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# EECE 3500

Communication Systems

## Topic: Linear Modulation

AM Modulator

Dr. Hong

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Linear Modulation
• Amplitude Modulation:
s (t ) = Ac [1 + k a m(t )] cos(2π f c t )

• Spectrum of AM signals:

• Wasteful of power
• Wasteful of bandwidth 2
• Double Sideband-Suppressed Carrier
Modulation (DSB-SC):
s (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos(2π f c t )

## Baseband signal Modulated signal

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• Spectrum of DSB-SC signals:

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S( f ) = Ac [ M ( f − f c ) + M ( f + f c )]
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• Transmission bandwidth: BT = 2W
• 100% modulation efficiency
• Expensive demodulator is needed in receiver
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• Single Sideband Modulation:
Only the upper or lower sideband of a DSB-SC
modulated signal is transmitted

## Baseband signal Modulated signal

• Transmission bandwidth: BT = W
• Half bandwidth, high noise resistance
• Complicated modulator and demodulator are needed5
Modulator
• Amplitude modulation is non-linear system
non-linear device is needed to implement AM
Why?

X(f ) X ( f )H ( f )
Linear Time-Invariant System
H( f )

## • If X(f) is zero over some range of frequency, X(f)H(f)

must also be zero for this range of frequencies
• General property of linear system: can not generate any
output frequency that does not appear in the input
• AM: shift frequencies to a new range
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Amplitude Modulator
• Multiplier Modulator
• Multiplier is obtained from a variable-gain amplifier in which the
gain parameter (such as the β of a transistor) is controlled by
m(t).
• In early days, multiplication of two signals over a sizable
dynamic range was a challenge to circuit designers

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Amplitude Modulator
• Square-law Modulator: (Drill Problem 3.4)

v2 (t ) = a1v1 (t ) + a2 v12 (t )

v1 (t ) = Ac cos(2π f c t ) + m(t )

## m(t ) : message signal Ac cos(2π f c t ) : carrier wave

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– Evaluate the output voltage v2 (t )
a2 Ac2 a A 2
v2 (t ) = + a1m(t ) + a2 m 2 (t ) + 2 c cos( 4π f c t )
2 2
 2 a2 
+ a1 Ac 1 + m(t ) cos( 2π f c t )
 a1 

## – Amplitude spectrum for v2 ((tt )

a2 Ac2
2

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– f c requirement
f c > 3W

– Amplitude sensitivity

2 a2
2a
ka =
a1

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