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1.1. Background of the Study

One of the Founding Fathers of America, Benjamin Rush, was one of the first to believe that

alcoholism was not a matter of personal willpower, but rather due to the alcohol itself. Rush

challenged the accepted belief at the time that alcoholism was a moral failing, thereby

progressing the concept of addiction as a disease. Per the University of Utah, in the past,

addiction was treated as a criminal offense, with intensive faith-based prayer, or in mental

institutions, but this signified a shift to viewing addiction as an illness that could be managed.

As drugs have been abused for hundreds of years all over the world, their effects have been felt

for just as long. Since drugs have been used, there were always those who abused them, which

led to full-blown addiction and the bevy of side effects that come with it. As the physical and

mental health implications of addiction became clearer, rehabilitation efforts began to appear. As

a result, the history of rehabilitation in the United States dates back hundreds of years. Nigeria,

relatively is not an exception.

According to Microsoft Encarta 2009 (accessed May 2018), drug is a substance that

affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of

diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable conditions.

Drug abuse however, is characterized by taking more than the recommended dose of

prescription drugs such as barbiturates without medical supervision, or using government-

controlled substances such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, or other illegal substances. Legal

substances, such as alcohol and nicotine, are also abused by many people. Abuse of drugs and

other substances can lead to physical and psychological dependence.

The present trend of high incidence of criminal offences, as rape, arm robbery, secret cult

practices, prostitutions and psychiatric causes which has lead to the high mortality rate of our

youths has remain an issue of concern to the society.

There is a general understanding that the perpetrators of these evils must belong to

families who characters and morals are questionable. Should the family alone be criticized or do

youths share in this criticism? What is actually responsible for the moral decadences existing in

the society? The answer to this is that youths have resorted to misuse and abuse of drugs.

Drug abuse is the excessive and improper use of drugs which may alter the normal

functioning of the body mechanism. According to ogden (2004:35), drug abuse is the use of

drugs for other than regular medical purposes and in ways that results in physical or

psychological harm to the user.

Next to human suicide is the abuse of drug which has eaten deep into the fabrics of our

youths. The use of psychoactive drugs has taken symbolic significance in our youths’ culture.

Drug abuse is prevalent among the teenage population. This is because adolescence according to

Egereonu (2004) is seen as a critical stage of development and a period of storm and stress. A

stage of Heightened emotionality, a stage of contradiction of society norms, a stage where school

and financial problems becomes meaningful and a period of drug experimentation where peer

group influence friends. Thus he resorts to drugs as a means of escaping from reality.

Numerous explanations have been given by people on why they take certain drugs. This

according to Egeronu (2004) ranges from relief of anxiety, peer ground influence, satisfaction of

their curiosity and escape from realities of life. Others are to adjust with poor academic

performance; boost their ego which will help them to cope with problems, fear and pressures of

everyday life.

Increase in drug abuse, misuse addiction and dependency constitute an important, social,

educational and health problems in our society. Drug addicts are exposed to different health

implications such as madness, lung cancer, and heart failures etc. which are menace to the

society as well.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Since the dawn of history, mankind has found ways to relieve the daily grind of life. In

ancient Mesopotamia (the area now known as Iraq), agriculture slowly began to flourish, and a

large network of city states started to gain prominence. With the cultivation of wheat and barley

came another product: beer. After all, the water wasn't particularly healthy, and the weak alcohol

content in beer killed off a lot of harmful organisms in the water. While the beer wasn't

particularly strong, it also wasn't particularly nice, as the concept of sterility was unknown in

3,000 BCE. However, beer was consumed in bulk, and even the gods enjoyed getting drunk.

Consequently, addiction to alcohol was rampant in the so-called cradle of civilization, and

people during that time generally lived much shorter lives thanks to disease and, presumably,


The illegal use of drugs was once considered a problem unique to residents of poor, urban

neighborhoods. Today, however, people from all economic levels, in both cities and suburbs,

abuse drugs. Some people use drugs to relieve stress and to forget about their problems. Genetic

factors may predispose other individuals to drug addiction. Environmental factors such as peer

pressure, especially in young people, and the availability of drugs, also influence people to abuse


For Idemili North community to achieve moral and academic excellence, socio-economic

advancement and societal development, there is need to produce healthy youths who do not

manifest anti-social and maladjusted behaviors, self-reliant youths who will take their place in

the society as educated people in other to contribute to the man power need of the society.

Significantly, most of these youths are in post primary schools.

Our educational standard is continuously falling. Observations across many Local

Government Areas, of which Idemili North is not an exception, show that the following drug

abuse related problems exist among secondary school students.

1. There is increase in maladjusted behaviours among students such as school dropout,

fighting with teachers, bullying, truancy, absenteeism, destruction of school property,

expulsion from school, examination malpractice and loss of motivation to learn and


2. There is poor academic performance among students.

3. The high incidence of anti-social behaviours and criminal offences among youths like

cultism, arm robbery, rape, drug trafficking, murder thuggery, etc.

4. Death among children and youths as a result of increase rate of fatal accidents and health


5. Liquor law violations

6. Traffic fatalities (accidents)

7. Abuse of alcohol and addiction among youth.

Government at various levels has made some modest efforts to arrest the fast-growing abuse

of drugs in our institutions of learning through some agencies in order to curb this problem.

This situation does not only worry the government but also parents. The parents are bored

to find that after spending huge sums to train their children and wards in school, they come out

without any standard result, qualification and capacity. To the government the situation does not

augur well with its educational objectives which among others are to produce a future generation

that would be educationally sound. To ameliorate this, government is established many health

centre’s and sponsored some radio programmes on drug abuse.

All these efforts notwithstanding, the drug abuse and addiction persist among students in

the secondary schools.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

In specific terms, the study will:

1. Examine the extent to which secondary school students in Idemili North Local Government

Area are indulging in drug abuse.

2. Identify the causes of drug abuse among secondary school students.

3. Examine the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school


4. Proffer suggestion on the ways to minimize drug abuse among students.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would be useful to be students, parents, teachers, school

authorities, counselors, researchers, curriculum planners, the government and the society at large.

To the students, the study will educate them on the educational and health implications as

well as the causes of drug abuse. As a result, the will learn to exhibit positive changes in the

following: educational/schooling behaviours-academic achievement, high school graduation rate,

participation on sports and extra-curricular activities, school attendance and students serves as

peer tutors. They will equally learn how to handle peer pressure which will help them to desist

from anti-social behaviors in order to live long. At the long run, they will be able to take their

place as educated people in the society.

Given this scenario, the huge sums of money spent by parents in engaging their children

and wards in repeated examinations, hospital admissions and bails for arrest would be curtain.

The parents are happy when their children make discipline and morality their watchword.

Parents will also learn from this study to serve as role models for their children to imitate.

The teachers will also benefit from the study because their teaching is made effective

when a positive teacher student relationship, discipline and condusive learning environment

devoid of maladjusted behaviours are maintained. This will save the teachers from victimization

in the hands of drugs addicts. The study furnishes the teachers with the knowledge on how to

minimize drug abuse.

The school authorities are proud when their products make outstanding achievements

both internally and externally.

The future researchers will find this work useful because it will guide them while writing

on the topic or any other allied topic.

The insight and recommendations made in the course of this research work will enlighten

curriculum planners on the need to revise the secondary school curriculum by incorporating drug

education if possible as a single subject. Counselors will learn to play their roles effectively by

offering guidance and counseling service to students on drug additions.

