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Simplified Model for Compressive Behavior of Concrete

Columns Strengthened by Steel Angles and Strips


V. Badalamenti1; G. Campione, Ph.D.2; and M. L. Mangiavillano, Ph.D.3
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Abstract: This paper presents an analytical model to determine the compressive response of concrete members, having a square
transverse cross section and reinforced with steel angles at the corners and steel strips connecting the steel angles. The model evaluates
the effects of transverse strips and steel angles on confinement pressures, including strength and buckling phenomena. Compressive
response was evaluated in cases of directly and indirectly loaded elements. The data produced correlate well with available experimental
data.
DOI: 10.1061/共ASCE兲EM.1943-7889.0000069
CE Database subject headings: Concrete columns; Strength; Steel; Confinement; Buckling.
Author keywords: Concrete columns; Strengthening; Steel angles; Strips; Ribbons; Confinement; Strength; Buckling.

Introduction difficult create such a connection without producing a significant


compromise in the structural elements. In this case the angles can
Several strengthening systems utilize the benefits produced by the be realized with end plates connected to the floor in order to
lateral confinement of reinforced concrete columns to increase assure that the angle will work in compression, but it is not able
strength and the ductility. These include traditional steel stirrups, to transfer the tension to the angles.
FRP wraps, steel jacketing, a system using angles with smoothed Finally, when no attention is given to the realization of the
edges and pretensioned steel ribbons 关active confinement manu- structural details regarding the connection of the angles to the
fact 共CAM兲 system as in Dolce et al. 共2001兲兴, light-weight or relative floors 共e.g., angles shorter than RC columns兲, the angles
normal-weight concrete jacketing, etc. Among the steel strength- cannot be considered as additional longitudinal reinforcement. In
ening systems is a decades-old system that utilizes both steel this case the angles have to be considered as confining elements
angles and strips. In particular, this system is realized applying only.
four steel angles to the corners of RC members. The angle pieces
Several studies give clear information about the evaluation of
are connected transversally by discontinuous steel strips welded
the compressive response of strengthened members from a theo-
to the angles.
retical point of view, using complex mechanical models or ana-
This strengthening technique for RC columns improves both
bearing capacity and ductility, reduces the risk of buckling of lytical solutions obtained using finite element analyses, 关see e.g.,
main bars under compression, and improves the bond action with Braga et al. 共2006兲 and Montuori and Piluso 共2009兲兴. Most of the
concrete. analytical studies 关see e.g., Cirtek 共2001a兲兴 give indication mainly
Depending on the structural details of the beam-to-column for the determination of the load carrying capacity or for the
joint location, the steel angles can be considered to act both in design of this strengthening method. Few studies consider the
tension and in compression, only in compression or, finally, can increase in load carrying capacity, due to the combined action of
be considered as providing a confining effect only. In fact, only the confinement effect and the load carried by the directly loaded
when connection between angles of different storey is effectively steel angles. The analytical model proposed here is a mechanical
realized without interruptions, they can be considered acting in model able to consider cases of indirectly and directly loaded
tension and in compression. It must be noted that it is often very angles including buckling and confinement effects. It is the opin-
ion of the author that these aspects are not often analyzed in the
1
Ph.D. Student, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Aerospaziale e existing literature and this paper adds new information to the
Geotecnica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo, existing knowledge.
Italy. The focus of the present paper is the determination of the
2
Associate Professor, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Aerospa-
compressive response in terms of load-shortening curves of a con-
ziale e Geotecnica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128
Palermo, Italy 共corresponding author兲. E-mail: campione@stru.diseg. crete member, with a square cross section, strengthened with steel
unipa.it angles at the corners 共acting in compression or as proving a con-
3
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Aerospaziale e Geotecnica, fining effect only兲, and with steel strips welded or ribbons fixed
Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo, Italy. transversally with mechanical devices to the angles, as shown in
Note. This manuscript was submitted on September 19, 2008; ap- Figs. 1共a and b兲. The presence of longitudinal and transverse steel
proved on July 7, 2009; published online on July 9, 2009. Discussion
reinforcement, pre-existing to the strengthening system, was not
period open until July 1, 2010; separate discussions must be submitted for
individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Engineering Me- considered, such as failure due to rupture of the welded sections.
chanics, Vol. 136, No. 2, February 1, 2010. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-9399/ Moreover, cases of preload members are not examined before the
2010/2-230–238/$25.00. strengthening application.

230 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


!" $" Both actions induce a triaxial state of stresses on the concrete
core with a consequent increasing in bearing capacity and ductil-
-./('$ 0+*'1&'0 (2-0'0 -./('$ +.0+*'1&'0 (2-0'0 ity of the compressed member. The model allows one to predict
the compressive response of the member and to estimate the val-
$&''( $&*+,$ ues of normal and shear stresses developed in RC members with
the strengthening devices.
$# $#
!" #!# !" According to this model, neglecting the inertia of the jacket-
&"
ing, it is possible to obtain the equivalent confinement pressure
!"
induced by the strengthening system on a column with a square
#!# &#
cross section in the form
$ % $
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!"

