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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

I. JURISDICTION – IN GENERAL………………………………. J-1

A. Introduction……………………………………………………… J-1
1. Criminal Jurisdiction Defined………………………………… J-1
2. Elements of Jurisdiction……………………………………… J-1
2.1 Penalty Attached………………………………………….. J-1
2.2 Nature of the Offense Charged…………………………. J-1
2.3 Territorial Jurisdiction over Place of Crime
Commission……………………………………………….. J-1

B. Requisites for Valid Exercise………………………………… J-2


1. Jurisdiction over Subject Matter…………………………….. J-2
2. Jurisdiction over Territory where Offense Committed……. J-3
2.1 General Rule……………………………………………... J-3
2.2 Exceptions………………………………………………... J-3
2.2.1 Change of Venue by Supreme Court Order…… J-3
2.2.2 When the Law Provides Otherwise……………... J-3
2.2.3 Continuing Crime Committed During a Voyage.. J-3
3. Jurisdiction Determined by Averments of Information.. J-3
4. Jurisdiction over the Person of Accused………………. J-4

II. JURISDICTION – IN PARTICULAR…………………………... J-5

A. Expanded Exclusive Original Jurisdiction of


Municipal Trial Courts…………………………………………. J-5
1. Violations of Ordinances……………………………………... J-5
2. All Offenses Punishable by Prison Sentences not
Exceeding 6 Years……………………………………………. J-5
3. Damage to Property through Reckless Imprudence……… J-5
4. Imposable Penalty is Destierro……………………………… J-6
5. Special Jurisdiction in Absence of RTC Judges…………… J-6

B. Jurisdiction of Regional Trial Courts……………………….. J-6


1. Regular Cases………………………………………………… J-6
2. Special Cases…………………………………………………. J-6

C. Jurisdiction of Family Courts………………………………… J-7

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D. Original and Exclusive Jurisdiction of the


Sandiganbayan…………………………………………………. J-8

E. Jurisprudence Involving Crimes Committed by Public


Officials and Employees………………………………………. J-9
1. Meaning of Crime Committed “In Relation to Office”……… J-9
2. What should be Alleged in the Information?....................... J-10

III. PROSECUTION OF OFFENSES……………………………… J-11

A. Institution of Criminal Action………………………………… J-11


1. Complaint or Information…………………………………….. J-11
1.1 Requisites………………………………………………... J-11
1.2 Definitions………………………………………………... J-11
2. Institution of Criminal Action…………………………………. J-11
2.1 Preliminary Investigation – Purpose…………………… J-11
2.2 Preliminary Investigation – Precondition to Filing in
Court; General Rule……………………………………... J-11
2.3 Exception to General Rule……………………………... J-12
2.4 Effect of Institution of Criminal Action………………… J-12
3. Who Must Prosecute?......................................................... J-12
4. Intervention of Offended Party by Counsel………………… J-13

B. Distinction Between Control of Prosecution by Public


Prosecutor and Control by Court……………………………. J-13
1. Control by Prosecution……………………………………….. J-13
2. Control by Court Once Case is Filed……………………….. J-14
3. Limitations on Control by Court……………………………… J-14

C. Testing Sufficiency of Complaint or Information………… J-15

D. Strict Scrutiny of Averments in Complaint or


Information, Particularly in Heinous Crimes………………. J-15
1. Cause of the Accusation……………………………………... J-15

E. Duplicity of the Offense and Continuing Crimes…………. J-18


1. Duplicity of the Offense………………………………………. J-18
2. Exceptions to Rules on Duplicity……………………………. J-18
3. No Duplicity in Rape with Homicide………………………… J-18
4. No Duplicity in Charge of Estafa…………………………….. J-18

F. Continuing Crimes: The Principle of Delito Continuado... J-19

G. Rule on Complex Crimes……………………………………… J-21


1. Illegal Possession of Firearm and Unlawful Killing
with the Use Thereof.......................................................... J-21

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2. Reckless Imprudence Cases……………………………….. J-22

H. Amendment or Substitution………………………………….. J-23

IV. PROSECUTION OF CIVIL ACTION…………………………... J-24

A. General Rule…………………………………………………….. J-24

B. Civil Liability Not Arising from Crime,


Not Extinguished by Acquittal……………………………….. J-25

C. Separate Civil Action to Recover Civil Liability Allowed


for Obligations Not Arising from Crime, e.g., quasi delict J-26

D. Extinction of Penal Action Does Not Extinguish


Civil Action………………………………………………………. J-27

E. Exception – Prejudicial Civil Action………………………… J-27

V. MOTION TO QUASH……………………………………………. J-28

VI. PROCEDURAL CHECKLISTS ON CRIMINAL


PROCEDURE……………………………………………………. J-29

A. For Cases Cognizable by the First Level Courts…………. J-29

B. For Cases Cognizable by the Regional Trial Courts…….. J-33

C. Common Procedures in First and Second Level Courts... J-43

VII. CONDUCTING THE TRIAL…………………………………….. J-61

A. Trial……………………………………………………………….. J-61

B. Compliance with the Constitutional Limitations on


Periods…………………………………………………………… J-62

C. Pertinent Rules…………………………………………………. J-62

D. How to Deal with Accused’s Motion for Examination of


His/Her Witness Before Trial…………………………………. J-67

E. How to Deal with Prosecution’s Motion for Examination


of its Witness Before Trial……………………………………. J-68

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F. If a Motion to Determine Competency to Stand Trial is


Filed………………………………………………………………. J-69

G. Demurrer to Evidence…………………………………………. J-70

VIII. JUDGMENT……………………………………………………… J-72

A. Definition………………………………………………………… J-72

B. Damages that may be Awarded……………………………… J-73

C. Promulgation of Judgment…………………………………… J-75


1. What to Do………………………………………………......... J-75

D. Modification of Judgment…………………………………….. J-76


1. Modify or Set Aside a Judgment of Conviction Only……… J-76

E. Entry of Judgment……………………………………………… J-77

IX. MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL OR RECONSIDERATION…….. J-78

A. Grounds for New Trial…………………………………………. J-78

B. Ground for Reconsideration…………………………………. J-78

C. Requisites for a Motion for a New Trial or


Reconsideration………………………………………………… J-79

X. PROBATION……………………………………………………... J-80

A. Sample Probation Court Forms……………………………… J-81

XI. APPEAL………………………………………………………….. J-86

A. Cases where Death Penalty is Imposed……………………. J-86

XII. ISSUANCE OF SEARCH WARRANTS………………………. J-87

A. Rule on Forum Shopping……………………………………... J-87


1. Seizure of Personal Property………………………………... J-87
2. Requisites for Issuance………………………………………. J-88
3. Examination of Complaint……………………………………. J-88