Finally, government will learn to establish hospital within schools, support drug

education programmes. So that it will augur well with its educational objectives. The

government will be satisfied to meet the dynamic needs of the society.

1.5 Hypothesis / Research Questions

Hypothesis 1: Drug abuse among secondary school students of Idemili North Local Government

Area is responsible for their moral laxity and poor academic performances in examinations.

Hypothesis 2: Drug abuse among secondary school students in Idemili North Local Government

Area is responsible for their involvements in social vices like cult activities, robbery, rapes,

fighting, juvenile delinquencies and other health issues including madness, etc.

Based on the hypotheses, the following research questions were eminent:

1. To what extent do the secondary school students in Idemili North Local Government Area

indulge in drug abuse?

2. What are the causes of drug abuse among these secondary school students?

3. What are the influences of drug abuse on the academic performance, etc. of secondary

school students in Idemili North Local Government Area?

4. What are possible solutions on the ways to minimize drug abuse among the students?

1.6 Scope of the Study

Due to scarcity of time and funds, the study limits itself to the examination of the academic and

other implications of drug abuse by our youths. To accomplish this, a total study 250 population

of students (SS1-SS3) in fifteen (15) Secondary Schools in Idemili North Local Government

Area of Anambra State was randomly sampled.

Study Area: The study was conducted in Idemili North Local Government Area in Anambra

State. Anambra is a state in south-eastern Nigeria. Its name is an anglicized version of the

original 'Oma Mbala', the native name of the Anambra River. The Capital and the Seat of

Government is Awka. Onitsha and Nnewi are the biggest commercial and industrial cities,

respectively. The state's theme is "Light of the Nation". Boundaries are formed by Delta State to

the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east and Kogi State to the

north. The origin of the name is derived from the Anambra River (Omambala) which is a

tributary of the famous River Niger. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo

(98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population) who live in the North

western part of the state. Anambra is the eighth most populated state in the Federal Republic of

Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. The stretch of

more than 45 km between Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated

villages and small towns giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per

square kilometer.

Capital: Awka

Area: 4,844 km˛

Population: 7,821,858 (2005 estimate)

Number of Languages: Igbo (3)

Governor: Obiano William (APGA)

ISO 3166-2: NG-AN

Date Created: 27 August 1991

With an annual population growth rate of 2.21 percent per annum, Anambra State has over

60% of its people living in urban areas making it one of the most urbanized places in

Nigeria. The major urban centres of Anambra state are Onitsha including Okpoko, Nnewi,

and Awka. Awka and Onitsha developed as pre-colonial urban centres with Awka as the

craft industrial centre of the Nri hegemony; and Onitsha the city state on the Niger and a

river port and commercial centre. There are 21 local government areas in the state:- Aguata,

Awka North, Awka South, Anambra East, Anambra West, Anaocha, Ayamelum,

Dunukofia, Ekwusigo, Idemili North, Idemili South, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi North, Nnewi

South, Ogbaru, Onitsha North, Onitsha South, Orumba North, Orumba South and Oyi. The

main towns of Anambra state are Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Obosi, Ihiala, Ekwulobia

(Aguata), Uli, Abagana and Ogidi among others. They grow crops like tomatoes, cocoyam,

okra, pepper melon, maize yam, Chinese pumpkin, among others, while the perennial trees

grown here are, cashew, oranges, Oil palm mangoes, e.t.c. Anambra people engage in

livestock management like chicken, goats sheep, and pig rearing.

FIGURE 1: Map of Nigeria Showing Anambra State


Idemili North is a Local Government Area in Anambra State, south-central Nigeria. Towns that

make up the local government are Onitsha, Abacha, Abatete, Eziowelle, Ideani, Nkpor, Obosi,

Ogidi, Oraukwu, Uke, Umuoji.


Here is the list of secondary schools in Idemili North Local Government Area:

 Army Day Secondary School, Onitsha

 Notre Dame High School, Abatete

 Abanna Secondary School, Abatete

 Community Secondary School, Eziowelle

 Queen of the Rosary Secondary School, Eziowelle

 Community Secondary School, Ideani

 Government Technical College, Nkpor

 Urban Secondary School, Nkpor

 Community Secondary School, Obosi

 Unity Secondary School, Obosi

 Boys’ Secondary School, Ogidi

 Anglican Girls’ Secondary School, Ogidi

 Community Secondary School, Oraukwu

 Oraukwu Grammar School, Oraukwu

 Community Secondary School, Uke

 Mater Amabili Secondary School, Umuoji

 Community Secondary School, Umuoji

 Awada Secondary School, Awada




This chapter reviewed various literature perspectives of researchers and scholars which

are relevant to this study. The purpose of this study is to examine the extent of students’

indulgence in drug abuse as well as to identify its causes and academic influences. Adequate

knowledge of the consequence of drug abuse should be inculcated in the students if they were to

be saved from the tragedies of drug abuse especially on their academics.

The society has created schools as the basic instrument for producing the kind of citizens,

she desire, to produce youths who are able to take their places as functioning members of the

society, but drug abuse among secondary school students is a serious problem which has posed

challenge to this educational objective. This chapter is discussed under two major sub-headings

as follows:

1. Conceptual Framework, and

2. Empirical Framework

2.1. Conceptual Framework

2.1.1. Meaning of Drug

Drug is any substance that affects the function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure,

prevent the occurrence of diseases and disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable


Humans have always experimented with substances derived from minerals, plants, and animal

parts to treat pain, illness, and restore health. In ancient Egypt, physicians prescribed figs, dates,

and castor oil as laxatives and used tannic acid to treat burns. The early Chinese and Greek

pharmacies included opium, known for its pain-relieving qualities, while Hindus used the

cannabis and henbane plants as anesthetics and the root of the plant Rauwolfia serpentina, which

contains reserpine, as a tranquilizer.

A school of pharmacy established in Arabia from 750 to 1258 ad discovered many substances

effective against illness, such as burned sponge (which contains iodine) for the treatment of

goiters—a noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland, visible as a swelling at the front of

the neck. In Europe, the 15th century Swiss physician and chemist Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus

identified the characteristics of numerous diseases such as syphilis, a chronic infectious disease

usually transmitted in sexual intercourse, and used ingredients such as sulfur and mercury

compounds to counter the diseases.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, physicians treated malaria, a disease transmitted by the bite

of an infected mosquito, with the bark of the cinchona tree (which contains quinine). Heart

failure was treated with the leaves of the foxglove plant (which contains digitalis); scurvy, a

disease caused by vitamin C deficiency, was treated with citrus fruit (which contains vitamin C);

and smallpox was prevented using inoculations of cells infected with a similar viral disease

known as cowpox. The therapy developed for smallpox stimulated the body’s immune system,

which defends against disease-causing agents, to produce cowpox- and smallpox-specific


In the 19th century scientists continued to discover new drugs including ether, morphine, and a

vaccine for rabies, an infectious, often fatal, viral disease of mammals that attacks the central

nervous system and is transmitted by the bite of infected animals. These substances, however,

were limited to those occurring naturally in plants, minerals, and animals. A growing

understanding of chemistry soon changed the way drugs were developed. Heroin and aspirin,

two of the first synthetic drugs created from other elements or compounds using chemical

reactions, were produced in the late 1800s. This development, combined with the establishment

of a new discipline called pharmacology, the study of drugs and their actions on the body,

signaled the birth of the modern drug industry.

