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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 8, NO.

1, JANUARY 2017 485

Syncretic Use of Smart Meters for Power Quality


Monitoring in Emerging Networks
Mihaela M. Albu, Senior Member, IEEE, Mihai Sănduleac, Member, IEEE, and Carmen Stănescu, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Operation of distribution networks undergoes role has been limited to the interface between technology and
dramatic changes in the era of smart grid deployment, due to the markets, whereas little effort has been done to promote the
higher penetration of distributed generation (usually from inter- instrumentation dimension of the metering infrastructure.
mittent resources), to an ever-increased share of power electronics
mediated energy transfer, but also thanks to advancements in Power Quality (PQ) is on the contrary a field associ-
instrumentation including smart meters (SMs). In this context, ated with technology advancements, not yet correlated to the
alternative power quality (PQ) monitoring and control, based on energy market and services. PQ monitoring requires dedicated
a lightweight assessment of voltage parameters to be implemented instruments, assessment algorithms and standards [3]–[5].
in new SM would allow optimal real-time network operation and For example, European Norm [4] specifies particular defini-
market-correlated services. To this, the authors propose a signal
analysis framework for simplified PQ informative assessment tions and limits of the characteristics of the supply voltage
method using the so-called instrumentation values available in concerning frequency, magnitude, waveform distortion and
most of today’s SM. It is highlighted that the voltage character- symmetry of the line voltages. However the assessment is
istics made available with high reporting rates can be efficiently based, for most of specified limits, on statistics derived
used in deriving information on quality of the electricity sup- from 10 minutes aggregated data [3] on 1 week observa-
plied by public electricity networks. Further applications like
smart grid synchro-SCADA observability and voltage control are tion. The shared responsibility of customers and utilities in
also addressed in a novel design of SM, with negligible impact liberalized markets has been analyzed in [6], together with
on cost. an inventory of methods of assessing the quality of sup-
Index Terms—Smart meter, smart grid, instrumentation ply voltage. However, the proposed indices require dedicated
values, power quality, voltage characteristics, P95%, synchro- instrumentation. Recently power system instrumentation has
SCADA, IEC standards. been enhanced with synchronization modules and phasor mea-
surement capabilities [7], [8] and best placement methods in
a distribution grid are investigated [9], [10].
Smart Meters are on the way to become ubiquitous
I. S MART M ETERS AND P OWER Q UALITY
technology in active distribution networks, at least in
ISTRIBUTION networks and especially their LV infras-
D tructure undergo dramatic changes, not only due to the
higher penetration of distributed generation, power electron-
Europe [11], [12]. Although their functionalities [13] are still
artificially kept limited, efforts have been made [14], [15]
to integrate PQ information into an existing SCADA-
ics mediated energy transfer, mobility of prosumer nodes or framework [16], with real-life examples [17], [18] of includ-
a changed paradigm of energy markets, but also because the ing data flux from PQ monitoring systems, advanced metering
emerging active distribution networks are in the first line of systems and other sensors available in the distribution network.
interaction between the power engineering professional com- Concern is raised in [19] on the way Distribution System
munity and the 21st Century end-users. Although the role of Operators (DSO) can exploit the capabilities (including remote
power engineer evolved over decades [1], the answer to politi- switching) of smart metering systems in the absence of a pre-
cal and societal engagement is still delayed compared to other vious analysis of the potential impact on PQ indices. Such
sectors. For example, even though Smart Meters (SM) are rec- testing scenarios might require new, standardized procedures
ognized as a major enabler of new energy services [2], their of assessing the PQ impact of DSO remote actions. Other
approaches consider designing new instruments [20], [21],
Manuscript received September 24, 2015; revised March 26, 2016 and
July 3, 2016; accepted July 26, 2016. Date of publication August 8, 2016; however not to be assimilated to SM.
date of current version December 21, 2016. This work was supported by the The main impediment in including calculation of PQ
European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under parameters among the functionalities of a SM appears to
Grant 646184. Paper no. TSG-01196-2015.
M. M. Albu is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, be their additional cost, mainly due to the fact that PQ
Politehnica University of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania (e-mail: is a well-regulated field, with detailed standards and norms
albu@ieee.org). in use [3]–[5], [22]. There have been only a few attempts
M. Sănduleac is with ECRO, 020685 Bucharest, Romania (e-mail:
m.sanduleac.ro@ieee.org). to design low-cost PQ devices but these fail to comply
C. Stănescu is with Transelectrica S.A., Metering Branch OMEPA, with the minimal requirements imposed, for example, by
550245 Sibiu, Romania (e-mail: carmen.stanescu@transelectrica.ro). the metering codes [23]. A major barrier for enhancing
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. SM with PQ capabilities is represented by the computa-
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TSG.2016.2598547 tional demands for harmonic analysis recommended in [22].
1949-3053 c 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2017

