud bolt

1. Remove M6 x 25 stud bolt and three M6 x 20 bolts.


2. Remove thermostat housing from front crankcase
cover.

Figure 385 Thermostats, Thermostat Housing


Gasket, and Thermostat Housing
1. Thermostat assembly (without bypass)
2. Thermostat housing gasket
3. Thermostat housing
4. Thermostat assembly (with bypass)
270 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

3. Remove and discard thermostat housing gasket.


4. Remove two thermostat assemblies from
thermostat housing.

Fan Drive

Figure 387 Fan Pulley Mounting Hub


1. M8 x 65 bolt (4)
2. Fan pulley mounting hub

2. Remove four M8 x 65 bolts and fan pulley


mounting hub.
Figure 386 Fan Pulley
1. M8 x 20 bolt (6)
2. Fan pulley Water Pump Assembly

NOTE: If not using an impact wrench, use a


holding device to lock fan pulley when removing
bolts.
1. Remove six M8 x 20 bolts and fan pulley.

Figure 388 Water Pump Assembly and Pulley


1. M8 x 16 bolt (4)
2. Water pump assembly
3. M8 x 35 bolt (5)
4. Water pump pulley
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 271

NOTE: If not using an impact wrench, use a


holding device to lock water pump pulley when
removing bolts.
1. Remove four M8 x 16 bolts and water pump pulley.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not drop
water pump impeller or hit impeller with hard objects.
2. Remove five M8 x 35 bolts and water pump
assembly.

Figure 389 Water Pump Assembly and O-ring


Seal
1. Water pump assembly
2. O-ring seal (size 240)

3. Remove and discard O-ring seal.


272 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Crank Power Takeoff (PTO) for Air Compressor


Pulley (if equipped)

Figure 391 Vibration Damper


1. M12 x 59 bolt (4)
Figure 390 Crank PTO for Air Compressor 2. Vibration damper
Pulley (if equipped)
1. Crank PTO for air compressor pulley
2. M10 x 30 bolt (3) WARNING: To prevent personal injury
or death, support the vibration damper when
removing bolts. The damper can easily slide off
1. Remove three M10 x 30 bolts and air compressor the end of the crankshaft.
pulley.
NOTE: The vibration damper retaining bolts are
not reusable.
Vibration Damper 2. Remove and discard four M12 x 59 bolts.
1. See Vibration Damper Runout (page 274) for 3. Remove vibration damper.
procedures.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
immerse damper in petroleum based solvents. This
can damage the rubber damper element.
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 273

Front Crankcase Cover Assembly

Figure 394 Front Crankcase Cover Bolts


1. M8 x 75 dog point bolt (8)
Figure 392 Heater Supply Tube Assembly 2. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (2)
1. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
2. Heater supply tube assembly
NOTE: Support front cover while removing bolts.
4. Remove eight M8 x 75 bolts and two M8 x 45 bolts.
1. Remove two M6 x 25 bolts that secure heater
supply tube assembly.
2. Remove heater supply tube assembly.

Figure 395 Front Cover Gasket


1. Front crankcase cover
Figure 393 Heater Supply Tube Assembly O-ring
2. Front cover gasket
1. Heater supply tube assembly
2. O-ring seal
5. Remove front crankcase cover and discard front
cover gasket.
3. Remove O-ring seal from elbow of heater supply
tube assembly. Discard O-ring seal.
274 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing a. Attach dial indicator with magnetic base (page
284) to front of crankcase. Position indicator
Vibration Damper
point on vibration damper front surface.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
NOTE: Pry only in one direction to
immerse damper in petroleum based solvents. This
eliminate possible error induced by
can damage the rubber damper element.
crankshaft end play.
1. Clean vibration damper with soap, water, and a
b. Pry crankshaft forward and zero dial indicator.
soft parts brush.
This becomes the baseline.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or c. Turn crankshaft 90°. Pry crankshaft forward
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. and record reading.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). d. Repeat at each surface every 90°. If runout
2. Dry damper with filtered compressed air. exceeds specification (page 284), replace
vibration damper.
3. Inspect vibration damper rubber compound
for bulging (page 284). If bulging exceeds
specification, replace vibration damper. Front Crankcase Cover and Water Pump
4. Inspect vibration damper rubber compound for Assembly
cracks or separation. Replace vibration damper 1. Wash front crankcase cover and water pump
if necessary. assembly thoroughly in a suitable cleaning
solvent.

Vibration Damper Runout WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
2. Dry with filtered compressed air.
3. Inspect front crankcase cover for cracks. Replace
if necessary.
4. Inspect water pump assembly for leaks, cracks,
bearing failure, and problems with bearings or
shaft seal. Replace if necessary.

Thermostat Assemblies

WARNING: To prevent personal injury


or death, wear heat protective gloves and
Figure 396 Vibration Damper Runout appropriate eye protection when checking
operation of thermostat.
1. Vibration damper
2. Dial indicator CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, when testing
the thermostat, make sure the thermostat assembly
opens fully at the specified temperature.
NOTE: When prying crankshaft forward, use
Check operation of thermostat assemblies as follows:
a block of wood between the prybar and front
crankcase cover. 1. Manually open thermostat enough to insert a
nylon ribbon under valve seat.
1. Before removing vibration damper, inspect
vibration damper for runout as follows:
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 275

2. Suspend thermostat assembly in a container so


thermostat assembly does not touch bottom of
container.
3. Heat water filled container to approximate
start-to-open temperature of thermostat
assembly. See Specifications for temperature
(page 284).
4. Check thermometer and record temperature as
soon as thermostat assembly drops from nylon
ribbon. This is the start-to-open temperature.
5. Continue to heat water to full-open temperature
of the thermostat assembly. See Specifications
(page 284). Check for movement of thermostat
Figure 397 Thermostat Operation Test assembly valve.
1. Suspension line 6. While sleeve is off its seat, remove thermostat
2. Ribbon assembly from container and inspect seat area for
3. Thermometer pitting and foreign deposits.
4. Thermostat assembly
7. If thermostat assembly is damaged or operates
5. Heat source
incorrectly, install a new thermostat assembly.
276 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Installation 3. Install eight M8 x 75 bolts and two M8 x 45 bolts


finger tight.
Front Crankcase Cover

Figure 400 Torque Sequence for Front


Crankcase Cover Bolts
Figure 398 Front Cover Gasket
1. Front crankcase cover
4. Tighten bolts in the torque sequence to standard
2. Front cover gasket
torque (page 473).

1. Position a new front cover gasket on the


crankcase.

Figure 401 Heater Supply Tube Assembly O-ring


1. Heater supply tube assembly
Figure 399 Front Crankcase Cover Bolts 2. O-ring seal

1. M8 x 75 dog point bolt (8)


2. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (2) 5. Lubricate new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 284), and install
O-ring seal onto elbow of heater supply tube
2. Install front crankcase cover. assembly.
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 277

WARNING: To prevent personal injury


or death, install four new bolts to secure the
vibration damper.
2. Align vibration damper with dowel pin on front of
crankshaft.
NOTE: Do not use anti-seize compounds, grease
or lubricants on mounting bolts. Each has an
adverse effect on torque results.
3. Install four new M12 x 59 bolts to secure vibration
damper on crankshaft.

Figure 402 Heater Supply Tube Assembly


1. M6 x 25 bolt (2)
2. Heater supply tube assembly

6. Install two M6 x 25 bolts to secure heater supply


tube assembly. Tighten bolts to standard torque
(page 473).

Vibration Damper
1. See Vibration Damper Runout (page 274) for
procedures.

Figure 404 Torque Sequence for Vibration


Damper Bolts

4. Tighten each bolt in torque sequence to special


torque 68 N·m (50 lb·ft).
5. Rotate each bolt an additional 90° using torque
sequence.

Figure 403 Vibration Damper


1. M12 x 59 bolt (4)
2. Vibration damper
278 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Crank Power Takeoff (PTO) for Air Compressor Water Pump Assembly
Pulley (if equipped)

Figure 406 Water Pump Assembly and O-ring


Figure 405 Crank PTO for Air Compressor Seal
Pulley (if equipped)
1. Water pump assembly
1. Crank PTO for air compressor pulley 2. O-ring seal
2. M10 x 30 bolt (3)

1. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber


1. Install air compressor pulley. Lubricant or equivalent (page 284), install O-ring
2. Install three M10 x 30 bolts and tighten to standard onto water pump assembly.
torque (page 473).
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 279

Fan Drive

Figure 407 Water Pump Assembly and Pulley


1. M8 x 16 bolt (4)
2. Water pump assembly
3. M8 x 35 bolt (5) Figure 408 Fan Pulley Mounting Hub
4. Water pump pulley 1. M8 x 65 bolt (4)
2. Fan pulley mounting hub

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not drop


water pump impeller or hit impeller with hard objects. 1. Install fan pulley mounting hub.
2. Position water pump assembly onto engine, install 2. Install four M8 x 65 bolts and tighten to standard
five M8 x 35 bolts, and tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
torque (page 473).
3. Install water pump pulley.
NOTE: Use a holding device to lock water pump
pulley when installing bolts.
4. Install four M8 x 16 bolts and tighten to standard
torque (page 473).
280 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Thermostat Housing and Thermostats

Figure 409 Fan Pulley


1. M8 x 20 bolt (6) Figure 410 Thermostats, Thermostat Housing
2. Fan pulley Gasket, and Thermostat Housing
1. Thermostat assembly (without bypass)
2. Thermostat housing gasket
3. Install fan pulley. 3. Thermostat housing
NOTE: Use a holding device to lock fan pulley 4. Thermostat assembly (with bypass)
when installing bolts.
4. Install six M8 x 20 bolts and tighten to standard NOTE: The lower thermostat assembly (with
torque (page 473). bypass) seals against an orifice in the front
crankcase cover.
1. Install thermostat assembly (with bypass) into
thermostat housing.
2. Install thermostat assembly (without bypass) into
thermostat housing.
3. Install a new thermostat housing gasket into the
recess of the thermostat housing.
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 281

Front Engine Mounting Support

Figure 411 Thermostat Housing


1. Front crankcase cover
2. M6 x 20 bolt (3)
3. Thermostat housing Figure 412 Front Engine Mounting Support
4. M6 x 25 stud bolt on Engines without (optional secondary freon
compressor bracket)
1. M12 x 70 stud bolt (2)
4. Position thermostat housing on front crankcase
2. Front engine mounting support
cover.
3. M12 x 70 bolt
5. Install one M6 x 25 stud bolt and three M6 x 20
bolts and tighten all bolts to standard torque (page
473). 1. Position front engine mounting support. Install
two M12 x 70 stud bolts and one M12 x 70 bolt.
2. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
282 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Alternator and Refrigerant Compressor Mounting


Bracket

Figure 413 M12 x 110 Bolt Location for Engines


with (optional secondary freon compressor
bracket) Figure 414 Alternator and Refrigerant
Compressor Mounting Bracket

3. Position front engine mounting support. 1. M10 x 45 screw (4)


2. Alternator and refrigerant compressor mounting
NOTE: See (page 200) for installation of M12 x 110 bracket
bolt.
4. Install M12 x 110 bolt.
1. Position alternator and refrigerant compressor
5. Install two M12 x 70 stud bolts and one M12 x 70 mounting bracket.
bolt.
2. Install four M10 x 45 screws and tighten to
6. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473). standard torque (page 473).
FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS 283

3. Install belt tensioner.


4. Install M10 x 80 bolt and tighten to standard torque
(page 473).

Figure 415 Belt Tensioner


1. Belt tensioner
2. M10 x 80 bolt
284 FRONT COVER, COOLING SYSTEM, AND RELATED COMPONENTS

Specifications

Vibration Damper
Face runout (maximum) 0.635 mm (0.025 in)
Rubber bulging (maximum) 1.5 mm (0.060 in)
Thermostat Assembly with Bypass
Type Balanced pressure, wax pellet
Start-to-open temperature, 0.20 mm (0.009 in) stroke 92 to 96 ° C (198 to 205 ° F)
Full-open temperature, 10 mm (0.394 in) stroke 106 ° C (222.8 ° F)
Thermostat Assembly without Bypass
Type Balanced pressure, wax pellet
Start-to-open temperature, 0.20 mm (0.009 in) stroke 86.7 to 91° C (188 to 196° F)
Full-open temperature, 10 mm (0.394 in) stroke 104° C (219.1° F)

Special Torque

Vibration damper bolts See Vibration Damper Installation Procedure

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 285

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Oil Cooler Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test (Coolant Side). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Service Parts.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
Oil Cooler Cover Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Front Crankshaft Oil Seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Oil Pump Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
Oil Level Tube assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge Tube Gasket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Oil Filter Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Oil Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Lube Oil Suction Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297

Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299


Cleaning and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
Oil Pump Rotor Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
Oil Pressure Regulator Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Lube Oil Suction Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Oil Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge Tube Gasket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
Oil Filter Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
Oil Level Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Oil Pump Housing Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Front Crankshaft Oil Seal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
Oil Cooler Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308


286 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 287

Exploded Views

Figure 416 Oil Cooler Assembly


1. Turbo oil drain gasket 4. M5 x 20 slotted pin 8. Cooler to cover gasket (2)
2. Oil cooler bypass valve 5. M8 x 20 slotted pin 9. Oil cooler
assembly 6. Serrated nut (10) 10. Cover to crankcase gasket
3. Bypass valve cap seal 7. Oil cooler cover 11. M8 x 70 bolt (12)
288 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Figure 417 Oil Pump


1. Relief valve cap 5. Oil pump housing 9. M8 x 25 screw (4)
2. Relief valve retainer seal 6. Oil crankshaft front seal 10. Oil pump to engine gasket
3. Relief valve spring 7. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (8) 11. Oil pump housing plate
4. Relief valve piston 8. Oil pump rotor assembly 12. Oil pump housing gasket
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 289

Figure 418 Oil Pan Assembly and Oil Filter


1. Oil pan gasket 6. Oil pan 12. Oil drain plug assembly
2. Oil level gauge tube 7. M10 plug O-ring 13. M6 x 25 bolt (20)
3. M6 x 16 bolt 8. Hex plug assembly 14. Lube oil suction tube assembly
4. Oil level gauge assembly (with 9. M18 plug assembly 15. M6 x 20 bolt (2)
O-ring) 10. O-ring seal 16. Oil pick up tube gasket
5. Oil level gauge tube gasket 11. Oil filter assembly 17. M6 x 12 bolt (2)
290 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Removal NOTE: See the following service sections for


information on removal of components prior to
this section:

GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine • Engine Electrical


fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated • Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance Piping
with applicable regulations. Recycle • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to • Fuel System
applicable regulations. Oil Cooler Assembly

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, shift the transmission to park or neutral,
set the parking brake, and block the wheels before
doing diagnostic or service procedures.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, make sure the engine has cooled before
removing components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash Figure 419 Oil Cooler Assembly
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing 1. M5 x 20 slotted pin
and rags contaminated with engine fluids. 2. M8 x 20 slotted pin
3. M8 x 70 bolt (12)
4. Oil cooler assembly

1. If required, remove M5 x 20 slotted pin and M8 x


20 slotted pin.
2. Remove 12 M8 x 70 bolts.
3. Remove oil cooler assembly.
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 291

Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test (Coolant Side) Disassembly


Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test Procedure

Figure 420 Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test


1. Air pressure regulator
2. Oil Cooler Block-off Plate Figure 421 Oil Cooler Cover, Cooler to Cover
Gasket, and Oil Cooler
1. Serrated nut (10)
1. Install Oil Cooler Block-off Plate (page 308) on oil 2. Oil cooler cover
cooler assembly. 3. Cooler to cover gasket (2)
4. Oil cooler
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). 1. Remove 10 serrated nuts.
2. Attach an air pressure regulator (page 308) 2. Separate oil cooler cover and oil cooler.
to Oil Cooler Block-off Plate. Connect to 3. Remove and discard two cooler to cover gaskets.
compressed air supply and adjust air pressure to
approximately 172 to 207 kPa (25 to 30 psi). 4. Discard defective oil cooler cover or oil cooler, or
both.
3. Submerge oil cooler assembly in a container of
water.
4. Inspect for air bubbles on the oil cooler and Service Parts
between oil cooler and oil cooler cover. • If installing new cooler to cover gaskets, clean
• If leaks are not detected, remove air supply gasket surfaces on oil cooler cover and oil cooler.
line and air pressure regulator. Dry oil cooler • If installing a new oil cooler, clean gasket surfaces
assembly with compressed air and set cooler on oil cooler cover.
assembly aside for installation later.
• If installing a new oil cooler cover, clean gasket
• If leaks are detected, identify the leak. Remove surfaces on oil cooler.
air supply line and air pressure regulator, Oil
Cooler Block-off Plate, and disassemble oil cooler
assembly.
292 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Assembly

Figure 423 Torque Sequence for Serrated Nuts


(Oil Cooler Cover to Oil Cooler)

3. Tighten serrated nuts in torque sequence to 25


N·m (18 lb·ft). Set oil cooler assembly aside for
Figure 422 Oil Cooler Cover, Cooler to Cover
installation later.
Gasket, and Oil Cooler
4. Repeat Oil Cooler Assembly Leak Test Procedure
1. Serrated nut (10)
to confirm that cooler to cover gaskets have
2. Oil cooler cover
sealed.
3. Cooler to cover gasket (2)
4. Oil cooler 5. Drain and flush oil cooler cover assembly.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


1. Assemble oil cooler cover, two new cooler cover death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
gaskets, and oil cooler. Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
2. Install 10 serrated nuts. 6. Dry oil cooler cover assembly thoroughly with
compressed air.
7. Set oil cooler assembly aside for installation later.
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 293

Oil Cooler Cover Assembly

Figure 424 Cover to Crankcase Gasket


Figure 425 Front Crankshaft Oil Seal
1. Remove and discard cover to crankcase gasket. 1. Front oil seal

Front Crankshaft Oil Seal 2. Thread a Slide Hammer (page 308) with correct
size screw in one of the two holes.
NOTE: The MaxxForce® ® 7 is not equipped with
a wear sleeve during factory production. Wear 3. Slide hammer until one side of seal begins to pull
sleeves are included with oil seal service kits. out of oil pump housing assembly. Move slide
hammer to other hole and repeat until front oil seal
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or is removed completely.
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. NOTE: The following steps are necessary, only if
1. With an awl and hammer, punch two holes 180° engine has a front wear sleeve.
apart in the front oil seal. 4. Complete following steps to install the Front Wear
Sleeve Remover (page 308):
294 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

a. Install two half shell ridges of tool behind front


wear sleeve.
b. Place threaded shaft and pulling flange inside
two shells while holding shells together.
c. Slide outer collar of tool around two half
shells.
d. Thread shaft up to crankshaft, and turn shaft
to remove wear sleeve.

Figure 426 Removal of Front Wear Sleeve


OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 295

Oil Pump Assembly 2. Remove four M8 x 25 screws that secure the oil
pump housing plate to the oil pump housing.
3. Remove oil pump housing plate.
4. Remove and discard oil pump housing gasket.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use
permanent markers to identify internal components
or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary
markers.
5. Use a permanent marker to mark the front of
the inner and outer oil pump rotor for correct
reassembly orientation.
6. See Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing (Oil Pump
Rotor Assembly, page 299).
7. See Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing (Oil
Pressure Regulator Components, page 300).
Figure 427 Oil Pump Assembly
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, cut sealant
1. Oil pump assembly between oil pump to engine gasket and the joint of
2. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (8) the upper and lower crankcase, before removing the
oil pump to engine gasket. If the sealant is not cut,
the seal between the crankcase and lower crankcase
1. Remove eight M8 x 45 bolts and oil pump may fail. Complete engine removal and disassembly
assembly. is required to install a new crankcase gasket.

Figure 429 Cutting Sealant Between Oil Pump


to Engine Gasket
Figure 428 Oil Pump Housing, Rotor Assembly,
Housing Gasket, and Plate
1. Oil pump housing 8. Using a thin, sharp blade scraper, cut through
2. Oil pump rotor assembly sealant between oil pump to engine gasket at both
3. Oil pump housing gasket joints of the upper and lower crankcase.
4. Oil pump housing plate 9. Remove and discard oil pump to engine gasket.
5. M8 x 25 screw (4)
296 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

1. Remove oil level gauge assembly from oil level


tube assembly.
2. Remove M6 x 16 bolt that secures oil level tube
assembly to fuel filter module housing.
3. Pull up and remove oil level tube assembly.

Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge Tube Gasket

Figure 430 Removal of Sealant

10. If necessary, trim remaining sealant from both


joints of the upper and lower crankcase.

Oil Level Tube assembly

Figure 432 Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge


Tube Gasket
1. M18 plug assembly
2. O-ring seal
3. Oil level gauge tube gasket
4. M10 plug O-ring
5. Hex plug assembly

1. Remove M18 plug assembly and O-ring seal.


Discard O-ring seal.
2. Pull up, remove, and discard oil level gauge tube
gasket.
3. Remove hex plug assembly and O-ring. Discard
O-ring.

Figure 431 Oil Level Tube Assembly


1. Oil level gauge assembly (with O-ring)
2. M6 x 16 bolt
3. Oil level tube assembly
4. Oil level gauge tube gasket
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 297

Oil Filter Assembly

Figure 435 Oil Pan Gasket


Figure 433 Oil Filter Assembly
1. Oil pan gasket
2. Oil pan
1. Remove oil filter assembly.
3. Remove oil pan and discard oil pan gasket.

Oil Pan
Lube Oil Suction Tube

Figure 434 Oil Pan


1. Oil pan Figure 436 Lube Oil Suction Tube
2. M6 x 25 bolt (20) 1. Lube oil suction tube
3. Oil drain plug assembly 2. M6 x 12 bolt (2)
3. M6 X 20 bolt (2)

1. Remove twenty M6 x 25 bolts.


1. Remove M6 x 12 bolts and M6 X 20 bolts.
2. If not previously removed, remove oil drain plug
assembly. 2. Remove lube oil suction tube.
298 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Figure 437 Oil Pickup Tube Gasket


1. Oil pickup tube gasket 2. Lube oil suction tube

3. Remove and discard oil pickup tube gasket.


OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 299

Cleaning, Inspection, and 4. Apply 15W30 or 10W30 oil to rotor area only.
Measurement NOTE: When assembled, rotor pair must rotate
Cleaning and Inspection freely and smoothly.

1. Wash parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent. 5. Install oil pump rotor assembly in oil pump
housing. Verify that the rotor assembly rotates
freely and smoothly in the oil pump housing.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
2. Dry parts with filtered compressed air.
3. Inspect oil pan for warping or cracking. Install a
new oil pan, if necessary.
4. Inspect lube oil suction tube and bracket for
cracking. Install a new lube oil suction tube and
bracket, if necessary.

Oil Pump Rotor Assembly


1. Lay oil pump housing assembly on workbench.
2. Inspect inner and outer oil pump rotors and
oil pump housing assembly for nicks, burrs, or
scoring.
Figure 438 Outer Oil Pump Gerotor
3. Replace any damaged components. Measurement
NOTE: The inner and outer oil pump rotors
are a matched set and cannot be replaced
individually. 6. Use a feeler gauge (page 308) to inspect for
wear by measuring radial clearance (page 307)
NOTE: If installing a new oil pump rotor between outer oil pump rotor and oil pump
assembly, correct orientation of rotors to housing assembly.
each other or to the engine is not important.
If installing a used oil pump rotor assembly,
correct orientation of rotors to each other and
to the engine is necessary.
300 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Oil Pressure Regulator Components

Figure 439 End Clearance Check for Oil Pump

7. Check oil pump end clearance as follows: Figure 440 Oil Pressure Regulator Components
1. Relief valve cap and relief valve retainer seal
a. With inner and outer oil pump rotors in place in
2. Relief valve spring
the oil pump housing, put straightedge across
3. Relief valve piston
housing.
b. Insert feeler gauge under straightedge (page
308) at inner and outer oil pump gerotors. 1. Remove oil pressure regulator components.
Compare end clearance with specifications
(page 307). 2. Inspect oil pressure regulator components and
bore in oil pump housing for wear. Install new
c. If measurements are not within specifications, components, if necessary.
install a new oil pump rotor assembly.
3. Tighten relief valve cap to special torque (page
307).
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 301

Installation
Lube Oil Suction Tube

Figure 442 Lube Oil Suction Tube


1. Lube oil suction tube
Figure 441 Oil Pickup Tube Gasket 2. M6 x 12 bolt (2)
3. M6 X 20 bolt (2)
1. Cross-section of oil pickup tube gasket
2. Oil pickup tube gasket
3. Lube oil suction tube 3. Position lube oil suction tube.
4. Gasket groove in flange of lube oil suction tube
4. Install two M6 x 12 bolts, two M6 X 20 bolts, and
tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).
1. Lubricate a new oil pickup tube gasket with clean
engine oil.
Oil Pan
2. See cross-section of oil pickup tube gasket and
install gasket correctly into gasket groove of lube
oil suction tube flange.

Figure 443 Oil Pan Gasket


1. Oil pan gasket
2. Oil pan

1. Install new oil pan gasket and position oil pan.


302 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

1. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with a light coat


of clean engine oil and install onto M18 plug
assembly.
2. Install plug assembly into oil pan and tighten plug
assembly to special torque (page 307).
3. Lubricate a new oil level gauge tube gasket with a
light coat of clean engine oil to and press gasket
into oil pan.
4. Lubricate a new O-ring with a light coat of clean
engine oil and install onto hex plug assembly.
5. Install hex plug into oil pan and tighten to special
torque (page 307).

Figure 444 Oil Pan


Oil Filter Assembly
1. Oil pan
2. M6 x 25 bolt (20)
3. Oil drain plug assembly

2. Install 20 M6 x 25 bolts and tighten to standard


torque (page 473).
3. If removed, install oil drain plug assembly and
tighten to special torque (page 307).

Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge Tube Gasket

Figure 446 Oil Filter Assembly

1. Lubricate oil filter seal with clean engine oil.


2. Install oil filter assembly hand tight to contact the
oil filter housing. Then, turn oil the filter assembly
3/4 to 1 full turn.

Figure 445 Oil Pan Plugs and Oil Level Gauge


Tube Gasket
1. M18 plug assembly
2. O-ring seal
3. Oil level gauge tube gasket
4. M10 plug O-ring
5. Hex plug assembly
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 303

Oil Level Tube Assembly Oil Pump Housing Assembly

Figure 448 Application of Liquid Gasket (RTV)


to Tee joints

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not apply


too much Liquid Gasket (RTV) to Tee joints between
upper and lower crankcase assemblies.
Figure 447 Oil Level Tube Assembly
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install gasket
1. Oil level gauge assembly (with O-ring) and cover within 5 minutes of Liquid Gasket (RTV)
2. M6 x 16 bolt application to inhibit the formation of a skin and ensure
3. Oil level tube assembly a leak proof joint.
4. Oil level gauge tube gasket
1. Apply only a dab (.325 cc) of Liquid Gasket (RTV)
(page 308) to Tee joints between upper and lower
1. Apply a light coating of P-80® Rubber Lubricant or crankcase assemblies.
equivalent (page 308) to bead end of the oil level
tube assembly and insert tube into oil level gauge
tube gasket until tube bead touches gasket.
2. Install M6 x 16 bolt to secure oil level tube to the
fuel filter module. Tighten bolt to standard torque
(page 473).
3. Install oil level gauge assembly into oil level tube
assembly.