Drug Approval Process: Developing a new drug is a time-consuming, expensive process that

often requires up to 10 years. The process begins with laboratory experiments resulting in the

synthesis and purification of a possible new drug. The compound then goes through a series of

tests in animal and human subjects to determine if it is safe and effective against disease. When

those studies are completed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decides whether to

approve the drug for sale in the United States.

The use of drugs for the suppression of physical pain, relief of anxiety and production of

pleasurable sensations or mood is a practice that extends back into early history. Drugs are God

given gifts which are used for various purposes. The term drug has been given numerous

definitions by different scholars.

Moronkola (1999:169) defines drug as a “substance which by its chemical nature affects the

structure and functions of the living organism’.

More so, drug according to Oxford Learner’s Dictionary refers to “any useable substance that

some people smoke or inject etc to give them pleasant or exciting feelings:. On the other hand it

also defines drugs as a substance used as a medicine. Quoting the World Health Organization

Scientific defined a drug as any substance or product that is used or intended to be used to

modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient.

(WHO, Technical Resper 1996).

From the definitions, it can be gathered that a drug is any substance other than food that

affects the body mechanism while a drug from the medical point of view could be water or food

inclusive. So there are good and bad drugs. There are also drugs that are poison and some are

not. This means that nearly all what man ingests, inhales can be regarded as Drugs according to

Dusek and Girdano (1989) in Mononkola (2006) identify medicines, cigarettes, food addictives,

industrial chemical, alcohol and even food as examples of drug.

There are many expert opinions on what constitute drugs according to Moronkola (2006)

are classified drug into four namely: Psychoactive drugs, Medicine, Ergogenic drugs and

Recreational drugs.

Psychoactive Drugs: Psychoactive drugs are known as mind altering drugs and are chemical

substances that change the user’s thinking, feeling, perception and behaviours. These changes

come as a result of drug action on brains. Such drugs include alcohol, cocaine, petrol, coffee and

Indian hemp.

Medicine: they can be prescriptive or non prescriptive. Prescriptive ones are those that should be

taken only on physicians order because they have serious side influence when those instructions

are not followed. Prescription drugs must be dispensed by a qualified pharmacist, example are

codine, antibiotics, valium. Non prescriptive drugs are know as over the counter drugs that

buyers may purchase without necessarily obtaining a medical doctor’s prescription, example is

paracetamol. They are used for minor aliments. Medicines are referred as therapeutic drug when

it is used to treat disease or promote or promote health.

Ergogenic Drugs: They are such drugs used to enhance or promote athletic process before or

during competitions, examples of ergogenic drug are heroin.

Recreation/Gateway Drugs: They are drugs the society sees as not harmful. Such include

alcohol, tobacco etc. They are called gateway drugs because they are those drugs experimented

with before graduating to hard drugs.

Illegal Drugs: Drugs like cocaine, heroin that moist societies known at their indiscriminate use or

mere possessions except having professional and legal right to do so. The above classification of

drugs therefore places drug to serve different purposes.

2.1.2 Drug Abuse and Its Types

Some medicines sold in pharmacies or village stores can be useful, others are of no values. Also

people sometimes use the best medicine in the wrong way so that they do more harm than good.

Medicines must be used correctly by many people including most doctors and health workers.

Some medicines are taken more than needed and by so doing cause more sickness and death.

Some medicine are dangerous than others. Unfortunately, sometimes people use very dangerous

drugs for mild sickness. This is an imagination of what drugs for mild sickness. This is an

imagination of what drug abuse is like.

With reference to the World Health Organization, Scientific definition of drug in

Egereonu (2004-160) define drug as “any substance or product that is used to modify or explore

physiological system or pathological states for the benefits of the recipient. From the definition,

it is glaring that drugs are meant to benefit the user, then why is it that drugs intoxicates and

becomes detrimental to the individual and the society?

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary in the medical perspective see drug as “a

substance use in the treatment of a disease”. If drugs were always used for that purpose, the

problem will be quite different from what it is. The drug problem emanates from the misuse of

these substances to produce effects other than curing disease.

The wide spread abuse of drugs by the current teenage population is justifiably the

subject of attention and concern on the part of health experts, educators, clergymen, legislators

and the social scientists. Drug Abuse among youths is a practice which is detrimental to the

individual and the society in general. Numerous definitions have been given on the word “drug

abuse”. The World Health Organization defines drug abuse as any substances then, when taken

into living organism may modify one or more of its functions.

Another comprehensive definition of drug abuse according to Moronkola (2006:104) sees

drug abuse as “the international or deliberate use of chemical substance (usually for the reasons

other than legitimate medical purposes) that results in any degree of physical, mental, emotional

or social impairment of the user.

Drug abuse is the use of drugs when there is not medical illness of sufficient severity to warrant


Livingstone in Nkwocha (2004:56) defines drug abuse using the following words:

This is the indiscriminate use of drugs without the doctor’s prescription or

the improper use of mind altering drugs like Marijuana and cocaine”. The

above definition implies that drug abuse is a practice of the use of drugs

excessively, and improperly. It is the misuse of medication without doctor’s

prescription which as a result causes impairment to the user. (2002)

Drug abuse is most at times used synonymously with drug use, misuse addiction and

dependency. To justify this, Moronlkola (2006) believes that use, misuse and abuse of drug are

the three concepts that needs proper classifications. According to him, use is a term reserved for

many purposes to which drug are taken to the body by man.

The unintentional and inappropriate use of prescription or non prescribed drug for the wellbeing

of the user is known as misuse, while abuse is the international and deliberate use of drug usually

for reasons other than legitimate medical purposes. Drug addiction implies the need or desire to

take a drug despite the untoward consequences and the psychological inability to give up the

drug despite ones wish to do so.

Based on the above explanations of drug related terms, it can be gathered that in the process of

using drug, the people misuse of drug is an indelibrate action while abuse of drug is deliberate

and intention and it is abuse of drug that brings addiction. The habits of using and abusing drug

can be acquired through personal contact. Adolescent stage marks or features the commencement

of this practice. Psychologist refers the adolescent stage as a period of storm and stress.

Egereonu (2004) highlights one of the reason is that it is a period of drug experimentation where

peer groups influence friends as a result they are lured into becoming drug addicts.

Furthermore, drug taking may be habit forming to the extent that they depend on it so much that

they will do anything to get the money to buy them.

Drug is abused for certain reasons. Some take merely for a thrill, others for curiosity and

others do it to release anxiety. Livingstone (2002) outlines other reasons as fellows. The

influence of association with other habituated to their use, recourse to drugs during emotional

stress, indulgence for the stake of experimentation.

Drug abuse as defines by World Health Organization has three features namely

Tolerance: a nourishing effect with a repeated use of the same dose.

Addition/Emotional Dependence or Habituation: This is the ability to give a drug

because the drug satisfies emotional or psychological needs of the user. Physical

dependence/withdrawal syndrome which occurs in situations where stopping the drug causes a

psychological state characterized by unpleasant symptoms known as withdrawal symptoms

Drugs commonly abused according to Moronkola (2006) include, tobacco, barbiturate,

amphetamines and narcotics. Other drugs used in Nigeria by youths or adolescents according to

Nkwocha et al (1996) are grouped into four types namely, Narcotics, Depressants, Hallucinogens

and Stimulants, Others are Alcohol.

