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SOCIOLOGY

1. What is society?
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social
group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political
authority and dominant cultural expectations

2. Why do we study about sociology and anthropology?


Sociology prepares one for a lifetime of change by developing one's appreciation of diversity,
love of learning, writing and study skills, and knowledge base about human behavior, social
organization, culture, and social change. If you are the type of person who doesn't necessarily
follow the crowds (but are fascinated by their behavior), the type who is truly interested in what
is going on in the world, then Sociology should interest you.Sociology helps us look more
objectively at our society and other societies. It directs attention tohow the parts of society fit
together and change, and the consequences of that social change. We are faced with an ever
increasingly complex and rapidly changing social milieu in modern industrial-bureaucratic
societies. A study of Sociology provides the conceptual tools and methods for understanding the
social milieu—whether. While on the other side, anthropologists are able to reflect on various
ways of being human. Thus, anthropology teaches respect for other ways of life, while using a
variety of cross-cultural human behavior as a mirror from which we can reflect on the things we
do.
3. Define health
A Health is a "State of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity." Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's
constant adjustment and adaptation in response to stresses and changes in the environment for
maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis.

4. How does sociology relate to health?


Health is generally considered (by the public and much of mainstream medicine and science) to
be wholly or primarily a biomedical or at least individual issue. That is, the perspective which
many people take is that ultimately the key determinants of health are situated within the
biology or behavior of the individual.
The health condition will always have an impact on how someone feels about themselves (or on
how others feel about them) and therefore how they can manage it. For those conditions caused
by lifestyle factors; it is necessary to understand the meanings associated with eating, smoking
or exercise and how these relate to different identities (related to gender, class, nationality) in
order to understand why some people engage in these activities differently to others.
The second key sociological insight which is vital to gain a better understanding of why people
have particular health outcomes is that of experiences, identities and meanings. This branch of
sociology seeks to understand the subjective ways in which people experience and understand
the world. This requires interpretive understanding or trying to put yourself in someone else’s
shoes. What is it like to have cancer or to be obese?

5. How does sociology relate with anthropology


Sociology and Anthropology are social science disciplines that focus on studying the behavior
of humans within their societies. Students interested in researching civilizations -- past and
present -- as they relate to social hierarchies should consider studying anthropology and
sociology. Many institutions combine both disciplines into one department due to the
similarities between the two

6. What is the relationship between culture and health?


The relation between sociology and anthropology is widely recognized today. In fact,
anthropologist Kroeber pointed out that the two- sciences are twin sisters. Robert Redfied writes
that viewing the whole United States, one say that the relations between sociology and
anthropology are closer than those between anthropology and political science, which is partly
due to greater similarity in ways of work.

There is a great deal of similarities between anthropology and sociology. A number of subjects
include society, culture, family religion, social stratification, etc. For this reason an eminent
anthropologist like A.L. Kroeber regards "Sociology and Anthropology as twin sisters"
Etymologically, anthropology means the study of the science of man. It traces the development
of human race, and studies, in particular, the primitive preliterate people and their culture.
Anthropologists are sure that anthropology is deeply concerned with the physical and cultural
development of human beings from the time of their origin to this day. There cannot be two
opinions about the fact that the field of its investigation is very vast. Its major divisions are as
follows.

Physical Anthropology
Physical anthropology is concerned with the characteristics of human anatomy. Their physical
characteristics provide adequate knowledge about human race and the origin of human beings.
Archaeological or Historical Anthropology
It aims at the reconstruction of the social life of pre-historic man. In other words, pre-history
deals with the cultures of the pre-historic period so that they can understand the present social
structure better.
Cultural Anthropology
Cultural Anthropology, in the main is concerned with the material and non-material culture of
the pre-literate human beings. In other words, it concentrates on the study of the primitive man's
culture, the primitive man of the past and of the present times,
Social Anthropology
Social Anthropology studies man as a social being. It has been rightly said that 'social
anthropology deals with the behavior of man in social situations.' According to some scholars,
'Social anthropology and sociology are in their broad sense, one and the same'. There are others
who regard it as a branch of sociology.

7. What events take place in the society?


The social season, or Season, has historically referred to the annual period when it is
customary for members of a social elite of society to hold debutante balls, dinner parties and
large charity events. It was also the appropriate time to be resident in the city rather than in the
country, in order to attend such events.