Figure 449 Oil Pump to Engine Gasket

2. Install oil pump engine gasket.


304 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Figure 450 Oil Pump Housing, Rotor Assembly, Figure 451 Oil Pump Assembly
Housing Gasket, and Plate 1. Oil pump assembly
1. Oil pump housing 2. M8 x 45 dog point bolt (8)
2. Oil pump rotor assembly
3. Oil pump housing gasket
4. Oil pump housing plate 6. Install oil pump assembly and loosely install eight
5. M8 x 25 screw (4) M8 x 45 dog point bolts.

3. Lubricate oil pump housing gasket with clean


engine oil and install gasket into oil pump housing.
NOTE: If installing new inner and outer oil pump
rotors, correct orientation is not necessary. If
installing used inner and outer oil pump rotors,
correct orientation is necessary.
4. Install oil pump rotor assembly in the oil pump
housing. Ensure correct orientation, if reusing the
oil pump rotor assembly.
5. Install oil pump housing plate and four M8 x 25
screws. Tighten screws to special torque (page
307).

Figure 452 Torque Sequence for Oil Pump


Assembly Bolts

7. Tighten eight M8 x 45 dog point bolts in torque


sequence to standard torque (page 473).
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 305

Front Crankshaft Oil Seal Oil Cooler Assembly

Figure 454 Cover to Crankcase Gasket


Figure 453 Front Oil Seal Wear Sleeve
Installation
1. Install new crankcase cover gasket.

1. Put a 360° bead of hydraulic sealant such as


Loctite® 569 (page 308) or equivalent on leading
edge of crankshaft before wear sleeve installation.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
separate wear sleeve from new oil seal; this damages
seal.
2. Use Front Seal / Wear Sleeve Installer (page 308),
to drive oil seal and wear sleeve assembly into oil
pump housing assembly.

Figure 455 Oil Cooler Assembly


1. M5 x 20 slotted pin
2. M8 x 20 slotted pin
3. M8 x 70 bolt (12)
4. Oil cooler assembly

2. Position oil cooler assembly on crankcase, install


12 M8 x 70 bolts, and tighten bolts to standard
torque (page 473).
3. If previously removed, install M5 x 20 slotted pin
and M8 x 20 slotted pin.
306 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

4. Lubricate a new bypass valve cap seal with a light


coat of clean engine oil and install onto bypass
valve assembly.
5. Install bypass valve assembly into oil cooler.
6. Tighten bypass valve assembly to special torque
(page 307).
7. Install new turbocharger oil drain gasket.

Figure 456 Oil Cooler Cover, Turbocharger


Oil Drain Gasket, Bypass Valve Assembly, and
Bypass Valve Cap Seal
1. Turbocharger oil drain gasket
2. Oil cooler bypass valve assembly
3. Bypass valve cap seal
4. Oil cooler cover
OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN 307

Specifications

Oil Pump Assembly


Type Gerotor
Drive Crankshaft
Location Oil pump housing assembly
Pressure Regulating Valve: Operates between 5.2 kPa - 6.0 kPa (75 psi - 87 psi)
End clearance (inner and outer oil pump rotor to oil
0.025 to 0.095 mm (0.001 to 0.004 in)
pump housing assembly)
Radial clearance (between outer oil pump rotor and
0.15 to 0.28 mm (0.006 to 0.011 in)
oil pump housing assembly)

Oil Cooler Assembly


Type Full flow, fin
Location Engine valley (front)

Oil Filter
Type Spin-on, full flow - disposable
Location Oil pan mounted
Filter bypass location Oil filter can

Special Torque

Oil cooler bypass valve assembly 71 N·m (52 lb·ft)


Oil cooler cover assembly serrated nuts See assembly procedure for special torque sequence
Hex plug assembly (oil pan) 25 N·m (18 lb·ft)
Plug assembly, M18 (oil pan) 25 N·m (18 lb·ft)
Oil pan drain plug (M14) 44 N·m (32 lb·ft)
Oil filter adapter (oil pan) 55 N·m (40 lb·ft)
Oil pump housing plate screws, M8 x 25 17 N·m (150 lb·in)
Relief valve cap, oil pump 35 N·m (26 lb·ft)
308 OIL COOLER, OIL PUMP, OIL FILTER, AND OIL PAN

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Air pressure regulator Obtain locally

Feeler gauge Obtain locally

Front Crankshaft Wear Sleeve Remover / Installer ZTSE4705

Front Crankshaft Seal Remover / Installer ZTSE6060

Liquid Gasket (RTV) (6 oz. tube) 1830858C1

Loctite® 271 Obtain locally

Loctite® 569 hydraulic sealant or equivalent Obtain locally

P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally

Slide hammer Obtain locally

Oil Cooler Block-off Plate ZTSE6029

Straightedge Obtain locally


CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 309

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
Balance Duct and Balance Tube Flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315
Draft Tube Assembly.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Lifting Eye and Jet Pump Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Breather Cover Assembly and Filter with variable impactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Right Valve Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Oil Fill Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Left Valve Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Dual Fulcrum Plates Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Rocker Arm Support, Push Rods, and Valve Bridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Cylinder Heads..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
Valves................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .329
Fuel Injector Sleeves.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .329
Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333


Cylinder Head and Crankcase Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
Cylinder Head Inspection – Valves Installed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
Cylinder Head Inspection – Valves Removed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
Valve Seats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
Valves................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .337
Valve Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338
Valve Springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
Valve Stem Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Push Rods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Fuel Injector Sleeve Bore and Gallery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Dual Rocker Fulcrums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Fuel Injector Sleeves.............. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
Valves................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
Cylinder Heads..................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .345
Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Tightening Sequence for Cylinder Head Bolts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
Rocker Arm Supports, Push Rods, and Valve Bridges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350
Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .355
Left Valve Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Oil Fill Tube Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
310 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Right Valve Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358


Breather Cover Assembly and Variable Impactor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
Lifting eye and jet pump tube assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Draft Tube Assembly................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Balance Duct and Balance Tube Flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364

Special Torque.................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .365

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365


CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 311

Exploded Views

Figure 457 Intake Balance Duct, Crankcase


Breather Assembly, and Crankcase Ventilation
1. O-ring (3)
2. M6 x 14 bolt (2)
3. Balance duct
4. Balance tube flange
5. Upper draft tube
6. Lifting eye
7. 1” Worm gear hose clamp (2)
8. 1” 90° elbow
9. Jet pump tube assembly
10. Breather cover
11. Filter with variable impactor
12. Lower draft tube
13. M10 nut
14. M10 x 25 bolt
15. M10 x 25 stud bolt
312 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 458 Valve Cover And Valve Cover Base Assemblies (Left)
1. Valve cover base gasket 9. M6 x 16 hex flange bolt (3) 17. Clamp
2. Slotted spring dowel pin (2) 10. Oil fill support 18. Oil fill tube
3. M6 x 100 bolt (5) 11. Oil fill cap assembly 19. Intake manifold O-ring
4. M8 x 225 bolt (5) 12. Oil fill tube assembly 20. Valve cover bolt assembly (5)
5. M6 x 80 bolt 13. M6 x 20 bolt (2) 21. Left valve cover
6. M6 x 30 bolt (11) 14. Clamp 22. Valve cover gasket
7. Fuel supply line seal 15. Valve cover stud bolt assembly
8. Left valve cover and intake (5)
manifold base 16. Oil fill tube
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 313

Figure 459 Rocker Arm Support Components (typical)


1. Push rod assembly (8) 5. Intake rocker arm assembly (4) 9. Exhaust rocker arm assembly
2. Dowel sleeve bushing (2) 6. Pivot ball (8) (4)
3. Rocker arm (V8) support 7. Dual rocker fulcrum plate (4) 10. Valve bridge (8)
4. Rocker arm clip (8) 8. M10 x 70 hex flange bolt (8)
314 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 460 Cylinder Head Components (typical)


1. Cylinder head gasket 6. Valve spring retainer (16) 12. Intake valve (8)
2. M16 x 172 cylinder head bolt 7. Valve stem key (32) 13. Roller hydraulic cam followers
(10) 8. 32 mm cup plug (6) (8)
3. 25 mm cup plug (4) 9. Cylinder head 14. Roller follower guide (2)
4. Valve seal assembly (16) 10. Injector sleeve (4) 15. Lifter guide bolt with washer (2)
5. Valve spring (16) 11. Exhaust valve (8)
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 315

Removal
WARNING: Failure to observe the following
warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine death, do not smoke and keep fuel away from
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard flames and sparks.
to human health and the environment.
NOTE: See the following service sections for
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
information on removal of components prior to
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
this section.
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and • Engine Electrical
other contaminated materials according to
• Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
applicable regulations.
• Dual Stage Turbocharger and Exhaust
Manifolds
WARNING: Failure to observe the following • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or • Fuel System
death, read all safety instructions in the "Safety • Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related
Information" section of this manual. components

WARNING: Failure to observe the following • Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan
warning may cause property damage, personal Balance Duct and Balance Tube Flange
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.

WARNING: Failure to observe the following


warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, disconnect the main battery negative
terminal before disconnecting or connecting
electrical components.

WARNING: Failure to observe the following


warning may cause property damage, personal
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. Limit
compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
Figure 461 Balance Duct and Balance Tube
Flange
WARNING: Failure to observe the following
warning may cause property damage, personal 1. Balance duct
injury, or death. To prevent personal injury or 2. M6 x 14 bolt
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin. 3. Balance tube flange
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing and
1. Remove M6 x 14 bolt that secures balance tube
rags contaminated with engine fluids.
flange to the right valve cover and intake manifold
base assembly.
316 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

4. Remove Cross-over Tube Removal Tool.

Figure 462 Cross-over Tube Removal Tool Figure 464 Removal of Balance Duct and
Balance Tube Flange
1. M6 x 14 bolt
2. Balance duct

5. Remove M6 x 14 bolt that secures balance duct.


6. Remove balance duct and balance tube flange.

Figure 463 Installation of Cross-over Tube


Removal Tool
1. Set screw
2. Adjustment screw

Figure 465 Balance Duct, Balance Tube Flange,


2. Position Cross-over Tube Removal Tool (page and O-Rings
261) onto balance tube flange, turn set screw into
hole in balance tube flange, and turn adjustment 1. O-ring (3)
screw counterclockwise against tab on tube 2. Balance duct
flange. 3. Balance tube flange

3. Turn the Cross-over Tube Removal Tool and apply


force to move the balance tube flange until the end 7. Remove and discard three O-rings gaskets.
of the balance tube flange clears the hole in the
valve cover and intake manifold base assembly.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 317

Draft Tube Assembly 5. If necessary, remove worm gear hose clamps


from elbow.

Lifting Eye and Jet Pump Tube Assembly

Figure 466 Draft Tube Assembly Figure 467 Lifting Eye and Jet Pump Tube
Assembly
1. Upper draft tube
2. 1” worm gear hose clamp (2) 1. Jet pump tube assembly
3. 1” 90° elbow 2. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (2)
4. Lower draft tube 3. Nut
5. M12 nut 4. Lifting eye
5. M10 x 25 stud bolt
6. M10 x 25 bolt
NOTE: New lower draft tube assembly
(7091588C1) will be non-serviceable.
1. Remove M10 x 25 stud bolt, M10 x 25 bolt, and
1. Loosen worm gear hose clamp connecting 90° lifting eye from cylinder head.
elbow to upper draft tube assembly.
2. Disconnect nut on jet pump tube assembly from
2. Remove M12 nut securing upper draft tube fitting in right valve cover.
assembly to rear crankcase cover.
3. Remove jet pump tube assembly from stud bolts
3. Remove draft tube assembly. in right valve cover, and discard jet pump tube
4. Loosen worm gear hose clamp on 90° elbow to assembly.
breather cover and remove elbow.
318 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Breather Cover Assembly and Filter with variable


impactor

Figure 470 Filter with Variable Impactor


(Non-serviceable)
Figure 468 Breather Cover Assembly 1. M6 captive bolt (2)
2. Filter
1. M6 captive bolt (10)
3. Breather cover assembly
2. Breather cover assembly

NOTE: If vehicle is equipped with a Coalescer type


1. Loosen and disengage 10 captive bolts and
serviceable breather, it should be replaced with a
remove breather cover assembly.
non-serviceable variable impactor type breather
assembly. When replacing breather assembly,
Breather Programmable Parameter will need to
be disabled.
2. Disengage two M6 captive bolts, and remove
filter with variable impactor from breather cover
assembly.

Figure 469 Filter with Variable Impactor


(serviceable)
1. M6 captive bolt (2)
2. Filter
3. Breather cover assembly
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 319

Right Valve Cover Oil Fill Tube Assembly

Figure 471 Right Valve Cover


1. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (6)
Figure 473 Oil Fill Tube Assembly
2. Valve cover bolt assembly (4)
1. Oil fill cap assembly
2. Oil fill tube
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use 3. M6 x 20 bolt (2)
power tools to remove or install valve cover bolts. 4. Clamp (2)
5. Oil fill (hose)
1. Disengage four valve cover bolt assemblies and
six valve cover stud bolt assemblies.
2. Remove right valve cover. 1. Remove two M6 x 20 bolts securing oil fill tube to
oil fill support bracket.
2. Loosen lower clamp and remove oil fill tube
assembly.

Figure 472 Valve Cover Gasket


1. Valve cover gasket
2. Right valve cover

3. Remove and discard right valve cover gasket.


320 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Left Valve Cover

Figure 474 Oil Fill Support Figure 475 Left Valve Cover
1. M6 x 16 bolt (3) 1. Valve cover bolt assembly (5)
2. Oil fill support 2. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (5)

3. Remove three M6 x 16 bolts that secure the oil 1. Disengage five valve cover bolt assemblies and
support bracket. five valve cover stud bolt assemblies.
4. Remove oil support bracket. 2. Remove left valve cover.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 321

3. Remove and discard left valve cover gasket.


4. Remove oil fill tube from left valve cover. Discard
O-ring.

Figure 476 Oil Fill Tube and Valve Cover Gasket


1. Left valve cover
2. Valve cover gasket
3. O-ring
4. Oil fill tube
322 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base


Assembly
NOTE: Before removing the left valve cover and
intake manifold base assembly, and the right valve
cover and intake manifold base assembly, see the
following procedures:
• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor (page 87)
• Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses (page 88)
• Fuel rail assemblies and fuel Injectors (page 224)

Figure 477 Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
1. M6 x 100 bolt (5) 3. M8 x 225 bolt (5) 5. Left valve cover and intake
2. M6 x 80 bolt 4. M6 x 30 bolt (11) manifold base

1. Remove five M6 x 100 bolts. 4. Remove 11 M6 x 30 bolts.


2. Remove M6 x 80 bolt. 5. Remove left valve cover and intake manifold
base.
3. Remove five M8 x 225 bolts.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 323

6. Remove and discard fuel supply line seal.


7. If necessary, remove two slotted spring pins.
8. Remove and discard valve cover and intake
manifold base gasket.

Figure 478 Left Valve Cover, Intake Manifold


Base, and Gasket
1. Left valve cover and intake manifold base
2. Fuel supply line seal
3. Slotted spring pin (2)
4. Valve cover and intake manifold base gasket
324 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base


Assembly
NOTE: Before removing the left valve cover and
intake manifold base assembly, and the right valve
cover and intake manifold base assembly, see the
following procedures:
• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor (page 87)
• Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses (page 88)
• Fuel rail assemblies and fuel Injectors (page 224)

Figure 479 Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
1. M6 x 30 bolt (17) 3. M8 x 225 bolt (4) 4. Right valve cover and intake
2. M8 x 170 bolt manifold base

1. Remove 17 M6 x 30 bolts. 4. Remove right valve cover and intake manifold


base.
2. Remove four M8 x 225 bolts.
3. Remove M8 x 170 bolt.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 325

Dual Fulcrum Plates Assemblies

Figure 480 Right Valve Cover and Intake


Manifold Base and Gasket
1. Right valve cover and intake manifold base
2. Fuel supply line seal Figure 481 Dual Fulcrum Plates Assemblies
3. Slotted spring pin (2) (typical)
4. Valve cover and intake manifold base gasket 1. Dual fulcrum plate assembly (4)
2. M10 x 70 bolt (8)

5. Remove and discard fuel supply line seal.


6. If necessary, remove two slotted spring pins. CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use a
permanent marker to identify internal components
7. Remove and discard valve cover and intake or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary
manifold base gasket. markers.
1. Mark dual rocker fulcrum plates so they can be
installed in their original location.
2. Remove eight M10 x 70 bolts and four dual
fulcrum plate assemblies.
326 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Rocker Arm Support, Push Rods, and Valve Cylinder Heads


Bridges
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, remove
injectors before removing cylinder head.

Figure 482 Rocker Arm Support, Push Rods, Figure 483 Removal Of M16 X 172 Cylinder
and Valve Bridges Head Bolt (typical)

1. Push rod
2. Rocker arm support 1. Remove and discard the center M16 x 172
3. Valve bridge cylinder head bolt, as indicated.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


1. Remove rocker arm support.
death, mount cylinder head lifting bracket on
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use a center of cylinder head. Also, make sure the
permanent marker to identify internal components lifting hook has a safety latch.
or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary
NOTE: The lifting bracket allows each cylinder
markers.
head to be removed squarely from the crankcase.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, keep cam
followers and push rods in the order removed and
install in original order.
2. Remove and identify each push rod so they can
be installed in their original locations.
Example: 2 - I
• Cylinder number 2
• I = Intake, E = Exhaust
NOTE: Identify each valve bridge and
corresponding valve set so they can be installed
in their original locations.
3. Remove eight valve bridges.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 327

6. Lift cylinder head from crankcase.


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not scratch
gasket surface of cylinder head.
7. Place cylinder head on a protected surface.
8. Remove and discard cylinder head gasket.

Figure 484 Installation of Cylinder Head Lifting


Bracket and Removal Of Cylinder Head Bolts
(typical)
1. Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket
2. M10 x 70 bolt (2)
3. M16 x 172 bolts (9)

Figure 485 Cylinder Head Spring Dowel Pins


(typical)
2. Position Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket (page 365)
on cylinder head over the center two threaded
holes for the fulcrum plate assemblies and install
9. Remove two spring dowel pins.
two M10 x 70 bolts.
10. For left cylinder head, remove two M10 x 25 bolts
3. Tighten two M10 x 70 bolts to standard torque
and lifting eye.
(page 473).
4. Attach a lifting hoist hook or suitable lifting sling to
lifting bracket.
5. Using a circular pattern loosen, remove, and
discard nine M16 x 172 cylinder head bolts. Begin
with the outer bolts and move inward.
328 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers


NOTE: If the valve train operates quietly and
hydraulic cam followers function properly, do not
service cam followers.

Figure 487 Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers


(typical)
1. Roller hydraulic cam follower (4)
Figure 486 Roller Follower Guides (typical) 2. Roller follower guide

1. Roller follower guide (2)


2. Lifter guide bolt with washer (2) NOTE: Identify and note the position of each roller
hydraulic cam follower based on the orientation
of its lubrication hole. The roller hydraulic cam
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use a followers must be installed in their original
permanent marker to identify internal components position.
or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary
markers. 2. Remove four roller hydraulic cam followers from
roller follower guide.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, keep cam
followers and push rods in the order removed and
install in original order.
NOTE: To remove the cam followers lift the guide
straight up. A hand tool may be required.
NOTE: Identify orientation of each cam follower
and guide during disassembly.
1. Remove two lifter guide bolts and two roller
follower guides.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 329

Valves 3. Remove valve from cylinder head.


NOTE: Before removing valves, do inspections
for head thickness, valve recession, lower deck
cracks, and valve seat leakage. See Cylinder
Head Inspection – Valves Installed (page 333).

Figure 489 Valve Seal Assembly (typical)

4. Remove and discard valve seal assembly.


Figure 488 Valve Spring Compression (typical)
1. Valve stem key (2)
Fuel Injector Sleeves
2. C Type Valve Spring Compressor
3. Valve spring retainer CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, if replacing
4. Valve fuel injector sleeves in chassis, install a small plug
in the bottom of the injector sleeve before cutting
threads. This will keep small metal chips out of the
NOTE: A small magnet is useful to remove the combustion chamber.
valve stem keys.
NOTE: Fuel injector sleeve removal is not required
1. Compress valve springs with C Type Valve Spring unless sleeve is damaged.
Compressor (page 365), and remove two valve
NOTE: Use Injector Sleeve Remover (page 365) to
stem keys.
remove injector sleeves.
2. Release valve spring compressor and remove
valve spring retainer and valve spring.
330 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 490 Injector Sleeve Remover Figure 491 Thread Tap Guide Collar Installed
(typical)
1. Thread tap
2. Injector Sleeve Remover 1. Thread tap guide collar
3. Thread tap guide collar 2. Thread tap

NOTE: The fuel injector sleeve is made of 2. Insert thread tap into fuel injector sleeve and
stainless steel. Lubrication of the thread tap is install thread tap guide collar on thread tap.
required.
3. Cut at least 19 mm (0.75 in) deep threads to
1. Lubricate thread tap with clean engine oil. accommodate injector sleeve remover.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 331

1. Place dual fulcrum plate assembly upside down in


your palm.
2. Push up on rocker arm assembly with palm and
forward on dual rocker fulcrum plate with thumb
of opposite hand.

Figure 492 Installation of Injector Sleeve


Remover and Slide Hammer (typical)
1. Slide Hammer
2. Injector Sleeve Remover

4. Install and tighten Injector Sleeve Remover (page Figure 494 Rocker Arm Assembly Separated
365) into fuel injector sleeve. (typical)
5. Thread Slide Hammer (page 365) in injector 1. 3/8” pivot ball
sleeve remover. 2. Rocker arm assembly
6. Remove and discard fuel injector sleeve. 3. Rocker arm clip
4. Dual rocker fulcrum plate

Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies


3. Remove rocker arm assembly and 3/8” pivot ball.

Figure 493 Separation of Rocker Arm Assembly


From Dual Rocker Fulcrum Plate (typical)
1. Rocker arm assembly
2. Dual rocker fulcrum plate
3. Rocker arm clip
332 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 495 Rocker Arm Clip Removed (typical)


1. Dual rocker fulcrum plate
2. Rocker arm clip

4. Remove and discard rocker arm clip.


CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 333

Cleaning, Inspection, and Testing 6. Use Cylinder Head Bolt Tap (page 365) to clean
each tapped hole in crankcase top deck. Remove
Cylinder Head and Crankcase Components
debris with filtered compressed air.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 7. Thoroughly clean push rods with a suitable
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. solvent. Dry with filtered compressed air.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not scratch Cylinder Head Inspection – Valves Installed
gasket surface of cylinder head.
NOTE: Inspect cylinder head for thickness,
1. With valves installed to protect seats, use a warping, cracks, and valve leakage.
scraper and wire brush to remove deposits and
gasket material from valve heads and gasket
surface.
2. Use a suitable solvent to remove dirt, grease, and
deposits from removed parts.
3. Clean all bolt holes in crankcase. Make sure
gasket surfaces, oil return, and coolant passages
are clean. After rinsing thoroughly with hot water,
dry with filtered compressed air.
4. Clean all bolts (except head bolts) with a suitable
solvent and dry thoroughly. New head bolts must
be installed.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, clean and
dry threads in crankcase bolt holes with filtered
compressed air. Dirt or oil in holes may cause binding
Figure 497 Measurement Of Cylinder Head
and incorrect torque readings.
Thickness
5. Clean crankcase threads with compressed air.

1. Use a 3-4 inch micrometer (page 365) to measure


deck thickness of cylinder head at four corner
locations. If overall cylinder head thickness
(deck-to-deck) specification (page 364) is not
met, install new cylinder head.

Figure 496 Cylinder Head Bolt Tap


334 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

the straight edge (page 365) on top of the feeler


gauge at 90° across the width of the cylinder head.
• If the feeler gauge blade can not be pulled
out from under the straight edge, that check
point passes the flatness check. Continue
inspection of remaining check points. If all
check points pass, continue with step 3.
• If the feeler gauge blade pulls out easily or is
loose, the cylinder head could be out of flat.
Install a new cylinder head.

Figure 498 Points To Check For Cylinder Head


Flatness

Figure 500 Checking Valve Head Recession


1. Straightedge
2. Feeler gauge
3. Valve head

Figure 499 Check Point Inspection


1. Straightedge 3. Check valve head recession (relative to deck) as
2. Feeler gauge follows:
a. Place a straightedge across each valve.

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not b. Place a feeler gauge between straightedge
machine the cylinder head if it is out of flatness. and valve head.

NOTE: Use a straight edge that is calibrated c. If out of specification (page 364), replace
by the manufacturer to be flat within 0.0002 in valve. Repeat step 2 with new valve, and
(0.005 mm) per running foot length. Do not place if specifications are still not met, replace
straightedge over and past the lifter opening cylinder head.
area of the cylinder head, when inspecting check 4. Use the Dye Penetrant Kit (page 365), to inspect
points for cylinder head flatness. for cracks in cylinder head.
2. Put the 0.051 mm (0.002 in) blade of the feeler
gauge (page 365) on the check point, and place
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 335

Figure 501 Cleaner Sprayed on Cylinder Head Figure 503 Spraying Developer onto Cylinder
(typical) Head (typical)

5. Spray cleaner on lower deck (gasket surface) of


cylinder head and wipe dry.

Figure 504 Cylinder Head Crack Between Intake


Figure 502 Dye Penetrant Sprayed on Cylinder
and Exhaust Valves
Head (typical)

8. Spray developer on lower deck (gasket surface)


6. Spray dye penetrant on lower deck (gasket
of cylinder head and let dry for 5 to 15 minutes.
surface) of cylinder head and let dry for 5 to 15
Cracks show up as purple lines against white
minutes.
developer.
7. Wipe dye off cylinder head surface.
CAUTION: Install a new cylinder head if cylinder head
NOTE: Dye will remain in cracks. is cracked.
9. Position cylinder head on wooden blocks with
gasket surface facing down and spray mineral
spirits into intake and exhaust ports.
336 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 506 Cylinder Head Pressure Test Plate


Figure 505 Leak Inspection
1. Pressure Test Regulator and Gauge assembly
1. Inspection mirror 2. Cylinder Head Pressure Test Plate
2. Reflection of valve 3. M8 bolt (5)
3. Flashlight 4. M14 mounting bolt (10)

10. Wait five minutes. Use an inspection mirror (page 2. Fasten Cylinder Head Pressure Test Plate (page
365) to inspect valve seat area for leakage of 365) with rubber gasket attached to gasket side of
mineral spirits. cylinder head. Secure plate with ten M14 and five
NOTE: Valve seats must not leak. Valve M8 mounting bolts.
replacement is not required if the cylinder head 3. Install the Pressure Test Regulator and Gauge
passes the mineral spirits test. If valve seats leak, assembly (page 365) to Cylinder Head Pressure
install new valves. See Valves (page 343). Test Plate.
Cylinder Head Inspection – Valves Removed 4. Immerse cylinder head in water. Apply air
pressure and adjust to 124 to 138 kPa (18 to 20
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or psi) and inspect for leaks in the following places.
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
• Ports
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
• Upper cylinder head deck
1. Pressure testing the cylinder head reveals cracks
in ports or sleeve leakage which cannot be seen • Lower cylinder head deck
using dye penetrant. Pressure test the cylinder
• Nozzle sleeve area
head as follows:
5. If leaks are observed, install a new cylinder head.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 337

Valve Seats 3. Measure valve stem diameter with a 0-1 inch


micrometer (page 365) at three locations. At each
1. Clean valve seat area using suitable solvent,
location, take two measurements 90 degrees
before inspection.
apart. Average the two measurements from each
2. Inspect exhaust valve seats for burned or cracked location.
conditions. If any of these conditions exist,
If the average of measurements at any of the
replace cylinder head.
three locations is not within valve stem diameter
3. Using a dial caliper (page 365), measure valve Specification (page 364), replace that valve.
seat width. See Specifications (page 364).
Replace cylinder head if necessary.