Narcotics- examples of such a drug is opium and its derivates collectively known as

opiate are classified as narcotics. They are drugs prescribed on extreme conditions of madness,

psychopath or narcotic behavior.

Depressant drugs- Depression drugs or alcoholic drinks (which can also be stimulant),

barbiturates and sedative drugs that makes one to go to sleep.

Hallucinogens – These drugs are known for the hallucination they produce. The following

guidelines are highlighted by Werner Thurman for the use of drugs in order to avoid drug


 Use drug only when necessary

 Know the correct use and precautions of any drug

 Be sure to use the right does

 If the drug does not help or because problems discontinue use with this drug will be reduced

to the barest minimum.

2.1.3 The Cause of Drug Abuse among Post Primary School Students

Drug abuse statistically is prevalent among the teenage population adolescent as a critical

period of development is regarded as a period of storm and stress due to the following social,

developmental biological and intellectual competency views.

It is a stage of sexual maturation, physical maturation, a stage of fashion consciousness, a stage

where school and financial problems becomes meaningful, a period of drug experimentation

where peer groups influence friends; a stage of heightened emotionality i.e. anxiety, worry and


A stage of contraction between norms and laws of the society, a moment when the craving for

independent beings. Egereonu (2004:157).

As a result of these various problems the adolescent encounters, he sometimes resorts to drugs as

means of escaping from reality. This marks the beginning of drug abuse among youths.

Supporting this view, Ihebereme (2007) stated that most though that drug intake suppresses

frustration. However other reasons for drug abuse were stated by Ottah as following:

Millions of youth today are experimenting with drugs inflicting,

swallowing, sniffing and smoking everything from cocaine to

Marijuana. For some youths taking drugs is a way to escape

problems, others get involved to satisfy their curiosity, yet othersuse

drugs to ease depression or boredom while many continue using

drugs for the sheer pressure of it. (2008)

Egereonu (2004), Nkwocha and other (1996), Livingstone (2002) and Moronkola (2006) shared

similar view on the reasons why adolescents use and abuse drugs to include.

 To relieve anxiety norms and boredom

 Peer group influence (peer pressure)

 For experimentation to satisfy their curiosity

 Do escape from the realities of life. (Despite mechanism)

 To boost their ego

 To keep awake at night in order to avoid poor academic performance

 Imitation of models

 To terminate unwanted pregnancy

 Poverty

 To facilitate their sexual excitement

 Inability to attain development roles can cause frustrations and lead to drug abuse.

 Developmental problems such as regression or personality problems. They further arrived

that group influence is one of the strongest social factors that predisposes youths to drug

abuse, teenagers and adults are influenced by their peers. Peers and their pressure

therefore become a powerful force that exerts undue influence as far as drug

experimentation is concerned that is why Apostle Paul in his Epistles to the Corinthians


“do not be mislead, bad associations spoil good manners”. (1 Corinthians 15:33) this

injection show that even God recognizes that peer pressure exist and is a major source of

character formation.

Therefore, the cause of drug abuse according to the above review rests on the following factors

which include peer group influence, motel influence, social influence, emotional imbalance,

economic depressions and curiosity. All these factors categoritically are social, physical,

psychological, emotional and economical.

2.1.4 The Effect of Drug Abuse

Is it wrong to abuse drug? Is it really harmful or is it wrong only for but all right for

adults? Are questions young people ask. After all, your parents may indulge many young people

of your age are drinking, smoking and abusing drugs. To shows and movies makes it appealing.

Drug when used moderately and carefully under the prescription of health specialist, can

indeed be a source of pleasure and therefore benefit the recipient. According to Ogden (2004),

smokers report positive moods from stress while the Bible acknowledges that wine can make the

heart many or can enhance the taste of a meal. When misused and abused, however drug

intoxicates and created serious problems to the user, the family and the society at large. This

problem ranges from ruins with parents, teachers, oneself and police to premature death.

The effect of drug abuse can be classified into personal, educational, social and health

problems. Numerous writers and experts reported on the consequences of drug abused on youths.

2.1.5 Educational Effects of Drug Abuse:

These are the negative impacts or the educational problems that emanates a result of

student’s indulgence in the abuse of drugs.

Consequently, drug addiction interferes with the education and training of the youth at

the time they are learning how to earn their livelihoods. They equally added that at the long run,

it perhaps causes psychiatric causes and deny them the ability to take their places as the

functioning members of the society.

Others effects according to the same author include:

 Produces a sense of well being called emporia

 Forgetfulness

 Increased energy

 Change in mood and hallucinations

Abused of drugs has other serious implications. Moronkola (2006) opines that youths who

use drugs are more prone to the following: Maladaptive behaviours, conflict with school

teachers, suspension from school, fighting with other students, trouble with law enforcement

agent and quarrels at home.

Odejide, Ohaeri, Adelekan and Ikusan (2003) found out that secondary school students

who use alcohol excessively manifested withdrawal symptoms such as restiveness,

unhappiness, sleeplessness and addiction for alcohol the health and social implications of drug

abuse are enormous alcohol abuse is a public health problem and the relationship between

excessive conception of alcohol with its physical, psychological and social consequence is

well documented.

However, some of the social health problems of alcohol abuse include accidents,

absenteeism from work, liver cirrhosis, cancer of the breast, distortion of sensation and

perception, malfunctioning of kidney, mental disorders and death. The above therefore

implies that drug abuse constitute numerous health implication.

2.1.6 Types of Drug Commonly Abused and their Effects.

Barbiturate (sleeping pills) is one of the depressant drugs that are most subject to abuse.

According to peters (2002) barbiturate are more physically damaging than opiates.

Symptoms of overuse include irritability, bleakness, tremor and attars. The withdrawal

symptoms to Egereonu (2004) include insomnia, nausea and vomiting. Barbiturate cause

dependency more than any other group the margin of safety is small and therefore dangerous in

the hand of suicide patients, sedative produce calm allowing excitement and are classified as

barbiturate example are morphine, sleeping pills heroic.

Tranquilizer: These are agents that act on the emotional state quieting and aiming at the person

with affecting the clarity of consciousness. Meanwhile, tranquilized are mused in the treatment

of anxiety and tension.

Narcotic and Analgesics: - These are depressants that have their major effects on the central

nervous system and respiration. They are the most powerful depressant, they relieve and induce

sleep, and examples are: opium morphina, codine, heroine, methadone etc.

According to Livingstone, (2002) one of the chief effect of narcotic drugs is red pain,

weakness of the spinal cord, Narcotics when overdosed caused slow and shallow breath,

claiming skin, convulsions, coma and possible death may result. Addiction among pregnant

women may lead to premature, still birth or tricted in-facts who may experience severe

withdrawal symptoms. Werner (2003)

Stimulants:- used to relieve mild depression, to keep patient awake in narcolepsy and to curb

appetite in weight gain.

Examples of stimulants drugs include Aminehatamine, cocaine; caffeine is the most widely used

stimulants drugs present in coffees, tea and cola drinks. Its effect is mild. The effects of

stimulants include fast heart beat, nervousness, mental confusion, headaches and sleep


Hallucinogen: They produce hallucinations and those drugs that cause sensory distortion and

tend to heighten the mental state of the user, producing Euphoria, terror and stress, example of

marijuana. These drugs are known for the hallucinations they produce (i.e they produce visions)

they also present a subclass of drugs known as psychedelic drugs because their most prominent

reactions are perceptual alterations and changes in the state of consciousness Egereonu (2004).

