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Santosh Nemade

9833590231

CHAPTER -1

INTRODUCTION

Importance of RF circuit:

Due to rapid growth of wireless communication there is need to design more

compact amplifiers, filters, oscillators, mixers and use this circuitary at frequencies

above 1GHz.

Reason for using RF/Microwave:

1] Wider Bandwidth due to higher operating frequency because of this it is

possible to carry more information.

2] Smaller component size leading to a compact size of system.

3] More available and less crowded frequency spectrum.

6] High antenna gain and directivity are possible with a smaller size

antenna.

The major applications of RF/Microwave signals are

1] Telecommunication application such as cellular radio.

2] RADAR .

3] Navigation.

4] Remote sensing.

5] Domestic and industrial applications.

6] Medical applications.

7] Surveillance system.

8] Astronomy and space communication.

1

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Radio frequency electronic circuit differs from the low frequency electronic

circuit because of presence of following effects.

1] Presence of stray capacitance and stray inductance affect the operation of the

circuit. Stray capacitance is the capacitance that exist between

Conductor of circuit.

Conductor and component or ground.

Between component.

Stray inductance is the normal inductance of conductor that connects components

and inductance of component leads. Stray capacitance and inductance have

negligible effect at low frequencies but at Radio frequency they play an important

role in the operation of circuits.

2] Skin effect exists at Radio frequency

As frequency increases skin effect produces smaller zone of conduction and

correspondingly higher values of AC resistance compare to DC resistance.

3] Radiation:

It exists at RF frequencies. The signal at RF frequency find easier to radiate both

form the circuit and within the circuit thus the coupling effect between elements of

the circuits, between circuits and its environments and from environment to circuit

becomes more critical at RF.

Dimension and unit:

In free space the plane EM waves propagate in the Z direction is represented as

Ex = Eox cos(wt-βz)

Hy = Hoy cos(wt-βz)

Where, Ex is electric field in x direction.

Hy is magnetic field in y direction.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Ex & Hy are perpendicular to each other and both are orthogonal to the direction of

propagation of wave. This is known as Transvers EM waves.

Propagation constant of TEM wave is

𝛾 = α + jβ

α = Attenution constant its unit is nepher/m

For free space α = 0

∵ γ = jβ

β = Phase constant, it is defined as the measure of phase shifts in ‘rad/unit length’

its unit is rad/m.

2π

β= = ω√μ0 ϵ0 for free space.

λ

The EM waves propagate in air with the speed of light C = 3 X 108 m/sec.

When wave propagate in another medium then its speed is reduces and it is called

‘phase velocity’.

C

VP = ∈r = Relative permittivity.

√ ∈r

ω

VP =

β

The wavelength of the wave is defined as the distance travel by the wave in one

cycle duration.

C

λ = For free space

f

2π 𝑉𝑃

λ= = Its unit is ‘m’

β 𝑓

𝜇 𝜇𝑜 𝜖𝑜

𝑍=√ =√

𝜖 𝜇𝑟 𝜖𝑟

3

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

𝜇𝑜 1 377

𝑍=√ × = Ω

𝜖𝑜 √𝜖𝑟 √𝜖𝑟

μ0

Z0 = √ = 120π or 377Ω

ϵ0

From VHF/UHF the dimension of wavelength is equivalent to the physical size of the

component or circuit from this region we need to take into account the wave nature

of current and voltages in the respective electronic circuit.

4

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The radio frequency spectrum is associated from VHF to S band. The microwave

frequency associated with radar system operating in the C band and above.

RF Passive Components:-

1] Wire:

Wire in an RF circuit it can take many form wire wound resistor, inductor and axial &

radial leaded capacitors all use a wire of same size and length either in their lead or

in in the actual body of the component. Wire is also used in many interconnected

application in the lower RF frequency spectrum.

The behavior of the wire depends on the wire diameter and length. To standardize

the size of wire ‘American Wire Gauge’ System (AWG) is used. In AWG system the

diameter of wire will be approximately double for every six wire gauge.

e.g. Diameter of AWG 50 wire is 1mil; then what is the diameter of AWG 14 wire?

Skin effect:

A conductor at low frequencies utilizes its entire cross sectional area as a transport

medium for charge carriers. But as the frequency increases the magnetic field

produced by AC charge carrier also increases at the center of the conductor this

magnetic field offer the impedance for the charge carrier therefore the current

density at the Centre of the conductor decreases and it is increases near the edge of

the conductor. This is called ‘Skin effect’. It occurs in all conductors including

component lead.

The depth into the conductor at which charge carrier current density falls to

1

or 37% of its value along the surface is known as ‘Skin depth’. Different

e

conductors have different skin depth & it is

1

δ=

√πfμσ

σ Conductivity of medium.

μ Permeability of medium.

f Operating frequency.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The net result of skin effect is an effective decrease in the cross sectional area of the

conductor & therefore a net increase in the AC resistance of wire.

The DC resistance of proper conductor of radius ‘a’ & length ‘l’, conductivity ‘σ’

𝜌𝑙

𝑅𝐷𝐶 =

𝐴

𝑙

𝑅𝐷𝐶 =

𝜋𝑎2 𝜎

The ac resistance of proper wire is

a

R = 𝑅𝐷𝐶

2δ

a

R = 𝑅𝐷𝐶 √πfμδ

2

This equation shows that the AC resistance increase in frequency and it is inversely

proportional to ‘Skin depth’ or Cross sectional skin area.

The internal inductance of straight wire is associated with the magnetic field buildup

within the conductor and it is

a

𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑡 = 𝑅𝐷𝐶

2wδ

The external inductance takes into account the magnetic field outside the current

carrying conductor and it is

𝜇𝑂 𝑙 2𝑙

𝐿𝑒𝑥 = [ln ( ) − 1]

2𝜋 𝑎

capacitor?

2] Resistors at High Frequency:

Resistance is the property of material that determines the rate at which electrical

energy is converted into heat energy for given electric current.

Various types of resistances are

i] Carbon composition Resistor: made up of high density carbon granular.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

iii] Metal film resistor: of temperature stable material.

iv] Thin film chip resistor: of Aluminum or beryllium based material.

Out of these thin film chip resistors are used at RF & microwave circuits as ‘Surface

mounted Devices’.(SMD). Chip resistors are popular because of extremely small size

& offer very small parasitic reactance up to 2GHz.

Ca Distributed Capacitance. C𝑏 Inter-electrode Capacitance.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

For low frequencies jwl & jwc are very small. Therefore neglect it & Z is nearly equal

to R then as the frequency increases above 10MHz the effect of stray capacitance

becomes dominate because of this impedance of resistor decreases with increase in

frequency. At very high frequency i.e. near about 20 GHz the resonance occurs and

resistor provides minimum impedance.

As the frequency increases above resonant frequency the lead inductance becomes

dominant which increases the impedance of resistor with frequency. Thus at high

frequencies resistor can behave as inductor and capacitance also.

3] Capacitors at High Frequency:

The capacitor is the device which opposes the change in voltage and it consists of

two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating material or dielectric. The

capacitors are used extensively in RF applications such as bypassing, inter stage

coupling in resonant circuit and in filters.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

∈A ∈0 ∈𝑟 A

C= =

d 𝑑

∈𝑟 Permittivity of dielectric.

d Distance/separation between plates.

A Cross sectional area of plate.