8. What factors bring change in the society and how does this change affect the lives of
those living in the society.
Natural Factors:
Natural forces and factors play an important role in unifying or disintegrating the society.
Although human beings have made tremendous progress during the last 150 years or so, yet
they have not been able to wield full control over the nature.
A storm, earthquake, flood, drought, disease and similar natural events even today can disrupt
the social system. Natural calamities like floods, earthquakes, draughts, famines and other
natural disasters always force changes in the social conditions and life of the affected people.
On the one hand these factors and forces act as a source of big loss for the victims; on the other
hand these initiate efforts aimed at rapid reconstruction and development. As such, the natural
factors can on the one hand, cause havoc in physical conditions of social life, these may also
affect the social conditions in a positive way.
Geographical Factors of Social Change.
The geographical conditions always affect the social system and act as factors of social change.
The cultural life of the people depends upon the physical environment. Progress also depends
upon the availability of natural resources, their exploitation and how are these being recouped
and preserved.
The climate always affects the socio-economic activities of the people. For instance, there is
little economic activity at both poles due to intense and long spells of cold the speed of social
change remains negligible. On the other hand, there is always an intense activity in temperate
regions and consequently the speed of social changes is quite fast.
It is necessary to remember that physical environment changes slowly and in a society social
change can come at a fast rate. As such geographic factors are not the sole determining factors
of social change.
Social Change never comes due to any single factor. During the last several countries there have
been no appreciable change in the physical environment of Europe and yet during the same
period a big social change came in European societies under the impact of the technology
revolution of the 20th century.
Biological Factors:
Biological factors also affect social change. Biological factors are those factors which determine
the structure, selection and hereditary qualities of generations. The human element is ever
changing. Each new generation is different from previous generation. It is different in form,
ideas and in many other ways from the one gone before.
Darwin and Spencer are of the opinion that each generation and its members have to
compromise with the physical environment. Only those persons survive in the struggle for life
who are fit and are able to live, or those, in other words, who have the ability to face the
physical conditions. The weak ones get destroyed. The process of the survival of the fittest
affects the social organization.
Demographic Factors:
The Demographic factors always influence the process and nature of Social Change. The
population increase or decrease always brings social problems. When the birth-rate in a society
exceeds death-rate, population begins to rise. A constantly rising population gives birth to
poverty, unemployment, disease and several other related problems.
On the other hand, a low birth-rate means leads to decrease in the size of the population. When
population is low, there are fewer skilled hands available and the country cannot make full use
of the natural resources. The social conditions deteriorate the size of families shrink and it
affects the social relations.
Even the sex ratio of in a society greatly influences social order. When in a society the number
of women is more than men, the custom of polygamy sets in. On the contrary, if there are more
men than women, it often gives rise to polyandry. When women outnumber men, dowry system
becomes common, when men outnumber women the custom of bride valuation starts.
Falling ratio of females in society always creates a dangerous imbalance in society. Population
always influences social institutions, relations, social structure, values and ideals. Demographic
factors have large and profound bearing on the society as well as on the process of social change
Socio-economic Factors:
The economic factors constitute an important factor of social change. Marx said that the entire
social structure of a country is determined by economic factors i.e the means of production and
distribution of material means of production and distribution. When there are changes in the
means of production i.e the material productive forces of society, it is always changes the social
organization.
The birth of the institutions of marriage and family took place under the influence of the means
of production of material means of livelihood. With the birth of family wealth and possessions
became important.
When the society graduated to agricultural stage, the social organization grew more complex.
People settled down at a particular place for raising crops. Life became stable and located and
the villages came into being. Agriculture gave rise to allied industries. With the division of
labour the society got divided into several classes. The institution of kingship and feudalism
was born during this period.
The agriculture stage gave way to the industrial stage. In the era of Industrial revolution several
inventions came to be made and machine system of production came into existence. All this
brought about drastic changes in the social set-up.
The problem of housing cropped up in the cities. Urbanisation came into play. The problem of
maintaining law and order and the need for providing civic amenities came to very big. More
and more ways of entertainment came to be developed.
The joint family system suffered a decline and the nucleus family came to be the basic social
unit. Women also became a work force. Male-female relations got changed when women also
started working in factories, offices and shops.
Cultural Factors:
The cultural factors also play a role in bringing about social change. Our social life depends
upon our beliefs, ideas, values, customs, conventions, institutions and the like. When there is a
change in these, it influences the social life. For example, let us (consider the system of
marriage. To begin with, the ceremonies were religious and people regarded marriage as
something sacred and irrevocable.
Today we hold a different view. Marriage is held be good for personal comfort. It has affected
the thinking in favour of irrevocability of marriage and consequently the number of divorcees
has registered a big increase.
The view regarding the issues (children born out of marriage) has undergone a change. Today
all western societies have been living with children born to unwed mothers and children
belonging to broken families. In India, the mad love of a male child and the short-sighted view
of girl-child as a burden have together given rise to the evil and inhuman and dangerous,
practice of female feticide. The pressures of modern industrial culture have forced the people to
practice small family norms.
The relations between the parents and children have undergone a big change. The new love and
need for working couples has acted j as a source of big change in family relations and culture.
Thus, socio-economic and cultural factors always act as big and formidable factors of social
change
Science and Technology as factors of Social Change:
In contemporary times science and technology happens to be the most important factor of social
change. New scientific inventions and technologies always greatly influence the social life.
Ogburn and Nimkoff rightly observe, “The most wonderful and universal phenomenon of
modern life is not capitalism, but science and technology and capitalism is only it’s by product.”
Mechanisation brings changes in the economic structure and relations. This leads to a change in
old values, norms and ideals. Technology brings about changes in the physical environment and
the material culture of each society which in turn gives birth to social change
Reference

Black D. , et al. , Inequalities in Health ( Middlesex, England : Penguin Books , 1982); and Secretary’s
Task Force , Black and Minority Health ( Washington, D.C. : Department of Health and Human Services
1985 ).

Bloom S.W. , “Institutional Trends in Medical Sociology,” Journal of Health and Social
Behavior 27 ( 1986 ): 265 - 276 .

Stouffer S.A.et al. , eds., The American Soldier, Studies in Social Psychology of World War II , 4 vols. (
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press , 1949 ).

For a review of the extensiveness of sociological involvement, see LazerfieldP.F.SewellW.H.Wilensky


H.L. , eds., The Uses of Sociology ( New York : Basic Books , 1967 ).

See, for example , National Center for Health Statistics , Health United States ( Washington, D.C. : U.S.
GPO, various years ).