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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

List of Illustrations xv
List of Tables xxv
Preface xxvii
About the Author xxix

1 Introduction to Measurements .............................. 1

2 Pressure Measurement and Calibration Principles...7


2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Fluid Properties Relating to Pressure Measurement 7
Fluids and Pressure 7
Pressure Units 10
Gage and Absolute Pressure 10
Manometric Principles 16
Calibration Principles 28
2.3 Standard Instruments for Calibration 37
Calibration Checks 39

3 Pressure Transducers and Pressure Gages .......... 83


3.1 Introduction 83
3.2 Pressure Transducers 83
3.3 Pressure Elements 84
Bourdon Pressure Elements 84
Bourdon C-Tubes 85
Spiral Pressure Elements 87
Helical Pressure Elements 87
Bellows 87
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viii Table of Contents

Pressure Gages 90
Accuracy Standards 115
Differential-Pressure Instrument Installation 129

4 Transmitters and Transmission Systems .......... 133


4.1 Introduction 133
4.2 Secondary Transducers 134
4.3 Potentiometers 135
4.4 Signal-Conditioning Circuits for Resistance Devices 136
4.5 Variable Inductance Transducers 141
4.6 Linear Variable Differential Transformer 142
4.7 Variable-Capacitance Transmitters 145
Sensor Module 148
Demodulator Circuit 148
Oscillator Circuit 148
Voltage Regulator 148
Current Control 149
4.8 Electrical Strain Gage Transmitters 150
4.9 Resonant Frequency Transmitter 153
4.10 Silicon Resonant Sensor 158
4.11 Variable-Reluctance Transducers 160
4.12 Piezoresistive Transmitters 164
4.13 Flapper-Nozzle Transmitters 165
4.14 Pneumatic Relay 168
4.15 Negative Feedback 170
4.16 Summary of Transmitter Types 172
4.17 Safety Transmitters 174
4.18 Differential Pressure Measurement 176
4.19 Differential-Pressure Applications 179
4.20 Closed Tank Level Measurement by Differential
Pressure 179
4.21 Flow Measurement by Differential Pressure 180
4.22 Industry-Standard Transmitters 184
4.23 The Dynamics of Pressure Transmitters 186
4.24 Digital Transmitters and Field Communication 187
4.25 Digital Transmitters 188
4.26 Improved Digital Sensors 188
4.27 Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) 190
4.28 Digital Transmitter Operation 193
4.29 HHC Transmitter Smart Family Interface 200
4.30 Topology 202
Table of Contents ix

4.31 Point-to-Point 202


4.32 Multidrop 203
4.33 Calibrating HART Field Devices 204
4.34 A HART Calibrator 205
4.35 Troubleshooting HART 208
Field Device Malfunction 209
Configuration Changed 209
Cold Start 209
Analog Output Current Fixed 209
Analog Output Saturated 210
Nonprimary Variable Out of Limits 210
Primary Variables Out of Limits 210
4.36 HART Summary 212
FOUNDATION Fieldbus 212
Summary for FOUNDATION Fieldbus 221
4.37 Applications 222
4.38 Introduction to Wireless Communication 227
4.39 Specifications and Standards for Wireless
Technology 228
4.40 Topologies 231
Star 232
Mesh 232
Cluster-Tree 232
4.41 Self-Organizing Networks 234

5 Level Measurement Theory


and Visual Measurement Techniques................ 245
5.1 Introduction 245
5.2 Visual Measurement Methods 247
5.3 Dipsticks, Lead Lines, Steel Tapes with Bobweights 247
5.4 Sight Glasses 249
5.5 Automatic Tank Gages 254
Key ATG Components 257
Transmitters for Automatic Tank Gages 259
Misapplication 263
Application Guidelines 263
Installation 264
Maintenance and Preventive Maintenance 265
Conclusion 265
5.6 Magnetic-Type Float Devices 266
5.7 Magnetic Tank Gage 268
x Table of Contents