Ideally there is no current flow between the plate. However at high frequencies

dielectric material becomes lossy and current flows through dielectric. So the

conductance offered by the dielectric is ’Ge’. So the total impedance of capacitor

can be written as the parallel combination of conductance and susceptance jWC.

1

Where Z=

Ge +jWC

1 1 𝜎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙

Ge = = = 𝐴

R e δd 𝑑

A

Dissipation factor or series loss tangent is the parameter of dielectric material that

quantifies the dissipation of EM energy in dielectric.

Ge 𝜎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙

Df = tan ∆s = =

WC W∈

The series loss tangent is defined as the ratio of an equivalent series Resistance

(ESR) to the capacitive reactance.

ESR

tan ∆s =

XC

series loss tangent of dielectric or dissipation factor measure how much lossy the

dielectric material is

σ

If ≪ 1 then material is good dielectric.

Wϵ

σ

If ≫ 1 then material is good conductor.

Wϵ

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Where

L Lead inductance.

R S Losses in lead resistance.

R e Dielectric loss resistance.

Impedance offered by the capacitor at radio frequency is

1

Z = (R S + jWL) +

Ge +jWC

1

≫ R S + jWL

Ge +jWC

1

Z ≅

Ge + jWL

This shows that in this region as the frequency increases the impedance offered by

the capacitor decreases. Thus in this region capacitor behave like ideal capacitor.

ii] At F = 𝐟𝐫 inductive reactance becomes equal to capacitive reactance. Therefore

series resonance occurs and capacitor offer minimum impedance and it is

Z = RS + Re

The resonance frequency of capacitor is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

1 1 1

f𝑟 = √ − 2 2

2π LC R C

1

(R S + jWL) ≫

Ge +jWC

𝑍 = R S + jwL

This shows that in this region impedance of capacitor increases with increase in

frequency. Thus in this region the capacitor behave like a inductor. The variation of

impedance of capacitor with respect to frequency is as shown.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

2a Diameter of wire.

2𝑟 Diameter of air core.

d Separation between turns.

l Length of coil.

N Number of turns

lwire Length of wire.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

inductance in addition to frequency dependent resistance. The figure shows how

the inductor really looks at radio frequencies.

Whenever we bring two conductors into close proximity but separated by dielectric

then a capacitance is formed. Such a distributed capacitance formed in an inductor.

Therefore the equivalent circuit of inductor at radio frequency is

effect of distributed capacitance Cd and resistance Rd respectively

The impedance offered by inductor is,

1

Z = (R S + jWL) ||

jWCs

The effect of distributed capacitance on the behavior of inductor is as shown in

figure.

13

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

1

≫ R S + jWL

jWCs

Z = R S + jwl

This shows that as frequency increases so impedance increases so in this region

inductor behave like ideal inductor.

ii]At f = fr parallel resonance occurs in the circuit the impedance offer by the

inductor is maximum and it is

L

Z=

CR S

The resonant frequency is

1 1 R2

fr = √ −

2π LC L2

1

≪ R S + jWL

jWCs

1

Z≅

jWCs

This shows that as frequency increases impedance of inductor decreases. Thus in

this region inductor behave like a capacitor.

14

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Chip Components:

1] Chip resistor:

The size of chip resistor can be as small as 40 x 20mil for 0.5W Power and it is 1 x 1

inch for 1000W Power rating usually used in Power amplifier.

The standard sizes of chip resistor are

Size Code Length mil Width mil

0402 40 20

0603 60 30

0805 80 50

1206 120 60

1218 120 180

First two digits in code denotes length of component in 10’S of mil and last two digit

denotes width of component in 10’S of mil.The chip resistors are available in the

range of 0.1Ω to 1MΩ with tolerance ‘± 5% to ± 0.01% ’.

The disadvantage of high value of resistance is

i] Difficult to manufacture.

ii] Produce parasitic field which affect the linearity of resistance verses frequency.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

1] A metal film usually of nichrome layer is deposited on ceramic body.

2] The resistance layer can be adjusted to desired value by reducing its length and

inserting inner electrode.

3] Contacts are made on both ends of resistor so that component to be solder on

the board.

4] The resistance film is coated with protective layer to prevent interference.

2] Surface mounted capacitors / chip capacitors:

16

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The chip capacitors are implemented as single plate configuration or multiple layer

design. The single plate capacitor is combine in cluster of two element sharing a

common dielectric material and a common bottom electrode. The standard size of

capacitor are from 15 x 15mil to 400 x 425mil. The capacitance available in the

range of 0.1pF to several microfarad with tolerance range is ±2% to ±50% for small

capacitances tolerances are usually expressed in terms of pF instead % present e.g.

(0.5±0.25)pF.

3] Surface Mounted Inductor:

It is in the forms of wire wound coil with air core .Typical sizes surface mounted wire

wound inductors are 60 X 30mil to 180 X 120mil. The inductor available in the range

of 1nH to 1000μH.

The flat coil configuration is as shown in figure. Flat inductors are offer integrated

with micro strip Transmission line. Such thin wire coil has low inductance of the

order of 1nH to 500nH but since this is operated on GHz frequency they can offer

reactance beyond 1KΩ.

17

Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

CHAPTER- 2

Transmission line

Transmission line is a medium for transmitting information as guiding energy from

one point to another.

Consider the simple electric circuit consists of load resistor R L and voltage source VS

with internal resistance R S connected to load by means of 1.5cm long copper wire.

The resistance of copper wire is negligible if we apply source signal of frequency

1MHz and wire having ∈𝑟 = 10 and μr = 1 then the wavelength of signal is

VP C 3×108

λ= = =

f f√∈r 106 ×√16

λ = 94.86m

For 1MHz signal the wavelength (λ) = 94.86m which is much large as compared to

1.5cm copper wire because of that voltage and current are assumed to be constant

along the length of the wire. So the Kirchhoff’ circuit law (KCL) can be applied for the

analysis of 1.5cm copper wire.

However when the frequency of source signal is increased to 10GHz then the

wavelength of the signal reduces to λ = 0.0949cm and this is approximately 2/3 of

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

length of wire. Because of this voltage and current are not constant along the length

of line. i.e voltage and current are spatial in nature. So the Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law

cannot be directly applied.

To overcome this drawback if the line is subdivided into elements of small segments

over which voltage and current can assumed to be remains constant then the

Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law can be applied for the analysis of such line.

When the wavelength of signal is less than or equal to 10 times the length of

discrete components then Transmission line theory is used which is based on

distributed components.

In this case the length of Transmission line is 1.5cm

λ ≤ 10 l

VP

≤ 10 × 1.5cm

f

C

≤ 1.5cm

√∈r f

C

f≥

√∈r ×15cm

3 × 108

f ≥

√10 ×15 ×10−2 f ≥ 633MHz

As long as f < 633MHz we can use circuit theory based on KVL and KCL & when

f ≥ 633MHz we have to use Transmission line theory based on distributed

components.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The Transmission line is subdivided into the small segment of length ∆𝑍 . For this

small segment we can apply Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law. When current flows through the

conductor, magnetic field produces around it. This magnetic field opposes the

change in current through the conductor which indicates that conductor has the

inductance. There is a potential drop across the line which indicates that the line has

resistance. In Transmission line two conductors are separated by insulator.

Therefore the line has capacitance. The line is separated by dielectric and no

dielectric is a perfect insulator, so the dielectric provides some conductance.