General speaking, the abuse of marijuana has created more social problems of the society

than the drug intend to solve. The criminals, rapists, 419ners, armed robbers and touts depend on

this as a means of making them feed high (Moronkola, 2006).

Adenoale (2004) found out 21.3 percent of classified and admitted in a psychiatric hospital are as

a result of marijuana contributes to indiscipline in schools and are seen as the cause maladjusted

behaviour among secondary school students.

Alcohol: - The drug called is consumed in several forms e.g. beer, brandy, whisky others are

local drinks such as palm wine, Burukutu, Ogogoro.

Alcohol is capable of altering or causing changes in the body and causes addiction. High

alcohol consumption according to Ogden (2004) increases the chance of disorders like liver

cirrhosis, cancers, and hypertension and memory deficits. It also increases the chance of self

harm through accidents. It worthy to mention here that youths who take alcohol are more prone

to the following maladaptive behaviours: Conflict with school teachers, suspension from school,

fighting with other students, trouble with law enforcement agents and quarrels at home. Odejide

et al (2003) opined that post-primary students who abuse alcohol manifest this withdrawal

symptoms-restlessness, sleeplessness, unhappiness and craving for alcohol. Moronkola in

summary noted that death is the long run effect of excessive use by alcohol.

2.1.7 The Possible Remedies of Drug Abuse

Some author made some recommendations on how to minimize the incidence of drug

abuse among secondary school students.

According to Moronkola (2006), drug education programmes should be taken place at

various settings in the society. He concluded that no individual or organization could be solely

responsible for drug education as men socio-political and economic units in a society. He

emphasized that the school has more human and material resources to do this than other setting.

Moronkola (2006) outline four programme teaching approaches in enhancing drug

education as follows:

 Courses in drug education

 Integrated drug education programme in the curricular

 Health education programme

a. Courses in Drug Education: The target audience is normally school children 11-165

years of age. Teachers, youth groups, parent-teacher group should educate their children

and peers on the dangers of drug abuse.

b. Integrated Drug Education in the Curriculum:-The school curricular is already

crowded and the philosophy of this approach is that it is more efficient to provide drug

education as part of the regular school curricula. This will ensure continuity in the drug

education and if not criticized, it will stand as a separated subject.

Moronoola (2006) suggested that the implementation of this approach can be done in the

following ways.

1. Biology teaches the effect of drugs on human physiology.

2. Chemistry covers the chemical compositions and properties of psychoactive substances.

3. Government \9civics) classes include the laws pertaining to drug control.

4. Social studies- include consideration of the prevalence of drug use and its possible

relationship to crime, poverty and development.

Health Education:- The philosophy here is that drug education is better placed under the broad

perspective of health education

2.1.8 Programmes Emphasizing Personal Development:

Drug abuse is a symptom of maladjustment and personality characteristic. Emphasis

should be placed on the individual who uses the drugs rather than on the drug education. To

achieve this either to re-examine or clarify his own value or by encouraging him to accept

positive ones

Egereonu (2004) identify the following measures, Anti drug programme, diversion of

students or youths attention from drug to club formations such as Boys Scout, Girls Guild that

will help to campaign against drug addiction, sex/drug education. In addition of these, he

stressed that the need for parents, teachers and elders to serve as role models and examples for

our youths to copy.

Livingstone (2002), state that elicits trafficking must be kept to a minimum. He

added that lack of illicit drugs simplifies the treatment in the source of temptation to relapse is

reduced as a result most countries have laws which limited narcotic drugs to use for medical and

scientific purpose. He added that most abusers of drug get them from illegal sources, peddlers

etc. or through legal methods such as forgoing prescriptions or going to physicians. Therefore to

curtain this, there should be outright ban of the hawkers of drug.

2.2. Empirical Framework on the Study

Practical, experiential and empirical studies carried out by various scholars on drug abuse

and their effects were examined to support the study.

Ugwah (2007) carried a study on the problems of drug abuse among school children in

Abia state. The findings revealed among others that lack orientation on drug intake by school

authorizes is a problem to drug abuse. Henceforth, recommendation was made towards ensuring

that task force is constituted by school leads charged with the responsibility of organizing

orientation exercise on drug abuse.

Ayiba (2016) investigated the impact of drug abuse on teenagers in secondary schools in

Njikoka Education zone Anambra State. The finding revealed that excessive drug intake among

teenagers in Secondary schools causes drowsiness in the classroom during teaching and learning

process. It was recommended that appropriate punishment should be given to any teenager found

abusing drugs while in school.

Emeadi (2000) carried out a study on the influence of drug abuse on student’s academic

performance in secondary schools in Owerri North. Findings showed that students who abuse

drugs are academically poor. This has greatly affected their level of academic achievement in

class activities.

There is this case of a J.S.S two (2) students in Army Day Secondary School which of

course led to the writer to carry out this research in some selected secondary school can be used

to illustrate some popular effects of drug abuse. It was told that this very boy was sick having

some symptoms of weakness from home and he become restless when he was a questioned be

confirmed that he took five (5) Panadol from where this mother keeps her drugs on her behalf

resulted to his abnormal behavior. It was the principal of the school with health teacher that now

quickly took this child to the hospital where he was given some medical treatment by the doctor

that helped to arrest the unusual situation and results of doctor confirmed over dosage or drugs.

In a few weeks later, (roughly month) there was another case of senior secondary schools

(S.S.S3) student of the same school. This boy was told, smoking Indian hemp and started

behaving in a most abnormal manner. Apart from that disturbing the school with all kinds of

shout and fighting with his classmates. The boy reuse to ever recognize the presence of the

authority as he boasted to the principal that nothing can make him stop what he was doing.

It therefore took the effect of the police and other member of staff of bundle the boy away from

the school.

Other effect or drug could be mental problems, trembling hands damage of heart and also

profound sweating and headaches. All these side effects have along way to affect the excellent

performance of the children in school.

The Lagos weekend (1987) revealed that the real problems was for as drug abuse is

concerned lies within individual family, unless parents themselves live up to their family

obligation the use of drugs abuse is far from near.

Also the report further disclosed that the cooperative effort of the family could offset much

of the bad behaviours encountered by their children outside.

Parents as well as guardians and teachers as character molders have a major role to play in

the general upbringing of a child. When they discover that a child is already playing with drugs,

they should make the child realize the effects of taking drugs closer attention should be paid on

the child’s welfare through monitoring the child’s activities and the type of friends the child

moves with or keep with the family as launching base, the war on drug abuse could then be

entered to the large society with effective programme base upon accurate information. It will

require education of the public at large preventing camp aligns and the willingness of all to face

every aspect of drug abuse.

Therefore, the excellent performance of children in school could be highly promoted if the

above listed measures ate taken to eradicate the effects of drug abuse in schools and society at


2.2.1 Recommendations made among others include:

Teachers should provide drug abusers among the students with remedial lessons; referral should

be given to identify cases of drug abuse among students.

2.3 Summary of Literature Review

Drug is a chemical substance which when taken causes alteration in the body mechanism.

Drugs are meant to benefit the recipient when used under the prescription of a medical and health

expert. Egereonu (2004) expressed surprise on why drugs instead of serving the purpose it is

meant for, remains detrimental to the individual and the society. Observation have revealed that

drug abuse is prevalent among the teenage population.

