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Notes Important Questions Answers 12th Math Chapter 6 Exercise 6.3

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3 (Solutions)

MathCity.org Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12

Page # 272

Question # 1

Prove that normal lines of a circle pass through the centre of the circle.

Solution Consider a circle with centre at origin and radius r .

x2 + y2 = r 2 .

Differentiating w.r.t. x

dy dy dy x

2x + 2 y = 0 ⇒ 2y = − 2x ⇒ = − .

dx dx dx y

dy x

Slope of tangent at ( x1, y1 ) = m = = − 1.

dx ( x , y ) y1

al

1 1

rm

Since normal is ⊥ ar to tangent therefore

no

1 1 y1 P(x1,y1)

Slope of normal at ( x1, y1 ) = − = − = . tan

m − x1 y1 x1 ge

nt

y1

Now equation of normal at ( x1, y1 ) having slope

x1

y1

y − y1 =

x1

( x − x1 )

⇒ x1 y − x1 y1 = y1 x − y1 x1

⇒ x1 y = y1 x …………….. (i)

Clearly centre of circle (0,0) satisfies (i), hence normal lines of the circles passing

through the centre of the circle.

Question # 2

Prove that the straight line drawn from the centre of a circle perpendicular to a

tangent passes through the point of tangency.

Solution Consider a circle with centre at origin and

radius r .

x2 + y2 = r 2 .

Differentiating w.r.t. x P(x , y )

1 1

dy tan

2x + 2 y = 0 ge

nt

dx O(0, 0)

dy dy x

⇒ 2y = − 2x ⇒ = − .

dx dx y

dy x

Slope of tangent at ( x1, y1 ) = m = = − 1.

dx ( x , y ) y1

1 1

1 1 y

Slope of line ⊥ ar to tangent = − = − = 1.

m − x1 y1 x1

Now equation of line perpendicular to tangent passing through centre (0,0)

y

y − 0 = 1 ( x − 0)

x1

http://www.mathcity.org

FSC-II / Ex. 6.3 - 2

⇒ x1 y = y1 x …………….. (i)

Clearly the point of tangency ( x1 , y1 ) satisfy (i), hence the straight line drawn from

the centre of circle perpendicular to a tangent passes through the point of tangency.

Question # 3

Prove that the mid-point of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the circumcentre of

the triangle.

Solution Let OAB be a right triangle with OA = a , OB = b .

Then the coordinates of A and B are (a,0) and (0, b) respectively.

Let C be the mid-point of hypotenuse AB . Then

a+0 0+b a b

coordinate of C = , = , .

2 2 2 2

2 2

a b

Now CA = − a + − 0 y

2 2

2 2

a b B(0, b)

= − +

2 2

a2 b2 b C

= +

4 4

2 2

a b x

CB = − 0 + − b O a A(a, 0)

2 2

2 2

a b

= + −

2 2

a2 b2

= +

4 4

2 2

a b

CO = 0 − +

0 −

2 2

a 2 b2

= + .

4 4

Since CA = CB = CO , therefore C is the centre of the circumcircle.

Hence the mid-point of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the circumcentre of the

triangle.

Mean proportional

Let a, b and c be three numbers. The number b is said to be mean proportional

between a and b if a, b, c are in geometric means or

b a

b 2 = ac or = .

a c

FSC-II / Ex. 6.3 - 3

Question # 4

Prove that the perpendicular dropped from a y

point of a circle on a diameter is a mean

P(a, b)

proportional between the segments into which

it divides the diameter.

Solution Consider a circle of radius r and

centre ( 0,0 ) , then equation of circle

B O C A x

x2 + y2 = r 2

Let A and B are end-points of diameter of

circle along x-axis, then coordinate of A and B

are ( − r ,0 ) and ( 0,r ) respectively.

Also let P ( a, b ) be any point on circle and

⊥ ar from P cuts diameter at C . Then coordinate of C are ( a,0 ) .

Since P ( a, b ) lies on a circle, therefore

a 2 + b 2 = r 2 ………….. (i)

Now

2 2

AC = (r + a) − ( 0 − 0) = r + a.

2 2

CB = (r − a) − (0 − 0) = r −a.

2 2

PC = (a − a) + (b − 0) = 0 + b2 = b .

Now

AC ⋅ CB = ( r + a )( r − a )

= r 2 − a2

= a 2 + b2 − a 2 from (i)

2

= b 2 = PC

AC PC

⇒ AC ⋅ CB = PC ⋅ PC ⇒ =

PC CB

⇒ PC is a mean proportional to AC and CB .

In case of error(s), please report at http://www.mathcity.org/error

Calculus and Analytic Geometry Mathematic 12

Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore.

Updated: September,30,2017.

NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Under this licence if you remix, transform, or build upon the

material, you may not distribute the modified material.

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