Therefore the equivalent circuit of Transmission line is as shown in figure. If the

resistance and inductance of the upper and lower conductor are combined then the

simplified forms of equivalent circuit of Transmission line is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The component R, L, C & G are distributed along the length of Transmission line

therefore they are called distributed components and they are measured in per unit

length of line. The values of distributed components depend on geometry of

Transmission line, characteristics of dielectric material and operating frequency. R,

L, C, and G are called primary constants of Transmission line.

R Resistance per unit length of line (Ω/m)

L Inductance per unit length of line(H/m)

C Capacitance per unit length of line(F/m)

G Conductance per unit length of line(℧/m)

The secondary constants of Transmission line are propagation constant

γ & characteristics impedance Z0

The propagation constant of lossless Transmission line is

The characteristics impedance of lossless Transmission line is

R+jWL

Z0 = √

G+jWC

L

Z0 = √

C

Kirchhoff’s voltage and current law representation:

(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The line is said to be infinite if its length tends to infinity. For such line any signal fed

from the transmitting end will never reach to the receiving end which will never

cause back reflection of signals. The ratio of voltage and current at any point of such

line is called characteristics impedance. Practically such line is impossible to

construct therefore to prepare a workable model of such line we terminate any

Transmission line into its characteristics impedance. So the Transmission line which

is terminated by its characteristics impedance is called infinite Transmission line. For

such line the forward waves will be completely absorbed by the load and there is no

back reflection so the Transmission line equation of an infinite Transmission line

reduces too.

V = Vf e-rz = Vs e-rz

Vs

I = If e-rz = Zo e-rz

Terminated lossless Transmission line:

A Transmission line is said to be lossless if the conductivity of the line is infinite and

the dielectric medium between the lines is lossless i.e. the conductivity of dielectric

is zero. So the line is said to be lossless if R=G=0. The characteristics impedance of

lossless Transmission line is

R+jWL

Z0 = √

G+jWC

L

Z0 = √

C

The propagation constant of lossless Transmission line is

But R=G=0

γ = jW√LC = α + jβ

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

α=0

β = W√LC

W 1

VP = =

β √LC

This equation shows that the phase velocity is independent on frequency therefore

lossless Transmission line is non-dispersive medium like free space.The medium is

said to be dispersive if phase velocity is the function of frequency.

The propagation constant α, β, γ & Z0 is called secondary constants of

Transmission line.

Reflection Coefficient (⎾0 ):

The voltage reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of reflected voltage to the

incident voltage. The reflection coefficient is a vector quantity.

reflected voltage

⎾0 =

Forward voltage

Vr

⎾0 =

VF

Consider a finite Transmission line segment of length ‘l’ and is terminated by

load ZL ≠ Z0 .

The load is assumed to be located at Z=0 and the source is coupled to line at Z = - l

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

V Vf +Vr Vf +Vr

ZL = I = If +Ir

= Vf Vr

−

Z0 Z0

Vf +Vr

= Z0 ( )

Vf −Vr

V

(1+ Vr )

f

ZL = Z0 Vr

(1− V )

f

Vr Vr

ZL (1 − ) = Z0 (1 + )

Vf Vf

V

(ZL − Z0 ) = (ZL + Z0 ) ( r )

Vf

Vr ZL −Z0

⎾0 = =

Vf ZL +Z0

ZL −Z0

∴ ⎾0 =

ZL +Z0

Z

(1−Z0 )

L

= Z0

(1+Z )

L

As ZL = ∞

⎾0 = 1

This means the reflected voltage wave return with the same polarity with the

incident voltage wave.

∴ ⎾0 = −1

This means the reflected voltage wave return with the inverted polarity w.r.t.

incident voltage wave.

3] When the load impedance matched with the line impedance

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

𝑉𝑟 = 0 ∴ ⎾0 = 0

Which means incident wave is completely absorbed by the load.

Standing Waves:

When ZL = Z0 , all the incident power is absorbed by the load this is called matched

line, non resonant line or resistive line.

When ZL ≠ Z0 some of the incident power is absorbed by the load and some is

returned to the source such line is called mismatch line or resonant line.

With mismatched line there are two electromagnetic waves travelling in opposite

direction at the same time along the length of Transmission line. When the incident

and reflected wave of same amplitude and frequency pass each other stationary

pattern of voltage and current wave are produced along the Transmission line called

as 'Standing Waves’. They are called stationary waves because the position of

maxima and minima are fixed along the Transmission line. The voltage and current

standing waves has maxima and minima separated by half wavelength as shown in

figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Standing wave ratio is defined as the ratio of maximum voltage to minimum voltage

or maximum current to minimum current of standing wave on Transmission line. It

is measure of mismatch between ZL & Z0

Vmax I

SWR = | | = | max|

Vmin Imin

Voltage maxima occur when the incident & reflected waves are in phase and voltage

minima occurs when the incident and reflected waves are out of phase.

Vmax = Vf + Vr

Vmin = rf + Vr

Vf +Vr

SWR =

Vf −Vr

V

(1+ r r )

f

= Vr

(1− r )

f

1+ |⎾0 |

SWR=

1−|⎾0 |

&

SWR − 1

|⎾0 | =

SWR + 1

1] For matched Transmission line i.e ZL = Z0

|⎾0 | = 0

∴ SWR = 1

2] For short circuit and open circuit Transmission line

|⎾0 | = 1

∴ SWR = ∞

Thus the standing wave ratio varies between 1 to ∞ as the reflection coefficient

varies from 0 to 1.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Higher the values of SWR indicates there is more mismatch betweenZL & Z0 .

When ZL is purely resistive

ZL

SWR = if ZL > Z0

Z0

Z0

= if Z0 > ZL

ZL

1] All the incident power does not reach to the load.

2] Reflection and Re-reflection causes more power loss.

3] Reflection causes Ghost images.

4] Mismatch causes noise interference.

Q. Derive the expression of input impedance of Transmission line terminated by

load impedance 𝐙𝐋 .

(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

1] Input impedance of lossless Transmission line

For lossless Transmission line

R=G=0&α=0

γ = jβ

tanh(𝛾𝑙) = tanh(𝑗𝛽𝑙) = 𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)

Therefore impedance of lossless Transmission line is,

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

L W 2π

Where Z0 = √ , β = =

C VP λ

Consider Transmission line of length ‘l’ terminated by short circuit

We know that,

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑍𝐿 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

But 𝑍𝐿 = 0

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

For lossless Short circuit line

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

We know that

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑉𝑟 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 − 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑓

Similarly 𝐼(𝑑) = (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 ) = 2 cos(𝛽𝑑)

𝑍𝑜 𝑍𝑜

The variation of input impedance, voltage ¤t of short circuit Transmission line

w.r.t. distance ‘l’ from load in as shown

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

ii] for increasing ‘d’ the impedance of short circuited Transmission line increases

and it is in +J form which indicates that the line is exhibits inductive behavior as

𝜆

long as 𝑑 < .

4

𝜆

iii] When 𝑑 = then impedance of line is infinite which indicate that quarter

4

wavelength short circuit Transmission line behave like a parallel resonant circuit.

𝜆 𝜆

iv] When d is in between 𝑡𝑜 then its input impedance in the form of – j which

4 2

indicate that line exhibit capacitive behavior.

𝜆

v] When 𝑑 = then its input impedance is zero which indicates that half

2

wavelength short circuited Transmission line behaves like series resonant circuit.