%
S2
36 · Ec · Es ·· t2
S
$&''( -./('$ f1 = ·␯·␧ 共MPa兲 共1兲
S2
25 · Ec · b + 24 · Es · t2 · 共2 ⫻ ␯ + 5兲
S

Fig. 1. Strengthened specimens with angles and steel plates: 共a兲


angles directed loaded; 共b兲 angles undirected loaded where Es, Ec, and ␯ represent, respectively, the elastic modulus of
steel, the elastic modulus of concrete and the Poisson coefficient
of the concrete.
From Eq. 共1兲 it is possible to note that the confinement pres-
Existing Analytical Models sure is variable during the loading process 共Ec, ␯, and ␧兲 and it
depends on the thickness 共t2兲 and height 共s2兲 of the strips, and on
In this section it was discussed some analytical models 关Braga et their spacing s.
al. 2006; Montuori and Piluso 2009; Eurocode 8 2003兴 used to The second analyzed model is the one proposed by Montuori
predict the compressive response of concrete members strength- et al. 共2002兲 and Montuori and Piluso 共2009兲 that allows one to
ened by steel corner angles and strips. predict the response of concrete members strengthened with steel
The cases examined here refer to a member with a square angles and strips and subjected to centric or eccentric load. It
cross section of Side b 共see Fig. 1兲 strengthened with steel angles allows one to obtain the compressive response in terms of load-
of side L1 and thickness t1, and with steel strips of height s2 and shortening curves, including the confinement effects and the
thickness t2 placed at a spacing s. buckling phenomena of the longitudinal steel bars. In the case of
Moreover, f y is the yield stress of the steel strips and of the eccentric load, the model allows one to determine the strength
steel angles, or in the case of CAM system, 共in which steel rib- domain 共moment-axial force兲 of the RC strengthened member.
bons are used rather than steel strips兲, f y is the ultimate stress of With reference to the confined concrete, the strength enhance-
the fixing device 共Dolce et al. 2001兲. Steel, notwithstanding the ment is determined by means of the effective confinement pres-
second-order effects, acts in tension and in compression with an sure f le, obtained through the confinement pressure f l, induced by
elastic-plastic behavior. the strengthening devices, and of an effectiveness coefficient ke,
The first model the author would like to consider is one re- determined in an analogous way such as the one given in Mander
cently proposed by Braga et al. 共2006兲 which considers the con- et al. 共1988兲.
fining effects induced by steel angles and strips on reinforced The lateral confinement pressure induced by the steel angles
concrete members in compression. According to this model, a and strips is applied to the plane, effective only in a portion of the
compressed member subjected to longitudinal strain ␧, laterally section’s core, while along the height 共spacing between two
expands, and the transverse strengthening devices 共angles and strips兲 it is further reduced, taking into account the discontinuity
strips兲 produce confining actions by means of normal and shear of the strips.
stresses at the interface between column and strengthening The reduction of the effective area in the case of members
system. reinforced with stirrups, as proposed by Mander et al. 共1988兲, is
shown in Fig. 2共a兲, while the case of columns strengthened with
steel angles, as suggested by Montuori and Piluso 共2009兲, is
shown in Fig. 2共b兲.
a) b)
Taking into account the reduction of the area in section and in
confined core confined core
height, as proposed by Montuori and Piluso 共2009兲, the effective-
ness coefficient results

冋 册冉
2 共b − 2 · L1兲2 S
冊 2
b

ke = 1 − · 2 · 1− 共2兲
3 b 2·b

unconfined stirrups
steel angles Finally, the lateral confinement pressure is determined by the
equilibrium condition of a half confined concrete section, obtain-
Fig. 2. Effectively confined core according to: 共a兲 Mander et al. ing in the hypothesis of yielding of steel plates, the following
共1988兲; 共b兲 Montuori et al. 共2002兲 relationship

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010 / 231

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


!" $"
1
fᐉ = · ␳s · f y 共3兲
2 /+ /- /+ /- /+ /-
)
*-' ,- " .)
being ␳s the transverse geometrical steel ratio in the spacing s, *+' ,+
.
*+' ,+ *-' ,- *+' ,+ *-' ,-

expressed by #
"

01(
%&' &
*-' ,- *-' ,- *-' ,- 01)
4 · t2 · s2
␳s = 共4兲
b·s
(
Starting with the effective confinement pressure 共f ᐉe = ke · f ᐉ兲, it is . .(

possible to obtain the strength of confined concrete f cc by using


the abacus reported in Mander et al. 共1988兲, which allows one to Fig. 3. Simplified model for concrete reinforcing interaction: 共a兲
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obtain f cc. shell model; 共b兲 beam model