B. Meaning of Probable Cause………………………………….. J-88

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C. Basis of Probable Cause; Personal Knowledge………….. J-88


1. Meaning of Knowledge; Test is Liability for Perjury……….. J-89
2. Insufficiency of Affidavits…………………………………….. J-89
3. Illustrative Case……………………………………………….. J-90
4. Factors that may be Considered in the Determination of
Probable Cause: Time of Application in Relation to
Alleged Offense Considered in Determination of Probable
Cause…………………………………………………………... J-91
5. Specific Offense Must be Charged and Not Violations of
Codes…………………………………………………………... J-92
6. The Need for Searching Questions and Answers by the
Judge…………………………………………………………… J-92
7. Requisite of Particular Description of Things to be Seized. J-92
8. Tests to Determine Particularity…………………………….. J-93
9. Description of Place to be Seized…………………………… J-94
10. Determination of Whether Search Warrant Describes
Premises with Particularity…………………………………. J-95

XIII. PROVISIONAL REMEDIES……………………………………. J-96

A. Availability of Provisional Remedies……………………….. J-96

B. Attachment…………………………………………………….... J-96

XIV. PROCEDURE IN SANDIGANBAYAN………………………… J-97

A. Stages in Criminal Cases……………………………………... J-97

B. Procedure in Appealed Cases……………………………….. J-99


1. Mode of Appeal……………………………………………….. J-99
2. Stages in Appeals…………………………………………….. J-99

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW AND PROCEDURAL RULES

A. Definition………………………………………………………… K-1

B. Rules of Procedure for Environmental Cases…………….. K-2

C. Environmental Laws Covered by the Rules……………….. K-2

D. Precautionary Principle……………………………………….. K-3


1. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-3
2. Application as a Rule of Evidence…………………………... K-4

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3. Standards for Application…………………………………….. K-4

I. CRIMINAL CASES……………………………………………… K-5

A. Original and Exclusive Jurisdiction of First Level Courts K-5


1. Violation of Forestry Laws…………………………………… K-5
2. Violation of Fishery Laws…………………………………….. K-5
3. Violation of Mining Laws……………………………………... K-6
4. Violation of NIPAS Law………………………………………. K-6
5. Violation of Wildlife Law……………………………………… K-7
6. Violation of Cave Laws……………………………………….. K-7
7. Violation of Pollution Laws…………………………………… K-8

B. Original and Exclusive Jurisdiction of Second


Level Courts…………………………………………………….. K-9
1. Violation of Forestry Laws……………………………………. K-9
2. Violation of Fishery Laws…………………………………….. K-10
3. Violation of Mining Laws……………………………………… K-10
4. Violation of Wildlife Law……………………………………… K-10
5. Violation of Cave Laws……………………………………….. K-10
6. Violation of Pollution Laws…………………………………… K-11

C. Arrest……………………………………………………………... K-12
1. Warrantless Arrest……………………………………………. K-12
2. Application of Presumption of Regularity to
Deputized Individuals…………………………………………. K-12
3. Arrest Warrant…………………………………………………. K-12

D. Custody and Disposition of Seized Items…………………. K-12


1. Applicability of Rules of Government Agency……………… K-12
2. Applicability of Rules of Procedure for Environmental
Cases…………………………………………………………... K-13
3. Documentation of Seized Items……………………………... K-13
4. Return of Search Warrant or Submission of Report………. K-13
5. Auction of Seized Items……………………………………… K-13

E. Complaint and Information…………………………………… K-14


1. Who may initiate………………………………………………. K-14
2. Filing of Information…………………………………………… K-14
3. Special Prosecutor……………………………………………. K-14

F. Bail………………………………………………………………… K-14
1. Where Filed; Hold Departure Order………………………… K-14
2. Conditions for Grant of Bail………………………………….. K-15

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G. Arraignment and Plea-bargaining…………………………… K-15


1. Setting of Arraignment; Notices……………………………... K-15
2. Procedure in Plea-bargaining………………………………... K-15

H. Pre-Trial………………………………………………………….. K-16
1. Preliminary Conference; Purpose…………………………… K-16
2. How Conducted by the Court………………………………... K-16
3. Manner of Directing Questions, Admissions and
Agreements, and Documentation…………………………… K-17
4. Pre-trial Order…………………………………………………. K-17

I. Trial……………………………………………………………….. K-18
1. Continuous Trial; Affidavits in Direct Examination………… K-18
2. Submission of Memoranda…………………………………... K-18
3. Period to Decide and Dispose of the Case………………… K-18
4. Pro-bono Lawyers…………………………………………….. K-18

J. Civil Action and Liability……………………………………… K-18


1. Institution of Civil Action……………………………………… K-18
2. Award of Damages to Agency for Restoration and
Rehabilitation………………………………………………….. K-19
3. Subsidiary Liability……………………………………………. K-19

K. Provisional Remedies…………………………………………. K-19


1. Attachment…………………………………………………….. K-19
2. EPO and TEPO in Criminal Cases………………………….. K-19

L. Criminal SLAPP Suits…………………………………………. K-20


1. Defined………………………………………………………… K-20
2. SLAPP Suit; Ground for a Motion to Dismiss in a
Criminal Case…………………………………………………. K-20
3. Summary Hearing; Prosecution’s and Accused Quantum
of Evidence Distinguished…………………………………… K-20
4. Determination by the Court………………………………….. K-20

II. CIVIL CASES…………………………………………………….. K-21

1. Primary Jurisdiction of the DENR…………………………… K-21


2. Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction Limits Court Jurisdiction… K-21
3. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies; Condition
Precedent……………………………………………………… K-22
4. Non-Observance of Exhaustion of Administrative
Remedies May Constitute Forum-Shopping……………….. K-22
5. Exceptions to Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies…… K-23
6. Environment Licenses and Permits are not
Contracts protected by the Non-Impairment and