Nkwocha et al (1999) outline the reasons why youths abuse drugs. They include peer

group influence experimentation, curiosity, defense mechanism, anxiety, relief, poverty, poor

academic performance, parental negligence and developmental problems.

According to them, drug abuse has insidious effect, physically, emotionally, socially and

academically. Drug abuse is the major causes of behavior maladjustment in schools such as

school drop-out, truancy, fighting with teachers, bullying, cultic practices, expulsion from

school, loss of motivation to learn and poor academic performance.

Drug abuse constitutes other health implications like mental disorder, cancer,

hypertension, heart failure, restlessness and headache etc. the high incidence of criminal offences

and fatal accident are as a result of drug addition. Drug abuse can be stemmed by embarking on

drug education, outright ban of the hawkers of drug, provision of drug by the government etc.

Drug abuse can also cause a wide variety of other adverse physical reactions. Long-term

drug use may damage the heart, liver, and brain. Drug abusers may suffer from malnutrition if

they habitually forget to eat, cannot afford to buy food, or eat foods lacking the proper vitamins

and minerals. Individuals who abuse inject able drugs risk contracting infections such as hepatitis

and HIV from dirty needles or needles shared with other infected abusers. One of the most

dangerous effects of illegal drug use is the potential for overdosing—that is, taking too large or

too strong a dose for the body’s systems to handle. A drug overdose may cause an individual to

lose consciousness and to breathe inadequately. Without treatment, an individual may die from a

drug overdose.

Drug addiction is marked by a compulsive craving for a substance. Successful treatment

methods vary and include psychological counseling, or psychotherapy, and detoxification

programs—medically supervised programs that gradually wean an individual from a drug over a

period of days or weeks. Detoxification and psychotherapy are often used together.



3.0. Introduction

In this chapter, the researchers highlighted the basic research designs, area of study, population

of study, sampling techniques, and instruments for data collection, validation of instruments and

administration of instruments.

3.1. Design of the Study

The design for the study is a descriptive survey. This is because descriptive survey gave

generalized representative of the entire population.

3.2. Area of Study

The study was conducted in some selected secondary schools in Idemili North Local

Government Area in Anambra State.

3.3. Population of the Study

The population of this study consisted of fifteen senior secondary schools in Idemili

Local Government Area, which has the total population of 3131 students. The respective

population of senior secondary school students in Idemili Local Government Area is shown in

the table 1 below.

Table 1: Names And Number Of Senior Secondary Students In Idemili North L.G.A.

S/N Names Of Schools No of Male No of Female Total

1. Army Day Secondary School, Onitsha 21 36 57

2. Community Secondary School, Uke - 121 121

3. Oraukwu Grammar School, Oraukwu 37 61 98

4. Community Secondary School, Oraukwu 128 211 339

5. Anglican Girls’ Secondary School, Ogidi 75 163 238

6. Boys’ Secondary School, Ogidi 8 49 57

7. Unity Secondary School, Obosi 823 - 823

8. Community Secondary School, Obosi 17 42 57

9. Urban Secondary School, Nkpor 93 154 247

10. Government Technical College, Nkpor 15 114 130

11. Community Secondary School, Ideani 17 164 181

Queen of the Rosary Secondary School,

Eziowelle 20 227 247

13. Community Secondary School, Eziowelle 11 118 129

14. Abanna Secondary School, Abatete 9 200 209

15. Notre Dame High School, Abatete 82 116 198

Total 3131

Source: principals of the schools.

3.4. Sample and Sampling Techniques

The sample of study consists of 250 selected S.S.11 students of the five selected senior

secondary schools in Idemili Local Government Area.

Consequently, randomly sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study.

This was done by writing the names of the senior secondary schools on the pieces of paper which

was folded and picked one after the other without replacement. This sample is shown in table 11


Table 11 Sample

S/N Names of Schools Total

1. Army Day Secondary School, Onitsha 50

2. Community Secondary School, Uke 50

3. Oraukwu Grammar School, Oraukwu 50

4. Community Secondary School, Oraukwu 50

5. Anglican Girls’ Secondary School, Ogidi 50

Total 250

3.5. Instrument for Data Collection

The instrument for data collection in the study was the questionnaire consist of two

sections A and B. Section A represents the personal data while section B represents the general

questions for the respondents. The questionnaire comprised of sixteen (16) items structured in

Yes or No response options.

3.6. Validation of the Instrument

The initial draft of the questionnaire was submitted to the supervisor to ascertain the face

and content appropriateness of the instrument. The comment and suggestion was incorporated to

produce the final draft of the questionnaire.

3.7. Administration of the Instrument

The researchers administered the questionnaire to the respondents through personal

contact. The students were instructed on how to choose their options in order to ensure reliable


The class teachers helped in the course of administration of the instrument. Two hundred

and fifty (250) copies of the instrument were distributed. Response from the respondents was

used for data analysis.

3.8. Method of Data Analysis

Data collected for the study was analyzed using simple percentages.



4.0. Introduction

This chapter deals with the analysis of data collected the questionnaires administered to the

respondent’s tables were used in the analysis and presentation of the respondents.

The table shows the number and percentage of positive and negative responses gotten

from the respondents of each of the question items in the questionnaires, four copies were

distributed and fully returned.

4.1. Research Question 1

To what extent do secondary school students in Idemili North Local Government Area?

Table 1

Student’s involvement and indulgence in drug abuse

S/N Question item Copies of Response Respondent Percentage

questionnaire types
1. Do you use drugs without 250 Yes 202 80.8%
doctor’s prescription? No 48 19.2%
2. Do you prescribe drugs for 250 Yes 150 60%
yourself, whenever you are No 100 40%
3. Who prescribe drugs for you 250 1. Pharmacist 50 20%
2. Chemist 100 40%
3. Local drug
4. Do your students indulge in 250 Yes 200 80%
smoking of cigarettes? No 50 20%

The analysis displayed on table, I revealed that 80.8% positively agreed that people use drugs

without doctor’s prescription while 19.2% disagreed.

In items number 2, 150 respondents representing 60% agreed that they practice self

medication while 40% disagreed. In question 3, 50 respondents representing 20% buy their drugs

from pharmacist while 100 respondents representing 40% get their drugs prescription from

chemist and local drug sellers respectively.

In question item number 4, 200 respondent representing 80% revealed that students

indulge in smoking of cigarettes while 50 respondents represent 20% responded no.

This clearly indicates that majority of the respondents student indulge in the abuse of


4.2. Research Question 2

What are the causes of drug abuse among senior secondary school students?

TABLE 2 Cause of drug abuse among students

s/n Question items Copies of Response Respondent Percentage

questionnaire type
5. Do you know think that people 250 Yes 200 80%
No 50 20%
6. Do you think people abuse 250 Yes 180 72%
drugs as result of poverty? No 70 28%
7. Do peer group influence lead to 250 Yes 250 100%
drug abuse among students? No Nill Nill
8. Do you agree that poor 250 Yes 215 86%
academic performance causes No 35 14%
the abuse of drugs among

From the table shown above, the researcher observed that 200 respondents representing 80%

agrees that people abuse drugs in order to be happy while 50% respondent representing 28%


The respondent of question item 3 reveals that peer pressure is one of the major reasons why

students indulge in drug abuse since 100% of the respondents agreed.