According to Montuori et al. 共2002兲 the ultimate strain reached
by the confined concrete, in correspondence to the ultimate strain
␧su of the strips, results determined examining the responses of the confined core and of
the steel angles, taking into account their contribution in strength
1.4 · f y · ␳s · ␧su
␧cu = 0.004 + 共5兲 and in confinement pressures.
f cc
with ␧su the ultimate strain of strips under tension. Calculation of Equivalent Uniform Confinement
Several concepts proposed by the mentioned models are also Pressures
included in recent codes, such as the Eurocode 8 共2003兲. This
code considers this strengthening technique and prescribes that The confinement pressures in the plane of strips, and in volume of
the spacing between two successive steel strips should be at least concrete between two successive strips due to the steel angles and
b / 2 and their thickness has to be substantial 共8–9 mm兲 to obtain strips, are calculated following the concept that if a column is
increment of compression due to confinement affects. In the case loaded axially it shortens and expands transversely in proportion
of rectangular columns with a high ratio of sides, it needs to to the Poisson coefficient and to the transverse dimension of the
diminish the free length between the steel strips by means of steel element. A generic cross section of the element is considered as a
bars crossing the structural member in order to tighten the two shell in a biaxial state of deformation that expands on the quantity
opposing strips. ␦ = ␯ ⫻ ␧ ⫻ b / 2 for each side.
According Eurocode 8 共2003兲 the confining devices produce a The confinement pressures at strip level are determined fol-
strength increment in concrete, expressed by lowing the procedure proposed by Campione 共2008兲 for the case

冋 冊 册
of concrete columns with cross section reinforced with stirrups

f cc = f c0 1 + 3.7 · 冉 ␣ · ␳s · f y
2 · f c0
0.87
共MPa兲 共6兲
and longitudinal bars. Particularly, it was assumed a plane model
referred to a quarter of the transverse cross section as shown in
Fig. 3共a兲. A further simplification consists in assuming a one-
with ␣ = effectiveness factory, equal to dimensional model as shown in Fig. 3共b兲. This model considers
two elastic beams on elastic springs placed in a series and simu-
共b − 2 · R兲2 + 共h − 2 · R兲2 lating the steel angle and the steel strip. The elastic springs simu-
␣=1− 共7兲
3·b·h late the interaction between steel reinforcement and confined
R being the radius of filled corners of the cross section and, b and core. Since the inertia of steel angle, function of the length L1,
h, being the dimensions of the rectangular cross section. thickness t1, and of pitch s between strips, compared to inertia of
It is evident that the following expression, reported in Euro- the strip, is much higher 共base s2 and thickness t2兲, it seems rea-
code 8 共2003兲, adopts the rule of the effective confinement pres- sonable to assume that the angle behaves like a rigid beam.
sure The stiffness of the springs, acting in a perpendicular direction
to the beam axis, according to Campione 共2008兲 is assumed as
1
f1 = · ␣ · ␳s · f y 共8兲 Ec
2 kv = 共10兲
b · 共1 − v兲
According to Eurocode 8 共2003兲 the ultimate strain of confined
concrete can be estimated through The strips have flexural stiffness proportional to the quantities
EsⴱI, where I is the moment of inertia of the cross section of the
fy strip given by
␧cu = 0.004 + 0.5 · ␣ · ␳s 共9兲
f cc
S2 · t32
I= 共11兲
12
Proposed Model
The equilibrium equation of the elastic beam on springs in a
The model here proposed aims to predict the compressive re- deformed configuration, in terms of lateral displacement w, is
sponse of concrete columns strengthened with steel angles and governed by the following differential equation:
strips and examines the cases of steel angles directly and indi-
rectly loaded, taking into account the strength and the second- d 4w kv
+ · 共␦ − w兲 = 0 共12兲
order effects on steel angles. The response of the columns will be dx4 Es · I

232 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


where ␦ = transverse deformation of the unconfined concrete 关cos2共␤L2兲 − cosh2共␤L2兲兴
column. C = 共␦1 − ␦兲 ·
关sen共␤L2兲cos共␤L2兲 + senh共␤L2兲cosh共␤L2兲兴
The solution to the differential equation for the deflection
curve is
D=−C 共18兲
w共x兲 = âx · cos âx + D · cosh âx · senâx 共13兲
where ␤ = parameter assuming the role of relative stiffness and it As shown in Campione 共2008兲, the confining pressure q共x兲 can be
can be expressed in explicit form by assumed proportional to stiffness kv of concrete and to the effec-
tive displacement, the latter being the difference between ␦ and w,
␤= 冑4
kv · A2
4 · Es · I2
共14兲
resulting in
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q共x兲 = kv · 关␦ − w共x兲兴 共19兲