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Due Process Clauses; Exception…………………………… K-24


7. Revocation of License or Franchise as an Exercise of
Police Power…………………………………………………... K-25
8. Courts should Stand Clear from Public Policy Activity of
Granting Environmental Licenses, Permits and
Franchises……………………………………………………... K-25

A. Replevin Suits…………………………………………………... K-26


1. Courts should dismiss Replevin Suits over Property
Seized by DENR under its Administrative Confiscation
Powers…………………………………………………………. K-26
2. Judge Demonstrates Ignorance of the Law in Entertaining
Replevin Suits…………………………………………………. K-26
3. Seized and Apprehended Property is in Custodia Legis
and Beyond Reach of Replevin……………………………... K-27
4. Court cannot Hold DENR Officials in Contempt for Failure
to Follow Replevin Order; Duty of Sheriff Executing
Replevin Order………………………………………………… K-27
5. Consent to Be Sued Needed in Replevin Suits Against
DENR Officials………………………………………………… K-27

B. Complaint………………………………………………………... K-27
1. Who May File………………………………………………….. K-27
2. Verified Complaint…………………………………………….. K-28
3. Evidence to be Attached to the Complaint;
Form of Affidavits……………………………………………… K-28
4. Other Requirements………………………………………….. K-28
5. Filing Fees……………………………………………………... K-28
6. Assignment by Raffle…………………………………………. K-28
7. Agency Concerned to be Furnished Complaint……………. K-28

C. Environmental Protection Order…………………………….. K-29


1. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-29
2. Temporary Environmental Protection Order (TEPO)……… K-29
3. Monitoring, Lifting, Exemption from Bond Requirement,
and Conversion to Permanent EPO………………………… K-29
4. Report to the Supreme Court………………………………... K-30
5. Prohibition against Injunction………………………………… K-30

D. Summons and Court Processes…………………………….. K-30


1. Who may Effect Service……………………………………… K-30
2. Service of Summons; How Effected………………………… K-30

E. Answer…………………………………………………………… K-31
1. Verified Answer……………………………………………….. K-31
2. Evidence to be Attached to Answer………………………… K-31

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3. Defenses and Claims………………………………………… K-31


4. Failure to Answer……………………………………………… K-31

F. Pleadings Allowed and Prohibited………………………….. K-31


1. Allowed Pleadings and Motions……………………………... K-31
2. Prohibited Pleadings and Motions Prohibited……………… K-32

G. Environmental Class Actions………………………………… K-32


1. Right to Balanced and Healthful Ecology is an
Actionable Right………………………………………………. K-32
2. Class Action in Representation of Future Generations
Allowed under the Principle of Inter-generational
Responsibility………………………………………………….. K-33
3. Real Parties in Interest and Legal Standing Distinguished;
Legal Standing Sufficient in Constitutional Questions
Involving Public Interest……………………………………… K-33

H. Citizen Suit………………………………………………………. K-34


1. Who May File………………………………………………….. K-34
2. Order to Intervene; Publication……………………………… K-34
3. Citizen Suits under Specific Laws…………………………... K-34
4. Deferment on Filing and Legal Fees……………………….. K-34
5. Relief in Citizen Suit………………………………………….. K-34
6. Citizen Suits under the Clean Air Act (Republic Act
No. 8749) and the Solid Waste Management Act
(Republic Act No. 9003)……………………………………… K-35
7. Citizen Suit to Enforce Right to Clean Air………………….. K-35

I. Pre-trial…………………………………………………………… K-36
1. Notice and Schedule………………………………………….. K-36
2. Pre-trial Brief…………………………………………………... K-36
3. Effect of Failure to Comply or File Brief…………………….. K-36
4. Mediation………………………………………………………. K-37
5. Preliminary Conference………………………………………. K-37
6. Failure to Present Evidence…………………………………. K-38
7. How Conducted……………………………………………….. K-38
8. Effect of Plaintiff’s and Defendant’s Failure to Appear at
Pre-trial Distinguished………………………………………… K-39
9. Minutes…………………………………………………………. K-39
10. Pre-trial Order………………………………………………... K-40

J. Consent Decree………………………………………………… K-40


1. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-40
2. Application during Pre-trial…………………………………… K-40

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K. Trial……………………………………………………………….. K-40
1. Continuous Trial………………………………………………. K-40
2. Affidavits in Direct Examination……………………………… K-40
3. One-day Examination of Witness; Only Oral Offer of
Evidence is Allowed…………………………………………... K-41
4. Submission for Resolution; Memoranda……………………. K-41
5. Period to Try and Decide; Priority of Environmental Cases K-41

L. Civil SLAPP Suits………………………………………………. K-41


1. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-41
2. SLAPP as a Defense in Answer; Not Ground in a
Motion to Dismiss……………………………………………... K-42
3. Summary Hearing…………………………………………….. K-42
4. Defendant’s and Plaintiff’s Quantum of
Evidence Distinguished………………………………………. K-42
5. Relief and Remedy after Determination……………………. K-42
6. SLAPP Suits under the Clean Air Act (Republic Act
No. 8749) and the Solid Waste Management Act
(Republic Act No. 9003)……………………………………… K-43

M. Judgment and Execution……………………………………... K-43


1. Judgments in favor of Environment not Stayed by Appeal.. K-43
2. Permanent EPO and Continuing Mandamus in Judgment.. K-43
3. Referral to a Commissioner………………………………….. K-44
4. Return of Writ of Execution…………………………………... K-44

N. Judicial Review of DENR Decisions via Special Civil


Actions under Rule 65…………………………………………. K-44
1. Review Only in Cases of Grave Abuse of Discretion……... K-44
2. Instances of Grave Abuse of Discretion in Environmental
Administrative Decisions……………………………………... K-44

III. SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS……………………………………... K-45

A. Writ of Kalikasan……………………………………………….. K-45


1. Nature of the Writ; Who May File……………………………. K-45
2. Contents of Petition…………………………………………… K-45
3. Where to File…………………………………………………... K-46
4. Exemption from Docket Fees………………………………... K-46
5. Issuance of the Writ; Service; Return………………………. K-46
6. Preliminary Conference and Hearing……………………….. K-47
7. Prohibited Pleadings and Motions…………………………... K-47
8. Discovery Measures………………………………………….. K-47
9. Contempt………………………………………………………. K-48
10. Submission for Decision; Memoranda…………………….. K-48
11. Reliefs upon Judgment……………………………………… K-48

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B. Writ of Continuing Mandamus……………………………….. K-49


1. Origin of the Writ……………………………………………… K-49
2. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-49
3. Nature of the Writ; Who May File…………………………… K-50
4. Where to File………………………………………………….. K-50
5. Exemption from Docket Fees………………………………... K-50
6. Issuance of the Writ; Service; Comment…………………… K-50
7. Summary Hearing or Submission of Memoranda…………. K-51
8. Issuance of TEPO…………………………………………….. K-51
9. Judgment on the Writ………………………………………… K-51
10. Return of the Writ……………………………………………. K-51

IV. FORESTRY………………………………………………………. K-52

A. Jurisdiction of the DENR……………………………………… K-52


1. FMB Under Direct Control and Supervision of
DENR Secretary………………………………………………. K-52
2. Court Review of Decisions of the DENR Secretary
Brought by Special Civil Action……………………………… K-53
3. Authority of DENR Officers to Examine Books and
Access Areas Covered by Licenses and Permits…………. K-53
4. Authority of DENR Officers to Administer Oaths and
Take Testimony……………………………………………….. K-53
5. Authority to Deputize Environment and Natural
Resources Officers…………………………………………… K-54

B. Criminal Offenses………………………………………………. K-54


1. Illegal Logging…………………………………………………. K-54
2. Other Offenses………………………………………………... K-55
3. Judicial and Administrative Confiscation and Forfeiture….. K-55

C. Illegal Cutting, Gathering and Possession………………… K-55


1. Three Categories of Acts Punished…………………………. K-55
2. Two Distinct and Separate Offenses Punished……………. K-56
3. Elements of the Crime of Illegal Cutting, Gathering,
Collecting and Removing…………………………………….. K-56
4. Ownership not an Essential Element……………………….. K-57
5. As Compared to Qualified Theft…………………………….. K-57
6. Illegal Possession of Forest Products………………………. K-58
7. Documents Required in Possession of Timber and
Forest Products……………………………………………….. K-58
8. Mere Verbal Authority Cannot Legalize Possession……… K-58
9. Acts Constituting Possession………………………………... K-58
10. Acts Punished under Presidential Decree No. 705 are
Mala Prohibita………………………………………………... K-59
11. “Timber” Defined…………………………………………….. K-59

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D. Search and Seizure…………………………………………….. K-60


1. Warrantless Search of Timber in Moving Vehicles………... K-60
2. Accountability of Seizure Officer…………………………….. K-60

E. Administrative Confiscation………………………………….. K-60


1. Administrative Confiscation Distinct from Judicial
Confiscation……………………………………………………. K-61
2. Administrative Confiscation as Remedy in Case of
Release of Conveyance by the Court; Duty of the Court…. K-61
3. Due Process Requirements in Administrative Confiscation K-62
4. Requirement to Deliver the Accused to the Public
Prosecutor Not Applicable in Administrative Confiscation... K-62
5. Arrest Procedure in Administrative Confiscation…………... K-62

F. Arrest and Prosecution……………………………………….. K-63


1. Arrest by DENR Official or Philippine National Police…….. K-63
2. Delivery of Arrested Person and Seized Paraphernalia….. K-63
3. Investigation by Forest Officers and the Philippine
National Police………………………………………………… K-64
4. Filing of Complaint by Forest Officer and the Philippine
National Police………………………………………………… K-64
5. How to Commence Prosecution…………………………….. K-65
6. Preliminary Investigation Conducted by Public Prosecutor,
Not by Forest Officer…………………………………………. K-66
7. Private Offended Party May File Complaint Directly with
Public Prosecutor……………………………………………... K-66
8. Presidential Decree No. 705 Grants Forest Officers
Special, not Exclusive, Authority to Arrest and
Investigate Offenses………………………………………….. K-66

G. Judgment and Conviction…………………………………….. K-67


1. Conviction Based on Circumstantial Evidence…………….. K-67
2. Value of Lumber not Essential Element……………………. K-67
3. Determination of Penalty…………………………………….. K-67
4. Judicial Confiscation of the Conveyance Allowed if
Owner is Found Guilty………………………………………... K-68

H. Chain Saw Act…………………………………………………... K-68

V. FISHERIES……………………………………………………….. K-70

A. Coverage…………………………………………………………. K-70

B. Municipal Waters Defined…………………………………….. K-70


1. Under the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998……………… K-70
2. Under the Local Government Code………………………… K-71

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C. Authority over Municipal Waters……………………………. K-71


1. Municipal and City Governments……………………………. K-71
2. Nature of Authority……………………………………………. K-71
3. Municipal Fishing……………………………………………… K-72
4. Grant of Fishery Privileges…………………………………... K-72
5. Regulation of Fishery Activities Incidental to Power to
Grant Fishery Privileges……………………………………… K-72
6. Municipality or City not Liable for Acts of
Licensee/Grantee……………………………………………... K-73
7. Local Ordinance Banning Shipment of Live Fish not
Unconstitutional……………………………………………….. K-73
8. Classification of Fees………………………………………… K-73
9. Law Enforcement……………………………………………... K-74

D. Jurisdiction of DA-BFAR……………………………………… K-74


1. Grant of Fishery Privileges…………………………………... K-74
2. Law Enforcement……………………………………………... K-75
3. Authority to Board Fishing Vessels and Examine
Record Books…………………………………………………. K-75
4. Authority to Pursue and Inspect Foreign Vessels for
Poaching……………………………………………………….. K-75

E. Illegal Activities…………………………………………………. K-76

F. Presumptions…………………………………………………… K-78
1. Presence of Fishing Vessel without Permit………………… K-78
2. Entry of Foreign Fishing Vessel……………………………... K-78
3. Presence of Explosives, Poisonous Substances,
Electro-fishing Devices and Fish Caught with Their Use…. K-79
4. Presumptions Not Unconstitutional…………………………. K-79
5. Presumptions can be Rebutted by Contradictory Evidence K-80

