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An exponential function with the base b is the function of the form f(x) = 𝑏 𝑥 or y = 𝑏 𝑥 , where

b > 0, b ≠ 1.

Tell whether each statement is True or False.

1. f(x) = 3𝑥 2 is an exponential function. False

2. if f(x) = 2𝑥 , then f(-1) 2. True

3. The function f(x) = 1𝑥 is an exponential function. False

4. The function f(x) = (−3)𝑥 is an exponential function. False


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5. the functions 𝑓(𝑥) = (3)𝑥 and g(x) = 3−𝑥 have the same graph True

Complete the table of values.

X -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

y = (𝟑)𝒙
𝟏 27 9 3 1 1 1 1
3 9 27

y = 𝟏𝟎𝒙 1 1 1 1 10 100 1000


1000 100 10

y = 𝟎. 𝟖𝒙 1 1 1 1 0.8 0.64 0.512


0.512 0.64 0.8

A. Evaluate the function f(x) = 3𝑥 at


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a.) f(2) b.) f(2) c.) f(0.4)

B. Tell whether the given is an exponential function or not.


1. 𝑓(𝑥) = 2𝑥 2
2. 𝑓(𝑥) = −2𝑥 2
3. 𝑓(𝑥) = 12𝑥
4. 𝑓(𝑥) = 2𝑥
5. 𝑓(𝑥) = 2−𝑥
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6. 𝑓(𝑥) = (3)𝑥+4

Describe the following expressions:


1. y = 2𝑥
2.4𝑥−1 = 16𝑥
3. 2𝑥 ≥ 26
Exponential Equation
An equation involving exponential expression
Example: 4𝑥−1 = 16𝑥

Exponential Inequality
An inequality involving exponential expression
Example: 2𝑥 ≥ 26

Exponential Function
Function of the form f(x) = 𝑏 𝑥 or y = 𝑏 𝑥 , where b > 0, b ≠ 1
Example: y = 2𝑥

Property of Exponential Inequality


 If b > 1, then the exponential function y = 𝑏 𝑥 is increasing for all x. This means that
𝑏 𝑥 < 𝑏 𝑦 if and if x < y.
 If 0 < b < 1, then the exponential function y = 𝑏 𝑥 is decreasing for all x. This means
that 𝑏 𝑥 > 𝑏 𝑦 if and only if x > y.
 The resulting direction of the inequality (m < n or m > n) is based on whether the
base b is greater than 1 or less than 1.

Find the base of the exponential function whose graph contains the given points.

a. (1,4)
b. (2/3, 4)

a. y = 𝑏 𝑥 b. y = 𝑏 𝑥
3
4 = 𝑏1 42 = b
b=4 23 = 𝑏
8=b

Review exponents by finding the value of x for the given equation.

a.24 = x 16

b. 43 = x 64
𝟏
c.5−1 = x 𝟓
1
𝟏
d. 16−2 = x 𝟒

Logarithmic Form

𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐

Exponential Function

𝑏𝑎 = 𝑎

Find the value of the following logarithmic expressions.

1. 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 32 5

2. 𝑙𝑜𝑔9 729 3

3. 𝑙𝑜𝑔5 5 1

4. 𝑙𝑜𝑔1/2 16 -4

5. 𝑙𝑜𝑔1 1 0
𝟏
6. 𝑙𝑜𝑔1 /√5 -𝟐

Rewrite the following exponential equations in logarithmic form whenever possible.

a. 53 = 125
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b. 7−2 =
49

c. 102 = 100
22 4
d. =
3 9

e. 0.1− 4 = 10,000

f. −22 = 4

g. 𝑒 2 = x

h. 76 = 21

i. 4 0 = 1
Describe the following logarithmic expressions.

a. 𝑙𝑜𝑔3 (𝑥 − 2) = 5

b. 𝑙𝑜𝑔5 x < 2

c. y = 𝑙𝑜𝑔1/2 𝑥

Logarithmic Equation

An equation involving logarithm

Example: 𝑙𝑜𝑔3 (𝑥 − 2) = 5

Logarithmic Inequality

An inequality involving logarithm

Example: 𝑙𝑜𝑔5 x < 2

Logarithmic Function

A function defined by y = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑥, if and only if x = 𝑏 𝑦 where x and b are positive real numbers,
and 𝑏 ≠ 1.

Example: y = 𝑙𝑜𝑔1/2 𝑥

Determine whether the given is a logarithmic function, logarithmic equation, logarithmic


inequality or none of these.

1. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑛 36 = 2

2. f(x) = 2𝑥

3. y = 3 𝑙𝑜𝑔2 𝑦

4. . 𝑙𝑜𝑔3 (2𝑥 − 1) > 𝑙𝑜𝑔3 (𝑥 + 2)


5. 𝑙𝑜𝑔10 10,000 = 4

6. ln x > 1

a. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑏 = 1

b. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 1 = 0

c. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 (𝑏 𝑥 ) = 𝑥 (𝑏 > 0, 𝑏 ≠ 1)

a. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 (𝑢𝑣) = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑢 + 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑣


𝑢
b. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 (𝑣 ) = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑢 − 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑣

c. 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 (𝑢𝑛 ) = 𝑛 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑏 𝑢

Example:

a. 𝑙𝑜𝑔 (𝑎𝑏 2 )
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b. 𝑙𝑜𝑔3 (𝑥) 3

c. ln [ x (x – 5)]
Some situations can only be described by more than one formula, depending on the value of the
independent variable.

Example:

1. A jeepney ride cost 8.00 pesos for the first 4 kilometer.

f(d) 8 0<d≤4
8 = 1.5 d d>4

(𝑥 𝑎 ) (𝑥 𝑏 ) = (𝑥 𝑎+𝑏 )

(𝑥 𝑎 ) 𝑏
= 𝑥 𝑎𝑏
(𝑥𝑦)𝑎 = 𝑥 𝑎 𝑦 𝑎

(𝑥 + 𝑦)2 = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2

(𝑥 − 𝑦)2 = 𝑥 2 − 2𝑥𝑦 + 𝑦 2

(𝑥 + 𝑦)3 = 𝑥 3 + 3𝑥 2 𝑦 + 3𝑥𝑦 2 + 𝑦 3

(𝑥 − 𝑦)3 = 𝑥 3 − 3𝑥 2 𝑦 + 3𝑥𝑦 2 − 𝑦 3

(x + y) (x – y) = 𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2

(x + y + z)2 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 + 𝑧 2 + 2𝑥𝑦 + 2𝑥𝑧 + 2𝑦𝑧