𝜆

the input impedance of Transmission line repeated for 𝑑 > . Thus input

2

𝜆

impedance of Transmission line is periodic in nature repeated after distance from

2

load.

3] Input Impedance of open circuit Transmission line:

Consider Tx line of length ‘l’ terminated by open circuit as shown

We know that

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑍𝐿 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

Z0

1+ tanh(𝛾𝑙)

ZL

Zin = Z0

Z0

+ tanh(𝛾𝑙)

ZL

But ZL = ∞

Therefore input impedance open circuited Transmission line is

𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = = 𝑍𝑂 coth(𝛾𝑙)

tanh(𝛾𝑙)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = = −𝑗𝑍𝑂 cot(𝛽𝑙)

𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)

We know that

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑉𝑟 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑓

Similarly 𝐼(𝑑) = (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 − 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 ) = 𝑗2 sin(𝛽𝑑)

𝑍𝑜 𝑍𝑜

The variation of Zin , voltage and current w.r.t. distance from load is as shown

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

The input impedance of open circuit Transmission line also varies w.r.t. frequency.

Zin = ZOC = −j cot(βl) × Z0

2πf

= −j cot ( l) × Z0

Vp

The input impedance of lossless Transmission line

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

For matched Transmission line

ZL = Z0

∴ Zin = Z0

independent on length of Transmission line.

jZO tan(𝛽𝑙) . ZOC is the input impedance of open circuited Transmission line and

𝑍𝑂

it is 𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 =

𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)

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ZO

∴ ZSC . ZOC = jZO tan βl ×

j tan βl

∴ ZSC . ZOC = ZO2

∴ ZO = √ZSC ZOC

𝜆

Consider the lossless Transmission line of length 𝑙 = terminated by load ZL .

2

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝜆

For half wavelength line 𝑙 =

2

2π λ

βl = . = π ∴ tan(π) = 0

λ 2

ZL

∴ Zin = Zo . ∴ Zin = ZL

ZO

If the line is exactly half wavelength long then its input impedance is equal to load

impedance and it is independent on characteristics impedance of Transmission line.

The input impedance of Transmission line repeats for every half wavelength.

6] Quarter wavelength Transmission line (Quarter wavelength Transformer)

𝜆

Consider the lossless Transmission line of length 𝑙 = terminated by ZL as shown.

4

𝜆

Let the impedance of Transmission line is ZT

4

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

λ

For Quarter wavelength line 𝑙 = , ZO = ZT

4

2π λ π

β𝑙 = . =

λ 4 2

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇

𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝜋

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 tan ( )

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2

𝜋

𝑍𝑇 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan (2 )

𝜋

sin ( )

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 2

𝜋

cos ( )

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2

𝜋

sin ( )

𝑍𝑇 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 2

𝜋

cos ( )

2

𝜋 𝜋

𝑍𝐿 cos ( ) + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 sin ( )

𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2 2

𝜋 𝜋

𝑍𝑇 cos (2 ) + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 sin ( 2 )

ZT

∴ Zin = ZT .

ZL

This is input impedance of Quarter wavelength Transmission line is

ZT = √Zin . ZL

λ

Where ZT Characteristics impedance of Transmission line

4

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

λ

Transmission line of length 𝑙 = is called Quarter wavelength transformer. It is

4

used to match the characteristics impedance of Transmission line with the purely

resistive load. The Quarter wavelength transformer is actually a Transmission line of

λ

length which acts as a transformer.

4

The input impedance of Transmission line varies from minimum to maximum for

every Quarter wavelength, therefore a Transmission line of Quarter wavelength act

as step up or step down transformer depending on whether ZL > Z0 or ZL < ZO .

λ

For impedance matching transformer is placed between a Transmission line and

4

its load as shown.

If the source VG with its internal impedance ZG connected to Transmission line

which is terminated by load ZL as shown in figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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1] Input Reflection Coefficient (⎾𝐢𝐧 )

It measures the mismatching between input impedance Zin and characteristics

impedance ZO of Transmission line.

𝑍𝐼𝑁 − 𝑍𝑂

⎾in =

𝑍𝐼𝑁 + 𝑍𝑂

2] Source Reflection Coefficient ( ⎾𝒔 )

It measures the miss matching between source impedance ZG and characteristics

impedance ZO of Transmission line

𝑍𝐺 − 𝑍𝑂

⎾S =

𝑍𝐺 + 𝑍𝑂

3] Output Reflection Coefficient ( ⎾𝐨𝐮𝐭 )

It measures the mismatching between output impedance 𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 and characteristic

impedance ZO of Tx. Line.

𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑍𝑂

⎾out =

𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑍𝑂

It measures the mismatch between load impedance ZL and characteristic ZO of Tx.

Line.

𝑍𝐿 − 𝑍𝑂

⎾L =

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂

The reflection Coefficient of Transmission line is a function of distance from the load

Therefore Reflection Coefficient at a distance ‘d ‘from load is

⎾(d) = ⎾𝟎 e−j2βd

If d = 0

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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⎾(d = 0) = ⎾0

If d = 𝑙 which is length of Transmission line

⎾((d = 𝑙)) = ⎾in = ⎾0 e−j2βl

Transmission Coefficient (T):

Transmission coefficient is defined as the ratio of transmitted voltage at the load to

the incident voltage.

We know that V(z) = 𝑉𝑓 e−γz + 𝑉𝑟 eγz

V(𝑙) = 𝑉𝑓 e−jβl + 𝑉𝑟 ejβl

V(𝑙 = 0) = 𝑉𝑓 (1 + ⎾0 )

V(𝑙)

T = = 1 + ⎾0

𝑉𝑓

coefficient at high frequency rather than to measure impedance. Therefore they are

more commonly used to characterize mismatching at input and output side of Tx.

Line.

Derive the expression of input power or power delivered to load of lossless

Transmission line terminated by load 𝐙𝐋 .

(Refer class note)

Return Loss:

Return loss is defined as the ratio of reflected power to the power incident at its

input.

Pr Pin−

Return Loss (R.L.) = =

Pi Pin+

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

|Vin− |2

R. L. = 2

|Vin+ |

|Vin− |2

∴ R. L. =

|Vin+ |2

R. L. = |⎾in |2

Return loss is expressed in decibel as

P

∴ R. L = −10 log | r|

Pi

= −10 log|⎾in |2

R. L = −20 log|⎾in |

Insertion Loss:

Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of transmitted power to the incident power at

its input.

Pt Pi −Pr P

Insertion Loss (I.L) = = = (1 − r)

Pi Pi P i

I. L = (1 − |⎾in |2 )

Insertion Loss in dB:

I. L = −10 log(1 − |⎾in |2 )

Show that return loss and insertion loss can be expressed in terms of standing

wave ratio as,

𝐒𝐖𝐑+𝟏

R.L= 𝟐𝟎 𝐥𝐨𝐠 ( )

𝐒𝐖𝐑−𝟏

𝐒𝐖𝐑+𝟏

& I.L = 𝟐𝟎 𝐥𝐨𝐠 ( )

𝟐√𝐒𝐖𝐑

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

1] Two wire Transmission line

2] Co axial Transmission line

3] Micro strip line

1] Two wire Transmission line:

Two wire Transmission line are capable of transmitting high frequency signals from

one location to another.

It consists of two conductors of radius ‘a’ separated by dielectric of permittivity ∈𝑟 .

Disadvantages:

1. The electric and magnetic lines emanating/originating from the conductor and

extend to infinity. Thus this affects the electronic equipment which is in the

vicinity of transmission line.