being A2 = t2 · s2 the area of strips, Eq. 共14兲 can be written as

冑 4 It must be observed that Eq. 共19兲 also contains the unknown ␦1


3 Ec displacement 关see Eq. 共18兲兴 and is a function of the unknown
␤= · 共15兲
b · t22 Es · 共1 − ␯兲 axial force F 关see Eq. 共16兲兴.
Moreover, the confinement pressures q共x兲 at strip level do not
By using Eq. 共15兲 it is clear that the stiffness of the strip-concrete
reflect the discontinuity of the confinement pressures between two
system depends on Young’s module of materials and from the
successive steel strips. Therefore, a reducing effectiveness coeffi-
geometric characteristics of the strip section. To calculate the four
cient has to be introduced. As proposed by Campione 共2008兲, it is
constants A, B, C, and D, the boundary conditions are imposed on
here supposed that in a generic point at distance z from the steel
the extremity sections.
strips, the confinement pressure distribution can be expressed by
It must be observed that the steel angle, being continuous
the product of the pressures q共x兲 关is the same q共y兲兴 for an ana-
along its length and having thickness greater or equal to that of
lytical equation A共z兲 in the form
the strip, has a flexural stiffness that can be considered, with good
approximation, much higher than the flexural stiffness of the strip.
Therefore, the displacement w1共x兲, for the entire length L1, can be p共x,z兲 = q共x兲 · A共z兲 共20兲
uniformly equal to the strip and steel angle elongation ␦1 induced It must be considered that the confinement pressures exercised by
by the tensile force F, arising as result of the hampered lateral the angles are accompanied by shear friction acting on the legs
expansion. This displacement is expressed by perpendicular to the beam on elastic springs 共parallel to the force

w1共x兲 = ␦1 = F · 冉 L1
+
L2
Es1 · s · t1 Es2 · ss · t2
冊 共16兲
F兲. This shear action can be assumed proportional to the confining
pressure q共x兲 and to a frictional coefficient here assumed ␮ = 0.5
关see Adam et al. 共2007兲兴.
where Es1 and Es2 = Young’s modulus of steel angle and strip, Therefore, the resultant of confining pressures is as follows:
respectively 共in case of steel Es1 = Es2 = Es兲.
For the beam of length L2 having w2共x兲 displacements, the
冕 冕 冕
L/2 s/2
following boundary conditions have to be verified: R= p共x,z兲 · dx · dz = 2 · 共1 + ␮兲 · q共x兲dx · A共z兲dz

冏 冏
v 0 0
dw2共x兲
w2共x兲兩x=0 = ␦1 =0

L/2
dx x=0 = 2 · 共1 + ␮兲 · ksv · q共x兲dx 共21兲

冏 冏 冏 冏
0
d3w2共x兲 dw2共x兲
= 0; =0 共17兲 in which the ksv = same already proposed by Campione 共2008兲 in
dx3 x=0 dx x=L2
the form
By using Eq. 共17兲 the following expressions of the four constants


s
A, B, C, and D are obtained in the form:
k sv = 2
A共z兲 · dz = e−共3/2兲·共s/b兲 共22兲
A = ␦1 − ␦ −
s
2

Finally, to determine the axial force F it was assumed that the


resultant force of the confining pressures in the plane of the strips,
关sen共␤L2兲cos共␤L2兲 − senh共␤L2兲cosh共␤L2兲兴 and in the space between two successive strips, is equal to 2 · F
B = 共␦1 − ␦兲 ·
关sen共␤L2兲cos共␤L2兲 + senh共␤L2兲cosh共␤L2兲兴 and substituting Eq. 共22兲 in Eqs. 共19兲, 共13兲, and 共18兲 yields

␯ · ␧ · b · k sv

冉 冊
F= 共23兲

冦 冧
1 L1 L2 1
共1 + ␮兲 · · + +
Es S · t1 Ss · t2 kv
kv · L1 + · 共cosh2 ␤L2 − cos2 ␤L2sen␤L2 · cos ␤L2 + senh␤L2 · cosh ␤L2兲

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010 / 233

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


If in Eq. 共23兲 the influence of the confinement pressures acting $ 2 '3'

along the strips is not considered 共or is negligible or zero, the /- 1


/+ (&)*+%
latter occurs if there is not contact between concrete core and
strips兲, Eq. 共23兲 assumes the simplified expression &' ' '
$
(&,,- %
␯ · ␧ · b · e关−1.5·共s/b兲兴 ./0-, #3#

再 冉 冎
%
F⬵ 共24兲

# #
1 L1 L2 b · 共1 − ␯c兲 &# 2
共1 + ␮兲 · · + + $ $
Es s · t1 ss · t2 Ec · L1 !"# 1
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Therefore, the uniform equivalent confining pressure defined as in Fig. 4. Simplified model for steel angles
Mander et al. 共1988兲 and referred to as the F value, results