Valves
1. Use a wire brush to remove all carbon from valve
stems and heads.
2. Inspect each valve. Replace valves having burn
marks, warping, scuffing, bending or valve tip
spalling.

Figure 508 Measurement of Valve Face Margin

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, maintain


a minimum valve face margin across the entire
valve face. An insufficient margin will not provide
correct heat dissipation, leading to valve warping
or breakage. Replace valve if margin is less than
specification. See Specifications (page 364).
Figure 507 Valve Stem Diameter Measurements
4. Use a dial caliper (page 365) to measure valve
1. Two measurements 90 degrees apart
face margin at four locations (90° apart).
2. Three valve stem diameter measurements locations
338 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Valve Guides 3. Use Valve Guide Gauge Tool (page 365) to


measure each valve guide bore. Measure valve
guides within 0.64 mm (0.025 in) of each end
and 90° from the crankshaft center line. Record
the readings to determine valve stem-to-guide
running clearance.

Figure 509 Cleaning Valve Guide Bore

1. Clean all valve guide bores using a nylon brush,


soap and water. Blow out any residue with filtered
compressed air. Figure 511 Measurement of Valve Guide Gauge
Tool
2. Position an inspection light at the bottom of the
valve guide bores and examine the walls for
burning or cracking. Replace cylinder head, if
4. Measure Valve Guide Gauge Tool with a 0-1 inch
necessary.
micrometer (page 365).
NOTE: If valve guide inside diameter exceeds
specifications (page 364), install a new cylinder
head.
5. Using each valve guide inside diameter and valve
stem diameter measurement, determine valve
stem-to-guide running clearance for each valve.
See Specifications (page 364). Replace valve if
necessary.

Figure 510 Measuring Valve Guide Bore with


Valve Guide Gauge Tool
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 339

Valve Springs
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not wire
brush or grind valve springs. This can cause fatigue
cracks and spring failure.
1. Clean all valve springs in a suitable solvent.
2. Inspect valve springs for rust, pitting, distortion,
and cracks. If these conditions exist, replace the
valve springs.

Figure 513 Measurement of Valve Spring Length


Figure 512 Flatness Check of Valve Spring
Under Load

3. Inspect to verify valve spring ends are flat and


5. Apply correct test loads to each spring and
square to prevent lateral loads on valve stem.
determine whether specified heights are
Replace valve springs if necessary.
achieved. See Specifications (page 364).
4. Measure valve spring tension using a Valve Replace valve springs if necessary.
Spring Tester (page 365).
340 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Valve Stem Keys


1. Clean all valve stem keys with a suitable cleaning
solvent.
2. Inspect inside and outside of valve stem keys
for wear. Replace worn valve stem keys, if
necessary.

Push Rods
1. Inspect push rods for wear and deposits that
may restrict oil flow into rocker arm assemblies.
Replace push rod if necessary.

Figure 515 Fuel Gallery

3. Clean fuel gallery with Fuel Gallery Cleaning


Brush (page 365).

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
4. Use filtered compressed air to clean out debris
from fuel gallery port.
5. Install a new seal on fuel rail plug.
6. Install fuel rail plug assembly and tighten to
Figure 514 Push Rod Runout special torque (page 365).

2. Roll push rod on a flat surface to check runout. If a Dual Rocker Fulcrums
push rod is not straight, see Specifications (page
364) for runout. If specifications are exceeded, WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
replace push rod. death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
1. Clean parts with a suitable solvent. Use filtered
Fuel Injector Sleeve Bore and Gallery
compressed air to dry parts.
1. Use Injector Sleeve Brushes (page 365) in fuel
2. Inspect each rocker arm pivot foot for excessive
injector bore to remove deposits and hardened
wear, and corresponding valve bridge for pitting
sealant.
or scuffing. Replace rocker arm assemblies and
2. Remove fuel rail plug assembly and discard seal. valve bridges, if necessary.
3. Inspect each 3/8” pivot ball and rocker arm socket
for scuffing. Replace 3/8” pivot ball and rocker
arm, if necessary.
4. Inspect fulcrum plate ball socket for excessive
wear. Inspect bolts for thread damage. Replace
worn components, if necessary.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 341

Installation
Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies

Figure 518 Rocker Arm Assembly Installation


(typical)
1. 3/8” pivot ball
2. Rocker arm assembly
3. Rocker arm clip
Figure 516 Dual Rocker Fulcrum Plate (typical)
4. Dual rocker fulcrum plate
1. Intake end
2. Exhaust end
2. Apply a small amount of lithium grease (page 365)
to dual rocker fulcrum plate pockets.
3. Insert 3/8” pivot ball in dual rocker fulcrum plate
pockets.

Figure 517 Rocker Arm Clip (typical)


1. Dual rocker fulcrum plate
2. Rocker arm clip

1. Install a new rocker arm clip on both sides of dual


rocker fulcrum plate.
342 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 519 Installation Of Rocker Arm (typical) Figure 520 Application of Loctite® 620 Retaining
1. Rocker arm clip Compound to Fuel Injector Sleeve
2. Rocker arm assembly
1. Wall (end)
3. Dual rocker fulcrum plate
2. Upper wall (top)
3. Injector Sleeve Installer

4. Position lower part of rocker arm assembly under


rocker arm clip and push it upward. Use thumb to 1. Place new fuel injector sleeve on Injector Sleeve
push upper part of rocker arm assembly over 3/8” Installer (page 365).
pivot ball.
2. Apply Loctite® 620 Retaining Compound (page
5. Check for freedom of movement of rocker arm on 365) to fuel injector sleeve.
dual rocker fulcrum plate.
3. Center fuel injector sleeve into injector bore.
6. Repeat steps 1–4 for the other rocker arm on the
dual rocker fulcrum plate.

Fuel Injector Sleeves


NOTE: Verify injector bore is completely clean and
dry.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 343

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, insert a clean


paper towel inside injector sleeve to keep foreign
material out.
6. Cover injector sleeve.

Valves

Figure 521 Installation of Fuel Injector Sleeve


Into Injector Bore

4. Use a hammer to drive Injector Sleeve Installer


(page 365) with fuel injector sleeve into fuel
injector bore until the sleeve bottoms. If any
liquid gasket gets inside injector sleeve, it must
be cleaned out before it hardens.
Figure 522 Valve Seal Assembly (typical)
5. Inspect the inside surface of the installed fuel
injector sleeve. If nicks and scratches are evident,
replace the fuel injector sleeve again. Ensure 1. Lubricate inside of new valve seal assembly with
installation tool is not causing such damage. Use clean engine oil and put seal onto valve guide.
a different installation tool if necessary.
344 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

2. Install valve seal assembly. 7. After valve replacement, measure valve


head recession relative to deck to confirm
3. Lubricate valve stem with clean engine oil and
reconditioning. See Specifications (page 364).
insert valve in cylinder head.
4. Install valve spring over valve seal.
Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers
5. Install valve spring retainer on top of valve spring.

Figure 524 Roller Hydraulic Cam Followers


Figure 523 Valve Spring Compression (typical) (typical)
1. Valve stem key (2)
1. Roller hydraulic cam follower (4)
2. C Type Valve Spring Compressor
2. Roller follower guide
3. Valve spring retainer
4. Valve
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, keep cam
followers and push rods in the order removed and
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, make sure
install in original order.
when the valve spring compressor is released the
inside bead of each key locks into the key groove of NOTE: Install roller hydraulic cam followers in
the valve stem. roller follower guides with the lubrication holes
oriented as noted during removal.
6. Compress valve spring with C Type Valve Spring
Compressor (page 365), install two valve stem 1. Lubricate and place each roller hydraulic cam
keys, and release spring compressor. follower in its respective roller follower guide.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 345

Figure 525 Cam Follower And Guide Assemblies Figure 526 Cylinder Head Spring Dowel Pins In
(typical) Crankcase (typical)
1. Cam follower and guide assembly (2)
2. Lifter guide bolt with washer assembly (2)
1. Install two spring dowel pins in upper crankcase
assembly.
2. Lubricate roller hydraulic cam followers with clean
engine oil and install cam followers and guide
assemblies in correct location.
3. Install two lifter guide bolt with washer
assemblies. Tighten bolts to standard torque
(page 473).

Cylinder Heads
Installation
NOTE: Cam followers cannot be removed or
replaced when cylinder head is bolted to the
crankcase. Be sure to complete required work on
cam followers before installing cylinder head.
Figure 527 Clearance Holes For Spring Dowel
Pins (typical)

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields to
protect eyes. Limit compressed air pressure to
207 kPa (30 psi).
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, clean and
blow dry threads in the crankcase bolt holes with
filtered compressed air. Dirt or oil in holes may cause
binding or an incorrect torque reading.
346 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, remove debris


and contaminates from cylinder head gasket mating
surfaces. A faulty seal between the cylinder head,
gasket, and crankcase will cause oil, coolant, and
compression leaks. Do not apply sealant to head
gasket surfaces.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install a new
cylinder head gasket with part number facing up.
NOTE: Use care to avoid scratching blue
compound on cylinder head gaskets.
2. Align a new cylinder head gasket with spring
dowel pins and press to install.
Figure 528 Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or (typical)
death, mount cylinder head lifting bracket on
1. Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket
center of cylinder head. Also, make sure the
2. M10 x 70 bolt (2)
lifting hook has a safety latch.

3. Position Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket (page 365)


onto center of cylinder head and install two M10
x 70 bolts. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page
473).
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not drop or
slide cylinder head on head gasket. This will damage
the head gasket and spring dowel pins, resulting in
leakage.
4. Attach lifting hoist hook or lifting sling to lifting
bracket. Raise cylinder head and align with dowel
sleeves previously installed in crankcase.
5. Lower cylinder head onto crankcase.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 347

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install new


head bolts. Lightly lubricate new bolt threads and
mating surfaces of bolt flanges with clean engine
oil. Too much oil will cause hydrostatic lock and give
incorrect torque reading.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, lubricate
threads of new cylinder head bolts with clean engine
oil. Do not use anti-seize compounds, grease, or
other lubricants. This will cause an incorrect torque
reading.

Figure 529 Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket


(typical)
1. Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket
2. M10 x 70 bolt (2)
3. M16 x 172 bolt (9)

6. Remove two M10 x 70 bolts and the Cylinder


Head Lifting Bracket.

Figure 530 M16 x 172 Cylinder head bolt (10)

7. Lubricate 10 new cylinder head bolts with clean


engine oil.
8. Install and hand tighten bolts.
348 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Tightening Sequence for Cylinder Head Bolts


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use a
permanent ink marker to identify bolt torque
orientation.

Figure 531 Tightening Sequence For Cylinder Head Bolts (typical)

NOTE: For correct cylinder head surface seating 2. Loosen cylinder head bolts 1 through 10 in
and sealing, follow the procedure and tightening tightening sequence.
sequence below for new M16 x 172 cylinder head
3. Tighten cylinder head bolts 1 through 10 to 163
bolts.
N·m (120 lb·ft) in tightening sequence.
1. Tighten cylinder head bolts 1 through 10 to 95 N·m
(70 lb·ft) in tightening sequence.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 349

5. First, turn cylinder head bolts 1 through 10


clockwise 90° (1/4 turn) in tightening sequence.

Figure 532 Dots Applied (typical)

4. Apply dots to all cylinder head bolts and dots to


cylinder head [after all bolts are tightened to 163
N·m (120 lb·ft)]. Figure 534 Second 90° Turn

6. Second, turn cylinder head bolts 1 through 10


clockwise 90° (1/4 turn) in tightening sequence.

Figure 533 First 90° Turn


350 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Rocker Arm Supports, Push Rods, and Valve


Bridges

Figure 536 Intake Push Rod (cylinder 3)

Figure 535 Rocker Arm Support, Push Rods,


And Valve Bridges (typical)
1. Push rod
2. Rocker arm support
3. Valve bridge

1. Apply lithium grease (page 365) to valve stem tips


and to valve bridge pockets.
2. Place each of the previously marked valve bridges
on their respective valve stems.
3. Install rocker arm support.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, keep cam
followers and push rods in the order removed and Figure 537 Dowel Pin In Crankshaft At 10:30
install in original order. Position
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, seat push 1. Dowel pin
rods in the hydraulic roller follower sockets. 2. Crankshaft
4. Apply clean engine oil to end of each push rod and
install to original locations with the copper finish
end on top. NOTE: Rotate crankshaft and observe the intake
push rod at number 3 cylinder. Cylinder number
1 is Top Dead Center (TDC) when intake push
rod at cylinder number 3 indicates cam lift, and
the crankshaft damper dowel pin is at the 10:30
position.
5. Position crankshaft so cylinder number 1 is at
TDC and in the firing position.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 351

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, make sure


push rods have seated in the rocker arm pocket.
7. Install and tighten M10 x 70 bolts for cylinder
numbers 1, 2, 7, and 8 as follows:
a. Hand tighten all bolts
b. Make sure pivot foot is centered on valve
bridge.
c. Tighten inboard (upper) bolts to 61 N·m
(45 lb·ft).
d. Tighten outboard (lower) bolts to 61 N·m
(45 lb·ft).
e. Make sure pivot foot is centered on valve
Figure 538 Cylinder Numbers bridge. If pivot foot is not centered on
valve bridge, remove and reinstall dual
fulcrum plate assembly in question.

Figure 539 Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies


(typical)
1. Dual fulcrum plate assembly (4)
2. Rocker arm pocket
3. M10 x 70 bolt (8)
4. Pivot foot

6. Install dual fulcrum plate assemblies for cylinder


numbers 1, 2, 7, and 8.
352 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

8. Rotate crankshaft 360° (full turn) so that cylinder


number 4 is at TDC and in the firing position.

Figure 540 Intake Push Rod (cylinder 8)

Figure 542 Cylinder Numbers

Figure 541 Dowel Pin In Crankshaft At 10:30


Position
1. Dowel pin Figure 543 Dual Fulcrum Plate Assemblies
2. Crankshaft (typical)
1. Dual fulcrum plate assembly (4)
2. Rocker arm pocket
NOTE: Rotate crankshaft and observe the intake 3. M10 x 70 bolt (8)
push rod at number 8 cylinder. Cylinder number 4. Pivot foot
4 is Top Dead Center (TDC) when intake push
rod at cylinder number 8 indicates cam lift, and
the crankshaft damper dowel pin is at the 10:30 9. Install dual fulcrum plate assemblies for cylinder
position. numbers 3, 4, 5, and 6.
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 353

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, make sure Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base
push rods have seated in the rocker arm pocket. Assembly
10. Install and tighten M10 x 70 bolts for cylinder
numbers 3, 4, 5, and 6 as follows:
a. Hand tighten all bolts
b. Make sure pivot foot is centered on valve
bridge.
c. Tighten inboard (upper) bolts to 61 N·m
(45 lb·ft).
d. Tighten outboard (lower) bolts to 61 N·m
(45 lb·ft).
e. Make sure pivot foot is centered on valve
bridge. If pivot foot is not centered on
valve bridge, remove and reinstall dual
fulcrum plate assembly in question. Figure 544 Right Valve Cover and Intake
Manifold Base and Gasket
1. Right valve cover and intake manifold base
2. Fuel supply line seal
3. Slotted spring pin (2)
4. Valve cover and intake manifold base gasket

1. Install two slotted spring pins, if previously


removed.
2. Install new fuel supply line seal.
3. Install new valve cover and intake manifold base
gasket.
354 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 545 Right Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
1. M6 x 30 bolt (17) 3. M8 x 225 bolt (4) 4. Right valve cover and intake
2. M8 x 170 bolt manifold base

4. Position right valve cover and intake manifold NOTE: Before installing the left valve cover and
base onto cylinder head. right valve cover, see the following procedures:
5. Install 17 M6 x 30 bolts and tighten bolts to • Fuel rail assemblies and fuel Injectors (page
standard torque (page 473). 251)
6. Install four M8 x 225 bolts and tighten bolts to • Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses (page 91)
standard torque (page 473).
• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor (page 93)
7. Install M8 x 170 bolt and tighten bolt to standard
torque (page 473).
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 355

Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base 1. Install two slotted spring pins.
Assembly
2. Install new fuel supply line seal.
3. Install new valve cover and intake manifold base
gasket.

Figure 546 Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold


Base and Gasket
1. Left valve cover and intake manifold base
2. Fuel supply line seal
3. Slotted spring pin (2)
4. Valve cover and intake manifold base gasket
356 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Figure 547 Left Valve Cover and Intake Manifold Base Assembly
1. M6 x 100 bolt (5) 3. M8 x 225 bolt (5) 5. Left valve cover and intake
2. M6 x 80 bolt 4. M6 x 30 bolt (11) manifold base

4. Position left valve cover and intake manifold base NOTE: Before installing the left valve cover and
onto cylinder head. right valve cover, see the following procedures:
5. Install 11 M6 x 30 bolts and tighten bolts to • Fuel rail assemblies and fuel Injectors (page
standard torque (page 473). 251)
6. Install five M6 x 100 bolts and tighten bolts to • Under Valve Cover (UVC) Harnesses (page 91)
standard torque (page 473).
• Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) Sensor (page 93)
7. Install five M8 x 225 bolts and tighten bolts to
standard torque (page 473).
8. Install M6 x 80 bolt and tighten bolt to standard
torque (page 473).
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 357

Left Valve Cover 4. Position left valve cover onto valve cover and
intake manifold base.
5. Engage five valve cover bolt assemblies and five
valve cover stud bolt assemblies. Tighten bolts
and stud bolts to special torque (page 365).
6. Install oil fill support bracket and oil fill hose
assembly onto fuel filter cooler assembly (page
357).

Oil Fill Tube Assembly

Figure 548 Oil Fill Tube and Valve Cover Gasket


1. Left valve cover
2. Valve cover gasket
3. Intake manifold O-ring
4. Oil fill tube

1. Install new intake manifold O-ring onto oil fill tube.


2. Install oil fill tube into left valve cover.
3. Install new left valve cover gasket.

Figure 550 Oil Fill Support


1. M6 x 16 bolt (3)
2. Oil fill support

1. Install oil support bracket and install three M6 x 16


bolts to secure oil support bracket.
2. Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473).

Figure 549 Left Valve Cover


1. Valve cover bolt assembly (5)
2. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (5)
358 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use


power tools to remove or install valve cover bolts.
1. Install new right valve cover gasket.
2. Position right valve cover onto valve cover and
intake manifold base.
3. Engage four valve cover bolt assemblies and six
valve cover stud bolt assemblies. Tighten bolts
and stud bolts to special torque (page 365).

Breather Cover Assembly and Variable Impactor

Figure 551 Oil Fill Tube Assembly


1. Oil fill cap assembly
2. Oil fill tube
3. M6 x 20 bolt (2)
4. Clamp (2)
5. Oil fill (hose)

3. Install oil fill tube assembly.


4. Install two M6 x 20 bolts to secure oil fill tube
assembly to oil fill support bracket. Tighten bolts
to standard torque (page 473).

Figure 553 Filter with Variable Impactor


Right Valve Cover (serviceable)
1. M6 captive bolt (2)
2. Filter
3. Breather cover assembly

Figure 552 Right Valve Cover


1. Valve cover bolt assembly (4)
2. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (6)
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 359

Figure 555 Breather Cover Assembly


Figure 554 Filter with Variable Impactor
(Non-serviceable) 1. M6 captive bolt (10)
2. Breather cover assembly
1. M6 captive bolt (2)
2. Filter
3. Breather cover assembly
3. Position breather cover assembly onto right valve
cover.
NOTE: If vehicle is equipped with a Coalescer type 4. Engage 10 captive bolts to secure breather cover
serviceable breather, it should be replaced with a assembly.
non-serviceable variable impactor type breather
assembly. When replacing breather assembly,
breather programmable parameter will need to be
disabled.
1. Join new filter with variable impactor and breather
cover assembly.
2. Engage two M6 captive bolts and tighten to
special torque (page 365).

Figure 556 Torque Sequence For Breather


Cover Assembly Captive Bolts

5. Tighten M6 captive bolts in sequence to standard


torque (page 473).
360 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Lifting eye and jet pump tube assembly Draft Tube Assembly

Figure 557 Lifting Eye and Jet Pump Tube


Assembly
1. Jet pump tube assembly
2. Valve cover stud bolt assembly (2)
3. Nut Figure 558 Draft Tube Assembly
4. Lifting eye 1. Upper draft tube
5. M10 x 25 stud bolt 2. 1” worm gear hose clamp (2)
6. M10 x 25 bolt 3. 1” 90° elbow
4. Lower draft hose
5. M12 nut
1. Install a new jet pump tube assembly onto 1/4
hose fitting in breather cover and attach to valve
cover stud bolts. NOTE: Lower draft tube assembly has been
2. Position lifting eye onto cylinder head, install M10 redesigned to meet new vehicle clearance
stud bolt and M10 x 25 bolt, and tighten both to requirements. Components of new lower draft
standard torque (page 473). tube assembly are not serviceable. Attempting
to service draft tube assembly with older
components will result in clearance issues.
1. If removed, install worm gear hose clamp onto
the 90° elbow and install elbow onto the breather
cover.
2. If removed, install worm gear hose clamp that
connects the 90° elbow to the draft tube assembly.
3. Install draft tube assembly.
4. Install the M12 nut to secure the draft tube
assembly to the rear crankcase cover and tighten
to standard torque (page 473).
5. Tighten worm gear hose clamps to special torque
(page 365).
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 361

Balance Duct and Balance Tube Flange

Figure 560 Installation Of Balance Duct and


Balance Tube Flange
Figure 559 Balance Duct, Balance Tube Flange, 1. M6 x 14 bolt
and O-Rings 2. Balance duct
1. O-ring (3)
2. Balance duct
3. Balance tube flange 3. Position balance duct and balance tube flange.
4. Install M6 x 14 bolt finger tight to secure balance
duct.
1. Lubricate a new O-ring with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 365), position
O-ring on end of balance duct, and slide balance
tube flange onto balance duct.
2. Lubricate two O-rings with P-80® Rubber
Lubricant or equivalent (page 365), and install
one O-ring onto end of balance duct and one
O-ring onto balance tube flange.
362 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

5. Position Cross-over Tube Removal Tool (page


365) onto balance tube flange, turn set screw into
hole in balance tube flange, and turn adjustment
screw counterclockwise against tab on tube
flange.
6. Twist the Cross-over Tube Removal Tool and
apply force to move the balance tube flange until
the flange contacts the intake manifold valve
cover base.
7. Remove Cross-over Tube Removal Tool.

Figure 561 Cross-over Tube Removal Tool

Figure 563 Balance Duct And Balance Tube


Flange
1. Balance duct
2. M6 x 14 bolt
3. Balance tube flange

8. Install M6 x 14 bolt finger tight to secure balance


Figure 562 Installation of Cross-over Tube tube flange.
Removal Tool
1. Set screw
2. Adjustment screw
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 363

Figure 564 Balance Duct And Balance Tube


Flange
1. M6 x 14 bolt (2)
2. Balance tube flange
3. Balance duct

9. Tighten two M6 x 14 bolts to standard torque


(page 473).
364 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN

Specifications

Exhaust Valves
Stem diameter 6.946 to 6.964 mm (0.2735 to 0.2742 in)
Stem to guide running clearance (max.
0.1846 mm (0.00727 in)
allowable before replacement) diametrically
Valve face angle from center line 50.5 to 50.75°
Valve margin (minimum) 1.53 mm (0.060 in)
Valve recession in head 0.37 to 0.73 mm (0.0146 to 0.0287 in)
Intake Valves
Stem diameter 6.946 to 6.964 mm (0.2735 to 0.2742 in)
Stem to guide running clearance (max.
0.1846 mm (0.00727 in)
allowable before replacement)

Valve face angle from center line 53.0 to 53.25°

Valve margin (minimum) 1.40 mm (0.055 in)


Valve recession in head 0.37 to 0.73 mm (0.0146 to 0.0287 in)
Cylinder Heads
Valve guide inside diameter 7.003 to 7.029 mm (0.276 to 0.277 in)
Valve guide bore runout 0.06 mm (0.00236 in)
Valve guide taper (maximum) 0.10 mm (0.004 in)
Valve seat width (intake) 1.80 to 2.56 mm (0.071 to 0.101 in)
Valve seat width (exhaust) 1.48 to 2.24 mm (0.058 to 0.088 in)
Valve seat angle (intake) from center line of
52.5 to 52.75°
valve guide
Valve seat angle (exhaust) from center line of
50.0 to 50.25°
valve guide
Overall thickness of cylinder head
95 ± 0.48 mm (3.74 ± 0.018 in)
(deck-to-deck)
Valve Springs
Solid height 36.1 mm (1.42 in)
Compressed* 46.50 mm @ 340 ± 17 N (1.83 in @ 76.5 ± 3.8 lb)
Compressed* 38.30 mm @ 850 ± 43 N (1.51 in @ 191.1 ± 9.7 lb)
* Spring must be compressed to a solid height before checking test loads.
Push Rods
Runout (maximum) 0.5 mm (0.02 in)
CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN 365

Special Torque

Cylinder head bolts See tightening steps in procedure


Draft tube assembly nut, M10 54 N·m (40 lb·ft)
Dual fulcrum plate assembly bolts See tightening steps in procedure
Filter with jet pump captive bolts, M6 5 N·m (44 lb·in)
Fuel rail plug assembly 27 N·m (20 lb·ft)
Valve cover bolt and stud bolts assemblies 9 N·m (80 lb·in)
Worm gear hose clamps 13 N·m (115 lb·in)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


C Type Valve Spring Compressor ZTSE1846
Cylinder Head Bolt Tap ZTSE4744
Cylinder Head Lifting Bracket ZTSE6035
Cylinder Head Pressure Test Plate ZTSE4534
Dial Caliper Obtain locally
Dye Penetrant Kit PT-7191
Feeler Gauge Obtain locally
Fuel Gallery Cleaning Brush ZTSE4541
Fuel Injector Tip Cleaning Brush ZTSE4301
Injector Sleeve Brushes ZTSE4751
Injector Sleeve Installer ZTSE4733
Injector Sleeve Remover ZTSE4732
Inspection Mirror Obtain locally
Lithium Grease Obtain locally
Loctite® 620 Retaining Compound Obtain locally
Pressure Test Regulator and Gauge Obtain locally
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
Slide Hammer Kit ZTSE4398A
Straightedge Obtain locally
Valve Guide Gauge Tool ZTSE4577
Valve Spring Tester ZTSE2241
0-1 inch Micrometer Obtain locally
3-4 inch Micrometer Obtain locally
366 CYLINDER HEADS, VALVE COVERS, AND VALVE TRAIN
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 367

Table of Contents

Exploded Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Engine Mount Rear Brackets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376
Flex Plate flywheel Assembly (Automatic Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Wear Sleeve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier and Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
Crankshaft Flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
Flywheel Housing and Power Steering Idler Shaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380

Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382


All Components.................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly (Automatic Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
Flywheel Surface Runout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
Flywheel Housing Runout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
Backlash Measurement for Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
Flywheel Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
Power Steering Idler Shaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
Crankshaft Flange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386
Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly and Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Wear Sleeve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly (Automatic Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Engine Mount Rear Brackets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .393

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393


368 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 369

Exploded Views

Figure 565 Engine Mount Rear Brackets


1. M12 x 40 bolt (8) 3. Engine mount rear bracket (2)
2. Pipe clip bracket 4. Extension clip
370 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Figure 566 Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission)


1. M10 x 55 bolt (10) 2. Reinforcement ring 3. Flywheel assembly
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 371

Figure 567 Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly (Automatic Transmission)


1. M10 x 55 bolt (10) 3. Flex plate flywheel assembly
2. Reinforcement ring 4. Adapter hub
372 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Figure 568 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier
1. Rear seal carrier gasket 3. Crankshaft rear oil seal 5. M8 x 55 bolt (2)
2. Crankshaft rear oil seal carrier 4. M8 x 25 bolt (7)
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 373

Figure 569 Crankshaft Flange and Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly
1. Crankshaft flange 3. Power steering idler gear 4. External retaining ring (2)
2. Power steering idler shaft assembly 5. M12 x 68 bolt (6)
374 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Figure 570 Flywheel Housing


1. Rear cover (flywheel housing) 3. M10 x 60 bolt (4) 5. M8 x 55 bolt (5)
2. Crankcase rear cover gasket 4. M10 x 70 bolt (2)
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 375

Removal Engine Mount Rear Brackets

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, support engine (if in chassis) before
GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine
removing flywheel housing or engine mounts.
fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance
with applicable regulations. Recycle
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to
applicable regulations.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety
Information” section of this manual.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
Figure 571 Engine Mount Rear Bracket (Right)
diagnostic or service procedures.
1. Extension clip
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 2. M12 x 40 bolt (4)
death, make sure the engine has cooled before 3. Engine mount rear bracket (right)
removing components.