Some authors developed digital filtering techniques outside meter, showing how these can be further used in the qual-
the frequency framework [21] and added a wide range of fea- ity assessment of the electricity supplied by public electricity
tures to digital single-phase PQ measurement device, including networks and for voltage control purposes.
series arc-fault detection by using wavelet multi-resolution In order to develop the algorithm, the availability, integrity
analysis whereas the total harmonic distortion is estimated and conformity of data within the meter has to be verified:
using a computationally efficient and accurate Goertzel fil- once the meter is metrologically tested and results show full
ter. Other attempts [24], [25] are relying on the developments compliance with its declared functionality (energy measure-
in DSP components, like ARM Cortex with Digital Signal ment), meters manufacturers do not provide any information
Processing (DSP), allowing complex computations for energy about the accuracy of the “internal” (intermediate) measure-
measurement with low uncertainties. In this context, the ments. However, the architecture of metering chips (sometime
authors are looking for an alternative, light solution to [3] called analog front ends or AFE), indicates that the basic volt-
perform PQ analysis in the framework proposed by IEC, tai- age and current measurements (rms values) are inputs of the
lored to the latest SM design, enabling highly informative PQ processing engine for the energy samples. According to the
monitoring to be performed by every SM. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement [26],
This paper deals with the normative framework of one can infer that the accuracy of the internally available
smart metering and IEC standardization for PQ monitoring. measurements has to be higher than the overall measure-
Section II reviews the SM instrumentation layer and its poten- ment quality of the energy meter. This statement has been
tial use for further data processing. Section III proposes an challenged by using a test bench and a class 0.2S meter in
architecture able to integrate new functionalities into existing a metrological certified environment; the instrumentation val-
SM, with details on a new framework for PQ light assessment, ues read from meters have been compared with the values
to be included in newly designed, modular SM, with further recorded by the high accuracy three-phase Portable Reference
benefits for Smart Grid deployment. Last section concludes Standard class 0.02, type PRS 400.3.
the paper with details on the practical implementation of the In addition to the selected meter under test (DUT)
proposed structure. ZMQ202/E850 [27], of class 0.2S for active energy and of
class 1 for reactive energy, a Smart Meter eXtension (SMX)
module developed within the on-going European project Nobel
II. S MART M ETERS , A R ELIABLE S OURCE Grid [24], as part of the Unbundled Smart Meter architec-
OF R EAL -T IME DATA ture (USM) [28] has been used. The SMX equipment is
In order to assess the PQ aspects, it is important not only a Linux machine, which reads using DLMS protocol all rel-
to select the appropriate method but also to make sure that evant instrumentation values every second and stores them in
the input data is of good quality. Meters (we are using this a text file, to be later processed. The text file records the rms
term for electricity meters only) have been designed to accu- values of voltage and current on each phase, the total (three
rately measure the active and reactive energy transferred from/ phase) active and reactive power, the phase angles between
to the end-user, be this classical energy end-user, prosumer phase voltages and between each phase voltage and corre-
or generation plant. As long as the information is associ- sponding current, and the network frequency (from the voltage
ated with financial transactions (the energy bill), particular signal).
attention is given to ensure the measurement accuracy of the A complex testing program has been run, with fixed time
entire measurement chain, by complying with standards like window of one minute, data reporting rate 1 frame/s and
MID, IEC 62053-21, IEC 62053-22 (for active energy) and ensured steady state for the energy transfer. Tables I to IV
IEC 62053-23, IEC 62053-24 (for reactive energy). With the show the deviations of “internal” instrumentation values
increased complexity (and number of functionalities) of the recorded by SMX from the values reported by the refer-
SM, some quality of service features (SAIDI, SAIFI), and ence equipment, for various scenarios: rated supply voltage
characteristics of the voltage waveform have been included: and variable load current, various load phase angles, vari-
for example, following the time-aggregation proposed in [3], ous voltage levels and supply frequencies, various sampling
the 10 minutes mediated rms-values of the voltage are to be rates etc.
reported [23] for further statistics over larger timeframes (one For the DUT (meter of class 0.2S), all “internal” instru-
week). In this section we underline that most of existing digi- mentation values URMS , IRMS , P, and Q deviate from the
tal meters can make available valuable data for voltage quality reference value with a maximal relative error less than 0.2%
assessment. in all cases, whereas frequency had a maximal absolute error
Additionally, most of the today’s meters can provide wave- of 0.01 Hz. The accuracy of instrumentation values within
form measurements, with reporting rates of up to 1 frame/s, the meter exceeds the measurement quality of Bay Control
representing the so-called “real-time values” of voltage and Units (BCUs) or Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), which typi-
current (rms values), frequency, active and reactive power etc. cally show accuracies down to 0.5% from nominal values [28].
However, such values do not comply with definitions in [3]; Moreover, meters for revenue and billing are connected to the
moreover, a complete harmonic analysis, although desirable, high accuracy measurement circuit of the instrument trans-
is still difficult to perform with low–cost instruments. formers, whereas BCUs or RTUs are usually connected in
In this paper we propose a simplified informative assessment the secondary circuits used for protection. One can conclude
based on the real-time quantities already available in a digital that the energy meter-measurement chain provides a better
ALBU et al.: SYNCRETIC USE OF SMs FOR PQ MONITORING IN EMERGING NETWORKS 487