2·F Fig. 4 schematically shows the loading scheme assumed for


f 1共␧兲 = 共25兲
b·s angles in strength purpose. It consists of a fixed beam at the
supports 共strips兲 loaded in flexure along the symmetry plane with
The confinement pressure given by Eq. 共25兲 is variable with the
axial strain and assumes maximum value when the steel strips are the resultant confining pressures 共q = 2 · 冑2 / 2 · f 1 · Ls兲. Nds is the
yielded 共or if ribbons are used if the mechanical devices adopted force induced by the axial shortening 共if angles are directly
to fix the steel ribbons break under tension兲 and the force F loaded兲, and Ndf is the force induced by the shear friction at strip
reaches the value F = t2 · s2 · f y. levels if angles are shorter than columns 共indirectly loaded兲.
In this case Eq. 共25兲 becomes In these cases the axial force results
Nds = 共2 · L1 · t1兲 · ␧ · Es 共29兲
2 · t2 · s2 · f y 关−1.5·共s/b兲兴
f 1 max = ·e 共26兲
共1 + ␮兲 · b · s Ndf = 共2 · L1 · s2兲 · ␮ · f 1 共30兲
The maximum design moment M d max is a function of the confin-
Strength of Confined Concrete ing pressure acting along the steel angles in the pitch s. It can be
calculated referring to a simplified scheme of a fixed beam 共see
For the calculus of the confined compressive strength, the analyti- Fig. 4兲. The maximum design moment has expressions 共in abso-
cal relationship given by Eurocode 8 共2003兲, reported in Eq. 共6兲, lute value兲
is used, but replacing Eqs. 共7兲 and 共8兲 with Eq. 共25兲 and assuming
the confining pressure to be variable with the axial strain. There- 1
M d max = · q · 共s − s2兲2 共31兲
fore, the maximum compressive strength results 12


f cc = f c0 1 + 3.7 · 冉 冊 册
f 1共␧兲
f c0
0.87
共27兲
Under the hypothesis of elastic-plastic behavior of steel angles the
strength domain M ⴱu, Nⴱu gives the failure condition of steel angles.
The ultimate axial force in steel angle is equal to
The load carried by the core is given by the product of the com-
Nu = 共2 · L1 · t1兲 · f y 共32兲
pressive strength f cc for the square of the side of the transverse
cross section 共b2兲. While the ultimate bending moment in pure flexure results
The corresponding strain according to the Mander et al. 共1988兲
model results L21 · t1
Mu = · fy 共33兲

冋 冉 冊册
4
f cc
␧cc = ␧co 1 + 5 · −1 共28兲 In the presence of axial force, the ultimate moment that can be
f c0 derived form the textbook 共e.g., Massonnet and Save 1965兲 is
equal to
Strength Contribution due to Steel Angles M ⴱu = M u − M du 共34兲
For both the cases of indirectly and directly loaded angles, con-
sideration must be given to the strength contribution in the bear- with M du = Nⴱu · d 共35兲
ing capacity for the columns including second-order effects. the bending moment due to the axial force acting at yielding on a
reduced portion of depth d is equal to
Strength Contribution due to Yielding of Steel Angles Nⴱu
d= 共36兲
With regard to the strength contribution of steel angles, it must be 16 · f y · t1
considered that they are subjected to the combined effects of axial
force and bending moment 共see Fig. 4兲. The bending moment is Substituting Eqs. 共36兲 and 共35兲 in Eq. 共34兲 yields
the consequence of the lateral expansion of the concrete core. The L21 · t1 · f y 共Nⴱu兲2
axial force is due to the shortening of the column in the case of M ⴱu = − ⱕ Mu 共37兲
4 16 · f y · t1
angles directly loaded or due to the friction action occurring at
strip levels in the case of angles shorter than column 共undirected In the event that the angles are directly loaded by imposing that
angles兲. M ⴱu is equal to M d max and f l = f l max, it is possible obtain by Eq.

234 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


'
Examining the equilibrium condition for the buckled angles it
345678 9:;363
results in
&#( 4<345678 9:;363
s2
1 )"2%
1 )"2&" Nc · wh − 2 · M ⴱu + q · L1 · =0 共39兲
8
/ ,-+0.

&#'
wh = lateral displacements; ␦v = axial shortening; and ␪ = angle de-
1 )"2)
"#%
fining the buckled position. The compatibility condition is in the
form
"#$
␦v = s − 2 · 冉冊 s
2
· cos ␪ = s · 共1 − cos ␪兲 共40兲
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"
" )" &"" &)" '"" ')" *""
Therefore, a further relation between wh, s, and ␪ with ␧ = ␦ / s is
+ ,-+. introduced in the form

Fig. 5. Axial force—bending moment domain for steel angles loaded


along the symmetry axis
wh =
s
2
· sen␪ = · 冑1 − cos2 ␪ = ·
s
2
s
2
冑 2·
␦v ␦2v

s s2

· 冑2 · ␧ − ␧2
s
= 共41兲
共37兲 the maximum axial force available in steel angles, for 2
strength purpose, in the form
Finally, substituting w given by Eq. 共41兲 in Eq. 共39兲 it is possible
Nⴱu = 冑4 · f y · t1 · 共+ t1 · f y · L21 − 4 · M ⴱu兲 ⱕ Nu 共38兲 to obtain the following relationship:

Fig. 5 shows typical strength domain derived from Eq. 共37兲 for
steel angles 50⫻ 5, 50⫻ 8 e 50⫻ 10 mm of steel grade Fe 430
Nc =
1
w