G. Confiscation and Forfeiture………………………………….. K-80

H. Seizure of Vessels and Equipment………………………….. K-81


1. “Fishing Vessel” Defined……………………………………... K-81
2. Warrantless Search and Seizure of Fishing Vessels……… K-81
3. Warrantless Search and Seizure Incidental to a Lawful
Arrest Valid…………………………………………………….. K-82
4. Court cannot Order Release of Fishing Vessel in
Custodia Legis of Co-equal Court…………………………… K-82
5. Court Cannot Order Release of Seized Fishing
Paraphernalia upon the Justification that Confiscation
Follows Only after Conviction and that the Witnesses are
Sufficient for Conviction even without the Seized Evidence K-82

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6. Seized Fishing Items not Yet Offered in Evidence Remain


under Custody and Responsibility of the Prosecution…….. K-83

I. Seizure of Fish Catch………………………………………….. K-83


1. Warrantless Seizure of Paraphernalia Mere Possession of
which is Illegal…………………………………………………. K-83
2. Dissolution of Seizure Warrant by the Court………………. K-83

J. Prosecution……………………………………………………… K-84
1. Fishing with Explosives and Possession of Explosives
Separate and Distinct Offenses……………………………... K-84
2. Information which does not State Explosives was for
Fishing not Fatal………………………………………………. K-84
3. Failure to State “For Profit” in Information Fatal…………… K-84
4. Municipal Fish Wardens as Private Offended Party………. K-84
5. Ignorance of Poisonous Nature of Substance not a
Valid Defense…………………………………………………. K-85
6. Imposition of Mere Fine on Boat Captain Constitutes
Gross Ignorance of the Law…………………………………. K-85
7. Conviction by Final Judgment includes Removal of Illegal
Fishing Structure……………………………………………… K-85

VI. MINING…………………………………………………………… K-86

A. Coverage…………………………………………………………. K-86
1. Areas Open to Mining………………………………………… K-86
2. Areas Closed to Mining………………………………………. K-86
3. Mining in Government Reservations, Forest Reserves,
Forest Lands, Protected Areas……………………………… K-87

B. Authority of the DENR…………………………………………. K-87


1. DENR Secretary………………………………………………. K-87
2. MGB Director………………………………………………….. K-88
3. Deputization to Police Mining Activities…………………….. K-88
4. Power and Duties of Mines Regional Director……………... K-88
5. Role of Mines Regional Director in Mine Pollution………… K-88
6. Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) Retains Authority over
Mine Pollution; Mines Regional Director has
no Adjudicative Powers over Pollution Complaints……….. K-89

C. DENR-POA-MAB Jurisdiction over Mining Disputes and


Issues…………………………………………………………….. K-89
1. Panel of Arbitrators and Mines Adjudication Board……….. K-89
2. POA-MAB and DENR Secretary Jurisdiction
Distinguished………………………………………………….. K-90

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3. DENR Secretary, not POA-MAB, has Authority to


Cancel Contracts……………………………………………… K-91
4. Voluntary Arbitration Suspends POA-MAB Jurisdiction….. K-91
5. Appeal from the MAB………………………………………… K-91
6. Appeal from the MAB to Court of Appeals and Appeal
from the DENR Secretary to the Office of the
President Distinguished……………………………………… K-92

D. Jurisdiction of Trial Courts…………………………………… K-92


1. Courts Retain Jurisdiction over Civil Mining Disputes…….. K-92
2. Administrative and Civil Mining Disputes Distinguished….. K-92
3. Cases Where Trial Courts Have Jurisdiction………………. K-92
4. Cases Where Trial Courts Have No Jurisdiction…….......... K-93

E. Licenses and Permits issued by the DENR……………….. K-93


1. Mineral Agreements………………………………………….. K-93
2. FTAAs Not Unconstitutional…………………………………. K-93
3. Nature of DENR Secretary’s Power to Cancel FTAAs……. K-94
4. Nature of Locator’s Right…………………………………….. K-94
5. Rights of Surface Owner……………………………………... K-94
6. Other Permits………………………………………………….. K-95

F. Permits Issued by the Provincial Governor……………….. K-96

G. Small-Scale Mining…………………………………………….. K-97

H. Criminal Offenses………………………………………………. K-97


1. Essential Element in ECC Violation under Mining Act……. K-97
2. Offense not Proven under Mining Act May Still be
Prosecuted under Other Environmental Laws…………….. K-97
3. Mala In Se Felony Cannot Absorb Mala Prohibita Crimes.. K-98

VII. PROTECTED AREAS…………………………………………... K-98

A. Definition………………………………………………………… K-98

B. Components…………………………………………………….. K-98

C. Management and Administration……………………………. K-100

D. Law Enforcement………………………………………………. K-101

E. Protected Area Superintendent……………………………… K-101

F. Prohibited Acts and Penalties……………………………….. K-102

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VIII. WILDLIFE RESOURCES………………………………………. K-103

A. Coverage…………………………………………………………. K-103

B. Jurisdiction of the DENR……………………………………… K-103

C. Applicability of Related Laws………………………………… K-103

D. Regulated Activities……………………………………………. K-104

E. Prohibited Acts…………………………………………………. K-105

F. Seizure, Forfeiture and Fines………………………………… K-106

G. Law Enforcement………………………………………………. K-107

IX. CAVE RESOURCES……………………………………………. K-108

A. Coverage…………………………………………………………. K-108

B. Implementing Agencies……………………………………….. K-108

C. Other Applicable Laws………………………………………… K-109

D. Regulated Activities……………………………………………. K-109

E. Prohibited Acts…………………………………………………. K-109

F. Administrative Seizure and Confiscation………………….. K-110

G. Law Enforcement………………………………………………. K-110

X. POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT…… K-111

A. Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB)………………………… K-111


1. Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) has Jurisdiction over
Pollution Cases……………………………………………….. K-111
2. Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies in Pollution
Cases; Effect of Non-observance…………………………… K-111
3. Jurisdiction over Air Pollution………………………………... K-111
4. Exclusive Authority to Determine the Existence of
"Pollution" before Criminal Prosecution of Violations…….. K-112
5. Filing of Criminal Cases for Gross Violations under the
Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act…………………………. K-112
6. Power to Issue Ex Parte Cease and Desist Orders………. K-113