TABLE I
E RRORS OF I NSTRUMENTATION VALUES OF A ZMQ202 M ETER FOR U=UN = 57.7 V, I=IN =1 A, PF=1

TABLE II
E RRORS OF I NSTRUMENTATION VALUES OF A ZMQ202 M ETER FOR U=UN =57.7 V, I=10%IN = 0.1 A, PF=1

TABLE III
E RRORS OF I NSTRUMENTATION VALUES OF A ZMQ202 M ETER FOR U=UN = 57.7 V, I=IN = 1 A, PF=0.5 IND

TABLE IV
E RRORS OF I NSTRUMENTATION VALUES OF A ZMQ202
M ETER FOR F= 49 H Z , 50 H Z AND 51 H Z

Fig. 1. Unbundled Smart Meter architecture.

Smart Metrology Meter (SMM); b) one Smart Meter eXten-


accuracy than the monitoring and control layer based on
sion (SMX) providing the flexibility needed for new function-
BCUs/RTUs.
alities to be deployed during the meter lifetime, and to support
To be noted that several meter manufacturers allow real-time
the future evolution of the Smart Grid and energy services. To
readout of their internal instrumentation values (fast report-
be noted that SMM has fixed (frozen) functionality including
ing rates in the order of frames/s). These instrumentation
high security of recorded data (black box-like standard).
values can further become a valuable information source for
The concept has been first introduced in [30] and has
SCADA layers within the new Smart Grid paradigm. We will
been meanwhile further refined. The architecture is presented
develop this potential in the next sections.
in Fig. 1.
In order to provide flexibility, the SMX part of the meter
III. U NBUNDLED S MART M ETERS AS A S OLUTION FOR design can be a full quad-core Linux machine able to support
S MART G RID I NCLUDING PQ F UNCTIONALITY parallel communication with different agents, to implement
Unbundled Smart Meter is a systematic framework where high data security, including digital signatures, to accommo-
SM functionalities are adequately grouped in two sepa- date local agents, for example controlling the intelligent local
rate (unbundled) components: a) one for metrological / billing appliances and sub-metering devices, to control energy transfer
purposes, handling “hard real-time” function, and called the from generating units and other energy services.
488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2017