· 2 · M ⴱu − q ·
4

s2
ⱕ Nu 共42兲
according to European Committee for Standardization 共CEN兲
共1993兲. The same graph also shows failure conditions of these Eq. 共42兲 gives critical axial load for each value of ultimate mo-
angles, when subjected to axial force and bending moment in- ment.
duced by maximum confining pressures, acting in square cross If Nc is divided by the area of steel angle and the expressions
section of side 300 mm and reinforced with steel angles and steel of q and M ⴱu are substituted, it is possible to obtain the critical
stress

再冋
strips 50⫻ 5 mm, placed at pitch 300 mm. It is interesting to
observe that in the case of directly loaded angles, the maximum
allowable axial force is significantly lower than the ultimate axial ␴c =
1
·
1
s · L1 · t2 冑2 · ␧ − ␧2
· 2 ·
L21 · t1 · f y
4

共Nⴱu兲2
16 · f y · t1


force. Moreover, for indirectly loaded angles the ultimate moment
significantly increases with greater thickness of steel angles, and s2
therefore the allowable confining pressure also increases. − 冑2 · f 1 · L1 · 共43兲
4
If in Eq. 共43兲 Nⴱu is assumed variable with the axial strain accord-
Buckling Verification of Steel Angle
ing to N = ␧ · 2 · L1 · t1 · Es ⱕ Nu it results the stress-strain curves of
With regard to the stability conditions of steel angles subjected to buckled angle.
the combined effects of axial force and bending moment, a sim- Finally the stress-strain curve for steel angle assumed here is
plified model already assumed by Gomes and Appleton 共1997兲 for expressed as
steel bars in RC members is considered. Fig. 6 shows schemati-
cally the model assumed that refers to a buckled condition of steel
angle fixed at supports spaced s 共steel strips兲. Two rigid bars are
再 min共Es · ␧;␴c兲 for ␧ ⱕ ␧y
min共f y ;␴c兲 for ␧ ⬎ ␧y
冎 共44兲
connected by the elastic-plastic hinges and subjected to the com-
Fig. 7 shows the variation of the stress strain curves given by Eq.
bined effect of the axial force N and the transverse distributed
共42兲 and also the elastic-plastic behavior assumed for steel angles
load induced by the confining pressures. The distributed load act-
without buckling effect. Cases examined refer to steel angles 50
ing on the steel angles is q.
⫻ 8 mm fixed at space s = b / 2, b, 2b 共for b it was assumed 300
mm兲 to steel strips of side 50 and thickness 8 mm. It is evident
that in the case of s = b and b / 2 the critical strength is higher than
"854&" the yielding value before the yielding strain; while for s = 2 b the
/12 /12
5 +7 +7
risk of buckling occurs at yielding. If the thickness of steel angles
5 is reduces 共e.g., if we assume a thickness of 3 mm兲 the buckling
",' ",' phenomena occurs in the elastic range.
"
"
",' 34
+7
;<)96" /12 Incremental Approach to Stress-Strain Curves
+7 of Confined Concrete
/12

To plot the complete stress-strain curves 共and therefore the axial


load-shortening curves兲 depending on the axial shortening and on
Fig. 6. Schematic mechanism of the buckled angles the confinement pressures a numerical procedure was adopted.

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010 / 235

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


&#' *"""
2&67406< *
",-,'
& ')""

2&67406< 6
"#% ",-
'"""
",' -
σ$ " %#

.#/0 +12-
"#(
&)""

"#$ *<;94847;9
&"""
78&65406<8;9 : *3;0 68 ;9# ,'""5.
- , ')" 000 "' ,)" 000 8' , % 000 1&,)" 00 0
"#' 8&, % 000 34 ,'5) /7;
)""
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on 04/27/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

"
" & ' * $ ) (
"
ε " ε# (a) " $ % &' &( '" '$
!"#$%&'(') +,,-
Fig. 7. Stress-strain curves for steel angle with buckling in compres-
sion
&#'

&
The starting point is the assumption of the Mander et al. 共1988兲
equation, but using a curve intertwining with several curves, each "#%
pertaining to a level of confining pressure corresponding to the

σ3 4 56
current axial and lateral strain values. In particular, the procedure "#(
is based on the following steps: an initial value of axial shortening
␧ is assumed; the lateral displacement ␦ = ␯ · ␧ · b / 2 is computed "#$
assuming a fixed variation law of ␯ with ␧ 共Elwi and Murray,
1979 expression兲;—the effective confinement pressure f l, the "#'

