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Name:___________________________ Period:________

EXAM
Genetics and Heredity

1. Which of the following is NOT an inherited trait?


a. blood type
b. a broken leg
c. hair color
d. leaf shape

2. Who is the monk known as the father of genetics?


a. Mendel
b. Rutherford
c. Watson
d. Welch

3. Where do an organism’s genes come from?


a. the mother only
b. the father only
c. both the mother and father
d. neither the mother or father

4. What is the term for a form of a gene?


a. allele
b. heredity
c. trait
d. genotype

5. Which trait is most likely determined by genes?


a. how old a person is
b. what a person likes to eat
c. when a person wakes up
d. whether a person has dimples

6. _________ heterozygous a. what you can see about a trait

7. _________ homozygous b. what genes a person or thing has

8. _________ phenotype c. the allele you use a lower case letter for

9. _________ genotype d. when you have two different alleles

10. _________ dominant e. the allele you use an upper case letter for

11. _________ recessive f. when you have two of the same alleles

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

12. Which is a heterozygous genotype?

a. Hh
b. HH
c. hh
d. All of the above

13. Which is a homozygous genotype?


a. Dd
b. dd
c. dD
d. All of the above.

14. Which is a homozygous dominant genotype?


a. Ff
b. ff
c. FF
d. None of the above.

15. If B=brown and b=blue, we know that blue is recessive and brown is _________________.
a. a gene
b. recessive
c. a trait
d. dominant

16. If a baby goat received a dominant gene for curly hair from one parent, and a recessive gene for straight
hair from the other, which trait will the baby goat display?
a. No hair
b. Curly hair
c. Straight hair
d. Straight and curly hair

17. The allele for yellow seeds in pea plants, Y, is dominant. The allele for green seeds in pea plants, y, is
recessive. Which combination would produce a plant with green seeds?
a. YY
b. Yy
c. yY
d. yy

18. In humans, the allele for brown eyes, B, is dominant over the allele for blue eyes, b. Which combination of
alleles shown below could result in a person with blue eyes?
a. BB
b. Bb
c. bB
d. bb

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

19. Which process could be represented by the picture to the right?


a. mitosis
b. meiosis
c. fertilization
d. pollination

20. Which cells are produced by meiosis?


a. nerve cells
b. skin cells
c. sperm cells
d. muscle cells

A A

a Aa Aa

a
Aa Aa

A = straight hairline (dominant)


a = widow’s peak hairline (recessive)

21. The parent whose genes are aa:


a. must be dominant
b. has a straight hairline
c. has a widow’s peak hairline
d. may have AA dominant offspring

22. This diagram is called:


a. Punnett square
b. pedigree chart
c. flow chart
d. dichotomous key

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

23. In the diagram shown below, how many of the offspring will probably show the dominant trait?
F F

f Ff Ff

Ff Ff
f

a. ¼
b. 2/4
c. ¾
d. 4/4

24. The trait for a straight thumb (H) is dominant over the trait for a hitchhiker’s thumb (h).

a. Two people with straight thumbs (Hh x Hh) got married. Complete the diagram below to show the genes
of their children.

b. What percentage of the offspring will most likely have hitchhikers’ thumbs? _______ %

25. Black fur (F) is dominant over white fur (f) in rabbits.

a. A homozygous dominant male (FF) breeds with a homozygous recessive female (ff). Complete the
Punnett square below to show the possible genotypes of their babies.

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

b. What percentage of the offspring will have white fur? ________ %

26. R represents the dominant allele for red flowers, and r represents the recessive allele for white flowers.
R r

What is the probability of getting a plant with white flowers? Explain your answer.

_____________________________________________________________________________

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27. The diagram you see below represents the result of the cross between two tall pea plants. All the resulting offspring
were tall.
T t
T
TT Tt
T

a. Identify two of the TT Tt offspring that could possibly produce short pea plants if
they were crossed.
______________ x _____________

b. Explain your answer: _______________________________________________________________

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28. Each human body cell contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are contained in a human sex
cell?
a. 46
b. 23
c. 92
d. 24

29. Many cells have a nucleus that contains chromosomes. These chromosomes carry genes that are made up
of:
a. hormones
b. DNA molecules
c. minerals and water
d. undigested food
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Name:___________________________ Period:________

30. Which of the following are NOT contained inside of human cells?
a. chromosomes
b. DNA
c. blood
d. genes

31. What does DNA do for a cell?


a. Gives it directions on how to grow and behave.
b. Collects water so that the cell does not get thirsty
c. Fights bacteria by poking bacteria cells
d. None of the above

32. On the right is a human karyotype. Is this a male or female? How


do you know?

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

33. The diagram shows an image of a cell and some of its parts.

a. Which cell part directs the activities of the


cell?

______________________

b. Is this a plant or animal cell? How do you


know? Explain.

__________________________________________

__________________________________________

__________________________________________

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

34. Base your answers on the diagram below. The diagram shows the offspring of a white mouse and a gray
mouse. All of the offspring are gray.

35. Which is the correct gene combination for the parents shown in the diagram?
a. GG x GG c. gg x GG
b. gg x gg d. Gg x Gg

36. If two gray (Gg) mice mated, what percent of their offspring would have pure white fur?
a. 25% c. 75%
b. 50 % d. 100%

37. What is the difference between phenotype and genotype.


A) Phenotype is the physical expression of a trait and genotype is all of the alleles in the organism.
B) Genotype is the physical expression of a trait and phenotype is all of the alleles in the organism.
C) Phenotype are the alleles that are masked and genotype are the alleles that are expressed.
D) Phenotype is when both alleles are the same and genotype is when the alleles are different.

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

38. Chromosomes are found inside which of the following structures of a eukaryotic cell?
A. Gene
B. DNA
C. Nucleus
D. Proteins

For the following statements mark A if they are describe asexual reproduction or B if they describe sexual
reproduction, C if it is both, D if it is neither.

39. Does not cost the parent time or energy to find a mate.
40. Works best in stable environments that experience little change.
41. Necessary for the organism to survive.
42. Offspring are genetically diverse and, therefore, able to survive in changing environments
43. Necessary for the species to survive.
44. Offspring are genetically identical and, therefore, all susceptible to the same diseases.

45. Explain budding and give an example.

46. Name two organisms that undergo binary fission.

For the follow diagram use the following terms to analyze each diagram:
A. Gene B. Chromosome C. Allele D. Genotype

47. 48. 49.

50. Explain some advantages and disadvantages of selective breeding?

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Name:___________________________ Period:________

Science Share Space


If you finish early, ask some questions about things that make you wonder.
Or, you can write me a letter. It doesn’t have to be about science. 

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