Fig. 2. Processing one 10T0 window every second.

With this architecture, an existing meter which is able to Second principle: the time window is actually equal to the
provide with a high reporting rate the “internal” instrumenta- duration of 10 adjacent fundamental periods of the signal and
tion values is acting as an SMM and can communicate with will be further called 10T0 window; during each second, only
an external SMX, thus resulting an USM based on two inde- one or two analysis windows of duration 10T0 will be used,
pendent modules; alternatively, a new SM can be designed out of the 5 (50 Hz) or 6 (60 Hz) such windows available
from scratch, hosting in the same unit both SMM and SMX within 1-TF; this approach gives enough computing time for
functionalities. Both solutions are addressed in [24]. performing other meter tasks and also gives acceptable good
In the next two sections we will present in detail two aspects conditions for P95% harmonic content estimation: for exam-
related to power quality, i.e., a new method to allow volt- ple, such an analysis would be performed on 1800 data frames
age characteristics assessment at each end-user connection to perform P95%30min or 3600 data frames for P95%1h statis-
point and network’ observability based on the 1s- Synchro- tics, which is comparable with the 1008 10 minute values used
SCADA approach, able to support real-time voltage control. for P95%1WEEK (the current practice).
Fig. 2 presents the concept of 10T0 window as illustrated
for a 50 Hz system: selecting once per second a signal sec-
A. Smart Meters for Power Quality Assessment tion consisting of 10 adjacent fundamental periods shows that
The availability of accurate internal measurements for active after each 200 ms there is enough time left for other com-
power P(tk ), reactive power Q(tk ), voltage (rms values) U(tk ), putations. This time interval left for “computational tasks”
current (rms values) I(tk ), frequency f(tk ) with reporting rates is shorter or longer due to frequency variation, whereas
of up to 1 frame/s creates new possibilities for using the meter frequency measurement is synchronized (at least) once per
as a multi-purpose device in the Smart Grid, i.e., an analysis second.
of the energy transfer to be performed by Smart meters using With this setup, according to Fig. 3, in 30 minutes the SM
the “internal” voltage measurements. can process 1800 such 10T0 windows dispersed along the
An alternative harmonics analysis methodology is proposed, time axis and a probability distribution (PD) can be easily
which dramatically reduces the computational power, making constructed allowing P95%30min calculation for all considered
it suitable as a functionality of smart meters. The algorithm harmonics (in the figure is given U3 as an example).
is based on a full-chain linearization method. The idea is to From numerical simulations, the P95% of 1800 10T0 win-
simplify the derivation of most of the voltage characteristics dows gives P95%30min very near to the reference value
of electricity supplied by public electricity networks [4] which P95%30min_REF calculated from all 9000 windows, with an
are based on 1 week statistics of 10 minutes aggregated data. It error below 0.2% from U1. The experiment has been done
is intended to have an estimation of P95% level of harmonics, using a Monte Carlo simulation on a large amount of data sets
more computational effective, aiming to capture the nonlinear of 9000 time intervals (200 ms) each with a normally dis-
processes in both existing and emerging power networks in tributed third harmonic component between 0 and 10% from
a straightforward way. The proposed methodology, as part of fundamental.
a light PQ analysis is based on the following principles. Simplifying even further the 10T0 selection of data within
First principle: The basic element for further statistical pro- each second, resulting in 1800 data frames for P95%30min com-
cessing should be the one second timeframe (1s-TF), which putation (meaning not all but just one of each consecutive
is a sub-interval compatible to both 3 s and 10 s, already five windows, see frame B in Fig. 2) the difference from the
used in PQ analyzers following the IEC recommendations [3]. standard [4] method keeps below 0.2%. This approach allows
The basic timeframe of one second is also considered to be implementing a costless synchronization between voltage char-
the time interval associated to a steady-state system operation acteristics in different SMs, subject addressed in part B of this
(“quasi-stationary” situation) [3], thus mitigating the effects section. Tests described in Fig. 4 have been followed consid-
of lower inertia and higher volatility of frequency in emerging ering a random “positioning” of the time window 10T0 in
power grids [31]. In addition, 1s-TF is also well supported by each 1 s-TF and the errors of the method, compared with the
energy meters which report the system frequency at least once reference, after processing all 9000 intervals still remained
in a second. under 0.2%. The random positioning of the window within
ALBU et al.: SYNCRETIC USE OF SMs FOR PQ MONITORING IN EMERGING NETWORKS 489