peak strength f cc and the corresponding strain ␧cc are calculated


"
by Eqs. 共25兲, 共27兲, and 共28兲; and finally ␴ are determined by " $ % &' &( '" '$
means of the Mander et al. 共1988兲 equation 共assuming the actual (b)
!"#$%&'(') (,,))
secant modulus of elasticity of concrete兲; repeating this procedure
for all possible values of axial strain the complete stress-strain Fig. 8. 共a兲 Load-shortening curves for columns tested by Adam et al.
curve is plotted. The stress ␴ was multiplied for b2 to give the 共2007兲 共Specimens A and B for indirect and directed loaded angles兲;
axial load P and ␧ was multiplied for H 共height of columns兲 to 共b兲 stress-strain diagram for loaded steel angles
give the average shortening ␦. The whole external load was fi-
nally determined, factoring the contribution of steel angles and
taking into account of the strength and instability conditions 关see The data of Dolce et al. 共2003兲 refer to 800 and 300
Eq. 共43兲兴. ⫻ 200 mm cross section columns tested in uniaxial compression.
The columns, denoted in the following as steel jacketing 共SJ兲,
were strengthened by steel angles L 50⫻ 5 mm and rectangular
Experimental and Theoretical Comparisons steel strips 260⫻ 50⫻ 5 mm and 160⫻ 50⫻ 6 mm 共along the
side with 300 and 200 mm, respectively兲, 200 mm spaced. The
Several experimental projects have studied 共Ramirez 1996; steel type was Fe 360 关according to CEN 共1993兲兴 and the concrete
Ramirez et al. 1997; Cirtek 2001b; Dolce et al. 2003; Adam et al. used was of poor quality with compressive strength of 12. 71
2007兲 referred to compressed members strengthened externally MPa. The Steel angles had 750 mm length and therefore there
with steel angles and steel strips. Most of them give information was no connection between the strengthening elements and the
on the load carrying capacity and only a few of them 关the ones heads, the strengthening elements ending with strips welded to
here assumed for comparison are Dolce et al. 共2003兲 and Adam et the angles. In addition some specimens were strengthened by
al. 共2007兲兴, give complete load-shorting curves in compression. using same four steel angles at the corners, but replacing the steel
Data of Adam et al. 共2007兲 refer to full-size 2,500 mm and strips with high strength stainless steel ribbons having 0.8 mm
300⫻ 300 mm cross section columns tested in uniaxial compres- thickness and 19 mm wide placed at spacing of 40 mm and fixed
sion. The columns were strengthened by steel angles L 80 mechanically to the angles. The steel ribbons had tensile strength
⫻ 8 mm and rectangular steel strips 270⫻ 160⫻ 8 mm at pitch of 780 MPa 共corresponding to the brittle failure of the mechanical
475 mm. The Steel type was Fe 430 关according to CEN 共1993兲兴 devices adopted to fix the steel ribbons to the angles兲.
and the concrete used in the columns had compressive strength Fig. 8共a兲 refers to experimental data of Adam et al. 共2007兲. In
ranging between 10.6 and 15.6 MPa. Two types of columns hav- the same graph, analytical curves obtained using the proposed
ing the same strengthening technique were tested. In columns model are given. The comparison shows the ability of the model
Type A, there was no connection between the strengthening ele- to predict the strength and the strain enhancement due to confine-
ments and the heads, the strengthening elements ending with ment effects and the strength contribution due to steel angles.
strips welded to the angles 共case of undirected loaded兲. In Speci- From comparison of the experimental results, it emerges that the
men B, the connection between the strengthening elements and columns reinforced with directly loaded angles 共Specimen B兲 had
the heads consisted of capitals formed by steel angles L 80 lower bearing capacity in indirectly loaded angles 共Specimen A兲.
⫻ 8 mm with no steel strips placed in the area of capitals 共case of This aspect can be explained with the proposed model because
directly loaded angles兲. when the angle is directly loaded the buckling effects arise 关see

236 / JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


&$"" tension and in a brittle manner. In this case the whole contribution
in the bearing capacity of strengthened columns can disappear 共it
&'""
does not occur in the SJ system兲, due to the loss in the confine-
7(% ment effects and in bearing capacity of steel angles, the latter
&"""
induced by buckling effects.
%""
.#/0 +12-

("" Conclusions
*<;94847;9

$"" 78&65406<8;9 : 8:976 68 ;9# ,'""*. In the present paper an analytical model to predict the compres-
2? "4"860
sive response of confined concrete members strengthened with
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on 04/27/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

'""
steel angles and steel strips or ribbons is proposed and discussed.
Cases of directly and indirectly loaded steel angles are examined.
"
" $ % &' &( '" '$ The model proposed allows one to:
(a) !"#$%&'(') +,,- • Determine the confining pressures distribution at strips levels
and in the space between two successive strips; and
&$"" • Include in the strength contribution of the concrete core the
7(%
presence of steel angles both in terms of confining pressures
&'"" and bearing capacity including the strength and the buckling
effects.
&"""
The application of the proposed model, which is in agreement
with recent experimental researches available in the literature, is
%""
.#/0 +12-