2. The wire pair acts as a large antenna therefore provide high radiation loss.

Application:

1. It is commonly used as 50Hz – 60Hz power line.

2. It is used to connect TV set to the yagi-uda Antenna.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

low. Therefore the wavelength of signal is very high in kilometers. Therefore

the distance can be easily extended to several kilometers. So that the length

of wire is comparable to that of wavelength of the signal.

2] Coaxial line:

It consists of inner conductor of radius ‘a’ and outer conductor of radius ‘b’

separated by dielectric of permittivity ′ ∈𝑟 ′ . Usually the outer conductor is in the

form of mesh which minimizes radiation loss and field interference.

Application:

It is used for almost all measuring equipment at frequencies up to 10GHz.

3] Microstrip Lines:

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

(t), width (w) and a conducting ground plane separated by dielectric substrate of

thickness (h) & permittivity ∈𝑟 .

The field pattern of microstrip line is as shown in figure. Due to open structure of

microstrip line, the electromagnetic field is not confined to dielectric but this is

partly exposed to surrounding air. Therefore microstrip involves abrupt dielectric

interference between substrate and air above it. Therefore microstrip line is mixed

dielectric Transmission line system. Any Transmission line which is filled with

uniform dielectric can support single mode of propagation like TEM but the

microstrip line do not have a uniform dielectric filling. Therefore cannot support

single mode of propagation. Although this is true the most of energy is travel along

the Transmission line with field distribution like TEM. The mode of propagation of

microstrip line is usually referred as Quazi-TEM.

Because of mixed dielectric some field is radiated into the air this is called fringing.

w

The fringing field depends on ratio of microstrip line.

h

The dielectric constant of microstrip line is called effective dielectric constant and it

is defined as

C

∈eff =

C1

Where C=> Capacitance per unit length of microstrip line with dielectric substrate.

C1 => Capacitance per unit length of microstrip line with air dielectric.

w

For wide microstrip i.e when >> 1 then most of field is confined to the dielectric

h

substrate and it is very similar to parallel plate capacitor and fringing field is almost

negligible.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

w

For narrow microstrip line i.e <<< 1 then the most of field are field are fring out

h

and very small electric field confined to substrate.

Such microstrip lines are used as microstrip antenna. Microstrip line have been used

extensively because

1] The mode of propagation is almost TEM.

2] Easily manufactured using PCB.

3] They provide air free and accessible surface on which solid state devices can be

placed.

4] It is suitable for frequency above 1 GHz.

w

1] If and ∈r are given then to find characteristics impedance Z0 and effective

h

constant ∈eff .

w

i] If ≤1

h

60 8h w

Z0 = ln [ + ]

√∈eff w 4h

−1⁄

∈r +1 ∈r −1 12h 2 w 2

∈eff = + [(1 + ) + 0.04 (1 − ) ]

2 2 w h

w

ii] If If >1

h

377

Z0 = w 2 W

√∈eff [1.393+ h + 3 ln( h +1.444)]

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

−1⁄

∈r +1 ∈r −1 12h 2

∈eff = + (1 + )

2 2 w

w

2] If Z0 and ∈eff are given to find

h

W

i] For narrow microstrip ( ) ≤ 2, Z0 ≥ 44.2 ∈r

h

W 8eA

=

h e2A −2

Z0 ∈𝑟 +1 ∈𝑟 −1 0.11

Where A = √ + (0.23 + )

60 2 ∈𝑟 +1 ∈𝑟

𝑊

Ii] 𝐹𝑜𝑟 ≥2

ℎ

𝑊 2 ∈𝑟 − 1 0.61

= [𝐵 − 1 − ln(2𝐵 − 1) + {ln(𝐵 − 1) + 0.39 − }]

ℎ 𝜋 2 ∈𝑟 ∈𝑟

Where

377𝜋

𝐵=

2𝑍𝑜 √∈𝑟

Parameter Twowire line Coaxial cable Parallel plate line

R 1 1 1 1 1

( + )

πaσcond δ 2πσcond δ a b Wσcond δ

L μ D μ b d

cos h ( ) ln ( ) μ

π 2a 2π q w

G πσdiel 2πσdiel W

D σdiel

cos h ( ) b d

2a ln ( )

q

C πϵ 2πϵ W

D ∈

cos h ( ) b d

2a ln ( )

q

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

CHAPTER- 4

RF FILTER DESIGN

Filter is a device which passing specific band of frequencies with maximum gain or

zeroing attenuation and rejecting or heavily attenuates the frequencies outside

these bands.

Depending upon the frequencies allowed to pass the filters are classified as

1] Low Pass Filter 2] High Pass Filter

3] Band Pass Filter 4] Band reject / Band stop Filter

1] Law Pass Filter:

It is allowed to pass low frequencies (W < W0 ) with maximum gain and heavily

attenuate the high frequencies(W > W0 ).

It is allowed to pass high frequencies with maximum gain and heavily attenuated the

low frequencies(W < W0 ).

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

It is allowed to pass one band of frequencies which is in between WL & WH and

reject or heavily attenuate two bands of frequencies which are below or above pass

band.

BW = WH − WL

The quality factor of filter is

f0 f0

Q= =

BW fH −fL

Band stop filter reject one band of frequency which is in between WL & WL &

allowed to pass other band of frequencies.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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Filter Approximation:

The frequency response of Low Pass Filter using different approximation is as shown

in figure. In reality there is no circuitary which provide the ideal frequency response

of filter. We use the practical circuit which provides the approximate frequency

response which is closer to the ideal one. This is called filter approximation. The

filter approximation depends on the alignment of its quality factor which in turn

depends upon values of filter component.

Q. Explain why the ideal filter response cannot be realized?

Ideal response of filter having zero attenuation in the pass band because we assume

that filter component L&C are lossless however practically L&C have the losses, also

ideal filter does not have transition band or skirt that means Ideal filter provides

infinite attenuation for the undesired signal frequency but due to the component

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

imperfections & due to the limited number of filter component infinite attenuation

is not possible.

There are three types of filter approximation.

1] Butterworth approximation.

2] Chebyshev approximation.

3] Elliptic approximation.

1] Butterworth approximation:

These are the medium quality factor filters usually used for audio communication.

To get butterworth approximation the quality factor is set to 0.707. its advantages is

that It provides maximally flat frequency response during pass band and its

response is monotonic. But its drawback is that its frequency response is slower in

transition band i.e roll of rate is less in transition band.to achieve a steep

attenuation transition from passband to stopband a large number of components is

needed which increases the complexity of circuit.

2] Chebyshave approximation:

These are the high quality factor filters. It provides better steeper attenuation in

transition band at the expense of ripples during pass band region.

3] Elliptical approximation:

This provides steepest transiton from passband to stopband at the expense of ripple

in both the band. For such filter quality factor is very high.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Filter Parameters:

The generic attenuation profile for a band pass filter is as shown in figure.

1] Insertion Loss:

When the lossless Transmission line is matched with source and load then power

delivered to load is equal to the input power.

if the filter is inserted between source and load then some power dissipated across

the filter during its passband so the power delivered to load reduced and it is less

than input power. So the insertion loss is defined as the amount of loss of power

across the filter during its pass band and it quantifies how much below the 0dB line

the power amplitude response drops.