Fig. 3. Principle of method error calculation for voltage waveform distortion.

Fig. 4. Stochastic positioning of the time window 10T0 in each 1second.

TABLE V
L IGHT PQ A SSESSMENT FOR VOLTAGE C HARACTERISTICS

Fig. 5. Delays in a public network measured over 24 hours.

the 1 second interval (example given in Fig. 4) is keeping the remote access of meter data, which becomes a multi-purpose
process decoupled from any possible cyclic behaviors with device in the Smart Grid.
a fundamental period of approximately 1 s. The high reporting rate (1 frame/s) of meter data (including
The proposed method inherently offers data compression the light PQ-information) delivered at the DSO level enables
features: initial data (9000 time windows of 200 ms, each implementation of SCADA/DMS (Supervisory Control And
with 5120 samples in our simulations) will be aggregated and Data Acquisition/Distribution Management System) function-
make available the P95% values for fundamental and all har- ality in emerging active distribution networks.
monics, on each commercial intervals used in energy market There are many issues to be addressed in the attempt
(P95%30min , P95%1h ), i.e., 150 values per commercial interval to achieve both MV/LV (Medium Voltage/Low Voltage) full
(P95% values for 50 harmonic distortion indices per phase). observability and PQ assessment, however in this paper we
Taking in consideration the European normative conditions are focusing on communication.
for electricity supply networks [4], we can conclude that the We are promoting synchronous readout of instrumenta-
light assessment of voltage characteristics can be applied to tion values in meters and the use of time-stamped data in
frequency measurement, voltage variations, harmonics in the a SCADA/DMS system which we name Synchro-SCADA,
voltage waveform, and interruptions (see Table V). a method which needs to be implemented when dealing with
un-guaranteed communication bands in congested/overloaded
B. Smart Meters as RTU and SCADA/DMS Support IP networks such as Internet or VPN over Internet. The dif-
Using the reliable measurement frame of the meter, and ference between the meter-generated database and a classical
the 1s-TF method, there are new possibilities to enhance the Phasor Data Concentrator used in Phase Measurement Units
490 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2017

Fig. 6. Synchro-SCADA functionality.