also in agreement with the analytical results obtained with the


("" application of recent codes 共Eurocode 8 2003兲 and also it stresses
*<;94847;9 the importance of appropriately relating the geometrical and the
$"" 78&65406<8;9 : 8:976 68 ;9# ,'""*. mechanical properties of strengthening devices to the characteris-
(*/ "4"860
tics of concrete core. Moreover, of great importance are the influ-
'"" ence of the thickness and the side length of the angle in relation to
the side of the transverse cross section and to the thickness and to
"
the depth of steel strips. Referring to the use of steel ribbons fixed
" $ % &' &( '" '$
(b)
!"#$%&'(') +,,-
to the column with mechanical stopping devices, the effectiveness
and the easiness of this system compared to the steel strips
Fig. 9. 共a兲 Load-shortening curves for experiments of Dolce et al. welded to the angles system is stressed. But it is also important to
共2003兲 data: steel angles and strips 共SJ system兲; 共b兲 CAM system note the risk in using the previous system because, after the sud-
den failure of the stopping system of the ribbons, a consequent
loss of bearing capacity for concrete core and of the steel angles
Fig. 8共b兲兴, while for indirectly loaded angles the axial force ab- due to buckling effects can occur due to buckling effects.
sorbed is only due to friction effects and buckling effects do not
occur and consequently higher confining pressure is attainable.
The model predicts the experimental results and confirms that in Notation
both cases it is not possible to reach the whole axial resistance of
the steel angles and the maximum confinement effects, because of The following symbols are used in this paper:
the state of stress in the angles 共moment and axial force with the b ⫽ side of the transverse cross section;
second-order effects兲. d ⫽ height of the compressed zone in steel angles;
Figs. 9共a and b兲 show the analogous comparison referring to Ec ⫽ modulus of concrete in compression;
the experimental data of Dolce et al. 共2003兲. Particularly, Fig. 9共a兲 Es ⫽ elastic modulus of steel;
refers to the case of steel angles 共SJ system兲, while Fig. 9共b兲 F ⫽ axial force on the strip;
refers to the CAM system. For the analytical prediction, an f cc ⫽ compressive strength of confined concrete;
equivalent square section of sides 245 mm was adopted 共same f co ⫽ compressive strength of unconfined concrete;
area of 200⫻ 300 mm rectangular cross section兲. In both cases f y ⫽ yielding stress of steel;
the model predicts the whole response and the calculated bearing h ⫽ side of rectangular cross section;
capacity corresponds well with the experimental value and with I ⫽ moment of inertia of strip;
the value predicted using Eurocode 8 共2003兲 expression. It has to ke ⫽ effectiveness coefficient of confinement pressures;
be noted that for the CAM system, since a stress concentration kv ⫽ shell stiffness;
occurs at the corners of the cross section, a reduction factor of the L1 ⫽ side of the angle;
allowable stress in steel ribbons was adopted according to the L2 ⫽ half length of the strips;
model proposed by Campione 共2006兲 for the case of concrete M u ⫽ ultimate bending in angles in flexure;
members confined with FRP materials. In this context a small M ⴱu ⫽ ultimate bending in angles;
radius of corners 共of few millimeters兲 was adopted. Also in these Nu ⫽ ultimate axial load in angles;
cases, comparison is satisfactory and it is stressed that the CAM R ⫽ resultant of confining pressure;
system is very effective in terms of strength enhancements and is s ⫽ pitch of strips;
easier to place in cast with respect to the SJ system, but more s2 ⫽ height of strips;
risks arise when the connecting devices of single strips break in t1 ⫽ angle thickness;

JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS © ASCE / FEBRUARY 2010 / 237

J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238


t2 ⫽ strip thickness; rafforzamento dei pilastri mediante il sistema CAM.” Degli atti del
w ⫽ deflection of steel strip; 10° Convengo Nazionale L’Ingegneria Sismica in Italia 共CD-ROM兲,
wh ⫽ lateral displacement of buckled angle; ANIDIS, Potenza-Matera, Italy 共in Italian兲.
␣ ⫽ shape coefficient according to EC8; Dolce, M., Masi, A., Cappa, T., Nigro, D., and Ferrini, M. 共2003兲. “Ex-
␦ ⫽ lateral displacement; perimental evaluation of effectiveness of local strengthening on col-
␦1 ⫽ elongation of the leg of strip; umns of R/C existing Structures.2003.” Proc. of Fib—Symp. Concrete
␦h ⫽ lateral displacement of buckled angle; Structures in Earthquake Regions 共CD-ROM兲, Athens, Greece.
␧ ⫽ axial strain; Elwi, A. A., and Murray, D. W. 共1979兲. “A 3D hypoelastic concrete
␧cu ⫽ ultimate strain of confined concrete; constitutive relationship.” J. Eng. Mech., 105, 623–641.
Eurocode 8 Part 3. 共2003兲. “Design of sturctures for earthquake resistance
␧cc ⫽ peak strain of confined concrete;
Part 3. Strengthening and repair of buildings.” doc CEN TC250/SC8/
␮ ⫽ friction coefficient; N343, Brussels.
Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on 04/27/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

␯ ⫽ Poisson coefficient; and European Committee for Standardization 共CEN兲. 共1993兲. “Design of steel
␳s ⫽ geometrical ratio of transverse reinforcements. structures. Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings.” Eurocode 3,
Brussels.
Gomes, A., and Appleton, J. 共1997兲. “Nonlinear cyclic stress-strain rela-
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J. Eng. Mech., 2010, 136(2): 230-238