5.8 Displacement Principles for Level Measurement 270


5.9 Variable-Displacement Measuring Devices 270
5.10 Displacers Used for Interface Measurement 276
5.11 Field-Mounted Interface Controllers 278
5.12 Application of Displacer Actuated Level Controllers 282
5.13 Maintenance and Calibration 290
5.14 Multi-displacer Applications 292
5.15 Instrument Mounting and Special Applications 293

6 Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement............... 297


6.1 Introduction 297
6.2 Principle of Operation 297
6.3 Open-Tank Head Level Measurement 298
6.4 Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement 304
6.5 Diaphragm Box 304
6.6 Air-Trap Method 308
6.7 Air Purge or Bubble System 308
6.8 Head Level Measurement in Closed-Tank Applications
and Pressurized Vessels 310
6.9 Mounting Considerations: Zero Elevation and
Suppression 312
6.10 A Multivariable Level Controller 319
6.11 Diaphragm Seals 322
6.12 Summary of Diaphragm Seal Systems 324
6.13 Repeaters Used in Closed-Tank Level Measurement 325
6.14 Summary of Hydrostatic Head Level Measurement 326

7 Electrical Level Measurement ............................ 329


7.1 Introduction 329
7.2 Resistance Level Measurement 329
7.3 Capacitance Level Measurement 335
7.4 Capacitance Measurement Techniques 344
7.5 Application Considerations 350
7.6 Installation Considerations 351
7.7 Process Considerations 353
7.8 Material to Be Measured 353
7.9 Tank Construction Material 354
7.10 Tank Pressure and Operating Temperature 355
7.11 Humidity Changes 355
7.12 Material Agitation 355
7.13 Radio Frequency Admittance Level Measurement 355
Table of Contents xi

7.14 Conductance Level Measurement 361


7.15 Sonic and Ultrasonic Level Measurement 361
7.16 Principle of Operation 362
7.17 Parasitic Echoes 368
7.18 Transducer-Related Parasitic Echoes 369
7.19 Secondary Echoes in Covered Tanks 370
7.20 Point Measurement 372
7.21 Noninvasive Ultrasonic Sensors 373
7.22 Summary—Ultrasonic Measurement 376
7.23 Radar Level Detection 376
7.24 Microwave Principle 378
7.25 Pulse Radar 378
7.26 Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar 380
7.27 Signal Evaluation for FMCW Radar 380
7.28 Microwave Antenna 383
7.29 Contact and Non-Contact Operation 384
7.30 Tank Atmosphere 385
7.31 Temperature Sensors and Display Equipment 386
7.32 Applications 387
7.33 Floating-Roof Tank Installations (Pipe Installations) 387
7.34 Fixed-Roof Tank Installations 387
7.35 Liquefied Gas Installations 387
7.36 Tank Farm Storage and Waste Chemicals 387
7.37 Food Industry 388
7.38 Heavy Hydrocarbon Storage Vessels 389
7.39 Possible Interference Issues in Radar Level
Measurement 389
Multiple Reflections 389
Multipath Propagation 389
Other Microwave Transmitters 390
7.40 End-of-the-Probe Algorithm 390
7.41 Interface Detection by Time Domain Reflectometry
(TDR) 393
7.42 Summary—Radar Level Measurement 394
7.43 Fiber-Optic Liquid Level Measurement 396
7.44 Applications 397
7.45 Level Sensors for Refinery Vessels 397
7.46 System Configurations 398
7.47 Other Applications 399
7.48 Factors Affecting Index Measurements 401
7.49 Other Types of Level Measurement 401
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7.50 Magnetostrictive Level Measurement 402