communication resides in lower requirements for synchroniza- data always become available before the moment of receiving
tion accuracy compatible with the proposed time granularity sync data. Dispersion of local sync-read moments and dis-
of 1 second. persion of communication delays are below 800 ms, which
In ubiquitous public IP-communication networks there are ensures selection of 1 second as the overall sampling time
unpredictable delays during the data collection. A spread of in the synchronized SCADA layer. Analog data with time
100 ms up to 10 s- for data communication delays may stamps are also supported by the IEC 61850 family of stan-
be observed between different metering points, such that the dards, recommended to be used for the MV/LV network
real-time data can arrive at the Smart Grid dispatch center control.
uncorrelated. Measured delays in a real public Internet con- The mechanism of collecting synchronous data serv-
nection over 24 hours, with samples sent each 5 seconds using ing Synchro-SCADA implementation allows more accurate
the ping command to a network server are presented in Fig. 5. data handling, and better prospects to meet Smart Grid expec-
Within seconds, in active MV/LV networks, measurements tations, such as more accurate power flow and state estimator
of voltage, active and reactive powers, and current may computation [32], energy services and grid acceptance tests
exhibit large variations (5–20%) and PV generation on small in active distribution networks [33] as well as more accurate
scale may also result in high variability, especially due to algorithms for secondary voltage control, as active measure to
the clouding effect. In order to derive accurate prosumer’ increase the quality of the delivered power.
load/generation curves, in the context of un-assessed commu-
nication delays, Synchro-SCADA can be framed based on the
following guidelines: C. Data Communication
(i) Unbundled Smart Meters are synchronized to the UTC, One important aspect of PQ assessment is the trade-off
with a recommended deviation of less than 1 second (usually between the huge volume of data to be analyzed and the
of 50-100 ms); this is easily supported by the SMX part of information to be delivered (synthesized in PQ indices). For
USM, as this is a Linux machine with high accuracy NTS the real-time synchro-SCADA functionality, as part of many
functionality; Smart Grid functionalities, including secondary voltage con-
(ii) Communication delay is acknowledged by a “waiting trol, a simple calculus shows that meter provides 3 values
algorithm,” i.e., a complete synchronous set of data can be for voltage, current, active and reactive powers, phase angles
then transferred to the SCADA/DMS system. between voltages, and between voltages and currents, one
The process is sketched in Fig. 6, where delays introduced value for the frequency. and also the time stamp. This means
by each message transmission are compensated by a waiting they are 3 x 6 + 1 +1 = 20 measurement values to be reported
time of up to one second from the distributed sync-readout at each second, which we may round up to 24 (for example,
the level of each meter (in Fig. 6 data is sent to SCADA/DMS when the rate of change of frequency [34] is also needed).
with 800 ms delay, every second, when practically all meter With 8 byte/value, even when reporting supplementary infor-
data arrived in the central platform). It can be noticed that the mation like steady-state signal indicator [3], requirements can
complete set of data - meaning, e.g., u, i, p, q with second “0” be fulfilled with rates below 256 byte/s.
time-stamp - are then sent to the SCADA for observability task Communication protocols for meters readout, either
completion and to the DMS for power flow, state estimation IEC 61850 for SCADA or IEC 56056 family (currently known
or other applications requiring data reporting rates compatible as DLMS/COSEM) are another enabler of real-time control:
with waiting intervals of 1 s. one can count on an increase of data streaming by a factor of
In the proposed meter design, local synchronization in 2 to 4, which means 1 kB/s. Even when other data exchange
SMX part of the meter requires less than 20 ms and remains is considered, such as control signals, time synchronization
below 100 ms even after 8 hours without Internet access. and features like encryption modules, digital signatures etc.,
This provides confidence that the assumed 100 ms of max- data streaming volume is maximally doubled, i.e., with rates
imum time deviation can be sustained on a large number of kept below 2 kB/s. With present communication technolo-
distributed USMs. Fig. 6 shows that the arrival time at the gies, this rate is within acceptable cost-effective boundaries.
front-end level of SCADA varies from meter to meter (show- Table VI below shows the daily and monthly traffic for
ing in this example delays in transmission up to 500 ms) but different rates of data transmission for remote readout.
ALBU et al.: SYNCRETIC USE OF SMs FOR PQ MONITORING IN EMERGING NETWORKS 491

TABLE VI
C OMMUNICATION T RAFFIC FOR S MART M ETERS R EADOUT measurement of energy and supply voltage characteristics
made available on each commercial interval enables new busi-
ness models. They will trade information based on a binomial
representation of the supply service: energy delivered and
voltage quality.
This information can be added to the standard billing values
and load profiles of energies at 15 min, 30 min or 60 min.
Average values of U and I on the same intervals, functionality
already supported by some meters commercially available can
be added as well. Communication with the data concentrator
and/or Meter Data Management Unit is ensured with today’s
ICT standards whereas local data storage is also affordable.