1. Remove four M12 x 40 bolts, extension clip, and


WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
right engine mount rear bracket.
death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids.
NOTE: See the following service sections for
information on removal of components prior to
this section.
• Engine Electrical
• Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
• Dual Stage Turbocharger and Exhaust
Manifolds
• Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
• Fuel System
• Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related
components
• Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan
• Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train
376 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

1. Remove and discard two M10 x 55 bolts at


approximately 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock position.
2. Install two guide pins (make locally).
3. Remove and discard remaining eight M10 x 55
bolts.
4. Remove reinforcement ring.

Figure 572 Engine Mount Rear Bracket (Left)


1. Pipe clip bracket
2. M12 x 40 bolt (4)
3. Engine mount rear bracket (left)

2. Remove four M12 x 40 bolts, pipe clip bracket,


and left engine mount rear bracket.

Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission)

Figure 574 Flywheel Assembly Removal

5. Slide flywheel assembly off guide pins and out of


flywheel housing.
6. Remove guide pins from crankshaft flange.

Figure 573 Flywheel Assembly Guide Pins


FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 377

Flex Plate flywheel Assembly (Automatic Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Wear Sleeve
Transmission)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields when
doing the following procedure.
1. Use an awl or 1/8 inch drill bit to make two small
starter holes 180° apart in crankshaft rear oil seal.

Figure 575 Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly


(Typical)
1. Reinforcement ring
2. M10 x 55 bolt (10)
3. Adapter hub
4. XMSN-SIDE stamp Figure 576 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Removal

1. Remove and discard 10 M10 x 55 bolts. 2. Thread slide hammer (page 393) screw into one
of the starter holes.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, carefully
remove and store flywheel adapter or adapter hub. 3. Remove seal evenly, by using a slide hammer on
Damage to sealing surface of the adapter can cause one side, and then alternate to other side.
a rear oil seal leak.
4. Remove and discard crankshaft rear oil seal from
2. Remove reinforcement ring, flex plate flywheel crankshaft rear oil seal carrier.
assembly, and adapter hub.
378 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

5. Install Distorter Ring of Rear Wear Sleeve


Remover (page 393).
NOTE: A socket wrench with an extension should
be used with the Distorter Shaft.
6. Position Distorter Shaft (pointed edge facing
wear sleeve) and insert between wear sleeve and
Distorter Ring until it bottoms out against gear.
7. Slowly turn Distorter Shaft clockwise to apply
force against the wear sleeve.
NOTE: The Distorter Shaft will dent and
expand the wear sleeve at the contact point,
without cutting through the wear sleeve.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 three times 90° apart.
9. Remove wear sleeve.
10. Remove Distorter Ring.
Figure 577 Rear Wear Sleeve Remover
1. Distorter Ring
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier and Power
2. Distorter Shaft
Steering Idler Gear Assembly

Figure 579 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier


Figure 578 Rear Wear Sleeve Removal
1. M8 x 25 bolt (7)
1. Wear sleeve 2. Crankshaft rear oil seal carrier
2. Distorter Shaft 3. M8 x 55 bolt (2)
3. Crankshaft flange
4. Distorter Ring
1. Remove seven M8 x 25 bolts and two M8 x 55
bolts from crankshaft rear oil seal carrier.
NOTE: Production engines did not include a wear
2. Remove crankshaft rear oil seal carrier and
sleeve with the crankshaft rear oil seal. A wear
discard rear seal carrier gasket.
sleeve is part of the crankshaft rear oil seal used
for service. If engine being serviced does not have NOTE: Check power steering idler gear backlash
a wear sleeve, skip steps 5-10. (page 383).
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 379

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, the crankshaft


flange must be properly timed to maintain correct
engine balance.

Figure 580 Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly


1. External retaining ring
2. Power steering idler gear assembly Figure 581 Crankshaft Flange
1. M12 x 68 bolt (6)
2. Crankshaft flange

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields. NOTE: Save crankshaft flange bolts to check
flange face runout.
3. Remove external retaining ring from power
steering idler gear assembly with external snap 2. Remove six M12 x 68 bolts from crankshaft
ring pliers (page 393). flange. Note position of flange before removing.
Flange must be installed in the same location as
4. Remove power steering idler gear assembly.
removed.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
Crankshaft Flange damage sealing surface of crankshaft flange.
1. Rotate crankshaft until cylinder 1 is at Top Dead 3. Use a bar type gear puller (page 393) and remove
Center (TDC). crankshaft flange from crankshaft.
380 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Flywheel Housing and Power Steering Idler Shaft

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, support engine (if in chassis) before
removing flywheel housing or engine mounts.

Figure 583 Liquid Gasket (RTV) Sealant


(Reference)
1. Lower crankcase
2. Upper crankcase
3. RTV sealant

NOTE: Before removing flywheel housing, do


steps 2 and 3 to cut through the Liquid Gasket
Figure 582 Flywheel Housing Mounting Bolts
(RTV) sealant between flywheel housing and
1. M8 x 55 bolt (5) upper and lower crankcase joint. This will prevent
2. M10 x 60 bolt (4) pulling out the crankcase lower seals, when
3. M10 x 70 bolt (2) removing the flywheel housing.

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, when


removing flywheel housing, do not pull out crankcase
lower seals between upper and lower crankcase.
1. Remove 11 mounting bolts from flywheel housing.

Figure 584 Left Side of Flywheel Housing

2. Insert a thin gasket scraper into left side of engine


between flywheel housing and upper and lower
crankcase and push scraper in to cut through
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 381

RTV sealant at the joint of the upper and lower


crankcase.

Figure 585 Right Side of Flywheel Housing


Figure 586 Removal of Rear Cover Gasket and
Liquid Gasket (RTV)
3. Insert a thin gasket scraper into right side of 1. Liquid Gasket (RTV)
engine between flywheel housing and upper 2. Rear cover gasket
and lower crankcase and push scraper in to cut
through RTV sealant at the joint of the upper and
lower crankcase. 6. Remove and discard crankcase rear cover
gasket.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 7. Remove RTV and clean areas of the flywheel
death, get assistance when removing or installing housing.
the flywheel housing.
8. If necessary, use a slide hammer (page 393) to
4. Remove flywheel housing with aid of an assistant. remove power steering idler shaft.
5. Remove RTV and clean areas of the flywheel
housing.
382 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Cleaning, Inspection, and 2. Inspect flywheel for heat checks and extensive
Measurement scoring.

All Components 3. Inspect all ring gear teeth for starter pinion
damage.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or 4. Replace flywheel assembly if necessary.
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
Flywheel Surface Runout
1. Clean foreign material from gasket surfaces
of upper and lower crankcase assemblies and CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, check runout
flywheel housing. Use a scraper or wire brush to of flywheel surface for correct alignment of engine
remove sealant from gasket surfaces. to transmission. Failure to ensure correct bore
concentricity and face runout may reduce life of the
2. Gasket surfaces must be oil-free for good clutch or transmission.
adhesion of liquid gasket during assembly. Use
a commercially available, non-caustic brake
cleaner to clean gasket surfaces of upper
and lower crankcase assemblies and flywheel
housing.
3. Wash crankshaft rear oil seal carrier, flywheel
assembly or flex plate flywheel assembly, and
flywheel housing. Dry all with filtered compressed
air.
4. Wash crankcase flange, power steering idler gear
assembly, and power steering idler shaft with a
stiff brush and suitable solvent. Dry all with filtered
compressed air.

Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly (Automatic Figure 587 Flywheel Surface Runout
Transmission)
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install a new
flex plate flywheel assembly if damaged. Flex plates 1. Attach dial indicator with magnetic base (page
for automatic transmissions cannot be resurfaced. 393) to the flywheel housing. Place indicator tip
against the flywheel surface between the ring gear
1. Inspect flex plate flywheel assembly for cracks and outer bolt circle.
around webbing and ring gear weld points.
2. Zero the dial indicator.
2. Inspect all ring gear teeth for starter pinion
damage. NOTE: Keep crankshaft end play at zero and in
same direction for all measurements.
3. Replace flex plate if necessary.
3. Slowly rotate the crankshaft 360 degrees and
observe dial indicator measurements.
Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission)
4. Compare the total dial indicator variation (highest
1. Inspect flywheel assembly for cracks around – lowest reading) to flywheel surface maximum
webbing and bolt holes. runout specification (page 393).
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 383

Flywheel Housing Runout Backlash Measurement for Power Steering Idler


Gear Assembly

Figure 588 Flywheel Housing Runout


Figure 589 Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly
Backlash (Typical)
1. Attach dial indicator with magnetic base (page
393) onto the surface of the flywheel. Place
indicator tip against flywheel housing.
1. Attach dial indicator with magnetic base (page
2. Zero the dial indicator. 393) to flywheel housing.
NOTE: Keep crankshaft end play at zero and in 2. Place indicator tip against power steering idler
same direction for all measurements. gear assembly.
3. Measure at four points 90° apart for total variation. NOTE: Lock crankshaft flange for an accurate
Verify readings are within flywheel housing measurement.
maximum runout specification (page 393).
3. Lock crankshaft flange.
4. Zero the dial indicator.
5. Move power steering idler gear assembly and
record dial indicator reading. Verify reading
is within specification (page 393). If out of
inspection, install a new gear.
384 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Installation 2. Apply clean engine oil to assembly pins.


Flywheel Housing CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow
Liquid Gasket (RTV) to set longer than 5 minutes
before tightening joint.
3. Apply Liquid Gasket (RTV) (page 393) on gasket
area at points where crankcase and lower
crankcase meet and on top of gasket ends.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, get help when removing or installing the
flywheel housing.
4. Install flywheel housing, with aid from an
assistant.

Figure 590 Rear Cover Gasket


1. Rear cover (flywheel housing)
2. Rear cover gasket

1. Install new crankcase rear cover gasket.

Figure 592 Flywheel Housing Mounting Bolts


1. M8 x 55 bolt (5)
2. M10 x 60 bolt (4)
3. M10 x 70 bolt (2)

5. Install 11 flywheel housing bolts in the correct


location, as shown. Tighten bolts to standard
torque for specific bolt size.

Power Steering Idler Shaft


Figure 591 Liquid Gasket (RTV) and Assembly NOTE: Skip this subsection, if the power steering
Pins idler shaft was not removed.
1. Liquid Gasket (RTV)
2. Rear cover gasket WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
3. Assembly pin (2) death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 385

Figure 595 Power Steering Idler Shaft


Installation

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Figure 593 External Retaining Ring on Power CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow
Steering Idler Shaft external retaining ring to contact the flywheel housing.
Contact can distort external retaining ring, affecting its
function as a gear thrust surface.
1. Place external retaining ring on end of power
steering idler shaft without threaded hole. 3. Align power steering idler shaft in flywheel
housing at correct location. Using Power Steering
Idler Shaft Installation Tool, drive power steering
idler shaft into bore in transmission side of
flywheel housing, until power steering idler shaft
installation tool bottoms out.

Figure 594 Power Steering Idler Shaft and


External Retaining Ring in Power Steering Idler
Shaft Installation Tool

2. Put threaded hole end of power steering idler shaft


into Power Steering Idler Shaft Installation Tool
(page 393) to set correct shaft height (page 393).
386 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

5. Measure power steering idler shaft height, using a


dial caliper (page 393). Power steering idler shaft
height should match specification (page 393).

Crankshaft Flange

Figure 596 Power Steering Idler Shaft


Installation Height Figure 598 Crankshaft Flange
1. Retaining external ring 1. M12 x 68 bolt (6)
2. Power steering idler shaft 2. Crankshaft flange
3. Flywheel housing

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, the crankshaft


4. If installation tool is not available, use a brass flange must be properly timed to maintain correct
drift to install power steering idler shaft into the engine balance.
flywheel housing to correct height. 1. Rotate crankshaft until cylinder number 1 is at Top
Dead Center (TDC).
2. Inspect the crankshaft gear and crankshaft flange
mating surfaces. Make sure they are free of
debris, nicks, and dirt.
3. Install two guide pins (made locally) into
crankshaft gear bolt holes, 180° from each other.
NOTE: Make sure dowel pin is installed correctly
in crankshaft flange.

WARNING: To prevent serious personal


injury or death, wear heat protective gloves when
installing hot crankshaft flange.
4. Heat crankshaft flange to maximum 177 °C (350
°F).
Figure 597 Power Steering Idler Shaft Height CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
Measurement damage sealing surface of crankshaft flange.
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 387

5. Using a heat insulated glove, install crankshaft c. Rotate bolts an additional 90 degrees using
flange over guide pins and onto crankshaft, with above sequence.
dowel pin pointing at 12 o'clock position.
6. Remove guide pins and install six old M12 x 68
Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly and
bolts. Tighten bolts alternately to seat crankshaft
Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier
flange.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install gear
7. Check face runout of crankshaft flange, using dial
with circular witness groove facing out.
indicator with magnetic base (page 393). If face
runout exceeds specification (page 393), remove 1. Install power steering idler gear assembly on
and reinstall crankshaft flange to ensure there is power steering idler shaft.
no trapped debris and crankshaft flange is seated
2. Verify correct gear orientation and gear tooth
against gear. If after reinstallation of crankshaft
engagement.
flange the face runout still exceeds specification,
install new crankshaft flange.

Figure 600 Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly


1. External retaining ring
2. Power steering idler gear assembly
Figure 599 Crankshaft Flange Torque Sequence

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, always install WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
new crankshaft flange mounting bolts. death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
8. Remove and discard six old bolts. Lubricate 3. Install external retaining ring onto power steering
underside of bolt heads on six new M12 x 68 bolts idler shaft for power steering idler gear assembly.
with clean engine oil and install bolts loosely.
Tighten bolts as follows using above sequence: 4. Do Backlash Test for Power Steering Idler Gear
Assembly (page 383).
a. Tighten bolts to 41 N·m (30 lb·ft) using above
sequence. 5. Install new rear seal carrier gasket on crankshaft
rear oil seal carrier.
b. Rotate bolts 90 degrees using above
sequence.
388 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Figure 601 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal Carrier


1. M8 x 25 bolt (7) Figure 602 Application of Hydraulic Sealant
2. Crankshaft rear oil seal carrier
3. M8 x 55 bolt (2)
2. Apply a 360° bead of Loctite® 569 Hydraulic
Sealant (page 393) on rear edge of crankshaft
6. Install crankshaft rear oil seal carrier on flywheel flange.
housing.
7. Install two M8 x 55 bolts in lower holes of
crankshaft rear oil seal carrier finger tight.
8. Install seven M8 x 25 bolts in crankshaft rear oil
seal carrier finger tight.
9. Tighten two M8 x 55 and seven M8 x 25 bolts to
standard torque.

Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Wear Sleeve


NOTE: When replacing crankshaft rear oil seal,
note that production engines will not have a
wear sleeve. Wear sleeves are only available
as a service item included with replacement
crankshaft rear oil seal. Figure 603 Crankshaft Rear Seal / Wear Sleeve
Installer (Base)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). 3. Align base of Crankshaft Rear Seal / Wear Sleeve
Installer (page 393) with alignment dowel on
1. Clean crankshaft flange with a suitable solvent
crankshaft flange and install base.
and dry flange with filtered compressed air.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
separate wear sleeve from new crankshaft rear oil
seal; this will damage seal.
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 389

Figure 605 Installation of Crankshaft Rear Oil


Seal and Wear Sleeve Assembly
1. Crankshaft rear oil seal and wear sleeve assembly
2. Rear Oil Seal Installer (base)
Figure 604 Crankshaft Rear Oil Seal and Wear
3. Crankshaft flange
Sleeve Assembly
1. Dust seal lip
2. Wear sleeve 4. Position a new crankshaft rear oil seal and wear
sleeve assembly onto hub of Crankshaft Rear
Seal / Wear Sleeve Installer (page 393).
NOTE: Before assembly, lubricate outer diameter
of crankshaft rear oil seal with a solution of dish
soap and water (approximately 50/50 mix). Do not
use other lubricants.
390 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly (Automatic


Transmission)

Figure 606 Installation of Crankshaft Rear Oil


Seal and Wear Sleeve Assembly
1. Rear Seal Installer with 40 mm Cap Screws (forcing
Figure 607 Flex Plate Flywheel Assembly
collar)
2. Crankshaft Rear Seal / Wear sleeve Installer 1. Reinforcement ring
3. Thrust bearing 2. M10 x 55 bolt (10)
4. Drive nut 3. Adapter hub
4. XMSN-SIDE stamp

5. Put forcing collar (page 393), thrust bearing, and


drive nut on threaded shaft. 1. Position flex plate flywheel assembly on adapter
hub and align hub over crankshaft flange
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
dowel. Make sure XMSN-SIDE stamp is facing
an impact wrench to tighten drive nut.
transmission.
6. Tighten drive nut until the forcing collar bottoms
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, always install
out on Crankshaft Rear Seal / Wear Sleeve
new flywheel assembly or flex plate flywheel assembly
Installer (base). Rear oil sleeve and wear sleeve
mounting bolts.
assembly will be placed at correct depth.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
anti-seize compounds or grease on new flywheel
assembly or flex plate flywheel assembly mounting
bolts.
NOTE: Make sure lip on outer circumference of
reinforcement ring faces transmission and align
bolt holes to position reinforcement ring.
2. Install two new M10 x 55 bolts 180° apart through
reinforcement ring, flex plate flywheel assembly,
and adapter hub. Hand tighten two bolts to hold
assembly.
3. Install eight remaining new M10 x 55 bolts.
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 391

Flywheel Assembly (Manual Transmission)

Figure 608 Torque Sequence for Flex Plate


Flywheel Assembly Bolts and Dowel Location

Figure 609 Flywheel Assembly Installation


NOTE: New phosphate coated bolts do not require (Typical)
oil before torquing.
4. Snug all bolts in sequence shown (Figure 608) to
initial torque of 4 N·m (35 lb·in). WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
5. Tighten all bolts in sequence shown (Figure 608) death, inspect flywheel assembly for cracks or
to final torque of 94 N·m (69 lb·ft). heat checks after resurfacing. Do not install
flywheel assembly if damaged or questionable.
Flywheel resurfacing information is provided for
guidance only. Navistar, Inc. does not assume
responsibility for work done by service personnel.
1. Install two guide pins (made locally) in crankshaft
flange at approximately 3 o'clock and 9 o'clock.
2. Align dowel hole in flywheel with crankshaft flange
dowel and slide flywheel assembly onto guide
pins.
3. Align reinforcement ring with dowel and slide over
guide pins. Make sure lip on outer circumference
of ring faces transmission.
392 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, always install Engine Mount Rear Brackets
new flywheel assembly or flex plate flywheel assembly
mounting bolts.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
anti-seize compounds or grease on new flywheel
assembly or flex plate flywheel assembly mounting
bolts.
4. Install two new M10 x 55 bolts 180° from
each other to secure flywheel assembly to the
crankshaft flange. Remove both guide pins.
5. Install eight remaining new M10 x 55 bolts.

Figure 611 Engine Mount Rear Bracket (Left)


1. Pipe clip bracket
2. M12 x 40 bolt (4)
3. Engine mount rear bracket (left)

1. Install left engine mount rear bracket, pipe clip


bracket, and four M12 x 40 bolts. Tighten bolts
to standard torque.

Figure 610 Torque Sequence for Flywheel


Assembly Bolts and Dowel Location

NOTE: New phosphate coated bolts do not require


oil before torquing.
6. Snug all bolts in sequence shown (Figure 610) to
initial torque of 4 N·m (35 lb·in).
7. Tighten all bolts in sequence shown (Figure 610)
Figure 612 Engine Mount Rear Bracket (Right)
to final torque of 94 N·m (69 lb·ft).
1. Extension clip
8. Measure Flywheel Surface Runout. (page 382).
2. M12 x 40 bolt (4)
3. Engine mount rear bracket (right)

2. Install right engine mount rear bracket, extension


clip, and four M12 x 40 bolts. Tighten bolts to
standard torque.
FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING 393

Specifications
Flywheel Assembly and Flywheel Housing
Flywheel Assembly
Flywheel surface maximum runout (manual) 0.25 mm (0.010 in)
Power Steering Idler Shaft
Power steering idler shaft installation height 34.30 ± 0.25 mm (1.35 ± 0.01 in)
Flywheel Housing
Flywheel housing maximum runout 0.51 mm (0.020 in)
Crankshaft Flange and Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly
Face runout:
Crankshaft flange 0.050 mm (0.002 in) maximum
Backlash:
Power steering idler gear assembly 0.066 to 0.290 mm (0.0026 to 0.0114 in)

Special Torque

Crankshaft flange bolts, M12 x 68 See tightening steps in procedure.


Flex plate flywheel assembly bolts, M10 x 55 See tightening steps in procedure.
Flywheel assembly bolts, M10 x 55 See tightening steps in procedure.

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


Dial caliper Obtain locally
Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
External snap ring pliers Obtain locally
Gear puller (bar type) Obtain locally
Liquid Gasket (RTV) (6 oz. tube) 1830858C1
Loctite® 569 hydraulic sealant or equivalent Obtain locally
Power Steering Idler Shaft Installation Tool ZTSE4719
Rear Crankshaft Seal and Sleeve Installer ZTSE4515C
Rear Wear Sleeve Remover (Distorter Ring and Distorter Shaft) ZTSE4889
Slide hammer Obtain locally
Heat insulated glove Obtain locally
394 FLYWHEEL ASSEMBLY AND FLYWHEEL HOUSING
POWER CYLINDERS 395

Table of Contents

Exploded View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
Piston Protrusion Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Connecting Rod Side Clearance Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Connecting Rod and Piston Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
Piston Disassembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401

Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403


Cleaning and Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
Piston Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
Piston Rings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
Connecting Rods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
Connecting Rod Bore Out-of-round Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
Connecting Rod Bearing Fit Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
Piston Pin Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Piston Assembly................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Connecting Rod and Piston Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415


396 POWER CYLINDERS
POWER CYLINDERS 397

Exploded View

Figure 613 Piston, Piston Pin, and Connecting Rod


1. Top compression ring 5. Piston pin with coating 9. Connecting rod assembly (rod
2. Intermediate compression ring 6. Piston pin retainer ring (2) and cap)
3. Oil control ring 7. Upper connecting rod bearing 10. Connecting rod bolt (2)
4. Piston 8. Lower connecting rod bearing
398 POWER CYLINDERS

Removal NOTE: See the following service sections for


information on removal of components prior to
this section.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine • Mounting Engine on Engine Stand


fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard • Engine Electrical
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance • Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and
with applicable regulations. Recycle Piping
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
applicable regulations. • Fuel System
• Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related
Components
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety • Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train
Information” section of this manual.
• Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, make sure engine has cooled before
removing components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids.
POWER CYLINDERS 399

Piston Protrusion Measurement e. Rotate crankshaft to raise the piston to


its maximum protrusion. Read maximum
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not scratch
protrusion on dial indicator.
gasket surface of cylinder head.
f. Average the two readings. Replace
NOTE: Evaluate piston protrusion before
piston and connecting rod if protrusion is
removing any piston and connecting rod
outside piston height above crankcase deck
assemblies. This will help identify bent or twisted
(protrusion) specifications (page 414).
connecting rods.

Connecting Rod Side Clearance Measurement

Figure 614 Measuring Piston Protrusion

NOTE: Before checking piston protrusion, make Figure 615 Side Clearance Measurement For
sure upper crankcase assembly deck surface is Connecting Rod and Cap (typical)
flat and level. See Crankcase Inspection(page
429). 1. Feeler gauge
2. Connecting rod and cap
NOTE: Piston protrusion readings are done at
3 and 9 o'clock positions. These positions are
in line with the piston pin, eliminating rocking 1. Use a feeler gauge (page 415) to check
movement of the piston at any other measurement connecting rod side clearance as follows:
position.
a. Pry apart a pair of connecting rods on a
1. Check piston protrusion above upper crankcase crankshaft rod journal. Insert largest possible
assembly as follows: feeler gauge between connecting rods to
a. Zero dial indicator with magnetic base (page check side clearance.
415) on upper crankcase assembly deck b. Repeat for each pair of connecting rods on
surface. each crankshaft rod journal and compare with
b. Position dial indicator tip over piston head at connecting rod side clearance specification
3 o'clock position. (page 414).

c. Rotate crankshaft to raise piston to its NOTE: Lack of clearance could indicate a
maximum outward protrusion at cylinder Top damaged connecting rod or a connecting
Dead Center (TDC). Read this maximum rod bearing out of position. Excessive
protrusion on dial indicator. clearance may require replacement or
servicing of connecting rods or crankshaft
d. Reposition dial indicator tip on piston head at assembly. Correct as required.
9 o'clock position.
400 POWER CYLINDERS

Connecting Rod and Piston Assembly CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not alter
or deface the fractured mating surfaces of connecting
1. Measure piston protrusion (page 399) and
rod and cap. Do not reverse the connecting rod cap
connecting rod side clearance (page 399).
location.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, check for a
5. Loosen two connecting rod bolts and remove
carbon ridge on top of cylinder bores. If found, remove
connecting rod cap.
carbon ridge with a razor knife, before removing
connecting rod and piston assemblies. CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not push
on fractured surface of connecting rod.
2. Scrape carbon ridge from top of cylinder bore, if
necessary. Use care not to damage cylinder bore CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, mark pistons
surface. with cylinder number from which each was removed.
If pistons will be reused, reinstall in correct cylinder
3. Rotate crankshaft to correctly position journals for
bore.
removal of connecting rod assemblies.
6. Remove piston and connecting rod assemblies
CAUTION: Use permanent markers to identify
from upper crankcase assembly as follows:
components or their orientation. Do not use paint or
temporary markers. a. Rotate engine to a vertical position.
4. Mark each connecting rod location and b. Use a wooden or plastic handle and push
connecting rod cap orientation. piston and connecting rod assembly from
cylinder bore.
c. Once piston rings are free of cylinder bore,
remove piston and connecting rod assembly
from upper crankcase assembly.

Figure 616 Connecting Rods and Bolts (typical)


1. Connecting rod (cap) (8)
2. Connecting rod bolt (16)
POWER CYLINDERS 401

Piston Disassembly

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.