Pin

I. L[dB] = 10 log | |

PL

2] Ripple:

It measures the flatness of response in passband of filter and it is expressed in either

in decibel or neper. It is difference between the maximum and minimum amplitude

response in the pass band of the filter.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

3] Bandwidth:

It is the difference between the higher and lower cutoff frequency of the filter at

which its response is 3dB below from the pass band response. It is also called half

power bandwidth.

𝐵𝑊 = 𝑓ℎ − 𝑓𝑙

4] Shape factor:

It is defined as the ratio of bandwidth at 60dB to the bandwidth at 3dB & its

measure the steepness of the frequency response. For ideal filter shape factor is 1

and for practical filter shape factor is > 1.

BW at 60dB

Shape Factor =

BW at 3dB

5] Rejection:

Ideal filter provides infinite attenuation for the undesired signal frequency but due

to the component imperfections & due to the limited number of filter component

infinite attenuation is not possible. So, practical filter design specifies 60dB as

rejection rate.

6] Quality Factor:

It is a ratio of resonant frequency to the bandwidth of filter

f0 f0

Q= =

B.W B.W

It is the measure of selectivity of filter. Higher the Q, narrow is the bandwidth and

higher is its selectivity. Consider the filter is connected between source and load as

shown in figure.

d = df + dE

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

dE Dissipation factor of external component.

The total loaded quality factor of filter is inversely proportional to total dissipation

factor.

1 1 1

= +

Q LD Q F Q E

Q F Quality factor of filter circuit (unloaded Q F )

Q E Quality factor of external components.

Let ZG = R G & ZL = R L

1

1 RL C RL

S

R L || = 1 =

CS RL +C RL CS +1

S

RL

(RL CS +1)

V0 = RL VG VDR

+RG +R

(RL CS +1)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

V0 RL

H(S) = =

Vi RL +(R+RG )(RL CS +1)

1

= 1

1+(R+RG )(CS +R )

L

Put S = jw

1

H(jw) =

1

1 + (R + R G ) (jWC +

RL)

RL

H(jw) = = Constant

RL +RG +R

2] At high frequencies i.e w = ∞

H(jw) =0

Therefore high frequencies are rejected by the filter and the circuit acts as low pass

filter.

Attenuation in dB of LPF

α(dB) = −20 log|H(jW)|

I H(jW)

∅ = tan−1 ( m )

Re H(jW)

Group delay:

It is defined as the rate of change of phase angle with respect to input frequency

‘w’.

The typical frequency response of low pass filter for different load will be as shown

in figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Let ZL = R L , ZG = R G

R.RL

R ||R L =

R+RL

R.RL

R+RL

V0 = R.RL 1

VG (VDR)

R+RL

+(C +RG )

S

T.F of filter is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

V0 R.RL

H(S) = = 1

VG R.RL +(R+RL )(RG +C )

S

1 1

= 1 = 1 1 1

1+(R+RL )(RG + ) 1+( + )(RG + )

CS RL R CS

R.RL

Put S = jw

1

H(w) = 1 1 1

1+( + )(RG + )

RL R jWC

H(jw) = = 0

Low frequencies are attenuated by filter.

2] At high frequencies w = ∞

1

H(jw) = 1 1

= Constant

1+(R +R)RG

L

So at high frequency gain is maximum and constant. Therefore circuit acts as high

pass filter.The frequency response for different values of load is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Let ZG = R G , ZL = R L

The series RLC circuit acts as BPF. The impedance of series RLC circuit is

1

Z = R + jwL +

jWC

1

= R + j (wL − )

WC

ZL

V0 = V (VDR)

ZL +ZG +Z G

V0 ZL

H(jw) = = 1

VG ZL +ZG +R+j(wL−WC)

The attenuation in dB is

α = −20 log|H(jw)|

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

ZL

= −20 log [ 2

]

√(ZL +ZG +R)2 +(wL− 1 )

WC

1

wL−

−1 WC

φ(W) = tan [Z ]

L +ZG +R

Circuit operation:

In Low Frequency region i.e. when 𝑓 < 𝑓𝑙 reactance offered by capacitance is very

high. Therefore the impedance of series RLC circuit is large so the voltage drop

across series RLC circuit is more and hence output voltage is less. Gain is less. In this

way low frequencies are heavily attenuated by this filter.

Similarly in the high frequency region i.e when 𝑓 > 𝑓ℎ inductive reactance is high.

Therefore the impedance of series RLC circuit is high so drop across it is more and

hence output voltage is less so gain is less. Thus high frequencies are heavily

attenuated by this filter.

In mid frequency region the inductive reactance is neutralized with capacitive

reactance & series resonance occurs in circuit. So the impedance of series RLC

circuit is minimum. So the drop across it is less and hence output voltage is more so

gain is high. Thus the mid frequencies are allowed to pass through filter with

maximum gain and hence series RLC circuit act as band pass filter.

ZG = R G , ZL = R L

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

R E = R G + R L external component

W0 L 1

QF = =

R RW0 C

ii] External quality factor.

W0 L 1

QF = =

RE R E W0 C

iii] Loaded quality factor(Q LD ):

1 1 1

= +

Q LD Q F Q E

W0 L 1

Q LD = =

(R + R E ) (R + R E )W0 C

The admittance of parallel RLC circuit is

1

Y = G + CS +

LS

1

= G + j (wc − )

WL

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

V0 ZL

H(jw) = = 1

VG ZL +ZG +(WC−WL)

ZL

V0 = × VG (VDR)

ZL +ZG +Z

ZL

= 1 × VG

ZL +ZG +

Y

V0 ZL

H(jw) = =

VG Z + Z + (WC − 1 )

L G WL

The typical frequency response is as shown

Circuit operation:

In low frequency region the inductive reactance of parallel RLC circuit is less.

Impedance of parallel RLC circuit is inductive and it is less so drop across it is less

output voltage is more so gain is high. Therefore the low frequency signals are

allowed to pass by this filter with high gain.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

Similarly in high frequency region impedance of parallel RLC circuit is capacitive and

it is less so drop across it is less output voltage is more so gain is high. Hence high

frequencies are allowed to pass through this filter with high gain.

For mid frequencies parallel resonance occurs in circuit so impedance of parallel RLC

circuit is high hence drop across it is more and output voltage is less gain is less.

Thus the mid frequencies are heavily attenuated by this filter.

(Refer class notes)

Expression of Insertion loss of BPF:

(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

9833590231

In filter realization first the low pass filter is designed at the normalized frequency

𝑊

Ω= = 1Hz and source and load resistance of 1Ω. Such filter is called Prototype

𝑊𝐶

Low Pass Filter. Then it can be transformed into HPF, BPF and Band stop filter.

1] Butterworth filters realization:

Butterworth filter is medium quality factor filter it is used in application where

maximally flat magnitude response is required. Butterworth response does not have

ripple in the passband.

1] The frequency range 0 ≤ Ω ≤ 1 is called Pass band.

2] The frequency range Ω ≥ 1 is called Stop band.

3] In Pass band response is maximally flat.

4] In Stop band response is monotonic.

5] The magnitude of transfer function of butter worth response is

𝐻

|𝐻(Ω)| =

√1+Ω2 𝑁

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𝐻

6] At Ω = 1 |𝐻(Ω)| =

√2

7] In Stop band the slope of magnitude response is -20NdB/ decade.

8] The attenuation in stop band is called Insertion loss.