IV. C ONCLUSION
This paper proposes an alternative PQ-framed aggrega-
tion algorithm to be implemented in modern Smart Meters.
It is able to achieve good compression rates whereas pre-
Fig. 7. Voltage level measured with USM each 1 second, over 24 hours.
serving the ability to reflect the relevant phenomena in the
network, also offering observability features in MV and
LV DMS/SCADA. In this way smart metering becomes an
In an IP based network with LTE technology the 2 kB/s enabler of real-time voltage control required by modern active
data can be considered as a very low traffic. The table shows distribution grids.
that for an economic approach, getting data at intervals of The paper highlights that available instrumentation values in
1 minute, leads to monthly traffic below 50 MB or 100 MB, the meter are comparable with the metered energy in terms of
which allows cheap, entry-level communication fees, if the accuracy. Thus, these values can be used in assessing volt-
communication path is dedicated to this task only. age quality in a ubiquitous way: the light PQ assessment
Moreover, by having continuously recorded the voltage method can be implemented in SM, when the meter has
(rms values) in an energy customer USM, specific PQ ser- a modular (flexible) design. With the possibility to get P95%
vices can be offered. For example, using a reporting rate values related to commercial intervals used in energy mar-
of 0,1. . . 1 frame/s, voltage is recorded locally by USM ket (P95%30min , P95%1h ), the new approach paves the way
(Fig. 7 shows a complete 24 hours voltage evolution) and to relate the delivered energy to its “quality” in that time
resulting rms values are sent to the Dispatch center every 5 sec- interval, still keeping the option for computing a mean value
onds to 1 minute, either as measurements or average values for a week, P95%1WEEK . Moreover, the measurement relative
following a standard aggregation algorithm. This way one can standard uncertainty of P95%1h is below 0.2% of fundamen-
relax the spatial aggregation due to limited communication tal, when compared with reference values obtained for typical
bandwidth by allowing PQ assessment to be performed from harmonic states with controlled normal probability distribu-
synthetic results like P95%30min or P95%1h . tion in numerically simulated conditions. The flexibility of this
Correlating energy supply with PQ indices mediated on approach allows addressing evolving markets, may help iden-
longer time, e.g., one week, has been also addressed in [35]. tifying harmonic patterns, voltage variations correlated with
The method presented in this paper we cope with the condi- prosumer profiles in weak networks etc. thus supporting new
tions of liberalized markets dealing with commercial intervals regulation initiatives.
of 1 hour or 30 minutes, periods also addressed above. In In addition, the synchro-SCADA functionality of the
addition, information on the P95%15min can be obtained with Unbundled Smart Meter allows synchronous data acquisition
acceptable accuracy: one can use 900 voltage levels to cal- by taking advantage of new chip sets for the meters, using syn-
culate it, a number comparable with the 1008 values used chronous re-grouping of measured data at SCADA-DMS level.
by EN50160 to calculate P95% over a week. This possibil- This helps deploying active network control, e.g., preserving
ity to allocate P95% values of voltage levels for each 1 hour, voltage quality at the end–user level.
30 minutes or even 15 minutes gives a high compatibility of Other related PQ aspects to be quantified from SM data are
formats with the energy load profiles used by AMR/AMI sys- under study.
tems, which are collecting energy data over 60 min, 30 min or
15 min, for billing purposes. Reporting tools and their inter-
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492 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2017