Figure 617 Connecting Rod and Cap Matching


Numbers or Symbols

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, keep the


fractured mating surfaces of the connecting rod and Figure 618 Piston Ring Removal (typical)
cap clean and free of lint and debris. Do not allow
the mating surfaces to rest on other surfaces. Do 1. Piston ring expansion pliers
not bump the mating surfaces or drop the connecting 2. Piston
rod or cap. This could damage the mating surfaces, 3. Piston ring (top compression ring shown)
causing incorrect mating of rod and cap.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not stamp NOTE: Only expand piston rings enough to fit over
marks on any machined surface of piston. If piston top of piston.
must be marked with a stamp, place mark on a
non-machined as-cast surface only. NOTE: Keep piston rings organized for each
cylinder.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install
connecting rod cap and connecting rod with matching 1. Use piston ring expansion pliers (page 415)
serial numbers on the same side. If the rod cap is to remove top compression ring, intermediate
reversed or not installed on its matching connecting compression ring, and oil control ring.
rod, the fractured mating surfaces will be damaged.
This can loosen the rod cap. A new connecting rod
assembly must be installed.
7. When removed, make sure matching connecting
rod and connecting rod cap numbers stay
together as a set. A cap from one connecting rod
is not interchangeable with any other connecting
rod.
8. Check the crankshaft crankpin fillets for damage.
If crankpin fillets are damaged, replace crankshaft
assembly. See Crankshaft Assembly (page 422).
402 POWER CYLINDERS

2. Use a small pick to remove both piston pin retainer


rings.
CAUTION: Mark piston pin on flat end or tapered
inside surface, for cylinder location and orientation.
Do not mark on outer diameter.
CAUTION: Use permanent markers to identify
components or their orientation. Do not use paint or
temporary markers.
3. Remove piston pin from its bore by hand, and
separate connecting rod from piston.

Figure 619 Piston Pin Retainer Ring (typical)


POWER CYLINDERS 403

Cleaning, Inspection, and


Measurement
Cleaning and Inspection
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
caustic solvents, wire brushes, or bead blasting media
to clean aluminum pistons.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
solvents or a wire brush to clean the fractured mating
surface of connecting rods.
1. Use a soap and water solution to clean aluminum
pistons. Soak piston first, and then clean with a
non-metallic brush.
2. Clean piston ring grooves thoroughly. Figure 620 Top Compression Ring Groove
3. The following disassembled components may be Measurement (typical)
cleaned using a suitable solvent: 1. 3 - 4 inch micrometer
• Piston pins 2. Piston Gauge Pins [2.10 mm (0.083 in)]

• Piston pin retainer rings


4. Thoroughly clean connecting rod bolt holes and 2. Check top compression ring groove for wear.
threads. a. Install Piston Gauge Pins [2.10 mm (0.083
in)] (page 415) in the top compression ring
groove. Piston Gauge Pins must be parallel.
Piston Measurement
b. Use a 3 - 4 inch micrometer (page 415) to
1. Inspect pistons for excessively scuffed or scored measure the diameter over piston gauge pins.
skirts, cracked or worn ring lands, and cracked or
scuffed pin bores. Replace damaged pistons. c. If measurement over gauge pins is not
within top compression ring groove width
NOTE: Top compression ring groove is a keystone specifications (page 414), excessive piston
design which requires measurement over gauge groove wear exists. Replace piston.
pins to determine ring groove wear.
404 POWER CYLINDERS

Figure 621 Intermediate and Oil Ring Groove Figure 622 Piston Skirt Diameter Measurement
Clearance Measurement (Intermediate Ring (typical)
Shown, typical)
1. Piston skirt
1. Intermediate compression ring groove 2. 3 - 4 inch micrometer
2. Feeler gauge

4. When considering piston replacement, check


3. Check side clearance of intermediate cylinder bores. See Crankcase Inspection (page
compression and oil control ring grooves as 429). Cylinder boring may be required. Bore
follows: reconditioning requires oversize service pistons.
a. Place outer edge of new ring in its respective 5. Measuring piston skirt diameter under conditions
ring groove. indicated in specifications (page 414).
b. Roll ring entirely around piston in its NOTE: In addition to standard size service piston,
respective groove. Make sure ring is able to the following oversize pistons are available.
move freely in groove.
• 0.254 mm (0.010 in)
c. Use a feeler gauge (page 415) to measure
• 0.508 mm (0.020 in)
intermediate and oil ring groove side
clearance (page 414). Excessive side • 0.762 mm (0.030 in)
clearance indicates ring groove wear and
6. If cylinder walls have minor surface damage,
requires piston replacement.
but are otherwise within specification, it may be
possible to remove such damage by honing.
If cylinder bore is suitable for use without
reconditioning, deglaze bore using a glaze
breaker brush (page 415), then reassemble.
NOTE: See Cylinder Deglazing (page 430) for
correct procedure.
POWER CYLINDERS 405

Figure 623 Piston Skirt Clearance Measurement, Figure 624 Piston Ring End Gap Clearance in
in Cylinder Bore (typical) Cylinder Bore
1. Piston 1. Piston ring
2. Feeler gauge 2. Feeler gauge
3. Upper crankcase

c. If gap does not meet specifications (page


7. Measure piston skirt clearance (page 414). 414), select another ring or recheck cylinder
Correct as required. bore wear.

Piston Rings Connecting Rods


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install new CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow
piston rings if a piston is removed. Faulty piston rings fractured mating surfaces of the connecting rod or
cannot always be detected visually. connecting rod cap to contact any surface other
then its matched fractured surface. Contacting any
1. Inspect new piston rings for cleanliness.
other surface could cause misalignment of the mating
2. Before installing new piston rings, check end gap surface, resulting in connecting rod bearing and
for each ring as follows: engine failure.
a. Push piston ring down into cylinder bore. CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use
Make sure the piston ring is square with solvents or a wire brush to clean the fractured mating
cylinder wall. An inverted piston head can be surface of connecting rods.
used to push piston ring to desired location of
1. Inspect connecting rod bolt threads for nicks or
measurement (usually at top of piston stroke).
damage. Replace as required.
b. Use a feeler gauge (page 415) to measure
2. Inspect connecting rod and cap mating surfaces
gap between ends of each piston ring.
and bearing bore for any indication of damage.
Bore must be smooth and free of scoring or nicks.
Replace connecting rod if necessary.
406 POWER CYLINDERS

rod without bearing insert. Tighten bolts to special


torque (page 415).

Figure 625 Inside Diameter of Piston Pin Bore


1. Piston pin bore
2. Telescoping gauge

3. Inspect connecting rod piston pin bore for wear as


follows: Figure 626 Connecting Rod Bearing Bore
Out-of-round Measurement
a. Use a telescoping gauge (page 415) and a
1-2 inch micrometer (page 415) to measure
piston pin bore at two locations 90° apart. 2. Using a telescoping gauge (page 415), measure
b. If piston pin bore inside diameter exceeds connecting rod bearing bore at two locations, 90°
specification (page 414), replace connecting apart.
rod. 3. If the difference between dimension A and B
exceeds bearing bore maximum out-of-round
specifications (page 414), replace connecting
Connecting Rod Bore Out-of-round Measurement rod.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use 4. With connecting rod cap removed, inspect surface
power tools to remove or install connecting rod cap finish of connecting rod bearing bore. Bore must
bolts. Threads will be damaged if a bolt or nut is be smooth and free of scoring, nicks, or burrs.
rotated too quickly. Replace as required.
1. Lightly lubricate connecting rod bolt threads with
clean engine oil. Assemble connecting rod cap to
POWER CYLINDERS 407

Connecting Rod Bearing Fit Measurement Piston Pin Inspection


NOTE: Connecting rod bearings must fit tightly NOTE: Some wear of the piston pin coating is
in the bore. When bearings are inserted into the normal. If there is evidence of material transfer on
connecting rod and cap, they protrude above the piston pin, replace the piston pin, connecting
parting line. This protrusion is required to achieve rod, and piston.
bearing crush. Bearing crush forces the ends
1. Inspect piston pins for corrosion or wear. Replace
inward at the parting line when a load is applied
as required.
by tightening the bolts. Some flexibility may be
lost in normal use, but bearing replacement is not
required because of a nominal loss of flexibility.
When assembly is drawn up tight, bearing is
compressed, ensuring positive contact between
backside of bearing and bore.
1. Lightly lubricate connecting rod bolt threads
with clean engine oil. Assemble cap onto
connecting rod with new bearings installed.
Tighten connecting rod bolts to special torque
(page 415).
2. Using a telescoping gauge (page 415), measure
inside diameter of connecting rod bearing (big
end) at two locations 90° apart. Average the two
inside diameters.
Figure 627 Piston Pin Diameter Measurement
3. Using a 2–3 inch micrometer (page 415), measure (typical)
each crankshaft rod journal diameter.
4. Subtract crankshaft rod journal diameter from
2. Use a 1-2 inch micrometer (page 415) to measure
respective connecting rod bearing inside diameter
piston pin outside diameter at two locations 90°
to obtain connecting rod bearing running
apart. Measure each end of the pin.
clearance. Repeat for each crankshaft rod journal
and connecting rod. 3. Use a 2-3 inch micrometer to measure piston pin
length.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not rework
bearings or bearing caps to reduce journal-to-bearing 4. If piston pin length or diameter are out of
running clearances. Grind or install a new crankshaft. specifications (page 414), replace piston pin.
5. If connecting rod bearing running clearances
exceed specifications (page 414) because of
wear on crankshaft, replace or grind crankshaft
and install under-size precision type bearings.
408 POWER CYLINDERS

5. Using a telescoping gauge and 1–2 inch


micrometer, measure each piston pin bore inside
diameter, at two locations 90° apart.
6. To check piston pin clearance, subtract outside
diameter of piston pin from inside diameter
of piston pin bore. If clearance exceeds
specifications (page 414), replace piston pin and
piston.

Figure 628 Inside Diameter Measurement of


Piston Pin Bore
POWER CYLINDERS 409

Installation b. Position the longer leg of the connecting rod


in line with the side of the piston showing the
Piston Assembly
CAM SIDE stamp on the piston crown.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or c. Place connecting rod into piston.


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.

Figure 630 Piston Pin Retainer Ring


Figure 629 Correct Position of Installed
Connecting Rod (typical)
d. Using a suitable tool, install piston pin retainer
1. Longer leg of connecting rod (cam side) ring at one end of piston pin bore.
2. CAM SIDE stamp on cam side of piston crown
e. Slide piston pin through bored holes, stopping
at installed piston pin retainer ring.
1. Connect piston to connecting rod as follows: f. Use a suitable tool to install second piston pin
a. Lubricate connecting rod piston pin bore, retainer ring.
piston pin bore, and piston pin with clean g. Check piston pin end clearance (page 414).
engine oil.
410 POWER CYLINDERS

a. Install oil control ring into bottom piston


groove.

Figure 631 Piston Rings Installation (typical)


1. Piston ring expansion pliers
2. Piston
Figure 632 Piston Ring Identification Mark (Top
3. Piston ring (top compression ring shown)
Compression Ring)
1. Identification mark
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install
piston rings correctly. Both top and intermediate
compression rings have the same identification b. Install intermediate compression ring into
markings. The marking must face up for the ring middle piston groove. Make sure ring is
to be installed correctly. The intermediate ring has installed with identification mark facing up.
a rectangular cross section and goes in the middle
c. Install top compression ring into top piston
groove. The top compression ring has a keystone
groove. Make sure ring is installed with
cross section and goes in the top groove.
identification mark facing up.
NOTE: Only expand piston rings enough to fit over
3. Space ring gaps approximately 120° apart after
top of piston.
ring installation.
2. Use piston ring expansion pliers (page 415) to
install piston rings.
POWER CYLINDERS 411

Connecting Rod and Piston Assembly


1. Turn crankshaft so number 1 crank pin is at the
bottom of its stroke.

Figure 635 Piston Installed in Piston Ring


Compressor (Cope)

Figure 633 Piston and Piston Ring Lubrication 4. Place piston in Piston Ring Compressor (Cope)
(typical) (page 415).
5. Install bearings in the connecting rod and cap.
Coat bearing in connecting rod with clean engine
2. Lightly coat piston and piston rings with clean oil.
engine oil.

Figure 634 Cylinder Wall Lubrication (typical)

3. Coat cylinder walls, crankshaft journals, and


Piston Ring Compressor (Cope) (page 415) with
clean engine oil.
412 POWER CYLINDERS

7. Once piston and connecting rod assembly have


been inserted in cylinder bore, use a handle
(wood or plastic) of a hammer to tap piston into
crankcase bore. Guide connecting rod in place
on crankshaft.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, lightly
lubricate bolt threads and mating surfaces of bolt
flanges with clean engine oil. Too much oil will cause
hydrostatic lock and give incorrect torque reading.
8. Apply clean engine oil to bolt hole threads for
connecting rod and bearing shell in cap before
installing bolts.

Figure 636 CAM SIDE Stamp on Piston

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, CAM SIDE


stamped on top of piston must face camshaft side of
crankcase.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
damage piston cooling tube when installing
connecting rod and piston assembly. If tube is bent
during piston assembly installation, replace tube.
NOTE: Before installing piston and connecting
rod assembly, make sure all piston cooling tubes
are installed.
Figure 638 Connecting Rod and Cap Matching
6. Carefully put connecting rod and piston assembly
Numbers or Symbols
into cylinder bore.

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install


connecting rods with correct caps in the correct
direction. If a rod cap is reversed, an offset will be
seen at the mating surfaces. If a reverse assembly is
installed on the crankshaft, the connecting rod must
be replaced. Also, check crank pin fillets for damage
that would require replacement of the crankshaft.
9. Assemble connecting rod and cap with matching
identification code on same crankshaft journal
from which it was removed. Be certain that longer
leg of connecting rod and CAM SIDE stamp on
piston crown are positioned towards camshaft.

Figure 637 Installation of Piston in Cylinder


Bore
POWER CYLINDERS 413

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use


power tools to remove or install connecting rod cap
bolts. Threads will be damaged if a bolt or nut is
rotated too quickly.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, when torquing
connecting rod bolts, use a torque wrench that is
known to be accurate. Correct torque of connecting
rod cap bolts is important.
10. Install and tighten connecting rod bolts evenly to
special torque (page 415).
11. Repeat installation procedure for remaining
connecting rod and piston assemblies.
12. Check connecting rod side clearance (page 399)
Figure 639 Connecting Rod Cap with feeler gauge.

1. Connecting rod cap (8)


2. Connecting rod bolt (16)
414 POWER CYLINDERS

Specifications

Connecting Rods
Connecting rod length (center to center) 176 mm (6.929 in)
Piston pin bore inside diameter 38.512 to 38.549 mm (1.5162 to 1.5177 in)
Material I-Beam section - powdered metal
Bearing bore diameter (crankshaft end) 75.987 to 76.013 mm (2.9916 to 2.9926 in)
Bearing bore maximum out-of-round 0.013 mm (0.0005 in)
Connecting rod bearing inside diameter 72.031 to 72.073 mm (2.8352 to 2.8375 in)
Connecting rod bearing running clearance
0.027 to 0.097 mm (0.0001 to 0.0038 in)
(diameter)
Connecting rod side clearance 0.230 to 0.730 mm (0.0091 to 0.0287 in)
Weight (complete rod without bearing) 1280.5 to 1301.5 g (2.823 to 2.869 lb)
Pistons
Material Aluminum Alloy
1
Skirt diameter 98.103 to 98.117 mm (3.862 to 3.863 in)
1
Measure 15.5 mm (0.610 in) from bottom, at 90° to the piston pin. Measure only at room temperature
of 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F).
Service Piston:
Standard size 98.103 to 98.117 mm (3.862 to 3.863 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in) oversize 98.357 to 98.371 mm (3.872 to 3.873 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in) oversize 98.611 to 98.625 mm (3.882 to 3.883 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in) oversize 98.865 to 98.879 mm (3.892 to 3.893 in)
Top compression ring groove width (measured over 2.10 mm (0.083 in) gauge pins):
Upper limit 96.541 mm (3.8008 in)
Replacement limit 96.341 mm (3.7929 in)
Ring groove (side clearance):
Intermediate compression 0.050 to 0.096 mm (0.0020 to 0.0038 in)
Oil control 0.040 to 0.080 mm (0.00157 to 0.00315 in)
Piston height above crankcase deck (protrusion) 0.609 to 0.863 mm (0.0240 to 0.0340 in)
Piston skirt clearance 0.060 to 0.111 mm (0.0024 to 0.0044 in)
Piston Pins
Length 74.6 to 75.0 mm (2.9371 to 2.9528 in)
Diameter 38.490 to 38.500 mm (1.5154 to 1.5158 in)
Piston pin clearance (at room temperature of 19 to 21 °C [66 to 70 °F]):
Clearance in connecting rod (piston pin
0.041 to 0.058 mm (0.0016 to 0.0023 in)
bore)
POWER CYLINDERS 415

Clearance in piston (piston pin bore) 0.010 to 0.020 mm (0.0004 to 0.0008 in)
End clearance 0.84 mm (0.0331 in)
Piston Rings
Ring diameter (standard): 98.2 mm (3.866 in)
Ring gap in bore:
Top compression 0.29 to 0.55 mm (0.011 to 0.022 in)
Intermediate compression 0.67 to 0.82 mm (0.0263 to 0.0323 in)
Oil control 0.25 to 0.40 mm (0.010 to 0.016 in)

Special Torque

Connecting rod bolts 61 N·m (45 lb·ft)

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


1-2 inch micrometer Obtain locally
2-3 inch micrometer Obtain locally
3-4 inch micrometer Obtain locally
Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
Feeler gauge Obtain locally
Glaze breaker brush Obtain locally
Piston Gauge Pins (2.10 mm [0.083 in]) ZTSE6062
Piston Ring Compressor (Cope) ZTSE4714
Piston ring expansion pliers Obtain locally
Telescoping gauge set Obtain locally
416 POWER CYLINDERS
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 417

Table of Contents

Exploded View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419

Removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
Lower Crankcase Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
Crankshaft Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
Piston Cooling Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Camshaft Assembly............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Camshaft Bushings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
Coolant Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425

Cleaning, Inspection, and Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426


Camshaft Gear Backlash Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
Camshaft End Play Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
Crankshaft End Play Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
Crankcase Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
Crankcase Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427
Crankcase Inspection and Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
Cylinder Deglazing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430
Crankshaft Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430
Main Bearing Fit Check........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .431
Piston Cooling Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Camshaft Assembly............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .432
Measuring Camshaft Bushings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Coolant Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434

Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Camshaft Bushings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Camshaft Assembly............... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Piston Cooling Tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Crankshaft Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Lower Crankcase Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Coolant Heater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440

Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441

Special Torque............................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441

Special Service Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442


418 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 419

Exploded View

Figure 640 Upper Crankcase and Lower Crankcase


1. Upper crankcase assembly 4. Lower crankcase 6. Main bearing bolt M14 x 127.5
2. Hardened dowel pin (2) 5. Main bearing bolt M14 x 114.5 (10)
3. Crankcase lower seal (2) (10)
420 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Figure 641 Upper Crankcase, Camshaft Assembly, and Crankshaft Assembly


1. Coolant passage orifice plug (2) 10. Cup plug 38 mm (8) 18. M12 x 68 mm bolt (6)
2. Coolant passage orifice plug 11. Camshaft bushing (5) 19. Crankshaft lower main bearing
3. Spring dowel pin (4) 12. Upper thrust bearing (5)
4. Upper crankcase assembly 13. Upper main bearing (4) 20. Timing disc
5. Cup plug 16 mm (4) 14. Crankshaft 21. Hardened dowel pin .250 x .875
6. Camshaft 15. Hardened dowel pin .250 x .625 22. Plug 16 mm (2)
7. M8 x 16 bolt (2) (4) 23. O-ring seal 16 mm (2)
8. O-ring seal 16. Crankshaft gear 24. M6 x 18 bolt (8)
9. Coolant heater 17. Crankshaft flange 25. Piston cooling tube assembly (8)
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 421

Removal NOTE: See the following service sections for


information on removal of components prior to
this section.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION: Engine • Engine Electrical


fluids (oil, fuel, and coolant) may be a hazard • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
to human health and the environment.
Handle all fluids and other contaminated • Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and
materials (e.g. filters, rags) in accordance Piping
with applicable regulations. Recycle • Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump
or dispose of engine fluids, filters, and
other contaminated materials according to • Fuel System
applicable regulations. • Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related
Components
• Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, read all safety instructions in the “Safety • Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train
Information” section of this manual.
• Flywheel Assembly and Flywheel Housing
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or • Power Cylinders
death, shift transmission to park or neutral, set
Lower Crankcase Assembly
parking brake, and block wheels before doing
diagnostic or service procedures. 1. Measure camshaft gear backlash, camshaft end
play, and crankshaft end play (page 426).
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, make sure engine has cooled before
removing components.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, do not let engine fluids stay on your skin.
Clean skin and nails using hand cleaner and wash
with soap and water. Wash or discard clothing
and rags contaminated with engine fluids.

Figure 642 Main Bearing Bolts (Typical)


1. M14 x 127.5 main bearing bolt (10)
2. M14 x 114.5 main bearing bolt (10)

NOTE: Save main bearing bolts to perform main


bearing fit check.
2. Remove 10 M14 x 127.5 main bearing bolts.
3. Remove 10 M14 x 114.5 main bearing bolts.
422 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Crankshaft Assembly

Figure 643 Lower Crankcase Assembly (Typical)


1. Lower crankcase assembly
2. Upper crankcase assembly Figure 644 Crankshaft and Lifting Sling
1. Lifting sling
2. Crankshaft assembly
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow
the lower crankcase (at the parting line) to contact
the crankshaft journal, when removing the lower
crankcase onto upper crankcase. WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
4. Separate and remove lower crankcase assembly death, use a correct size lifting sling and hoist
from upper crankcase assembly. with a safety latch on hook.

5. Remove and discard crankcase lower seals. 1. Install a bolt in each end of the crankshaft.

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not drop or
permanent markers to identify internal components bend the crankshaft.
or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary 2. Attach lifting sling (page 486) to crankshaft over
markers. bolts installed in crankshaft ends. Lift crankshaft
6. Beginning from front of engine, remove lower straight up and out of upper crankcase assembly.
main bearings from lower crankcase by pushing CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, use
bearings out of bearing saddles. Number main permanent markers to identify internal components
bearings with bearing number (1 to 5) and put or their orientation. Do not use paint or temporary
aside for inspection. markers.
3. Beginning from front of engine, remove upper
main bearings and thrust bearing from upper
crankcase by pushing bearings out of bearing
saddles. Number bearings with bearing number
(1 to 5) and put aside for inspection.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 423

Piston Cooling Tubes Camshaft Assembly

Figure 646 Camshaft Thrust Plate Bolts


Figure 645 Piston Cooling Tube and Bolt
(Typical) 1. M8 x 16 bolt (2)
2. Camshaft gear
1. M6 x 18 bolt (8)
2. Piston cooling tube assembly (8)
1. Remove two M8 x 16 camshaft thrust plate bolts.
Remove each piston cooling tube by removing its M6
x 18 bolt. The bolts are reusable, providing bolt is
cleaned and inspected, and Loctite® 262 is added to
bolt threads before installation.
424 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Figure 647 Camshaft Assembly Removal Figure 648 Camshaft Bushing Removal
1. Camshaft Bushing Remover / Installer (Expanding
Collet)
NOTE: If engine is mounted on a revolving stand,
2. Pulling screw (from Camshaft Bushing Service Set)
rotate engine face up, allowing for easy removal
of camshaft.
2. Remove camshaft from upper crankcase 2. Use Camshaft Bushing Service Set (page 486)
assembly by lifting assembly straight up and out. with Camshaft Bushing Remover / Installer
(Expanding Collet) (page 486) to remove all
camshaft bushings. Install Camshaft Bushing
Camshaft Bushings Remover / Installer (Expanding Collet) in
collapsed state inside camshaft bushing.
1. Determine necessity of replacing camshaft
bushings based on camshaft journal and bushing NOTE: Hold a wrench on end of pulling screw to
running clearance (page 441). See Camshaft prevent screw from turning.
Assembly (page 432) and Measuring Camshaft
3. Assemble pulling screw in Camshaft Bushing
Bushings (page 433).
Remover / Installer (Expanding Collet) and tighten
backup nut until collet fits tightly in camshaft
bushing. To avoid nicks on bushings, be careful
when inserting or removing threads of pulling
screw.
4. Attach pulling plate, thrust bearing, and drive
nut on pulling screw. Tighten nut against thrust
bearing and pulling plate. Continue to tighten
nut on pulling screw until camshaft bushing is
free from upper crankcase assembly. Discard
bushings.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 425

Coolant Heater

Figure 649 Coolant Heater


1. O-ring seal 2. Coolant heater

1. Remove coolant heater from right rear side of


upper crankcase assembly and discard O-ring
seal.
426 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Cleaning, Inspection, and 5. If camshaft gear backlash exceeds specification


Measurement (page 441), replace camshaft assembly.

Camshaft Gear Backlash Measurement


Camshaft End Play Measurement

Figure 650 Camshaft Gear Backlash (Camshaft


Gear to Crankshaft Gear) Figure 651 Camshaft End Play
1. Dial indicator with magnetic base
2. Camshaft gear
1. Mount dial indicator with magnetic base (page
486) on upper crankcase.
1. Mount dial indicator with magnetic base (page 2. Push camshaft to front of engine.
486) on upper crankcase.
3. Zero the dial indicator.
NOTE: Crankshaft gear must be fixed and not
allowed to rotate; the camshaft gear must rotate, 4. Place a small pry bar between camshaft gear and
for a correct reading. crankcase and gently pry camshaft away from
front of engine. Compare dial indicator reading
2. Position dial indicator tip on a gear tooth and with camshaft end play specification (page 441).
remove lash by slowly turning camshaft gear until
play is gone. 5. If end play exceeds specified limit, replace
camshaft assembly.
3. Zero the dial indicator.
4. Turn gear back and forth by hand and read
indicator.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 427

Crankshaft End Play Measurement


WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
2. If a hot tank is not available, do the following steps:
a. Use non-metallic stiff bristle brushes and
scrapers to clean gasket material from
machined surfaces of upper crankcase
assembly.
b. Clean cylinder bore with soap, water, and a
stiff nylon brush.
c. Clean upper and lower crankcase assemblies
in solvent.
d. Dry with filtered compressed air.

Figure 652 Crankshaft End Play

1. Mount dial indicator with magnetic base (page


486) on lower crankcase. Put indicator tip on end
of crankshaft as shown.
2. Move crankshaft forward with pry bar and zero the
dial indicator.
3. Move crankshaft back and forth while reading
dial indicator. Compare dial indicator reading with
Crankshaft end play specifications (page 441).
4. If end play exceeds maximum service
specification, replace upper thrust bearing.

Figure 653 16-mm Cup Plugs (Oil Gallery)


Crankcase Assembly
Crankcase Cleaning
3. Remove four 16 mm cup plugs from upper
NOTE: Thoroughly clean and inspect upper and crankcase assembly (two in front and two in rear
lower crankcase assemblies before and after of main oil gallery), using a punch and hammer
reconditioning. near edge of plug and striking with hammer.
1. Clean upper and lower crankcase assemblies Discard plugs.
in a chemical bath or hot tank. This removes
all carbonized material and mineral deposits in
coolant passages.
428 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

each side of upper crankcase assembly), using a


punch and hammer near edge of plug and striking
with hammer. Discard plugs.
7. Clean the machined bores for the coolant cup
plugs
8. Coat edges of new 38 mm cup plugs with Loctite®
11747 (page 486). Use Oil Gallery Plug Driver
(page 486) and install new oil gallery cup plugs.
The oil gallery plug driver installs oil gallery
cup plugs to correct depth. They should be
flush with upper crankcase assembly surface to
approximately 1.50 mm (0.060 in) below surface.