7.51 Nuclear Radiation Devices 405
7.52 Theory of Operation 405
7.53 Applications of Nuclear Radiation Level
Measurement 407
7.54 Rotating Paddle 411
7.55 Vibration-Type Level Measurement 412
7.56 Thermal Level Measurement 413
7.57 Laser Level Measurement 415
7.58 Level Measurement by Weight 418
7.59 Mounting and Installation of Load Cells 418
7.60 Hydraulic Load Cells 420
7.61 Strain Gages 420

8 Liquid Density Measurement ............................. 425


8.1 Introduction 425
8.2 Units and Definitions Related to Density 425
8.3 Density Measurement by Hydrostatic Head 429
8.4 Displacer Density Measurement 434
8.5 Radiation Density Measurement 436
8.6 Radiation Source 438
8.7 Shielding 439
8.8 Radiation Detectors 439
8.9 Signal Conditioning 439
8.10 Density Gage Applications 440
8.11 Oscillating Coriolis Density Measurement 445
8.12 Summary of Coriolis Measurement 446
8.13 Ball-Type Density Meter 447
8.14 Capacitance-Type Density Measurement 447
8.15 Hydrometer 448
8.16 Vibrating Spool Density Measurement 451
8.17 Weight of Fixed Volume 452
8.18 U-Tube Density Gage 453
8.19 Insertion Liquid Density Measurement 455
8.20 Microwave Density Meter 456
8.21 Density Applications of Microwave Measurement 458

9 Hydrostatic Tank Gaging ................................... 461


9.1 Introduction 461
9.2 HTG Principles 461
9.3 Tank Calibration 462
Table of Contents xiii

9.4 Tank Calibration Methods 463


9.5 Tank Recalibration and Recomputation 470
9.6 Recalibration Guidelines 471
9.7 Recomputation Guidelines 473
9.8 HTG Measurements 475
9.9 Applications of HTG Technology 478
9.10 Vertical Cylindrical Tanks 478
9.11 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tanks 478
9.12 Batch Processing 479
9.13 HTG Calculations 481
9.14 Calculating HTG Accuracy 484
9.15 HTG Assumptions and Level Calculation 485
9.16 HTG Assumptions and Gross Volume Calculation 486
9.17 HTG Assumptions and Mass Calculation 486
9.18 HTG Assumptions and Net Volume Calculation 487
9.19 Effect of Tank Geometry 487
9.20 Advantages and Limitations of HTG 488
9.21 New Developments and Trends 491
9.22 A Multi-function Tank Gage 493
MTG Construction and Design 494
MTG Theory of Operation 494

10 Instrument Selection and Applications ............ 503


10.1 Introduction 503
10.2 Summary of Pressure Applications 503
10.3 Summary of Level Applications 508
Instrument Selection 508
Accuracy Statements and Reference
Performance 517
Accuracy Statements 518
Case Histories for Various Level Applications 524
Applications in Solids Level Measurement 530
Radar Signal Processing for Solids Application 535
10.4 Summary of Solids Level Measurement 536
10.5 Radar Applications in Stilling Wells and Bypass
Pipes 538
10.6 Head Level Measurement with Density
Compensation 539
10.7 Summary of Density Compensation for Head
Measurement 543
10.8 Conclusion—Level Measurement 543
xiv Table of Contents

Appendixes

A Definition of Terms ............................................ 549

B Deadweight Gage Calibration ............................ 573


B.1 Introduction 573
B.2 Calibration of Piston Gages by Crossfloat 574
B.3 Inspection of Weights 576
B.4 Calibration of Weights 576
B.5 Deadweight Gage Inspection and Preparation for
Calibration 577
B.6 Preliminary Calibration Operations 578
B.7 Calibration of Piston Gages 580
B.8 Crossfloat Balancing With the Proximity
Indicator 581
B.9 Test Report 587
B.10 Adjustments of Piston Pressure Gage Weights for a
Specific Environment 588
B.11 Recalibration Interval for Hydraulic Deadweight
Gages 591

C Pressure Instruments Form ISA-20.40a1 ........... 593

Answers to Exercises 595


Index 613