Question item 4 shows that majority of the respondent (86%) agreed that people abuse

drugs as a result of poor academic performance while 35 respondents representing 14%


This shows that people abuse drugs with different reasons.

4.3. Research Question 3

What are the moral, academic and other effects of drug abuse among students?

Table 3 Drug abuse and its effects

s/n Question items Copies of Response Respondent Percentage

questionnaire type
9. Do you think that drugs abuse is 250 Yes 220 80.8%
responsible for the greater number No 48 19.2%
of school dropout among students?
10. Student who abuse drugs performs 250 Yes 50 20%
well in academics No 200 80%
11. Many students have developed 250 Yes 250 88%
problems due to drug abuse? No 30 12%
12. It is true that most of the drug 250 Yes 215 86%
abusers are the criminals in the No 35 14%

Table three above reveals that 220 respondent representing 80.8% attributes the high incidence

of school dropouts in Nigerian schools to drug abuse among students while 48 respondent

representing 19.2% disagreed to question from item 9.

In item 10, 200 respondent representing 80% of the sample agrees that drug abuser do not

perform well academically greater while 50 respondents representing 20% said that tthey

perform well academically.

In item 11, 220 respondent representing 88% agreed that many students have developed

problems due to drug abuse while 30 respondent representing 12% disagreed.

In item 12, 215 respondent representing 86% agreed that most of the drug abusers are

criminals that most of the society while 35 respondent representing 14 disagreed.

4.4. Research Question 4

What are four possible ways to minimize drug abuse?

Table 4

S/N Question items Copies of Response Respondent Percentage

questionnaire type
13. Drug abuse can be controlled 250 Yes 230 92%
through outright ban on the hawker No 20 8%
of drug
14. Anti drug programmes helps to 250 Yes 250 100%
minimize drug abuse No Nill Nill
15. Is it true that physical and health 250 Yes 200 80%
education helps to minimize drug No 50 20%
16. Do you think that provision of drug 250 Yes 215 86%
by the government will help to No 35 14%
minimize drug abuse

The analysis displayed on table four reveals that 230 respondent representing 92% positively

agreed that drug abuse can be controlled through outright ban on the hawkers of drug while none

of the respondent disagrees.

In item 2, 250 respondents representing 100% agrees that Anti drug programmes will

help to minimize drug abuse while none of the respondents disagrees.

Question item 3 shows that 200 respondent representing 80% agrees that physical and

health education will help to minimize drug abuse.

The responses in question 4 reveal that 215 respondent representing 86% agreed that

provision of drug by the government will help to minimize drug abuse.




5.1 Discussion of Findings

From the investigated conducted and data obtained on this research work, the discussion

of the findings will be based on the information presented analysis of data done in chapter four

of this work.

In order to achieve this purpose, the research question will be based on each research question.

Research Question

According to research question one which tries to answer the question on the prevalence of drug

abuse among senior secondary students, it was discovered as displayed on the analysis on table 1

of chapter that a good number of respondents are found to abuse drugs. This is because majority

of the respondent (202) represent 80.8% positively agreed that they use drugs without doctors

prescriptions. While 150 respondents representing 60% agreed that they practice self medication

(using drugs without doctor’s recommendation). While another 200 respondents representing

80% admitted that they procure drugs from chemist and local and local drug sellers instead of

hospitals and local drug sellers instead of hospital and pharmacy. They gave excuse of not being

able to afford the prices of drugs in hospitals and pharmacy rather they resort to buy from local

drug sellers and hawkers but they fails to realize that prescription by the quack is proper. Also,

200 students out of 250 representing 80% also revealed that most students indulge in smoking of


Therefore, it can be concluded on the basis of above that drug abuse is widespread among the

senior secondary students.

Druck (2006) in relation with the above conclusion state positively that many of the

senior secondary school students today abuse drugs.

While Nkwocha (1996) in Egereonu identifies the common drugs used by the students as

Narcotics, Depressant, hallucinogenic and Stimulants

Research Question 2

What are the causes of drug abuse among senior secondary school student?

The finding to the above researcher questions are displayed on table 11 indicated that a

good number of respondents 200 (80%) respond positively that people abuse drug in order to be

happy. While the majority of others attribute that drug abuse is caused as a result of poverty, peer

group influence, poor academic performance.

Egereonu (2004) confirmed the above reasons that peer group influence is the most

powerful cause of drug abuse.

Research Question

What are the effects of drug abuse among senior secondary students?

Most Senior Secondary Students have manifested maladjusted behaviours and perform

badly in their academic work due to drugs.

Drugs abuse is associated with physical, psychological, emotional and social health


The findings to the above research questions are displayed on table three chapter four shows that

220 respondents representing 88% positively agreed that drug abuse causes high incidence of

school drop outs among students. 200 respondents representing 88% agreed that students who

abuse drugs do not perform well in academics. 220 respondents representing 88% of students

agreed that many students have developed problems due to drug abuse. 215 students constituting

86% respondent favourably agreed that drug abuse is responsible for the increased rate of

criminals in the society.

Contributing to the effects of drug abuse on Senior Secondary Students, Druck (2004)

reported that cigarette smokers suffers cancer and develop mental disorder.

Ogden (2004) outlined the drug negative effects as liver cirrhosis, cancer problem, Hypertension

and memory deficit, behaving maladjustively, fighting and have no fear in the society.

Ohaeri (200) states that drugs causes people to do dangerous things which they will not

ordinarily do and is a substantial proof that the consequences of drug abuse that are negative take

the place of positive effect.

Research Question

What are the ways to minimize drug abuse?

The result of the research as obtained from analysis of the table four of chapter four shoes

that the following control measures are effectively. Ways of minimizing drug abuse- Encourage

of the sale of drug by the specialists such as the pharmacists, doctors and health specialists.

Outright ban on the hawkers of drugs. Drug education or Anti drug programme and the

incorporation of physical and health in the school curriculum which is already in existence.

The above summary were derived on the fact that the whole 250 respondent representing

100% favourably answered and agreed that they are effective measures to drug abuse control

while none objected.

Living (2002) suggested that legislation concerning unlawful trafficking. He contented

that lack of illicit drugs will simplify the treatment since the source of temptation to relapse is


Moronkola (2006) advocated for drug education, investigated of drug education programmes

emphasizing personality development. According to him, drug abuse is a symptom of

maladjustments and characteristics. We here by concluded that government will help to control

drug abuse among senior secondary students.

5.2 Summary of Findings

The research was aimed to examine the prevalence, cause and influence of drugs abuse

on senior secondary school students in selected schools of Njikoka local government area.

Based on the analysis of data and the findings of the study, the researchers present the

findings of the study as fellows:-

1. It has been established that the students in the senior secondary school indulge in drug

abuse. Drug abuse and addiction is seen to be widespread among the teenage populations

of which the teenagers in Njikoka Local Government Area are not an exception. The

commonly abuse drugs include Marijuana, Alcohol, Cigarette, Stimulants, Narcotics,

Depressant drugs, and Hallucinogenic.

2. It was also ascertained that experimentation/curiosity, relief of anxiety/defense

mechanism, to boost their ego, observation of modes, poverty, poor academic

performance e.t.c are reason why senior secondary student (S.S.11) abuse drugs. It was

stressed that youth should be careful while intermingling with their peers because is the

major cause of drug experimentation.