Figure 654 Main Oil Gallery Cleaning

4. Clean main oil galleries with Oil Gallery Cleaning


Brush (page 486).
5. Coat edges of new 16 mm cup plugs (oil gallery)
with Loctite® 11747 (page 486). Use Oil Gallery
Plug Driver (page 486) and install new oil gallery
cup plugs. The oil gallery plug driver installs oil
gallery cup plugs to correct depth. They should be
flush with upper crankcase assembly surface to
approximately 1.50 mm (0.060 in) below surface.

Figure 656 Cylinder Head Bolt Hole Cleaning


(Typical)

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, clean
and blow dry crankcase bolt holes with filtered
compressed air. Debris or fluids in bolt holes may
cause binding and incorrect bolt torque.
9. Clean cylinder head bolt holes with Head Bolt
Bottoming Tap (page 486).

Figure 655 38-mm Cup Plugs 10. Blow out bolt holes with filtered compressed air.

6. Remove eight 38 mm cup plugs from upper


crankcase assembly (two in rear and three in
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 429

Crankcase Inspection and Measurement


1. After cleaning, inspect upper crankcase assembly
for cracks, scoring, roughness or wear at cylinder
bores.

Figure 658 Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round


Measurement

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, if cylinder


Figure 657 Flatness Check for Top Surface of bores are deeply scored, out-of-round, or exceed
Upper Crankcase Assembly diameter specifications; bore out cylinders to oversize
specification.
1. Straightedge
2. Feeler gauge NOTE: If cylinder walls have minor surface
3. Upper crankcase assembly top surface damage, but are otherwise within out-of-round
specifications, it may be possible to remove
damage by deglazing (page 430).
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not 3. Use a cylinder bore gauge (page 486) to check
resurface the crankcase if surface defects exceed each cylinder bore for diameter and out-of-round
specifications. conditions.
2. Use a straightedge (page 486) to check top a. Measure diameter of each cylinder bore at
surface of upper crankcase assembly (firing top of piston ring travel. Be sure to measure
deck) for flatness. Insert a feeler gauge (page at a right angle to center line of crankshaft
486) between straightedge and upper crankcase assembly (dimension A).
assembly head surface.
b. Measure each bore so gauge reading
a. Measure entire deck surface. If gap exceeds coincides with center line of crankshaft
specifications (page 441), replace upper and assembly (dimension B).
lower crankcase assembly.
c. The difference between dimension A and
dimension B is out-of-round condition at top
of cylinder bore.
4. Repeat procedure at bottom of ring travel to check
for out-of-round.
5. If cylinder bore is within standard size
specifications (page 441), standard size pistons
and rings may be used.
430 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Cylinder Deglazing 3. Deglaze each cylinder wall for about 15 seconds.


Stroke bore up and down at a rate of one complete
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or up and down stroke per second.
death, wear safety glasses with side shields. 4. Withdraw deglazing hone from cylinder bore while
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi). rotating. Wipe portion of cylinder wall and inspect
NOTE: Remove piston cooling tubes before crosshatch pattern.
deglazing cylinder bores. NOTE: The crosshatch pattern left by the abrasive
tool should be approximately 45°. If pattern is
flatter than required, increase up and down stroke
speed or slow down drill rotation as required.
5. Continue deglazing cylinder bore for 10 to 15
seconds or 20 to 25 strokes.
6. Wipe cylinder bore clean and inspect bore for
correct 45° crosshatch pattern.
7. After deglazing, thoroughly clean cylinder bores
with soft bristle brush, soap and water.
8. Dry with filtered compressed air.
9. Lubricate bores with clean engine oil.

Crankshaft Assembly
Figure 659 Deglazing Hone (Four-Inch, Typical)
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
1. Spray cylinder and deglazing hone with death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
penetrating fluid or equivalent. Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).

NOTE: For a successful procedure 100 to 120 rpm 1. Clean crankshaft with a suitable solvent.
is required. 2. Use a stiff nylon brush to clean oil passages in
2. Attach deglazing hone (four inch) (page 486) crankshaft. Loosen accumulated dirt, sludge, and
to a variable speed electric or air powered drill. deposits.
This brush quickly deglazes cylinder walls and 3. Flush oil passages with a suitable solvent.
produces a crosshatch pattern on cylinder wall
surface in a single operation. The brush contours 4. Dry with filtered compressed air.
itself to cylinder wall and conditions wall surface 5. Inspect crankshaft journals (main and connecting
without altering cylinder bore. rod) for scratches, grooves, and scoring.
NOTE: Do not allow deglazing hone to spin in 6. Inspect main bearings for scratches, grooves,
one place. Deglazing hone must be moved in scoring, pitting, and inconsistent coloring.
a constant up and down motion to maintain
crosshatch pattern.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 431

Main Bearing Fit Check


NOTE: Main bearings must fit tightly in the bore.
When bearings are inserted into upper and lower
crankcase assembly, they protrude above parting
line. This protrusion is required to achieve
bearing crush.

When assembly is drawn up tight, bearing is


compressed, ensuring positive contact between
backside of bearing and bore.
NOTE: If main bearings have scratches, grooves,
scoring, pitting, or inconsistent coloring, new
main bearings must be installed.
1. Install main bearings into upper crankcase
Figure 660 Measurement of Crankshaft Main assembly.
Journal

Figure 661 Measurement of Crankshaft Figure 662 Lower Main Bearings


Connecting Rod Journal 1. Lower main bearing
2. Locking tab
3. Bearing saddle
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, grind or
install new crankshaft if journals exceed maximum
out-of-round or taper specifications. 2. Install crankshaft lower main bearings in lower
crankcase assembly. Make sure locking tab on
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not rework bearing is snapped into bearing saddle.
bearings or bearing caps to reduce journal-to-bearing
running clearances. Grind or install new crankshaft. CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow
the lower crankcase (at the parting line) to contact
7. Use a 3-4 inch micrometer (page 486) to measure the crankshaft journal, when positioning the lower
diameter of each journal (main and connecting crankcase onto upper crankcase.
rod). Measure each journal at two points 90°
apart. Move micrometer over entire width of 3. Position lower crankcase onto upper crankcase.
journal. If journal wear exceeds specifications 4. Lubricate old main bearing bolts with clean engine
(page 441), grind or replace crankshaft. oil.
432 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

9. If bearing-to-crankshaft running clearances


exceed specifications (page 441) because of
wear on crankshaft, replace or grind crankshaft
and install under-size precision type bearing
shells.

Piston Cooling Tubes


1. With piston cooling tubes removed, run a correct
size wire through each tube to ensure no
blockage.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
Figure 663 Torque Sequence for Main Bearing
Bolts 2. Use dry filtered compressed air to blow out any
remaining debris.
3. Replace any cracked or bent tubes.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install longer
main cap bolts (M14 x 127.5) inboard and shorter main
cap bolts (M14 x 114.5) outboard. Camshaft Assembly
5. Tighten old bolts using above sequence as NOTE: This engine uses hydraulic valve tappets
follows: with roller followers. A roller follower guide is
• Tighten bolts to 149 N·m (110 lb·ft). needed to maintain correct orientation of roller to
cam lobe. Normal clearance between the valve
• Tighten bolts to 176 N·m (130 lb·ft). tappet roller and guide allows for slight tracking
• Tighten bolts to 231 N·m (170 lb·ft). of roller across cam lobe.
6. Using a telescoping gauge (page 486), measure Tracking of the roller is normal when the roller
inside diameter of main bearing at two locations accelerates and decelerates during engine
90° apart. operation. Consequently, a typical wear pattern
7. If not previously done, use a 3-4 inch micrometer on cam lobes will exhibit tracks from side to side,
(page 486) to measure each crankshaft main have wide and narrow areas from the loading and
journal diameter. Average the two inside diameter unloading of follower. The wear pattern (tracking)
measurements. is normal and the camshaft does not require
replacement.
8. Subtract crankshaft main journal diameter from
respective main bearing inside diameter to obtain 1. Inspect camshaft. If any lobes are scuffed, scored
bearing-to-crankshaft running clearance. Repeat or cracked, replace camshaft assembly.
for each crankshaft main journal. 2. After inspection, evaluate camshaft main journal
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not rework and lobe condition as follows:
bearings or bearing caps to reduce journal-to-bearing NOTE: When measuring the camshaft bearing
running clearances. Grind or install new crankshaft. journals with a micrometer, always take two
NOTE: Plastigage may be used as an alternate measurements 90° apart.
method to determine running clearance.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 433

maximum lobe lift in specifications (page


441) to obtain cam lobe wear measurement.
Replace camshaft assembly if cam lobe wear
exceeds specifications (page 441).
3. Inspect thrust plate for wear, cracks or distortion.
Use a 0-1 inch micrometer (page 486) to measure
thrust plate thickness. If thickness does not
meet specification (page 441), replace camshaft
assembly.
4. Inspect camshaft gear for worn or damaged teeth.
5. Wash camshaft in cleaning solvent with a soft
brush.

WARNING: To prevent personal injury or


Figure 664 Measurement of Camshaft Bearing death, wear safety glasses with side shields.
Journal Limit compressed air pressure to 207 kPa (30 psi).
6. Dry with filtered compressed air.
a. Use a 2-3 inch micrometer (page 486)
to measure journal diameter of camshaft
bearing. If bearing journals are worn beyond Measuring Camshaft Bushings
specification (page 441), install a new
camshaft assembly.

Figure 666 Measurement of Camshaft Bushing


Inside Diameter
Figure 665 Measurement of Camshaft Intake 1. Outside micrometer
and Exhaust Lobes 2. Telescoping gauge
1. Camshaft assembly
2. Micrometer
Measure five camshaft bushings and calculate
running clearance as follows:
b. To check camshaft intake and exhaust lobes, 1. Use a telescoping gauge set (page 486) and 2-3
measure across (A to C) and across (B to inch micrometer to measure camshaft bushing
D). Subtract (B to D) from (A to C). This will inside diameters with bushings installed in
give cam lobe lift. Subtract this amount from crankcase.
434 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

2. To determine running clearance, subtract 5. Remove burrs and clean bores thoroughly before
previous camshaft journal diameter readings from installing new camshaft bushings.
camshaft bushing inside diameter readings.
3. If maximum allowable running clearance
Coolant Heater
is exceeded (page 441), replace camshaft
bushings. See Camshaft Bushings removal 1. Inspect heater for continuity.
(page 424) in this section.
2. Check insulator at terminal for cracks.
4. Inspect each bushing bore in upper crankcase
assembly for burrs or debris that could damage
new bushings.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 435

Installation 5. To aid in alignment of camshaft bushing and


upper crankcase assembly oil holes, use a
Camshaft Bushings
marker to indicate oil hole location on backup
1. Lubricate new camshaft bushings and crankcase nut of installation tool. Repeat this step for each
bores with clean engine oil. camshaft bushing.
6. Install all camshaft bushings through rear of upper
crankcase assembly. Pull bushings in place at
rear of upper crankcase assembly by turning
pulling nut on pulling screw until bushing is flush
on both sides with upper crankcase assembly.
Remove Camshaft Bushing Remover / Installer
(Expanding Collet) (page 486) and inspect oil
hole alignment.

Camshaft Assembly
1. Coat camshaft lobes and bushing journals with
clean engine oil.

Figure 667 Installation of Cam Bushing


1. Camshaft bushing
2. Camshaft Bushing Remover/Installer (Expanding
Collet)
3. Pulling screw (from Camshaft Bushing Service Set)

2. Slide a new bushing onto Camshaft Bushing


Remover / Installer (Expanding Collet) (page
486).
3. Thread pulling screw (from Camshaft Bushing
Service Set), backup nut, and Camshaft Bushing
Remover / Installer (Expanding Collet) (page 486)
together. Figure 668 Camshaft Assembly
4. Tighten expanding collet by turning backup
nut until bushing is securely held on Camshaft
NOTE: Do not nick or scratch camshaft bushings
Bushing Remover / Installer (Expanding Collet)
with cam lobes.
(page 486).
2. Position upper crankcase assembly with rear of
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage and ensure
engine facing up on engine stand and carefully
correct oil circulation through the crankcase. Align
install camshaft assembly.
camshaft bushing oil holes with corresponding oil
supply holes machined in the crankcase.
436 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

NOTE: The bolt-on piston cooling tubes are


self-aligning.
1. Place piston cooling tubes on upper crankcase
assembly mounting pad.
2. Apply Loctite® 262 (page 486) to M6 x 18 bolt
threads and install bolts in crankcase.
3. Install and tighten bolts to standard torque (page
473).

Crankshaft Assembly
NOTE: Make sure crankshaft assembly has been
inspected and cleaned per instructions on (page
430) before doing the following procedure.
Figure 669 Camshaft Thrust Plate Bolts
1. Use a lint-free cloth to wipe oil from bearing
1. M8 x 16 bolt (2) supports of upper crankcase assembly.
2. Camshaft gear
NOTE: When inserting main bearings, make sure
oil is not between back side of bearing and upper
3. Install two M8 x 16 camshaft thrust plate bolts. crankcase assembly bearing saddles.
Tighten bolts to standard torque (page 473). NOTE: Make sure upper thrust bearing is installed
4. Measure camshaft end play (page 426). Verify at number four upper main bearing journal.
camshaft end play is within specifications (page 2. Place upper main bearings in upper crankcase
441). assembly. Make sure locking tabs on bearings are
snapped in saddle and oil holes in bearings line up
with oil holes in upper crankcase assembly.
Piston Cooling Tubes

Figure 671 Upper Main Bearings Lubrication

Figure 670 Piston Cooling Tube


1. M6 x 18 bolt (8) 3. Lubricate bearings with clean engine oil.
2. Piston cooling tube (8) 4. Rotate camshaft so timing mark on camshaft gear
is pointing upwards.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 437

Figure 672 Lifting Sling Figure 673 Crankshaft and Camshaft Timing
Marks
1. Lifting sling
2. Crankshaft assembly

6. Install crankshaft so timing mark on gear aligns


with timing mark on camshaft gear.
WARNING: To prevent personal injury or
death, use a correct size lifting sling and hoist
with a safety latch on hook. Lower Crankcase Assembly
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not drop or With acceptable bearing clearance as determined
bend the crankshaft. in Main Bearing Fit Check (page 431), install lower
crankcase assembly as follows:
5. Install a bolt in each end of the crankshaft
assembly (if removed). Attach hoist and lifting NOTE: When inserting main bearings, make sure
sling (page 486) around crankshaft bolts and oil is not between back side of bearing and lower
carefully lower crankshaft onto five main bearings. crankcase assembly bearing saddles.
438 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Figure 675 Crankcase Lower Seals and Loctite®


Figure 674 Lower Main Bearings 5127 Sealant
1. Lower main bearing 1. Loctite® 5127 sealant
2. Locking tab 2. Crankcase lower seal (2)
3. Bearing saddle 3. Outside machined surface of lower crankcase
assembly

1. Install crankshaft lower main bearings in lower


crankcase assembly. Make sure locking tab on 2. Install new crankcase lower seals.
bearing is snapped into bearing saddle.
3. Apply Loctite® 5127 sealant (page 486) onto the
full length of outside machined surfaces.
4. Apply clean engine oil to lower bearings,
crankshaft journals, and main bearing bolts.
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 439

5. Position lower crankcase onto upper crankcase.


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install new
bolts for lower crankcase assembly if lower crankcase
assembly is serviced.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, install longer
main cap bolts (M14 x 127.5) inboard and shorter main
cap bolts (M14 x 114.5) outboard.
6. Install 10 new M14 x 127.5 main bearing bolts.
7. Install 10 new M14 x 114.5 main bearing bolts.

Figure 676 Main Bearing Bolts (Typical)


1. M14 x 127.5 main bearing bolt (10)
2. M14 x 114.5 main bearing bolt (10)

CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not allow


the lower crankcase (at the parting line) to contact
the crankshaft journal, when positioning the lower
crankcase onto upper crankcase.

Figure 678 Torque Sequence for Main Bearing


Bolts

8. Tighten bolts using above sequence as follows:


• Tighten bolts to 149 N·m (110 lb·ft).
• Tighten bolts to 176 N·m (130 lb·ft).
• Tighten bolts to 231 N·m (170 lb·ft).
9. Measure camshaft gear backlash, camshaft end
play, and crankshaft end play (page 426).

Figure 677 Lower Crankcase Assembly (Typical)


1. Lower crankcase assembly
2. Upper crankcase assembly
440 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Coolant Heater

Figure 679 Coolant Heater


1. O-ring seal 2. Coolant heater

1. Lubricate a new O-ring seal with P-80® Rubber 2. Install coolant heater in upper crankcase
Lubricant or equivalent (page 486) and install assembly and tighten to special torque (page
O-ring seal onto coolant heater. 441).
CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT 441

Specifications

Upper Crankcase Assembly


Maximum firing deck gap 0.130 mm (0.005 in)
Maximum cylinder bore out-of round allowance 0.0125 mm (0.005 in)
Cylinder bore diameter
Standard size 98.200 mm (3.8661 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in) over size 98.454 mm (3.8761 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in) over size 98.708 mm (3.8861 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in) over size 98.962 mm (3.8961 in)
Crankshaft Assembly
Main Bearing Journal Diameter 80.9873 to 81.0127 mm (3.1885 to 3.1895 in)

Main bearing thrust face maximum runout 0.050 mm (0.002 in)

Main bearing to crankshaft running clearance 0.020 to 0.086 mm (0.0008 to 0.0034 in)
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter 71.987 to 72.013 mm (2.834 to 2.835 in)
Crankshaft end play:
Nominal new 0.203 mm (0.008 in)
Maximum service 0.508 mm (0.020 in)
Camshaft Assembly
Bearing journal diameter (all journals) 61.987 to 62.013 mm (2.440 to 2.441 in)
Bearing inside diameter (installed) 62.05 to 62.14 mm (2.443 to 2.446 in)
Camshaft journal and bushing running clearance 0.037 to 0.153 mm (0.0015 to 0.0060 in)
Camshaft end play 0.051 to 0.211 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)
Camshaft gear backlash 0.179 to 0.315 mm (0.007 to 0.012 in)
Maximum permissible cam lobe wear 0.51 mm (0.02 in)
Camshaft thrust plate thickness 3.589 to 3.649 mm (0.1413 to 0.1436 in)
Camshaft lobe lift (maximum):
Intake 5.820 mm (0.2291 in)
Exhaust 5.906 mm (0.2325 in)

Special Torque

Main bearing bolts See tightening procedure and sequence


Coolant heater 41 N·m (30 lb·ft)
442 CRANKCASE, CRANKSHAFT, AND CAMSHAFT

Special Service Tools

Description Tool Number


0–1 inch micrometer Obtain locally
2–3 inch micrometer Obtain locally
3–4 inch micrometer Obtain locally
Camshaft Bushing Service Set ZTSE2893B
Camshaft Bushing Remover/Installer (Expanding Collet) ZTSE4489
Cylinder bore gauge Obtain locally
Deglazing hone (four inch) Obtain locally
Dial indicator with magnetic base Obtain locally
Feeler gauge Obtain locally
Head Bolt Bottoming Tap ZTSE4508
Lifting sling Obtain locally
Loctite® 11747 Obtain locally
Loctite® 262 Obtain locally
Loctite® 5127 sealant Obtain locally
P-80® Rubber Lubricant or equivalent Obtain locally
Oil Gallery Cleaning Brush ZTSE4511
Oil Gallery Plug Driver ZTSE4512
Straightedge Obtain locally
Telescoping gauge set Obtain locally
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 443

Table of Contents

Abbreviations and Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445


Abbreviations and Acronyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
444 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 445

Abbreviations and Acronyms BPS – Brake Pressure Switch


BTDC – Before Top Dead Center
Abbreviations and Acronyms
BTU – British Thermal Unit
A or amp – Ampere C – Celsius
AAT – Ambient Air Temperature CAC – Charge Air Cooler
ABDC – After Bottom Dead Center CACOT – Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature
ABS – Antilock Brake System CAN – Controller Area Network
AC – Alternating Current CAP – Cold Ambient Protection
A/C – Air Conditioner CARB – California Air Resources Board
ACC – Air Conditioner Control cc – Cubic centimeter
ACCEL – Accelerate CCA – Cold Cranking Ampere
ACD – Air Conditioner Demand CCOSS – Crankcase Oil Separator Speed
ACM – Aftertreatment Control Module CCS – Cruise Control Switches
ACT PWR GND – Actuator Power Ground cfm – Cubic feet per minute
ACV – Air Control Valve cfs – Cubic feet per second
AF – Air to Fuel ratio CFV – Coolant Flow Valve
AFT – Aftertreatment CID – Cubic Inch Displacement
AFTFD – Aftertreatment Fuel Doser CKP – Crankshaft Position
AFTFDH – Aftertreatment Fuel Doser High CKPH – Crankshaft Position High
AFTFDL – Aftertreatment Fuel Doser Low CKPL – Crankshaft Position Low
AFTFIT – Aftertreatment Fuel Inlet Temperature CKPO – Crankshaft Position Out
AFTFIS – Aftertreatment Fuel Inlet Sensor cm – Centimeter
AFTFP – Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure CMP – Camshaft Position
AFTFP1 – Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure 1 CMPH – Camshaft Position High
AFTFP2 – Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure 2 CMPL – Camshaft Position Low
AFTFSH – Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff High CMPO – Camshaft Position Out
AFTFSL – Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff Low CMV – Coolant Mixer Valve
AFTFSV – Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff Valve CO – Carbon Monoxide
AIT – Air Inlet Temperature COO – Cruise On / Off switch
Amb – Ambient CPU – Central Processing Unit
amp or A – Ampere CSFI – Cold Start Fuel Igniter
AMS – Air Management System CSFS – Cold Start Fuel Solenoid
API – American Petroleum Institute CSR – Cold Start Relay
APP – Accelerator Pedal Position CTC – Coolant Temperature Compensation
APP1 – Accelerator Pedal Position 1 Cyl – Cylinder
APP2 – Accelerator Pedal Position 2 DB – Decibel
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials DC – Direct Current
ATA – American Trucking Association DCA – Diesel Coolant Additive
ATAH – American Trucking Association Link High DDI – Digital Direct Fuel Injection
ATAL – American Trucking Association Link Low DDS – Driveline Disengagement Switch
ATDC – After Top Dead Center DLC – Data Link Connector
AWG – American Wire Gauge DME – Dimethyl Ether
AWL – Amber Warning Lamp DMM – Digital Multimeter
B+ or VBAT – Battery Voltage DOC – Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
BARO – Barometric Absolute Pressure DOCIT – Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Inlet Temperature
BBDC – Before Bottom Dead Center DOCOT – Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Outlet
BC – Body Controller Temperature
BDC – Bottom Dead Center DPF – Diesel Particulate Filter
bhp – Brake Horsepower DPFDP – Diesel Particulate Filter Differential
BOO – Brake On / Off Pressure
BPP – Brake Pedal Position DPFIT – Diesel Particulate Filter Inlet Temperature
446 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

DPFOT – Diesel Particulate Filter Outlet Temperature EPR – Engine Pressure Regulator
DSI – Down Stream Injection ESC – Electronic System Controller
DT – Diesel Turbocharged ESN – Engine Serial Number
DTC – Diagnostic Trouble Code EST – Electronic Service Tool
DTRM – Diesel Thermo Recirculation Module ETC – Engine Throttle Control
EAWD – Engine Assisted Windshield Defrost ETCH – Engine Throttle Control High
EBP – Exhaust Back Pressure ETCL – Engine Throttle Control Low
EBPD – Exhaust Back Pressure Desired ETP – Engine Throttle Position
EBPV – Exhaust Back Pressure Valve ETV – Engine Throttle Valve
ECB – Engine Compression Brake EWPS – Engine Warning Protection System
ECB1 – Engine Compression Brake 1 F – Fahrenheit
ECB2 – Engine Compression Brake 2 FCV – Fuel Coolant Valve
ECBP – Engine Compression Brake Pressure FDP – Fuel Delivery Pressure
ECI – Engine Crank Inhibit FEL – Family Emissions Limit
ECL – Engine Coolant Level fhp – Friction horsepower
ECM – Engine Control Module FMI – Failure Mode Indicator
ECM GND – Engine Control Module Ground FPC – Fuel Pump Control
ECM PWR – Engine Control Module Power FPCV – Fuel Pressure Control Valve
ECS – Engine Coolant System fpm – Feet per minute
ECSR – Engine Controlled Shutdown Request FPM – Fuel Pump Monitor
ECT – Engine Coolant Temperature fps – Feet per second
ECT1 – Engine Coolant Temperature 1 FRP – Fuel Rail Pressure
ECT2 – Engine Coolant Temperature 2 ft – Feet
EFAN – Engine Fan FVCV – Fuel Volume Control Valve
EFC – Engine Fan Control GND – Ground (electrical)
EFRC – Engine Family Rating Code gal – Gallon
EFS – Engine Fan Speed gal/h – U.S. Gallons per hour
EFT – Engine Fuel Temperature gal/min – U.S. Gallons per minute
EG – Ethylene Glycol GCW – Gross Combined Weight
EGC – Electronic Gauge Cluster GCWR – Gross Combined Weight Rating
EGBP – Exhaust Gas Back Pressure GPC – Glow Plug Control
EGDP – Exhaust Gas Differential Pressure GPD – Glow Plug Diagnostic
EGR – Exhaust Gas Recirculation GPR – Glow Plug Relay
EGRC – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control GVW – Gross Vehicle Weight
EGRH – Exhaust Gas Recirculation High control H2O – Water
EGRL – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Low control HC – Hydrocarbons
EGROT – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Outlet HEST – High Exhaust System Temperature
Temperature HFCM – Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module
EGRP – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Position Hg – Mercury
EGRT – Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature hp – Horsepower
EGT – Exhaust Gas Temperature HPCAC – High-Pressure Charge Air Cooler
EGT1 – Exhaust Gas Temperature 1 HPCR – High-Pressure Common Rail
EGT2 – Exhaust Gas Temperature 2 HPFP – High-Pressure Fuel Pump
EGT3 – Exhaust Gas Temperature 3 hr – Hour
EMI – Electromagnetic Interference HS – Humidity Sensor
EMP – Exhaust Manifold Pressure Hyd – Hydraulic
EMT – Exhaust Manifold Temperature IAH – Inlet Air Heater
EOL – Engine Oil Level IAHC – Inlet Air Heater Control
EOP – Engine Oil Pressure IAHD – Inlet Air Heater Diagnostic
EOT – Engine Oil Temperature IAHR – Inlet Air heater Relay
EPA – Environmental Protection Agency IC – Integrated Circuit
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 447