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7. Proper Remedy from PAB Decision is Appeal to the


Court of Appeals………………………………………………. K-113
8. PAB Retains Jurisdiction over Mining Pollution…………… K-114

B. DENR Authority to Enter Premises…………………………. K-114

C. Jurisdiction of Other Agencies in Pollution Cases………. K-115


1. Laguna Lake Development Authority……………………….. K-115
2. Traffic Adjudication Service………………………………….. K-115
3. Coast Guard…………………………………………………… K-115

D. Environmental Impact Statement System…………………. K-115


1. Definition……………………………………………………….. K-115
2. Initial Environmental Examination; Requisites…………….. K-116
3. Official’s Act of Granting ECC must be Devoid of Any
Color of Authority to Allow Cancellation through Judicial
Action without Exhausting Administrative Remedies……… K-116
4. ECC Subject to Cancellation for Non-Compliance through
Administrative, not Judicial, Proceedings…………………... K-116
5. Duties of PENRO……………………………………………… K-117
6. Regional Executive Director (RED) not Bound to Monitor
Environmental Projects………………………………………. K-118

E. Other Jurisprudence…………………………………………… K-118


1. Incineration not Banned under Clean Air Act……………… K-118
2. Establishment of Landfills Requires Consultation…………. K-119
3. Trade Secrets Maintained under Republic Act No. 6969… K-119

APPENDIX A: Procedure in Administrative Seizure and Confiscation


under Presidential Decree No. 705 (DENR DAO 97-32)….. K-120

1. Apprehending Officers………………………………………... K-121


2. Seizure Officers……………………………………………….. K-121
3. Apprehension………………………………………………….. K-122
4. Seizure…………………………………………………………. K-125
5. Confiscation……………………………………………………. K-126
6. Abandoned Forest Products…………………………………. K-129
7. Temporary Release of Conveyances……………………….. K-130

APPENDIX B: Seizure of Fish Catch (DA-BFAR FAO 206, s. 2001).......... K-132

APPENDIX C: Search and Seizure Procedure in Poaching Cases


(DA-BFAR FAO 200, s. 2000)…………………………………. K-135

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JUDICIAL ETHICS

A. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE SUBJECT………………………. L-1

B. THE JUDGE……………………………………………………… L-2

C. SOME POSTULATES ON JUDICIAL ETHICS………………. L-2

CANONS UNDER THE NEW CODE OF JUDICIAL


CONDUCT OF THE PHILIPPINE JUDICIARY………………. L-3

A. Canon 1: Independence……………………………………….. L-3

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-3

Institutional Judicial Independence……………………….. L-3


Individual Judicial Independence………………………….. L-3

2. Epigram of Canon 1…………………………………………. L-4

Judicial independence is a pre-requisite to the rule of


law and a fundamental guarantee of a fair trial………… L-4

3. Abstract of the Rules in Canon 1………………………….. L-4

4. Comment……………………………………………………... L-5

Judges and public opinion…………………………………. L-5


Judges and family…………………………………………... L-6
Judges and judicial colleagues and other relationships… L-7
Judges and their relationship with society……………….. L-7

B. Canon 2: Integrity………………………………………………. L-9

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-9

2. Epigram of Canon 2…………………………………........... L-9

3. Abstract of the Rules in Canon 2………………………….. L-9

4. Comment…………………………………………................. L-10

New jurisprudence on dishonesty…………………………. L-11


New jurisprudence on immorality…………………………. L-14
New jurisprudence on grave abuse of authority…………. L-14

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C. Canon 3: Impartiality…………………………………………... L-16

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-16

2. Epigram of Canon 3…………………………………........... L-17

3. Abstract of the Rules in Canon 3………………………….. L-17

4. Comment……………………………………………………... L-18

Impermissible conduct and comment of a Judge……….. L-18


Undue interference of a Judge in the conduct of trial…... L-19
Disqualification and inhibition of Judges…………………. L-20
Disqualification of Judge…………………………………… L-21
Bias or prejudice……………………………………………. L-21
Not sufficient basis for inhibition of a Judge for bias or
prejudice………………………………………...…………… L-22
Judge’s knowledge of disputed evidentiary facts………... L-23
The judge previously served as a lawyer or was a
material witness in the matter in controversy……………. L-23
The judge or a member of his or her family, has an
economic interest in the outcome of the matter in
controversy…………………………………………………... L-23
The judge’s ruling in a lower court is the subject of
Review……………………………………………………….. L-24
The judge is related by consanguinity or affinity to a
party litigant within the sixth civil degree or to counsel
within the fourth civil degree……………………………….. L-24
The Judge’s duty to sit……………………………………… L-25
Voluntary inhibition………………………………………….. L-26
Remittal of disqualification…………………………………. L-27

D. Canon 4: Propriety……………………………………………... L-28

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-28

2. Epigram of Canon 4……………………………………….... L-28

3. Abstract of the Rules in Canon 4………………………….. L-28

4. Comment……………………………………………………... L-30

New jurisprudence…………………………………………... L-31


Prosecutor Reyes, Complaint……………………………… L-31
Migriño case…………………………………………………. L-32

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Flordeliza case………………………………………………. L-33


Sebastian Jrs. Case………………………………………… L-33

E. Canon 5: Equality………………………………………………. L-38

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-38

2. Epigram of Canon 5………………………………............... L-39

Ensuring equality of treatment to all before the courts is


essential to the due performance of the judicial
office…………………………………………....................... L-39

3. Abstract of the Rules on Canon 5…………………………. L-39

4. Comment……………………………………………………... L-40

F. Canon 6: Competence and Diligence………………………. L-41

1. Concept………………………………………………………. L-41

2. Epigram of Canon 6…………………………………........... L-41

Competence and diligence are prerequisites to the due


performance of judicial office………………………………. L-41

3. Abstract of the Rules on Canon 6…………………………. L-42

4. Comment……………………………………………………... L-43

Recent jurisprudence on gross ignorance of the law…… L-43


Earlier jurisprudence on gross ignorance of the law……. L-49
Gross inefficiency (delay in disposing of judicial
business)…………………………………………………….. L-50
Gross inefficiency (neglect of duty)……………………….. L-52