𝐴𝑑𝐵 = 𝐼. 𝐿 = 10 log[1 + Ω2𝑁 ]

There are two types of Prototype LPF which are as shown.

𝑔0 = 𝑔𝑁+1 = 1

(2m−1)π

g m = 2 sin [ ] Where m=1,2,……..N

2N

g1 = g N

g 2 = g N−1 g 3 = g N−2 & So on

Frequency Denormalization:

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the actual operating frequency is different than normalized frequency. So there is

need to convert from normalized frequency to actual frequency & this is done by

using frequency denormalization.

WC = 2πfc

Impedance Denormalization:

In a prototype filter design the normalized source and load impedance is of 1 Ω.

However in actual circuit these impedances are different than 1 Ω. Therefore there is

need to convert normalized resistance into actual resistances by using impedance

denormalization.

Znew

Z=

Zold

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1] Steeper decrease into stop band of response is required.

2] Pass band response is no longer required to be flat i.e ripple can be allowed in pass

band. higher the ripple in the passband, the magnitude response is more steeper in

stop band.

3] The attenuation or insertion loss of chebyshev filter can be obtained as

𝐴𝑑𝐵 = 10 log[1 + 𝑎2 TN2 (Ω)]

Where, 𝑇𝑁 (Ω) = 𝑁𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑏𝑦𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑣 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑦𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑎𝑙, 𝑖𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠

𝑇𝑁 (Ω) = cos[𝑁 cos −1 (Ω)] 𝑓𝑜𝑟 |Ω| ≤ 1

= cosh[𝑁 cos −1 Ω] 𝑓𝑜𝑟 |Ω| > 1

The chebyshev polynomials for different values of N are,

T0 (Ω) = 1

T1 (Ω) = Ω

TN (Ω) = 2Ω TN−1 (Ω) − TN−2 (Ω)

The higher order chebyshev polynomial can be obtained by using the formula

TN (Ω) = 2Ω TN−1 (Ω) − TN−2 (Ω)

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‘a’ constant factor that allows us to control the height of ripple in the passband

region and it can be obtained as

∴ a = √100.1𝐾𝑃 −1

Where K p = Maximum ripple allowed in Passband

The magnitude of transfer function is

1

|H(Ω)| =

√1+a2 T2N (Ω)

1] Frequency range 0 ≤ Ω ≤ 1 is called Pass band.

2] Frequency range Ω ≥ 1 is called Stop band.

3] In Pass band the response exhibit equal ripple characteristics.

4] The stop band response is monotonic.

1

5] At Ω = 1 the magnitude of response is |H(Ω)| = & it is independent on

√1+a2

order of filter.

6] The magnitude of Transfer Function is

|H(Ω)| = 1 for N = odd When Ω = 0

1

|H(Ω)| = for N = even When Ω = 0

√1+a2

7] In Pass band the peak corresponding to frequency at which the value of chebyshev

polynomial TN (Ω) = 0 & valley corresponding to frequency at which chebyshev

polynomial TN (Ω) = 1

To find the order of Chebyshev filter:

1] The Normalized frequency is

f

Ω=

fc

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10 0.1KS

−1

2] M = √ 0.1KP K S = Minimum attenuation in Stop band.

10 −1

COSh−1 (M)

3] N =

COSh−1 (Ω)

Filter Implementation:

In filter design so far use lumped elements but the filter beyond 500MHz are difficult

to realize using lumped element because the wavelength of signal is short and

becomes comparable with the size of lumped component which results in various

losses in filter circuit which degrade the performance of filter circuit. So there is need

to convert the lumped element into the distributed element and this is achieved by

using ‘Richard’s Transformation’. The distributed element can be obtained by fixed

length Transmission line segment called as ‘Stub’.

We cannot realize series stub due to the practical difficulties. Hence series stub are

converted into shunt stub by using ‘Kuroda’s Identity’. The distance between the

distributed elements can be maintained by using unit element.

Richard’s transformation:

Richard’s states that the open and short circuit Transmission line segment can replace

the lumped element of filter circuit.

The input impedance of short circuited line is

Zin = jZ0 tan(βl)

= jZ0 tan(θ)

Where θ = βl

λ0

Consider the short circuit transmission line of length

8

2π λ0

θ = βl = .

λ 8

VP

2π f0

= VP ×

8

f

π f

= ×

4 f0

π 𝑊

θ= Ω Ω= is normalized frequency.

4 𝑊𝐶

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π

Zin = jZ0 tan ( Ω)

4

π

jwL = LS = jZ0 tan ( Ω)

4

Z0 = L &

π Is the Richard’s transformation.

S = j tan ( Ω)

4

Thus Richard’s transformation allows us to replace lumped inductor with short circuit

λ

stub of length 0 with characteristics impedance Z0 = L

8

Zin = −jZ0 cot(βl)

Z0

=

j tan(βl)

λ0

For open circuit stub of length

8

π

𝛽𝑙 = 𝜃 = Ω

4

Z0

Zin = π

j tan( 4 Ω)

λ0 1

Open circuit stub of length act as capacitor When Zin =

8 jWC

1 1 Z0

= = π

jWC CS j tan( 4 Ω)

π 1

∵ S = j tan ( Ω) & Z0 =

4 C

λ 1

circuit stub of length 0 with characteristics impedance (Z0 ) =

8 C

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Unit element:

While converting lumped element into transmission line segment there is need to

maintain separation between elements this is achieved by inserting unit element.

λ0

Unit element is the transmission line of length with characteristics impedance

8

’Zue ’

ABCD matrix of unit element is

cos(βl) j Zue sin(βl)

A B

[ ] = [ j sin(βl) ]

C D cos(βl)

Z

ue

π

S = j tan ( Ω)

4

π

= j tan θ Where θ = ( Ω)

4

1

cos θ =

√1 − S 2

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S

j sin θ =

√1 − S 2

ABCD Parameter of unit element are

1 Zue S

A B 1

[ ]= [ S ]

C D √1 − S 2 Z 1

ue

Kuroda’s Identities:

In filter design it often becomes necessary to convert a difficult-to- implement design

to a more suitable filter realization. For example series inductance is implemented by

short circuit stub is more complicated to realize than shunt stub so to facilitate the

conversion between conversion between series and shunt stub kuroda’s has

developed four identities

1]Proof of Kuroda’s first identity

1 0 1 1 Z1 S

A B

[ ] = [S 1] √1−S2 [ S ]

C D Z2

1

Z1

1

1 Z1 S

= [ 1 1 Z1 ]

√1−S 2 (Z + Z ) S S2 + 1

1 2 22

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Z2

1 Z1 S

A B 1 NS 1

[ ]= [

2 NS

][ NS ]

C D √1−S

1 0 1

Z2

Z1 +Z2

1 ( )S

1 N

= [NS Z1 2

]

√1−S2

S +1

Z2 Z2

Z2 Z1 +Z2

But N = 1 + =

Z1 Z1

1

1 Z1 S

= [ 1 1 Z1 ]

√1−S2 (Z + Z ) S S2 + 1

1 2 Z2

= LHS

2]

1 Z2 S

A B 1 Z1 S 1

[ ]=[ ] [S ]

C D 0 1 √1−S2 Z 1

2

Z1

1+ S2 (Z1 + Z2 )S

1 Z2

= [ S ]

√1−S2

1

Z2

1 NZ1 S 1 0

A B 1

[ ]= [ S ][ S 1]