ICP – Injection Control Pressure mpg – Miles per gallon


ICPR – Injection Control Pressure Regulator mph – Miles per hour
ICG1 – Injector Control Group 1 MPR – Main Power Relay
ICG2 – Injector Control Group 2 MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet
ID – Inside Diameter MSG – Micro Strain Gauge
IGN – Ignition MSM – Multiplex System Module
ILO – Injector Leak Off MY – Model Year
IMP – Intake Manifold Pressure NC – Normally closed (electrical)
IMT – Intake Manifold Temperature NETS – Navistar Electronics Technical Support
in – Inch Nm – Newton meter
inHg – Inch of mercury NO – Normally Open (electrical)
inH2O – Inch of water NOX – Nitrogen Oxides
INJs – Injectors O2S – Oxygen Sensor
IPR – Injection Pressure Regulator O2SH – Oxygen Sensor Heater
IPR PWR – Injection Pressure Regulator Power OAT – Organic Acid Technology
ISC – Interstage Cooler OCC – Output Circuit Check
ISIS – International Service Information System OCP – Overcrank Protection
IST – Idle Shutdown Timer OD – Outside Diameter
ITP – Internal Transfer Pump OL – Over Limit
J1939H – J1939 Data Link High ORH – Out-of-Range High
J1939L – J1939 Data Link Low ORL – Out-of-Range Low
JCT – Junction (electrical) OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health
kg – Kilogram Administration
km – Kilometer OWL – Oil/Water Lamp
km/h – Kilometers per hour PID – Parameter Identifier
km/l – Kilometers per liter P/N – Part Number
KOEO – Key On Engine-Off PDOC – Pre-Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
KOER – Key On Engine-Running ppm – Parts per million
kPa – Kilopascal PROM – Programmable Read Only Memory
L – Liter psi – Pounds per square inch
L/h – Liters per hour psia – Pounds per square inch absolute
L/m – Liters per minute psig – Pounds per square inch gauge
L/s – Liters per second pt – Pint
lb – Pound PTO – Power Takeoff
lb – Pounds of force PWM – Pulse Width Modulate
lb/s – Pounds per second PWR – Power (voltage)
lb ft – Pounds of force per foot qt – Quart
lb in – Pounds of force per inch RAM – Random Access Memory
lbm – Pounds of mass RAPP – Remote Accelerator Pedal Position
LSD – Low Sulfur Diesel RAS – Resume / Accelerate Switch (speed control)
m – Meter REPTO – Rear Engine Power Takeoff
m/s – Meters per second RFI – Radio Frequency Interference
MAF – Mass Air Flow rev – Revolution
MAF GND – Mass Air Flow Ground rpm – Revolutions per minute
MAG – Magnetic RPRE – Remote Preset Power Take Off
MAP – Manifold Absolute Pressure RSE – Radiator Shutter Enable
MAT – Manifold Air Temperature RVAR – Remote Variable
mep – Mean effective pressure SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers®
mi – Mile SCA – Supplemental Cooling Additive
MIL – Malfunction Indicator Lamp SCCS – Speed Control Command Switches
mm – Millimeter SCS – Speed Control Switch
448 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

SHD – Shield (electrical) TOT – Transmission Oil Temperature


SID – Subsystem Identifier TTS – Transmission Tailshaft Speed
SIG GND – Signal Ground ULSD – Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
SIG GNDB – Signal Ground Body UVC – Under Valve Cover
SIG GNDC – Signal Ground Chassis V – Volt
SIG GNDE – Signal Ground Engine VBAT or B+ – Battery Voltage
S/N – Serial Number VC – Volume Control
SPEEDO – Speedometer VEPS – Vehicle Electronics Programming System
SPN – Suspect Parameter Number VIGN – Ignition Voltage
SW – Switch (electrical) VIN – Vehicle Identification Number
SWBAT – Switch Battery VOP – Valve Opening Pressure
SYNC – Synchronization VRE – Vehicle Retarder Enable
TACH – Tachometer output signal VREF – Reference Voltage
TBD – To Be Determined VREFB – Reference Voltage Body
TC2CIS – Turbocharger 2 Compressor Inlet Sensor VREFC – Reference Voltage Chassis
TC2CIT – Turbocharger 2 Compressor Inlet VREFE – Reference Voltage Engine
Temperature VSO – Vehicle Speed Output
TC1TOP – Turbocharger 1 Turbine Outlet Pressure VSS – Vehicle Speed Sensor
TC2TOP – Turbocharger 2 Turbine Outlet Pressure VSSH – Vehicle Speed Sensor High
TC1WC – Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control VSSL – Vehicle Speed Sensor Low
TC2WC – Turbocharger 2 Wastegate Control WTSL – Wait to Start Lamp
TCAPE – Truck Computer Analysis of Performance WEL – Warn Engine Lamp
and Economy WIF – Water In Fuel
TCM – Transmission Control Module WIFL – Water In Fuel Lamp
TCWC – Turbocharger Wastegate Control WTEC – World Transmission Electronically Controlled
TDC – Top Dead Center automatic transmissions (Allison)
TDE – Transmission Driving Engaged XCS – Transfercase
TOP – Transmission Oil Pressure XMSN – Transmission
TOSS – Transmission Output Shaft Speed
TERMINOLOGY 449

Table of Contents

Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Terms....................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .451
450 TERMINOLOGY
TERMINOLOGY 451

Terminology wastegate control port, the EBPV control port, and


the TC1TOP port. Although these components are
Terminology
integral to the ACV, each circuit is controlled by the
Terms ECM. The ACV controls compressed air for each
control valve.
Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor – A
potentiometer sensor that indicates the position of the Air Inlet Temperature (AIT) sensor – A thermistor
throttle pedal. sensor that monitors intake air temperature.
Accessory work – The work per cycle required Ambient Air Temperature (AAT) sensor – A sensor
to drive engine accessories (normally, only those that sends an ambient air temperature signal to the
essential to engine operation). ECM.
Actuator – A device that performs work in response Ambient temperature – The environmental air
to an input signal. temperature in which a unit is operating. In general,
the temperature is measured in the shade (no solar
Actuator Control – The ECM controls the actuators
radiation) and represents the air temperature for other
by applying a low-level signal (low-side driver) or a
engine cooling performance measurement purposes.
high-level signal (high side driver). When switched on,
Air entering the radiator may or may not be the same
both drivers complete a ground or power circuit to an
ambient due to possible heating from other sources
actuator.
or recirculation. (SAE J1004 SEP81)
Aeration – The entrainment of air or combustion gas
American Trucking Association (ATA) Datalink –
in coolant, lubricant, or fuel.
A serial datalink specified by the American Trucking
Aftercooler (Charge Air Cooler) – See Charge Air Association and the SAE.
Cooler.
Ampere (amp) – The standard unit for measuring the
Aftertreatment (AFT) system – A part of the exhaust strength of an electrical current. The flow rate of a
system that processes engine exhaust to meet charge in a conductor or conducting medium of one
emission requirements and traps particulate matter coulomb per second. (SAE J1213 NOV82)
(soot) to prevent it from leaving the tailpipe.
Analog – A continuously variable voltage.
Aftertreatment Fuel Doser (AFTFD) – A part of
Analog to digital converter (A/D) – A device in the
the Downstream Injection (DSI) unit that sends
ECM that converts an analog signal to a digital signal.
pressurized fuel to the Aftertreatment Fuel Injector
(AFI) to inject fuel into the exhaust pipe. Barometric Absolute Pressure (BAP) sensor – A
sensor built into the ECM that provides barometric
Aftertreatment Fuel Inlet Sensor (AFTFIS) – A
pressure information to the ECM.
sensor that monitors fuel temperature in the DSI
system and provides constant feedback to the ECM. Bobtailing – Operating a truck/tractor without a trailer
attached.
Aftertreatment Fuel Pressure 2 (AFTFP2) sensor –
A sensor that monitors fuel pressure in the DSI system Boost pressure – 1. The pressure of the charge air
and provides constant feedback to the ECM. leaving the turbocharger.
Aftertreatment Fuel Shutoff Valve (AFTFSV) – A 2. Inlet manifold pressure that is greater than
valve used to prevent fuel flow to the Aftertreatment atmospheric pressure. Obtained by turbocharging.
Fuel Injector (AFI), and prevents all uncontrolled
Bottom Dead Center (BDC) – The lowest position of
fuel delivery for the Aftertreatment system during an
the piston during the stroke.
AFTFD valve malfunction.
Air Control Valve (ACV) – Contains the LP
turbocharger wastegate control port, HP turbocharger
452 TERMINOLOGY

Brake Horsepower (bhp) – The power output from Therefore, it has a short ignition delay time. Diesel
an engine, not the indicated horsepower. The power fuel with a low cetane number resists self-ignition.
output of an engine, sometimes-called flywheel Therefore, it has a longer ignition delay time.
horsepower, is less than the indicated horsepower by
Charge air – Dense, pressurized, heated air
the amount of friction horsepower consumed in the
discharged from the turbocharger.
engine.
Charge Air Cooler (CAC) – A heat exchanger
Brake Horsepower (bhp) net – Net brake
mounted in the charge air path between the
horsepower is measured with all engine components.
turbocharger and engine intake manifold. The charge
The power of an engine when configured as a fully
air cooler reduces the charge air temperature by
equipped engine. (SAE J1349 JUN90)
transferring heat from the charge air to a cooling
Brake On/Off (BOO) switch – A switch located on the medium (usually air).
brake pedal lever, that provides a brake pedal position
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature (CACOT)
signal to the ECM.
sensor – A thermistor sensor that monitors the
Brake Pressure Switch (BPS) – A switch located in temperature of charge air entering the intake air duct.
the brake pressure line that provides a brake pedal
Closed crankcase – A crankcase ventilation that
position signal to the ECM.
recycles crankcase gases through a breather, then
Calibration – ECM programming strategy to solve back to the clean air intake.
engine performance equations and make decisions.
Closed loop operation – A system that uses sensors
Calibration values are stored in ROM and put into the
to provide feedback to the ECM. The ECM uses the
processor during programming to allow the engine to
sensor input to continuously monitor variables and
operate within certain parameters.
adjust actuators to match engine requirements.
Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor – A magnetic
Cloud point – The point when wax crystals occur in
pickup sensor that provides the ECM with a camshaft
fuel, making fuel cloudy or hazy. Usually below -12 °C
speed and position signal.
(10 °F).
Carbon Monoxide (CO) – A colorless, odorless,
Cold cranking ampere rating (battery rating) – The
highly poisonous gas that is formed by the incomplete
sustained constant current (in amperes) needed to
combustion of carbon burning diesel engine. It is
produce a minimum terminal voltage under a load of
present in the exhaust gases of diesel engines.
7.2 volts per battery after 30 seconds.
Catalyst – A substance that produces a chemical
Cold soak – Allowing engine to remain OFF for a
reaction without undergoing a chemical change itself.
period of eight or more hours.
Catalytic converter – An antipollution device in the
Cold Start Fuel Ignitor (CSFI) – The CSFI heats the
exhaust system that contains a catalyst for chemically
intake air by vaporizing and igniting fuel in the air inlet
converting some pollutants in the exhaust gases
duct.
(carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and
oxides of nitrogen) into harmless compounds. Cold Start Fuel Solenoid (CSFS) – As the engine
is cranked, the ECM energizes the CSFS valve,
Cavitation – A dynamic condition in a fluid system that
introducing fuel into the CSFI, which ignites and
forms gas-filled bubbles (cavities) in the fluid.
warms the air being drawn into the engine.
Cetane number – 1. The auto-ignition quality of
Cold Start Relay (CSR) – The CSR provides voltage
diesel fuel.
to the CSFI, and is controlled by the ECM.
2. A rating applied to diesel fuel similar to octane
Continuous Monitor Test – An ECM function that
rating for gasoline.
continuously monitors the inputs and outputs to
3. A measure of how readily diesel fuel starts to burn ensure that readings are within set limits.
(self-ignites) at high compression temperature.
Controller Area Network (CAN) – A J1939 high
Diesel fuel with a high cetane number self-ignites speed communication link.
shortly after injection into the combustion chamber.
TERMINOLOGY 453

Coolant – A fluid used to transport heat from one point Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) – 2010 model
to another. year vehicles no longer utilize DTC identification by
number. DTCs are now identified using the Suspect
Coolant Flow Valve (CFV) – The CFV is ECM
Parameter Number (SPN) and Failure Mode Indicator
controlled and redirects coolant through the fuel
(FMI) identifiers only.
cooler, based on EFT, when directed.
Diamond Logic Builder (DLB) – The diagnostics
Coolant level switch – A switch sensor used to
software for chassis related components and
monitor coolant level.
systems.
Coolant Mixer Valve (CMV) – Controls coolant flow
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) – A DOC is part of
through the low-temperature radiator.
the diesel exhaust Aftertreatment system. DOCs are
Crankcase – The housing that encloses the devices that use a chemical process to break down
crankshaft, connecting rods, and allied parts. pollutants in the exhaust stream into less harmful
components. More specifically, DOCs utilize rare
Crankcase breather – A vent for the crankcase to
metals such as palladium and platinum to reduce
release excess interior air pressure.
hydrocarbon based Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF)
Crankcase Oil Separator Speed (CCOSS) sensor and carbon monoxide content of diesel exhaust by
– The CCOSS sensor sends the ECM information simple oxidation. The DOC can be used during
about the speed of the crankcase oil separator internal an active regeneration to create higher exhaust
components. temperatures, thereby reducing soot in the DPF.
Crankcase pressure – The force of air inside the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Inlet Temperature
crankcase against the crankcase housing. (DOCIT) sensor – A sensor that provides DOC inlet
temperature signal to the ECM.
Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor – A magnetic
pickup sensor that determines crankshaft position and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) – A diesel particulate
speed. filter, sometimes called a DPF, is a device designed
to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the
Cruise Control Switches (CCS) – A set of switches
exhaust gas of a diesel engine.
used for cruise control, Power Take Off (PTO), and
remote hand throttle system. Diesel Particulate Filter Differential Pressure
(DPFDP) sensor – A sensor that measures pressure
Current – The flow of electrons passing through a
difference between the inlet and outlet of the DPF
conductor. Measured in amperes.
and provides feedback to the ECM.
Cylinder Balance – An ECM control strategy to
Diesel Particulate Filter Inlet Temperature
even-out the power contributions of each power
(DPFIT) sensor – A sensor that provides DOC inlet
cylinder.
temperature signal to the ECM.
Damper – A device that reduces the amplitude of
Diesel Particulate Filter Outlet Temperature
torsional vibration. (SAE J1479 JAN85)
(DPFOT) sensor – A sensor that provides DOC outlet
Deaeration – The removal or purging of gases (air or temperature signal to the ECM.
combustion gas) entrained in coolant or lubricating oil.
Digital Multimeter (DMM) – An electronic meter that
Deaeration tank – A separate tank in the cooling uses a digital display to indicate a measured value.
system used for one or more of the following functions: Preferred for use on microprocessor systems because
it has a very high internal impedance and will not load
• Deaeration
down the circuit being measured.
• Coolant reservoir (fluid expansion and afterboil)
Disable – A computer decision that deactivates a
• Coolant retention system and prevents operation of the system.
• Filling Displacement – The stroke of the piston multiplied by
the area of the cylinder bore multiplied by the number
• Fluid level indication (visible)
of cylinders in the engine.
454 TERMINOLOGY

Down Stream Injection (DSI) – The DSI system Engine Coolant Temperature 2 (ECT2) sensor
injects fuel into the exhaust system to increase – A thermistor sensor that detects engine coolant
temperature of the exhaust gases, and is necessary temperature.
for DPF regeneration.
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor – A
Driver (high side) – A transistor within an electronic thermistor sensor that measures fuel temperature.
module that controls the power to an actuator circuit.
Engine lamp – An instrument panel lamp that comes
Driver (low side) – A transistor within an electronic on when DTCs are set. DTCs can be read as flash
module that controls the ground to an actuator circuit. codes (red and amber instrument panel lamps).
Dual Stage Turbocharger – An assembly of two Engine OFF tests – Tests that are done with the
turbochargers (low-pressure and high-pressure) in ignition switch ON and the engine OFF.
series to provide a wide range of charge air pressures
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor – A variable
efficiently.
capacitance sensor that measures oil pressure.
Duty cycle – A control signal that has a controlled
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor – A
on/off time measurement from 0 to 100%. Normally
thermistor sensor that measures oil temperature.
used to control solenoids.
Engine rating – Engine rating includes Rated hp and
EGR Cooler – A cooler that allows heat to dissipate
Rated rpm.
from the exhaust gasses before they enter the intake
manifold. Engine RUNNING tests – Tests done with the engine
running.
Engine Back Pressure Valve (EBPV) – The ECM
commands the EBPV to control the Exhaust Brake. Engine Throttle Valve (ETV) and Engine Throttle
Position Sensor – The ETV valve is used to
Engine Compression Brake (ECB) valve – The
control airflow during a regeneration process of the
ECB valve controls pressure entering the brake oil
aftertreatment system. The ETV valve is also used
gallery from the high-pressure oil rail gallery. This
to ensure a smooth engine shut down by restricting
activates the brake actuator pistons and opens the
airflow to the engine at shut down.
exhaust valves.
Engine Warning Protection System (EWPS) –
Engine Compression Brake 1 (ECB1) solenoid –
Safeguards the engine from undesirable operating
The ECB1 solenoid controls pressure entering the
conditions to prevent engine damage and to prolong
brake oil gallery from the high-pressure oil rail gallery.
engine life.
Engine Compression Brake 2 (ECB2) solenoid –
Exhaust Back Pressure (EBP) – The pressure
The ECB2 solenoid controls pressure entering the
present in the exhaust system during the exhaust
brake oil gallery from the high-pressure oil rail gallery.
period.
Engine Compression Brake Pressure (ECBP)
Exhaust Back Pressure Valve (EBPV) – A valve that
sensor – A high-pressure sensor that provides a
regulates the amount of air pressure applied to the
feedback signal to the ECM indicating brake control
EBPV pneumatic actuator.
pressure.
Exhaust brake – A brake device using engine
Engine Control Module (ECM) – An electronic
exhaust back pressure as a retarding medium.
processor that monitors and controls the engine.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) – A system used
Engine Coolant Level (ECL) sensor – A switch
to recirculate a portion of the exhaust gases into the
sensor that monitors coolant level.
power cylinder in order to reduce oxides of nitrogen.
Engine Coolant Temperature 1 (ECT1) sensor
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT)
– A thermistor sensor that detects engine coolant
sensor – A thermistor sensor that detects the exhaust
temperature.
gas temperature entering the EGR cooler.
TERMINOLOGY 455

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve – The Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor – A variable
EGRV controls the flow of exhaust gases to the intake capacitance sensor that monitors fuel pressure in the
manifold. The EGRV is integrated with an EGR fuel rail and sends a signal to the ECM.
Position (EGRP) sensor.
Fuel strainer – A pre-filter in the fuel system that
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) – The temperature keeps larger contaminants from entering the fuel
of exhaust gases. system.
Exhaust manifold – Exhaust gases flow through the Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV) – The FVCV
exhaust manifold to the turbocharger exhaust inlet and regulates the volume of flow sent to the HPFP.
are directed to the EGR cooler. The FVCV allows a sufficient quantity of fuel to be
delivered to the HPFP depending on engine load,
Exhaust Manifold Pressure (EMP) sensor – A
speed, injector quantity, fuel temperature, and number
variable capacitance sensor used to indicate air
of injections per cycle.
pressure in the exhaust manifold.
Fully equipped engine – A fully equipped engine
Exhaust Manifold Temperature (EMT) sensor
is an engine equipped with only those accessories
– A thermistor style sensor used to indicate air
necessary to perform its intended service. A fully
temperature in the exhaust manifold.
equipped engine does not include components
Failure Mode Indicator (FMI) – Identifies the fault or that are used to power auxiliary systems. If these
condition effecting the individual component. components are integral with the engine or, for any
reason are included on the test engine, the power
Fault detection/management – An alternate control
absorbed may be determined and added to the net
strategy that reduces adverse effects that can be
brake power. (SAE J1995 JUN90)
caused by a system failure. If a sensor fails, the ECM
substitutes a good sensor signal or assumed sensor Fusible link (fuse link) – A fusible link is a special
value in its place. A lit amber instrument panel lamp section of low tension cable designed to open the
signals that the vehicle needs service. circuit when subjected to an extreme current overload.
(SAE J1156 APR86)
Filter restriction – A blockage, usually from
contaminants, that prevents the flow of fluid through Gradeability – The maximum percent grade, which
a filter. the vehicle can transverse for a specified time at a
specified speed. The gradeability limit is the grade
Flash code – See Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC).
upon which the vehicle can just move forward. (SAE
Fuel Cooler Control Valve – A valve used to redirect J227a)
coolant through the fuel cooler.
Gross brake horsepower – The power of a complete
Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) sensor – A variable basic engine, with air cleaner, without fan, and
capacitance sensor that monitors fuel pressure alternator, and air compressor not charging.
coming from the fuel tank and sends a signal to the
Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR) –
ECM.
Maximum combined weight of towing vehicle
Fuel inlet restriction – A blockage, usually from (including passengers and cargo) and the trailer. The
contaminants, that prevents the flow of fluid through GCWR indicates the maximum loaded weight that the
the fuel inlet line. vehicle is allowed to tow.
Fuel pressure – The force fuel exerts on the fuel H-Bridge Circuit – An H-Bridge (bipolar) circuit
system as it is pumped through the fuel system. operates like putting a power source on one side of a
motor and connecting the other side of the motor to a
Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV) – The FPCV
ground. This turns the motor. By shifting the leads on
controls the fuel pressure to the fuel rails and is
the motor, it will turn in the opposite direction.
controlled by the ECM. FPCV control depends on fuel
pressure and fuel temperature. Hall effect – The development of a transverse electric
potential gradient in a current-carrying conductor or
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) – The amount of pressure
semiconductor when a magnetic field is applied.
in the fuel rail.
456 TERMINOLOGY

Hall effect sensor – Transducer that varies its output Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) sensor – A
voltage in response to changes in a magnetic field. thermistor sensor used to indicate air temperature in
Commonly used to time the speed of wheels and the intake manifold.
shafts.
Internal Transfer Pump (ITP) – The ITP is part of
High Pressure Fuel Pump (HPFP) assembly – The the HPFP assembly and driven off the same shaft
HPFP is a volumetric pump that supplies fuel at high as the HPFP assembly. The ITP supplies fuel at a
pressure. The HPFP is mounted in the rear valley on slightly higher pressure and flow to the HPFP though
the top of the engine and is driven by the camshaft. the Fuel Volume Control Valve (FVCV). The ITP
also provides fuel for cooling and lubrication of the
High-pressure Piezo Common Rail (HPCR) – The
HPFP. Fuel is rerouted as pump return flow through
HPFP pumps fuel through separate tubes to each
the HPFP cooling and lubrication valve. Pressure is
fuel rail. Each fuel rail has four fuel tubes, one for
maintained at the inlet of the HPFP piston pump by
each injector, that maintain constant pressure from the
an ITP regulator.
high-pressure pump to each injector.
Interstage Cooler (ISC) – Uses cooled coolant to
High speed digital inputs – Inputs to the ECM from
lower the charged air temperature that exits from the
a sensor that generates varying frequencies (engine
turbocharger low-pressure compressor and enters the
speed and vehicle speed sensors).
turbocharger high-pressure compressor.
Horsepower (hp) – Horsepower is the unit of work
Low speed digital inputs – Switched sensor inputs
done in a given period of time, equal to 33,000 pounds
that generate an on/off (high/low) signal to the ECM.
multiplied by one foot per minute. 1hp = 33,000 lb x 1
The input to the ECM from the sensor could be from
ft /1 min.
a high input source switch (usually 5 or 12 volts) or
Humidity Sensor (HS) – A sensor that measures from a grounding switch that grounds the signal from
the moisture content of filtered air entering the intake a current limiting resistor in the ECM that creates a low
system. signal (0 volts).
Hydrocarbons – Organic compounds consisting of Low temperature radiator thermostat – Coolant
hydrogen and carbon (fuel and oil). flow to the low temperature radiator is regulated by
the low temperature radiator thermostat.
Hydrocarbon Injector – Injects fuel into the exhaust
system to increase temperature of the exhaust gases. Lubricity – Lubricity is the ability of a substance
to reduce friction between solid surfaces in relative
Idle Shutdown Timer (IST) – An engine calibration
motion under loaded conditions.
that allows the ECM to shut down the engine during
extended engine idle times. Lug (engine) – A condition when the engine is run at
an overly low RPM for the load being applied.
Injection Control Pressure (ICP) sensor – Provides
a feedback signal to the ECM indicating injection Magnehelic Gauge – A gauge that measures
control pressure. pressure in inches of water.
Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR) valve – A valve Magnetic Pickup Sensor – A magnetic pickup sensor
that is used to maintain desired injection control generates an alternating frequency that indicates
pressure. speed. Magnetic pickups have a two-wire connection
for signal and ground. This sensor has a permanent
Inlet Air Heater (IAH) – The IAH is primarily used to
magnetic core surrounded by a wire coil. The signal
assist in starting the engine during cold weather. In
frequency is generated by the rotation of the gear
addition, it helps to reduce white smoke emissions by
teeth that disturb the magnetic field.
heating the incoming air.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) – An indicator
Intake manifold – Engine component that evenly
lamp in the Electronic Instrument Cluster that will
supplies air to each intake port in the cylinder head(s).
illuminate when a detected emissions fault occurs.
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) sensor – A variable
capacitance sensor used to indicate air pressure in the
intake manifold.
TERMINOLOGY 457

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) – Boost Output Shaft Speed (OSS) sensor – A sensor
pressure in the manifold that is a result of the mounted to the rear of the transmission that supplies
turbocharger. a vehicle speed signal to the ECM. The ECM uses this
signal to control PTO, road speed limiting, and cruise
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor – A
control. Automatic transmissions use this signal for
variable capacitance sensor that measures boost
shift scheduling.
pressure.
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) – Nitrogen oxides formed
Manometer – A double-leg liquid-column gauge, or a
by a reaction between nitrogen and oxygen at high
single inclined gauge, used to measure the difference
temperatures.
between two fluid pressures. Typically, a manometer
records in inches of water. Oxygen Sensor (O2S) – A sensor that monitors
oxygen levels in the exhaust.
Mass Airflow – The intake airflow in an engine.
Particulate matter – Particulate matter includes
Mass Airflow (MAF) sensor – The MAF sensor is
mostly burned particles of fuel and engine oil.
used for closed loop control of the EGR valve and ITV.
The ECM monitors the MAF signal so that the ECM pH – A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
can control the EGR and intake throttle systems.
Piezometer – An instrument for measuring fluid
Metering unit valve assembly – The Metering unit pressure.
valve assembly provides a metered amount of fuel to
Power – Power is a measure of the rate at which
the Aftertreatment Fuel Injector (AFI).
work (force x distance) is done during a specific time.
Microprocessor – An integrated circuit in a Compare with Torque.
microcomputer that controls information flow.
Power TakeOff (PTO) – Accessory output, usually
Micro Strain Gauge (MSG) Sensor – A MSG sensor from the transmission, used to power a hydraulic
measures pressure. Pressure exerts force on a pump for a special auxiliary feature (garbage packing,
pressure vessel that stretches and compresses to lift equipment, etc).
change resistance of strain gauges bonded to the
Pre-DOC – Refers to exhaust gases that have not
surface of the pressure vessel. Internal sensor
passed through the DOC.
electronics convert the changes in resistance to a
ratiometric voltage output. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) – Succession of
digital electrical pulses, rather than an analog signal.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) – Nitrogen oxides form by
Efficient method of providing power between fully on
a reaction between nitrogen and oxygen at high
and fully off.
temperatures and pressures in the combustion
chamber. Radiator Shutter Enable (RSE) – A feature that uses
various input signals to open or close radiator shutters
Normally closed – Refers to a switch that remains
by energizing or de-energizing a solenoid that controls
closed when no control force is acting on it.
an air or hydraulic cylinder.
Normally open – Refers to a switch that remains open
Random Access Memory (RAM) – Computer
when no control force is acting on it.
memory that stores information. Information can
Ohm (Ω) – The unit of electrical resistance. One ohm be written to and read from RAM. Input information
is the value of resistance through which a potential of (current engine speed or temperature) can be stored
one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. (SAE in RAM to be compared to values stored in Read Only
J1213 NOV82) Memory (ROM). All memory in RAM is lost when the
ignition switch is turned off.
On demand test – A self-test the technician initiates
using the EST that is run from a program in the Rated gross horsepower – Engine gross
software. horsepower at rated speed as declared by the
manufacturer. (SAE J1995 JUN90)
Output Circuit Check (OCC) – An on-demand test
done during an Engine OFF self-test to check the
continuity of selected actuators.
458 TERMINOLOGY