LEGAL RESEARCH

I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………... M-1

A. Classification of Law Books……………………………………. M-1


1. Primary Sources…………………………………………………. M-1
a. Mandatory Authority…………………………………………. M-1

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b. Persuasive Authority………………………………………… M-2


2. Secondary Sources……………………………………………… M-2

II. CONDUCTING LEGAL RESEARCH…………………………….. M-3

A. Critical Fact-Related Steps………………………………………. M-3

B. Organizing the Legal Issues…………………………………….. M-4

C. Doing Legal Research……………………………………………. M-5

D. Law Finding Techniques – Approaches………………………. M-5

E. Classifying the Issues……………………………………………. M-6

III. FINDING THE LAW………………………………………………… M-7

A. Sources of Law…………………………………………………….. M-7


1. Primary Materials………………………………………………… M-7
2. Secondary Materials…………………………………………….. M-7

B. Books of Search…………………………………………………… M-7


1. Annotated Reports/Statutes…………………………………….. M-7
2. Loose-leaf Services……………………………………………… M-7
3. Legal Encyclopedias…………………………………………….. M-7
4. Practice Manuals………………………………………………… M-8
5. Books of Index……………………………………………………. M-8
5.1 Books of definitions………………………………………… M-8
5.2 Digests……………………………………………………….. M-8
5.3 Citators………………………………………………………. M-8
5.4 Form-books/practice books………………………………... M-9
5.5 Indexes………………………………………………………. M-9
5.6 Tables………………………………………………………... M-9
5.7 Opinions of Legal Experts…………………………………. M-9
5.8 Other State and Foreign Sources………………………… M-9

IV. RESEARCH IN STATUTORY LAW……………………………… M-10

A. Constitution………………………………………………………… M-10
1. 1935 Constitution………………………………………………… M-10
2. 1973 Constitution………………………………………………… M-10
3. 1987 Constitution………………………………………………… M-10

B. Treaties and International Agreements……………………….. M-11

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C. Statutes Proper……………………………………………………. M-12


1. Terminology of Statutes…………………………………………. M-12
2. Indexes to Statutes………………………………………………. M-12
3. Texts of Statutes…………………………………………………. M-13
4. Legislative History of Laws……………………………………… M-13

D. Administrative Regulations and Rules………………………... M-14


1. Rules and Regulations………………………………………….. M-15
2. Publications………………………………………………………. M-15
3. CD-ROM………………………………………………………….. M-15

E. Ordinances…………………………………………………………. M-16

F. Rules of Procedure and Other Supreme Court Issuances… M-17


1. Court Rules……………………………………………………….. M-17
2. Family Court Rules………………………………………………. M-17
3. Other Court Rules………………………………………………... M-18
4. Rules of Internal Appellate Courts……………………………... M-20
5. Rules Affecting the Practice of Law……………………………. M-20
6. Compilations of Supreme Court Issuances…………………… M-21
7. Other Supreme Court Publications…………………………….. M-21

V. RESEARCHING IN CASE LAW………………………………….. M-22

A. Supreme Court Decisions……………………………………….. M-22


1. Subject Approach………………………………………………… M-23
2. Case Approach…………………………………………………… M-23

B. Court of Appeals Decisions……………………………………... M-23

C. Sandiganbayan Decisions……………………………………….. M-24

D. Decisions of Some Administrative Agencies and Boards…. M-24

VI. AMERICAN LEGAL SOURCES………………………………….. M-25

A. Federal Constitution…………....………………………………… M-25

B. Federal Statutes…………………………………………………… M-25

C. Treaties and Other International Agreements……………….. M-26

D. American Case Law………………………………………………. M-26


1. U.S Federal Supreme Court Decisions………………………... M-26
2. Federal Appellate and District Court Decisions………………. M-26
3. Decisions of States Courts……………………………………… M-27

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VII. ELECTRONIC SOURCES OF LAW……………………………… M-29

A. Computer Disks……………………………………………………. M-29


1. CD Technologies Asia, Inc. ……………………………………. M-29
a. Lex Libris series………………………………………………. M-29
b. Other Titles…………………………………………………….. M-30
c. Legal Knowledge Titles………………………………………. M-31
d. The Philippine Legal Encyclopedia Series…………………. M-32
2. Access Law……………………………………………………….. M-32
3. Agoo Computer College. Research and Development
Department……………………………………………………….. M-33
4. Congress of the Philippines…………………………………….. M-33
5. PHILJURIS; Supreme Court Decisions…………………………... M-33
6. Supreme Court E-Library……………………………………….. M-33
7. i-law………………………………………………………………... M-33
8. Philippine Legal Forms………………………………………….. M-34
9. The Family Lawyer………………………………………………. M-34
10. Everyone’s Legal Forms: Philippine Legal and
Government Forms…………………………………………….. M-34

B. The Internet………………………………………………………… M-34


1. Philippine Internet Resources………………………………….. M-35
2. International Legal Research Websites……………………….. M-38

C. Commercial Online Subscription Databases………………… M-40

VIII. READING AND KEEPING ABREAST WITH THE LAW………. M-42

IX. GENERAL POINTERS IN LEGAL RESEARCH………………... M-43

X. CITATION - WRITING REFERENCES…………………………... M-45

XI. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………….... M-46

DECISION WRITING

I. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS………………………………………. N-1

Decision, defined and explained………………………………….. N-1


Decision and Order, distinguished………………………………... N-2

II. LAW ON THE FORM AND CONTENT OF A DECISION……… N-3

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Constitutional Provision……………………………………………. N-3


Rules of Court……………………………………………………….. N-4

A. Civil Actions, In General…………………………………………. N-4

B. Criminal Actions…………………………………………………… N-5

C. Special Civil Actions and Special Proceedings……………… N-6


1. Declaratory Relief………………………………………………... N-6
2. Quo Warranto…………………………………………………….. N-6
3. Expropriation……………………………………………………… N-7
4. Foreclosure of Real Estate Mortgage………………………….. N-8
5. Partition…………………………………………………………… N-8
6. Forcible Entry and Unlawful Detainer…………………………. N-9
7. Replevin…………………………………………………………... N-10