3. The result of the research work and review literature has also revealed that uses of drug

have some positive benefit, when prescribe by the doctor. Drugs has some effects on the

user, it is associated with psychological, emotional, physical, educational and social

health problems.

1. Drug abuse has led to maladjusted behaviours among senior secondary school (S.S.

11) students such as school drop-out, fighting with student and teachers, destruction

of school property, Exam Malpractice, Absenteeism, Expulsion from school, Cultic

practices and poor academic performance.

2. High incidence of criminal offences like arm robbery, drug trafficking e.t.c

3. Increase in rate of health problems such as mental disorder, cancer, hypertension,

restless, poor perception e.t.c.

4. Persistent increase of fatal accidents was as a result of a driver when drunk.

Finally, some of the ways used to control minimize drug abuse include:-

1. Outright ban on the hawkers of drug and local drug sellers rather the health specialist,

hospitals, pharmacy and doctors should be granted to the right to do.

2. Provision of drug freely or at subsidized rate by the government so that poor people can


3. The incorporation of drug education programmes in the secondary school curriculum,

schools and communities,

4. The building or location of hospital in school.

5. Moral instructions and Recreational activities.

Hence this research work satisfies the general purpose of the study. It summarizes by saying

that drug abuse, cause and effects have negative consequences than positive.

5.3 Conclusion

The following conclusions were arrived at during the course of this work.

1. That the trends of drug abuse among the senior secondary school student (S.S. 11)

population are increasing.

2. Peer group influence is one of the major factors attracts the senior secondary school

student (S.S. 11) into drug abuse.

3. Drug abuse constitutes problems both to the individual and the society, that many

secondary school students (S.S 11) exhibit maladjustment and anti-social behaviours as

well as having mental disorder.

4. Drug abuse is constitutes a societal problem such as the increase in criminal offences.

5. That untimely death is common among drug addicts than non-addicts and their smokers

manifest high causes of cancer, Hypertension, and Mental Disorders etc. Therefore the

Senior Secondary School Students (S.S. 11) should endeavour to withdraw or quit this

practice because it is not gainful.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the result of the findings, the following recommendations are given to help

minimize the drug abuse among the Senior Secondary School Students (S.S. 11) in Idemili North

Local Government Area.

1. Drug education should take place at various settings of the society such as the Home and


2. Sex education and drug education programmes should be integrated in the school

curriculum. The implementation of this approach can be done through incorporating drug

education in the following ways:

 Biology teaches that effect of drugs on human psychology.

 Government classes include the law pertaining to drug.

 Social studies include considerations of the prevalence of drug use and its possible

relationship to crime, poverty and development.

3. Drug education should be better placed under the broad perspective of health education.

4. Programs emphasizing personal development should feature in the Secondary School


Emphasis should be placed on the individual who use drug rather than on drug education


To achieve this, the individual needs to be improved by assisting him either to be re-

examine or clarify his own value or by encourage him to accept positive ones.

5. The senior secondary school (S.S 11) should be educated on the effect of peer group

influence through organizing seminars, workshops, dramatic.

6. Parents and teachers should motivate and encourage student to exhibit positive change in

the following school behaviours, Academic Achievement, High school graduation rate,

participating on sport and extra-curricular activities serving as peer tutors and school


7. Government should ban outright sale of drug by hawkers.

8. Hospital and clinic should be established in schools.

9. Government should ensure the provision and subsidization of drugs.

10. Anti-drug program should be encouraged among students via the mass media, parents,

teachers and counselors.

5.5 Education Implications

This research study will have the following education implications:

1. Students should be assisted with check list indicators for evaluating of drug education

programme to ensure that they clarify own value and say no to drug abuse.

2. Teachers should teach senior secondary school students (S.S. 11) about change that takes

place in their bodies as they mature. Subjects like Biology, Health and Physical

Education should be taught in Schools.

3. Teachers, Parents and Counselors can be organize anti-drug programmes which can help

to stem the practice of drug addiction.

4. Drug education and awareness is important particularly it made a school curriculum for

real education.

5. Finally government should build hospital in schools while the senior secondary school

students (S.S. 11) should be educated on the danger of peer group influence and the

danger of drug abuse.

5.6 Suggestion for Future Research

For more reliable results, findings on this topic or any other topic by future researchers

who may wish to research further on this. The researchers deem it necessary to alert such

researchers on the following:

1. That it will pay a more significant role educationally in the senior secondary school

student (S.S.11) institutions. If future researchers should try to study the entire schools in

Idemili North Local Government Area and beyond to ensure adequate validity and

reliability of the researcher.

2. It is also the researcher view that the study were extended to other levels of education

such as the Tertiary Institutions.

3. Future researchers should examine gender difference and drug abuse in order to evaluate

the rate with which gender affect the use of drug.

5.7 Limitation of the Study

The study has the following limitations:

Firstly, the researcher responses were limited to only students and did not include

students. Their views may have enriched or modifies the results.

Secondly, the researchers made several trips to the selected schools for the study to

retrieve the instrument administered to them. The differences in the retrieval date of the

questionnaire could introduce bias, which could threaten the result of the findings.


Adewale, P. (2004), Drug Abuse and Consequences. Journal of Contemporary Issues. 2 (4), 22-.

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Department of Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution,

Faculty of Social Sciences,

Awka Study Centre, Abagana,

National Open University of Nigeria

May, 2018.

Dear Sir/Madam,

Dear Sir/Madam,


I am Abubakar Nabara Aliero, a student of the above University and department. I am

conducting a research on a research work entitled "EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON POST


AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA”. This research is in fulfillment of academic

requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science degree to me.

Kindly give me all necessary support by dispassionately completing the following interview

questionnaires (attached). The resultant data will be useful as it is intended to be utilized in

finding durable solutions to intractable conflicts confronting our societies currently. Your

response will be strictly treated according to your desire.

Thanks for your co-operation,

Sincerely yours,

Abubakar Nabara Aliero

Student Researcher



Kindly complete the personal column below by writing (y) against appropriate options

a. Sex: Male ( ), Female ( )

b. Age: ---------------------






Please, circle ‘a’ or ‘b’ in each question to indicate your choice of answer,

1. Do you use drugs without doctor’s prescription?

a. Yes b. No

2. Do you prescribe drug for yourself when you are sick?

a. Yes b. No

3. Who prescribes drugs for you?

a. Pharmacist /Doctor C. Local drug seller

b. Chemist d. Myself

4. Do students abuse drugs such as alcoholism?

a. Yes b. No

5. Do students abuse drugs such as smoking of cigarettes in the school?

a. Yes b. No b.

6. Do students abuse drugs such as Marijuana?

7. Yes b. No

8. Do people abuse drug in order to relieve anxiety?

a. Yes b. No

9. Do you agree that people abuse drugs as a result of poverty?

a. Yes b. No

10. Does peer group influence leads to drug abuse among youth?

a. Yes b. No

11. Poor academic performance is caused by abuse of drug?

a. Yes b. No

12. Students who abuse drugs perform well in academics.

a. Yes b. No

13. Many of our youths have developed mental disorders due to drug abuse?

a. Yes b. No

14. Is it true that most drug abusers are the criminal?

a. Yes b. No

15. Poor academic performance, curiosity, developmental problems and parental negligence cause

the abuse of drugs.

a. Yes b. No

16. Is drug abuse responsible for the greater number of school drop-out among students?

a. Yes b. No