Rated horsepower – Maximum brake horsepower Signal Conditioner – The signal conditioner in the
output of an engine as certified by the engine internal microprocessor converts analog signals to
manufacturer. The power of an engine when digital signals, squares up sine wave signals, or
configured as a basic engine. (SAE J1995 JUN90) amplifies low-intensity signals to a level that the ECM
microprocessor can process.
Rated net horsepower – Engine net horsepower at
rated speed as declared by the manufacturer. (SAE Signal ground – The common ground wire to the
J1349 JUN90) ECM for the sensors.
Rated speed – The speed, as determined by the Speed Control Command Switches (SCCS) – A set
manufacturer, at which the engine is rated. (SAE of switches used for cruise control, Power TakeOff
J1995 JUN90) (PTO), and remote hand throttle system.
Rated torque – Maximum torque produced by an Starter Motor Control (SMC) – An ECM function
engine as certified by the manufacturer. that prevents starter engagement while the engine
is running (above a set calibrated rpm), when the
Ratiometric Voltage – In a Micro Strain Gauge
automatic transmission is in gear, or when the manual
(MSG) sensor, pressure to be measured exerts force
transmission clutch pedal is not depressed.
on a pressure vessel that stretches and compresses
to change resistance of strain gauges bonded to Steady state condition – An engine operating
the surface of the pressure vessel. Internal sensor at a constant speed and load and at stabilized
electronics convert the changes in resistance to a temperatures and pressures. (SAE J215 JAN80)
ratiometric voltage output.
Strategy – A plan or set of operating instructions
Regeneration – Oxidation of accumulated soot that the microprocessor follows for a desired goal.
(carbon-based particulates) in the Diesel Particulate Strategy is the computer program itself, including
Filter (DPF). The soot is reduced to ash and stored in all equations and decision making logic. Strategy is
the DPF. always stored in ROM and cannot be changed during
calibration.
Reference voltage (VREF) – A 5 volt reference
supplied by the ECM to operate the engine sensors. Stroke – The movement of the piston from Top Dead
Center (TDC) to Bottom Dead Center (BDC).
Remote Accelerator Pedal Position (RAPP) – A
feature that allows the operator to set and maintain a Substrate – Material that supports the wash coating
constant engine speed from outside the vehicle cab. or catalytic materials.
This feature may also be known as Remote Engine
Suspect Parameter Number (SPN) – A 19-bit
Speed Control (RESC). Control over engine speed
number used to identify the item for which diagnostics
is accomplished by using remote mounted switches
are being reported. The SPN is used for multiple
to turn on the RESC and select the desired engine
purposes, some that are specific to diagnostics are
speed.
as follows;
Remote Engine Speed Control (RESC) – See
• Identify the least repairable subsystem that has
Remote Accelerator Pedal Position.
failed.
Reserve capacity – Time in minutes that a fully
• Identify subsystems or assemblies that may not
charged battery can be discharged to 10.5 volts at 25
have hard failures but may be exhibiting abnormal
amperes.
operating performance.
Return Fuel System – The return fuel system moves
• Identify a particular event or condition that will be
unused fuel from the fuel injectors to the fuel cooler.
reported.
Excess fuel out of the FVCV and the FPCV mix with
fuel from the fuel injectors on the way to the fuel cooler. • Report a component and non-standard failure
mode.
ServiceMaxx™ software – Diagnostics software for
engine related components and systems.
TERMINOLOGY 459

System restriction (air) – The static pressure the HP turbocharger. This sensor also monitors boost
differential that occurs at a given airflow from air pressure for the LP turbocharger.
entrance through air exit in a system. Usually
Turbocharger Outlet Temperature (TCOT) sensor
measured in inches (millimeters) of water. (SAE
– A sensor that provides a turbocharger outlet
J1004 SEP81)
temperature signal to the ECM.
Tachometer output signal – Engine speed signal for
Turbocharger 1 Wastegate Control (TC1WC)
remote tachometers.
solenoid – Controls the TC1WC actuator by
Thermistor – A semiconductor device. A sensing regulating the amount of charge air pressure supplied
element that changes resistance as the temperature to the TC1WC actuator. The TC1WC solenoid is
changes. controlled by signals from the ECM in response to
engine speed, required fuel quantity, boost, exhaust
Thermistor Sensor – Changes electrical resistance
back-pressure, and altitude. The TC1WC actuator is
with changes in temperature. Resistance in the
part of the turbocharger assembly.
thermistor decreases as temperature increases, and
increases as temperature decreases. Thermistors Turbocharger Wastegate Control (TCWC) solenoid
work with a resistor that limits current to form a voltage – Controls the TCWC actuator by regulating the
signal matched with a temperature value. amount of charge air pressure supplied to the TCWC
actuator. The TCWC solenoid is controlled by signals
Thrust load – A thrust load pushes or reacts through
from the ECM in response to engine speed, required
a bearing in a direction parallel to the shaft.
fuel quantity, boost, exhaust back-pressure, and
Top Dead Center (TDC) – The uppermost position of altitude.
the piston during the stroke.
Turbocharger 2 Wastegate Control (TC2WC)
Torque – A force having a twisting or turning effect. solenoid – Controls the TC2WC actuator by
For a single force, the cross product of a vector from regulating the amount of charge air pressure supplied
some reference point to the point of application of the to the wastegate actuator. The TC2WC solenoid is
force within the force itself. Also known as moment of controlled by signals from the ECM in response to
force or rotation moment. Torque is a measure of the engine speed, required fuel quantity, boost, exhaust
ability of an engine to do work. back-pressure, and altitude. The TC2WC actuator is
part of the turbocharger assembly.
Truck Computer Analysis of Performance and
Economy (TCAPE) – A computer program that Variable capacitance sensor – A variable
simulates the performance and fuel economy of capacitance sensor measures pressure. The
trucks. pressure forces a ceramic material closer to a thin
metal disc in the sensor, changing the capacitance of
Turbocharger – A turbine driven compressor
the sensor.
mounted on the exhaust manifold. The turbocharger
increases the pressure, temperature and density of Vehicle Electronic System Programming System –
intake air to charge air. The computer system used to program electronically
controlled vehicles.
Turbocharger 1 Turbine Outlet Pressure (TC1TOP)
sensor – A variable capacitance sensor that monitors Vehicle Retarder Enable/Engage – Output from the
exhaust back-pressure. ECM to a vehicle retarder.
Turbocharger 2 Compressor Inlet Temperature Vehicle Speed Output (VSO) – A vehicle speed
(TC2CIT) sensor – The TC2ICT sensor is signal sent to the EGC through the J1939 network.
thermistor-based sensor that monitors the
Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) – Normally a magnetic
temperature of charge air entering the HP
pickup sensor mounted in the tailshaft housing of the
turbocharger.
transmission, used to indicate ground speed.
Turbocharger 2 Compressor Inlet (TC2CIS) sensor
Viscosity – The internal resistance to the flow of any
– The TC2CIS sensor includes a thermistor sensor
fluid.
that monitors the temperature of charge air entering
460 TERMINOLOGY

Viscous fan – A fan drive that is activated when a Washcoat – A layer of alumina applied to the
thermostat, sensing high air temperature, forces fluid substrate in a monolith-type converter.
through a special coupling. The fluid activates the fan.
Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor – A switch sensor that
Volt (v) – A unit of electromotive force that will move measures the amount of water in the fuel.
a current of one ampere through a resistance of one
Wiggle Test – A test used to detect intermittent
Ohm.
faults in harnesses and/or connectors. This test,
Voltage – Electrical potential expressed in volts. usually used in conjunction with the ServiceMaxx™
Continuous Monitor Test, involves gently wiggling
Voltage drop – Reduction in applied voltage from the
connectors and wiring without detaching connectors
current flowing through a circuit or portion of the circuit
while monitoring signal voltage on the EST. When
current multiplied by resistance.
a voltage spike is noted (either high or low) the
Voltage ignition – Voltage supplied by the ignition technician will have located a potential open, short or
switch when the key is ON. high resistance in the circuit.
APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS 461

Table of Contents

Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463

Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463

Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463

Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463

Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464

Cylinder Head and Valve Train............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .466

Power Cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466

Crankcase, Crankshaft, and Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468


462 APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS
APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS 463

Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds,


and Piping

Dual Turbocharger
Turbine shaft axial end play 0.05 to 0.10 mm (0.002 to 0.004 in).

Exhaust Manifold
Maximum allowable warpage 0.08 mm (0.003 in)

Air Compressor and Power Steering


Pump

Power Steering Pump


Backlash: Power steering idler gear assembly 0.066 to 0.290 mm (0.0026 to 0.0114 in).

Fuel System

Primary fuel filter type 10 micron with water separation


Secondary fuel filter type 4 micron with water separation

Front Cover, Cooling System, and


Related Components

Vibration Damper
Face runout (maximum) 0.635 mm (0.025 in)
Rubber bulging (maximum) 1.5 mm (0.060 in)
Thermostat Assembly with Bypass
Type Balanced pressure, wax pellet
Start-to-open temperature, 0.20 mm (0.009 in) stroke 92 to 96°C (198 to 205°F)
Full-open temperature, 10 mm (0.394 in) stroke 106°C (222.8°F)
Thermostat Assembly without Bypass
Type Balanced pressure, wax pellet
Start-to-open temperature, 0.20 mm (0.009 in) stroke 86.7 to 91°C (188 to 196°F)
Full-open temperature, 10 mm (0.394 in) stroke 104°C (219.2°F)
464 APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS

Oil Cooler, Oil Pump, Oil Filter, and Oil


Pan

Oil Pump Assembly


Type Gerotor
Drive Crankshaft
Location Oil pump housing assembly
Pressure Regulating Valve (operating range) 5.2 to 6.0 kPa (0.75 to 0.87 psi)
End clearance (inner and outer oil pump rotor to oil
0.025 to 0.095 mm (0.001 to 0.004 in)
pump housing assembly)
Radial clearance (between outer oil pump rotor and
0.15 to 0.28 mm (0.006 to 0.011 in)
oil pump housing assembly)

Oil Cooler Assembly


Type Full flow, fin
Location Engine valley (front)

Oil Filter
Type Spin-on, full flow - disposable
Location Oil pan mounted
Filter bypass location Oil filter can
APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS 465

Cylinder Head and Valve Train

Exhaust Valves
Stem diameter 6.946 to 6.964 mm (0.2735 to 0.2742 in)
Stem to guide running clearance (max.
0.1846 mm (0.00727 in)
allowable before replacement) diametrically
Valve face angle from center line 50.5 to 50.75°
Valve margin (minimum) 1.53 mm (0.060 in)
Valve recession in head 0.37 to 0.73 mm (0.0146 to 0.0287 in)
Intake Valves
Stem diameter 6.946 to 6.964 mm (0.2735 to 0.2742 in)
Stem to guide running clearance (max.
0.1846 mm (0.00727 in)
allowable before replacement)

Valve face angle from center line 53.0 to 53.25°

Valve margin (minimum) 1.40 mm (0.055 in)


Valve recession in head 0.37 to 0.73 mm (0.0146 to 0.0287 in)
Cylinder Heads
Valve guide inside diameter 7.003 to 7.029 mm (0.276 to 0.277 in)
Valve guide bore runout 0.06 mm (0.00236 in)
Valve guide taper (maximum) 0.10 mm (0.004 in)
Valve seat width (intake) 1.80 to 2.56 mm (0.071 to 0.101 in)
Valve seat width (exhaust) 1.48 to 2.24 mm (0.058 to 0.088 in)
Valve seat angle (intake) from center line of
52.5 to 52.75°
valve guide
Valve seat angle (exhaust) from center line of
50.0 to 50.25°
valve guide
Overall thickness of cylinder head
95 ± 0.48 mm (3.74 ± 0.018 in)
(deck-to-deck)
Valve Springs
Solid height 36.1 mm (1.42 in)
Compressed* 46.50 mm @ 340 ± 17 N (1.83 in @ 76.5 ± 3.8 lb)
Compressed* 38.30 mm @ 850 ± 43 N (1.51 in @ 191.1 ± 9.7 lb)
* Spring must be compressed to a solid height before checking test loads.
Push Rods
Runout (maximum) 0.5 mm (0.02 in)
466 APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing

Flywheel Assembly
Flywheel surface maximum runout (manual) 0.25 mm (0.010 in)
Power Steering Idler Shaft
Power steering idler shaft installation height 34.30 ± 0.25 mm (1.35 ± 0.01 in)
Flywheel Housing
Flywheel housing maximum runout 0.51 mm (0.020 in)
Crankshaft Flange and Power Steering Idler Gear Assembly
Face runout:
Crankshaft flange 0.050 mm (0.002 in) maximum
Backlash:
Power steering idler gear assembly 0.066 to 0.290 mm (0.0026 to 0.0114 in)

Power Cylinders

Connecting Rods
Connecting rod length (center to center) 176 mm (6.929 in)
Piston pin bore inside diameter 38.512 to 38.549 mm (1.5162 to 1.5177 in)
Material I-Beam section - powdered metal
Bearing bore diameter (crankshaft end) 75.987 to 76.013 mm (2.9916 to 2.9926 in)
Bearing bore maximum out-of-round 0.013 mm (0.0005 in)
Connecting rod bearing inside diameter 72.031 to 72.073 mm (2.8359 to 2.8375 in)
Connecting rod bearing running clearance
0.027 to 0.097 mm (0.0001 to 0.0038 in)
(diameter)
Connecting rod side clearance 0.230 to 0.730 mm (0.0091 to 0.0287 in)
Weight (complete rod without bearing) 1280.5 to 1301.5 g (2.823 to 2.869 lb)
Pistons
Material Aluminum Alloy
1
Skirt diameter 98.103 to 98.117 mm (3.862 to 3.863 in)
1
Measure 15.5 mm (0.610 in) from bottom, at 90° to the piston pin. Measure only at room temperature of
19 to 21°C (66 to 70°F).
Service Piston:
Standard size 98.103 to 98.117 mm (3.862 to 3.863 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in) oversize 98.357 to 98.371 mm (3.872 to 3.873 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in) oversize 98.611 to 98.625 mm (3.882 to 3.883 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in) oversize 98.865 to 98.879 mm (3.892 to 3.893 in)
APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS 467

Top compression ring groove width (measured over 2.10 mm (0.083 in) gauge pins):
Upper limit 96.541 mm (3.8008 in)
Replacement limit 96.341 mm (3.7929 in)
Ring groove (side clearance):
Intermediate compression 0.050 to 0.096 mm (0.0020 to 0.0038 in)
Oil control 0.040 to 0.080 mm (0.00157 to 0.00315 in)
Piston height above crankcase deck (protrusion) 0.609 to 0.863 mm (0.0240 to 0.0340 in)
Piston skirt clearance 0.060 to 0.111 mm (0.0023 to 0.0044 in)
Piston Pins
Length 74.6 to 75.0 mm (2.9371 to 2.9528 in)
Diameter 38.490 to 38.500 mm (1.5154 to 1.5158 in)
Piston pin clearance (at room temperature of 19 to 21°C [66 to 70°F]):
Clearance in connecting rod (piston pin
0.041 to 0.058 mm (0.0016 to 0.0023 in)
bore)
Clearance in piston (piston pin bore) 0.010 to 0.020 mm (0.0004 to 0.0008 in)
End clearance 0.84 mm (0.0331 in)
Piston Rings
Ring diameter (standard): 98.2 mm (3.866 in)
Ring gap in bore:
Top compression 0.29 to 0.55 mm (0.011 to 0.022 in)
Intermediate compression 0.67 to 0.82 mm (0.0264 to 0.0323 in)
Oil control 0.25 to 0.40 mm (0.010 to 0.016 in)
468 APPENDIX A – SPECIFICATIONS

Crankcase, Crankshaft, and Camshaft

Upper Crankcase Assembly


Maximum firing deck gap 0.130 mm (0.005 in)
Maximum cylinder bore out-of round allowance 0.0125 mm (0.0005 in)
Cylinder bore diameter
Standard size 98.200 mm (3.8661 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in) over size 98.454 mm (3.8761 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in) over size 98.708 mm (3.8861 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in) over size 98.962 mm (3.8961 in)
Crankshaft Assembly
Main Bearing Journal Diameter 80.9873 to 81.0127 mm (3.1885 to 3.1895 in)

Main bearing thrust face maximum runout 0.050 mm (0.002 in)

Main bearing to crankshaft running clearance 0.020 to 0.086 mm (0.0008 to 0.0034 in)
Connecting Rod Journal Diameter 71.987 to 72.013 mm (2.834 to 2.835 in)
Crankshaft end play:
Nominal new 0.203 mm (0.008 in)
Maximum service 0.508 mm (0.020 in)
Camshaft Assembly
Bearing journal diameter (all journals) 61.987 to 62.013 mm (2.440 to 2.441 in)
Bearing inside diameter (installed) 62.05 to 62.14 mm (2.443 to 2.446 in)
Camshaft journal and bushing running clearance 0.037 to 0.153 mm (0.0015 to 0.0060 in)
Camshaft end play 0.051 to 0.211 mm (0.002 to 0.008 in)
Camshaft gear backlash 0.179 to 0.315 mm (0.007 to 0.012 in)
Maximum permissible cam lobe wear 0.51 mm (0.02 in)
Camshaft thrust plate thickness 3.589 to 3.649 mm (0.1413 to 0.1437 in)
Camshaft lobe lift (maximum):
Intake 5.820 mm (0.2291 in)
Exhaust 5.906 mm (0.2325 in)
APPENDIX B – TORQUES 469

Table of Contents

General Torque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471


Bolt Identification................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
General Torque Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472
Standard Torque Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473
Using a Torque Wrench Extension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474

Special Torques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475


Mounting Engine on Stand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475
Engine Electrical.................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .475
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475
Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476
Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476
Fuel System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Oil Cooler, Oil pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
Flywheel and Flywheel Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
Power Cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
Crankcase, Crankshaft, and Camshaft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
470 APPENDIX B – TORQUES
APPENDIX B – TORQUES 471

General Torque
Bolt Identification

Figure 680 Metric Fasteners – Classification and Identification

Figure 681 Special Fasteners – Classification and Identification


472 APPENDIX B – TORQUES

General Torque Guidelines coated) do require oil lubrication to threads and under
head area for correct torque application.
CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not
substitute fasteners. All original equipment fasteners Threads that are dry, excessively rough, battered,
are hardened and phosphate coated. or filled with dirt require considerable effort just to
rotate. Then when the clamping load is developed or
NOTE: Inspect parts for cleanliness and defects
the bolt tension is applied, the torque reading mounts
before assembly.
rapidly (due to thread friction) to the specified torque
Many conditions affect torque and the results of value. However, the desired bolt tension and correct
torque applications. The major purpose in tightening clamping load is not achieved. This condition can
a fastener to a specified torque is to obtain a clamping lead to failure of the fastener to maintain component
load which exceeds any possible loading imposed on integrity. The correct bolt tension and clamping effect
parts. can never be attained if the fastener is dry. Fastener
threads must be new condition phosphate coated
New phosphate coated fasteners do not require oil
or have a film of clean lubricant (engine oil) to be
lubrication during assembly and torque application.
considered lubricated.
Reused fasteners (even if originally phosphate
APPENDIX B – TORQUES 473

Standard Torque Charts


CAUTION: To prevent engine damage, do not use this
standard torque chart with other International brand
engines or engines made by other manufacturers.
Standard torque chart provides tightening values for
all hardware that do not require special torque.

Standard Torque Values - Class 10.9 Metric Flange Head Bolts and Studs
Thread Diameter (mm) Thread Pitch (mm) Torque
6 1 13 N·m (115 lb-in)
8 1.25 31 N·m (23 lb-ft)
10 1.5 62 N·m (45 lb-ft)
12 1.75 107 N·m (79 lb-ft)
14 2 172 N·m (127 lb-ft)
15 2 216 N·m (159 lb-ft)
16 2 266 N·m (196 lb-ft)
18 2.5 368 N·m (272 lb-ft)
20 2.5 520 N·m (384 lb-ft)

Example: Tighten four M6 x 12 pulley bolts to standard To find the standard torque for a M6 x 12 bolt, look at
torque. What is the size and standard torque for these the torque chart above. We see the standard torque
four bolts? for a 6 mm thread diameter class 10.9 bolt should be
13 N·m (115 lb-in).
M6 x 12 refers to the bolts thread diameter and length.
These bolts have a thread diameter of 6 mm and are
12 mm long.
474 APPENDIX B – TORQUES

Using a Torque Wrench Extension


Occasionally an extension, crowfoot, or other adapter
is necessary to use with a torque wrench to torque a
bolt or line fitting. Adding adapters or extensions will
alter the torque on the fastener from what the torque
wrench reads. Use the following formula to calculate
the correct torque wrench setting to achieve a specific
torque value.

Figure 682 Torque Wrench and Extension

• F - Force applied by technician reach it. What should the torque wrench setting (TS)
be to compensate for the extension?
• L - Total length through which force is applied to
fastener • Torque specified at fastener (TE) = 65 lb-ft
• TW - Torque applied at end of torque wrench • Length of torque wrench (LW) = 12 inches
TS = TE (LW / (LW + LE)) • Length of extension (LE) = 6 inches
• TS - Torque wrench setting TS = TE (LW / (LW + LE))
• TE - Torque specified at fastener TS = 65 lb-ft (12 inches / (12 inches + 6 inches)
• LW - Length of torque wrench TS = 65 lb-ft (12 inches / (18 inches)
• LE - Length of extension TS = 65 lb-ft (0.666)
Example: A component requires a specified torque TS = 43.33 lb-ft
value of 65 lb-ft and a 6 inch extension is required to
APPENDIX B – TORQUES 475

Special Torques
Mounting Engine on Stand

Crankcase coolant drain plug (M16) 20 N·m (15 lb-ft)


Oil pan drain plug (M14) 44 N·m (32 lb-ft)

Engine Electrical

Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor bolt 10 N·m (89 lb-in)


Camshaft Position (CMP) sensor bolt 10 N·m (89 lb-in)
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT1) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)
Engine Fuel Temperature (EFT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (EGRT)
38 N·m (30 lb-ft)
Sensor
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Sensor 44 N·m (32 lb-ft)
Engine Oil Pressure (EOP) sensor 12 N·m (106 lb-in)
Engine Oil Temperature (EOT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)
Fuel Delivery Pressure (FDP) Sensor 12 N·m (106 lb-in)
Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) sensor 7 N·m (62 lb-in), then turn one hex flat
Intake Manifold Temperature (IMT) sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)
Intake Manifold Pressure (IMP) sensor 12 N·m (106 lb-in)
MAF/AIT Torx screw 1 N·m (10 lb-in)
Upper harness channel shield bolt, M5 x 10 4 N·m (35 lb-in)
Water In Fuel (WIF) sensor 20 N·m (15 lb-ft)

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System

Worm drive clamp 3.5 N·m (31 lb-in)


476 APPENDIX B – TORQUES

Dual Turbocharger, Exhaust Manifolds, and


Piping

Turbocharger Clamps
Turbo air inlet duct clamp 5 N·m (48 lb-in)
Turbocharger assembly exhaust outlet V-clamps See tightening steps in procedure.

Exhaust Manifolds
Exhaust manifold bolts, M8 x 50 See tightening steps in procedure.
Exhaust manifold stud bolts, M8 x 40 See tightening steps in procedure.
Exhaust manifold heat shield threaded spacers 30 N·m (21 lb-ft)
Heat shield bolts, M8 x 12 30 N·m (21 lb-ft)
Heat shield nut, M8 30 N·m (21 lb-ft)

Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump

Air Compressor and Power Steering Pump


Air compressor to air compressor bracket bolts, M10 x 30
72 N·m (53 lb-ft)
and M10 x 45
Connector assembly, M18 (for air compressor coolant return
25 N·m (18 lb-ft)
and supply hoses)
Elbow assembly, M18 (for air compressor coolant return and
25 N·m (18 lb-ft)
supply hoses)

Air compressor oil supply hose fitting nut 20 N·m (177 lb-in)

Air compressor pulley nut 120 N·m (88 lb-ft)


Oil outlet fitting assembly 25 N·m (18 lb-ft)
Power steering suction tube assembly flared tube nut 166 N·m (122 lb-ft)
Power steering pressure tube assembly flared tube nut 87 N·m (64 lb-ft)
45° flare to M10 90° elbow 19 N·m (14 lb-ft)
APPENDIX B – TORQUES 477

Fuel System

Banjo bolts, M12 25 N·m (18 lb-ft)


High-pressure pump cap nuts 25 N·m (18 lb-ft)

Diagnostic valve 13 N·m (115 lb-in)

Right high-pressure tube assembly nuts See tightening steps in procedure.


Left high-pressure tube assembly nuts See tightening steps in procedure.
Fuel cooler screws, M8 x 20 23 N·m (16 lb-ft)
Fuel housing cover screws, M5 x 18 7 N·m (62 lb-in)
High-pressure fuel pump gear bolt 78 N·m (57 lb-ft)
Fuel rail to injector tube fittings See tightening steps in procedure
Injector clamp bolts See tightening steps in procedure

Coolant return hose clamps 3 N·m (26 lb-in)

Primary fuel filter cap 50 N·m (37 lb-ft)


Secondary fuel filter cap 40 N·m (29 lb-ft)
Water drain retainer screws, M5 x18 7 N·m (62 lb-in)
WIF sensor 2 N·m (18 lb-in)
EFT sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)
FDP sensor 18 N·m (159 lb-in)

Front Cover, Cooling System, and Related


Components

Vibration damper bolts See Vibration Damper Installation Procedure

Oil Cooler, Oil pump, Oil Filter, and Oil Pan

Oil cooler bypass valve assembly 71 N·m (52 lb-ft)


Oil cooler cover assembly serrated nuts See assembly procedure for special torque sequence
Hex plug assembly (oil pan) 25 N·m (18 lb-ft)
Plug assembly, M18 (oil pan) 25 N·m (18 lb-ft)
Oil pan drain plug (M14) 44 N·m (32 lb-ft)
Oil filter adapter (oil pan) 55 N·m (40 lb-ft)
Oil pump housing plate screws, M8 x 25 17 N·m (150 lb-in)
Relief valve cap, oil pump 35 N·m (26 lb-ft)
478 APPENDIX B – TORQUES

Cylinder Heads, Valve Covers, and Valve Train

Cylinder head bolts See tightening steps in procedure


Draft tube assembly nut, M10 54 N·m (40 lb-ft)
Dual fulcrum plate assembly bolts See tightening steps in procedure
Filter with jet pump captive bolts, M6 5 N·m (44 lb-in)
Fuel rail plug assembly 27 N·m (20 lb-ft)
Valve cover bolt and stud bolts assemblies 9 N·m (80 lb-in)
Worm gear hose clamps 13 N·m (115 lb-in)

Flywheel and Flywheel Housing

Crankshaft flange bolts, M12 x 68 See tightening steps in procedure.


Flex plate flywheel assembly bolts, M10 x 55 See tightening steps in