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in Proc. IEEE PES Conf. MedPower, Athens, Greece, 2014. Mihaela M. Albu (M’98–SM’06) received the grad-
uation degree in 1987 and the Ph.D. degree from the
[17] D. C. Jayasuriya et al., “Modeling and validation of an unbal-
Politehnica University of Bucharest (UPB), Power
anced LV network using Smart Meter and SCADA inputs,” in Proc.
Engineering School. She is currently a Professor
IEEE TENCON Spring Conf., Sydney, NSW, Australia, Apr. 2013,
with the Department of Measurements, Electrical
pp. 386–390.
Engineering Faculty, UPB. She has authored about
[18] M. Music, A. Bosovic, N. Hasanspahic, S. Avdakovic, and E. Becirovic,
100 technical papers published in international
“Integrated power quality monitoring systems in smart distribution
journals and conference proceedings. Her cur-
grids” in Proc. IEEE Int. Energy Conf. Exhibit. (ENERGYCON),
rent research interests include WAMS, synchro-
Florence, Italy, 2012, pp. 501–506.
nized measurements, smart metering technologies,
[19] Y. Arafat, L. B. Tjernberg, and P.-A. Gustafsson, “Remote switching of dc microgrids, power quality, and control strategies
multiple smart meters and steps to check the effect on the grid’s power in active distribution networks. She has been serving in various positions for
quality, in Proc. IEEE PES T&D Conf. Expo., Chicago, IL, USA, 2014, the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society, since 2008.
pp. 1–5.
[20] A. von Meier, D. Culler, A. McEachern, and R. Arghandeh, “Micro- Mihai Sănduleac (M’11) received the B.Sc. and
synchrophasors for distribution systems,” in Proc. IEEE Innov. Smart Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the
Grid Technol. Conf. (ISGT), Washington, DC, USA, 2014, pp. 1–5. Politehnica University of Bucharest in 1985 and
[21] K. Koziy, B. Gou, and J. Aslakson, “A low-cost power-quality meter 1998, respectively. He was with Energy Research
with series arc-fault detection capability for smart grid,” IEEE Trans. Institute ICEMENERG Bucharest, including the
Power Del., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1584–1591, Jul. 2013. Head of the Research in Power Systems Laboratory.
[22] IEC Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)—Part 4-7: Testing He is currently the Research and Development
and Measurement Techniques—General Guide on Harmonics and Director of ECRO, a Romanian company per-
Interharmonics Measurements and Instrumentation, for Power Supply forming Research and Development and consul-
Systems and Equipment Connected Thereto, IEC Standard 61000-4-7. tancy for power industry. He was a recipient of
[23] L’AUTORITÀ PER L’ENERGIA ELETTRICA E IL GAS, the 2011 IEEE-PES Chapter Outstanding Engineer
“Direttive per l’installazione di misuratori elettronici di energia Award from the IEEE PES Romania Chapter.
elettrica predisposti per la telegestione per i punti di prelievo
in bassa tensione,” Italian Regulatory Order 18, no. 292/06 Carmen Stănescu (M’16) received the M.Sc. and
Obligations for the installation of electronic meters for low volt- Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the
age withdrawal points (in Italian), Dec. 2006. [Online]. Available: Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania. She
http://www.autorita.energia.it/it/docs/06/292-06.htm is currently the Head of the Sibiu OMEPA Metering
[24] New Cost-Efficient Business Models for Flexible Smart Grids. Branch, Romanian TSO Transelectrica, and an
(Aug. 2016). NOBEL GRID Project, 2015–2018. [Online]. Available: Associate Professor with University Lucian Blaga,
http://nobelgrid.eu/ Sibiu, Romania. Her main research interests include
[25] M. Sanduleac, M. Albu, J. Martins, M. D. Alacreu, and C. Stanescu, energy metering and power quality. She is a mem-
“Power quality assessment in LV networks using new smart meters ber of the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement
design,” in Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Compat. Power Electron. (CPE), Society, CIGRE, WG CIGRE&CIRED&IEEE, and
Costa da Caparica, Portugal, Jun. 2015, pp. 106–112. ASRO, the Romanian Standards Association.