D. Special Proceedings……………………………………………… N-10


1. Adoption…………………………………………………………... N-10
2. Declaration of Nullity of Void Marriage or
Annulment of Marriage………………………………………….. N-12
3. Legal Separation…………………………………………………. N-12
4. Change of Name…………………………………………………. N-13

E. Others……………………………………………………………….. N-13

III. MAIN PARTS OF A DECISION ………………………………….. N-13

A. Body…………………………………………………………………. N-13

B. Dispositive Portion………………………………………………... N-16


1. Civil Cases, Generally…………………………………………… N-16
2. Criminal Cases…………………………………………………… N-19

C. Signature of the Judge…………………………………………… N-23

IV. ORGANIZING THE DECISION…………………………………… N-23

A. Identifying and Defining the Issues……………………………. N-24

B. Preparing a LOPP-FLOPP-Conclusion Analysis of the


Issues………………………………………………………………... N-24

C. The Shotgun House Analysis…………………………………… N-25

D. Preparing an Outline with Generic and Case-Specific……… N-26

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V. DRAFTING THE DECISION………………………………………. N-27

A. Writing the Beginning…………………………………………….. N-27

B. Writing the Body of the Decision………………………………. N-28


1. Finding of Fact…………………………………………………… N-28
2. Opinion, or Statement of the Relevant Law…….…………….. N-30
3. Additional Points to Consider…………………………………… N-32
4. Conclusion, if Desired…………………………………………… N-33
5. Writing the Dispositive Portion…………………………………. N-34

VI. THE ABC OF EFFECTIVE DECISION WRITING...................... N-34

A. Accuracy.................................................................................... N-34

B. Brevity……………………………………………………………….. N-35

C. Clarity………………………………………………………………... N-40
1. Facts………………………………………………………………. N-40
2. Texts………………………………………………………………. N-40
3. Parallelism of Words…………………………………………….. N-42
4. Consistency………………………………………………………. N-43
5. Titles and Headings……………………………………………… N-44
6. Italicization………………………………………………………... N-45
7. Setting Off Words………………………………………………... N-45
8. Numbers………………………………………………………….. N-46
9. Percentage……………………………………………………….. N-47
10. Fractions………………………………………………………… N-47
11. Decimals………………………………………………………… N-48
12. Voting Results…………………………………………………... N-48
13. Currency………………………………………………………… N-48
14. Units of Measure……………………………………………….. N-49
15. Periods of Time…………………………………………………. N-49
16. Dates…………………………………………………………….. N-49
17. Abbreviations…………………………………………………… N-50

VII. PUNCTUATIONS AND QUOTATIONS………………………….. N-51

A. Some Rules on Punctuations…………………………………… N-51


1. Period……………………………………………………………... N-51
2. Comma……………………………………………………………. N-51
3. Semicolon………………………………………………………… N-52
4. Colon……………………………………………………………… N-53
5. Parentheses……………………………………………………… N-54
6. Apostrophe……………………………………………………….. N-54

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7. Hyphen……………………………………………………………. N-54
8. Em-dash (or long dash)…………………………………………. N-55
9. En-dash (or short dash)…………………………………………. N-55

B. Some Rules on Quotations……………………………………… N-56

VIII. ENHANCEMENT OF WRITING STYLE…………………………. N-61

A. The Power of Words................................................................. N-61

B. Some Pointers on Writing Style………………………………… N-62


1. Words……………………………………………………………... N-62
2. Phrases and Clauses……………………………………………. N-66
3. Sentences………………………………………………………… N-68

TRIAL COURT PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

I. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………. O-1

1. History…………………………………………………………….. O-1

A. International Experience…………………………………….. O-1


a. TCPS……………………………………………………… O-1
b. Court Tools……………………………………………….. O-2
c. IFCE……………………………………………………….. O-2

B. Philippine Experience………………………………………… O-4

2. Objectives………………………………………………………… O-4

II. PHILIPPINE COURT VALUES…………………………………… O-5

1. Independence……………………………………………………. O-5
2. Integrity……………………………………………………………. O-5
3. Impartiality………………………………………………………… O-5
4. Propriety…………………………………………………………... O-5
5. Equality……………………………………………………………. O-5
6. Competence and Diligence…………………………………… O-5

III. AREAS OF COURT EXCELLENCE……………………………... O-5

1. Court Management and Leadership…………………………… O-5


2. Court Policies…………………………………………………….. O-6

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3. Court Resources (Human, Material and Financial)…………... O-6


4. Court Proceedings……………………………………………….. O-7
5. Court Users Needs and Satisfaction ………………………….. O-7
6. Affordable and Accessible Court Services……………………. O-7
7. Public Trust and Confidence………………………...………….. O-8

IV. MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS……………………………………… O-9

1. General Measurement Systems……………………………….. O-9

A. Assessing Court Excellence………………………………… O-9


B. Identifying Areas of Improvement………………………….. O-10
C. Collecting and Analyzing Information……………………… O-11

2. Specific Measurement Tools…………………………………… O-11

A. Quantitative Measurement Tools…………………………… O-11


B. Court Users Satisfaction Survey Tool……………………… O-11
C. Court Policy and Leadership Tool………………………….. O-12
D. Court Peer-Review Tool……………………………………... O-12
E. Court Audit…………………………………………………….. O-12
F. Performance Measurement for Specialized Courts………. O-12

3. Communicating Performance Results and Improvements….. O-13

V. THE PHASES TOWARDS COURT EXCELLENCE……………. O-14

1. Phase 1 – No clear court vision or strategy…………………… O-14


2. Phase 2 – Court acknowledges the need for improvement…. O-15
3. Phase 3 – Court is well-established with strong leadership
and vision…………………………………………………………. O-15

VI. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………… O-16

VII. APPENDIX.................................................................................. O-17

1. Self-Assessment Questionnaire………………………………... O-17

GLOSSARY OF LEGAL TERMS

INDEX (Volume Two)

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