C D √1−S2 1 NZ

NZ 1 2

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Z1

1+ S2 NZ1 S

1 Z2

= [ 1 1 S

]

√1−S2

(Z + Z ) N 1

1 2

Z2 Z1 +Z2

But N = 1 + =

Z1 Z1

Z1

1+ S2 (Z1 + Z2 )S

1 Z2

= [ S ] = RHS

√1−S2

1

Z2

Z2 1 Z1 S

A B 1 1

[ ]= [ S] [S ]

C D 0 1 √1−S2 1

Z1

Z Z2

1+ 1 Z1 S +

1 Z S

= 2

[ S 2 ]

√1−S

1

Z1

1 NZ1 S NZ2 N 0

A B 1 1

[ ]= [ S ][ S ] [0 1]

C D √1−S2 1 0 1 N

NZ 1

Z2

1 NZ1 S N

S

=[ S ][ 1]

1 0

NZ1

N

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Z2

1

N + Z1 S

S

= [

2 S Z2 1]

√1−S +

Z1 NZ1 N

Z2

Put N = 1 +

Z1

Z Z2

1+ 2 Z1 S +

1 Z1 S

= 2

[ S Z 1

]

√1−S

Z1

(1 + Z2) N

1

Z2 Z2

1+ Z1 S +

1 Z1 S

= [ S ]

√1−S2

1

Z1

= LHS

4]

1 0 1 1 Z2 S

A B

[ ]=[1 1] √1−S2 [

S ]

C D 2N

1

Z2

1

1 Z2 S

= [ 1 1 Z2 ]

√1−S 2 + +1

Z1 S Z2 Z1

Z2

A B 1 1 0 1 0

1 NS

[ ]= [ ][ N

1] [ N ]

C D √1−S2 NS 1

Z2

Z1 S 0 N

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Z2 1

1 0

1 NS N

= [

2 NS

][ 1 ]

√1−S 1 N

Z2 Z1 S

1 Z2

+ Z2 S

1 N NZ1

= [

2 S 1 ]

√1−S

+ N

Z2 Z1 S

1 Z

1

(1 + 2) Z2 S

N Z 1

= [ 1 S Z2

]

√1−S2

+ 1+

Z1 S Z2 Z1

1

1 Z2 S

= [ 1 S Z2 ] = LHS

√1−S2 + 1+

Z1 S Z2 Z1

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Step I:

Select the normalize filter parameter to meet the design criteria.

Step II:

λ0 λ0

Replace inductor by series stub of length and capacitor by shunt stub of

8 8

Step III:

Convert series stub into shunt stub by using unit element and kuroda’s identity.

Step IV:

Denormalize and select equivalent microstrip line.

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CHAPTER-5

ACTIVE RF COMPONENTS

Semiconductor basics:

Properties of Semiconductors:

1] The pure form of semiconductor is called intrinsic semiconductor. The

concentration of electrons & holes are equal in intrinsic semiconductor.

n = P = ni

Where n=concentration of electrons

p=concentration of holes

ni = Intrinsic carrier concentration.

The concentration of electrons in conduction band & holes in valance band are

−(EC −EF )⁄

[ kT]

n = NC e

−(EF −EV )⁄

[ kT]

P = NV e

3 3

̅T 2

2πmn K ̅T 2

2πmp K

Nc = 2 ( ) NV = 2 ( )

h2 h2

ev

̅ = 1.6 × 10−19 𝐾

Where 𝐾 & K = 8.62 × 10−5 = Boltsmann constant

0𝐾

EV → Energy level associated with valence band

EF →Fermi energy level

mn →Effective mass of electron.

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T →Temp. in 0𝐾 h →Plank constant = 6.626 × 10−34 J − sec

In intrinsic semiconductor the Fermi level is at the Centre of the forbidden energy

gap.

EC +EV

EF =

2

np = ni 2

−(EC −EV )

[ ]

∴ ni = √NC NV e 2KT

Eg

[− ]

= √N C N V e 2kT

the current density is

J = (qn𝜇𝑛 + qp𝜇𝑝 )E = σE

σ = qn𝜇𝑛 + qp𝜇𝑝

σ = qni (𝜇𝑛 + 𝜇𝑝 )

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semiconductor.

Adding donor impurities (ND ), we get N- type semiconductor & adding accepter

impurities (NA ), we get P- type semiconductor.

The N- type & P- type semiconductors are electrically neutral

ND + Pn = NA + nn

In N – type semiconductor, NA = 0

∴ nn = ND − Pn

Where Pn = minority hole concentration in N – type. Since the number of electrons

are much greater than holes.

nn ≅ ND Concentration of electrons in N –type

ni2 ni2

∴ Pn = Pn = Concentration of holes in N – type

nn ND

ni2

PP = NA np =

NA

P – N Junction:

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When P – type semiconductor is in contact with n-type semiconductor the P-N

junction diode is formed because of the difference in the carrier concentration

between the two type of semiconductors, majority charge carrier cross the junction

& produce the current across the junction this current is called diffusion current & it

is composed of electron and holes. We know that the diffusion whole current

density JP is

dp

JP = −qDP

dx

dn

Jn = −qDn

dx

In diff dn

= Jn ∴ 𝐼𝑛 diff = qA Dn

A dx

dp

IP diff = AJP = qADP

dx

dn dp

= qA(Dn + DP )

dx dx

Where A is semiconductor cross sectional area Dn & Dp are the diffusion constant

for electron and holes

DN DP KT

= = VT =

μn μP q

KT

VT = Thermal potential, its 26mv at 3000K

q

Due to the diffusion current the potential developed across the junction called as

built in potential, potential barrier or diffusion barrier voltage & it is

NA ND

Vdiff = VT ln ( 2 )

𝑛𝑖

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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1⁄

2ε Vdiff NA 1 2

dn = { ( )}

q N D NA + ND

Where ε = εo εr

Dp = is the extent of space charge region in P – type semiconductor & it is

1⁄

2 ε Vdiff ND 1 2

dp = { ( )}

q NA NA +ND

The entire length of space charge region is the addition of Dp & Dn and it is

1⁄

2

2ε Vdiff 1 1

dS = { (( + ))}

q NA ND

capacitances gives rapid switching speed and suitable for high frequency operation.

εA

C=

ds

1⁄

qε NA ND 2

C = A{ }

2Vdiff NA +ND

condition as VA increases the space change region reduces & when VA = Vdiff ,

ds = 0 . So when VA > Vdiff the diode turn on and the forward current flows

through diode due to majority charge carriers. In reverse bias condition, as

VA increases the length of space change region ds increases.The diode is in off

state, only small leakage current flows through diode due to minority charge

carriers.

When VA is applied, replace with Vdiff − VA

1⁄

2ε(Vdiff −VA ) ND 1 2

dp = { ( )}

q NA NA +ND

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1⁄

2ε(Vdiff −VA ) NA 1 2

dn = { ( )}

q ND NA +ND

1⁄

2ε(Vdiff −VA ) 1 1 2

dS = { ( + )}

q NA ND

1⁄

2

qε NA ND

The junction capacitance is Cj = A { VA N +N }

2Vdiff(1− ) A D

Vdiff

biased p - n junction diode. However, under forward bias condition,the diffusion

capacitance exist across the junction & it is obtains as

V

I0 τT VA

Cd = e T

VT

dependent on the operating voltage.

In general the total capacitance ‘C’ of the p-n diode can roughly divided into three

region

1]VA < 0 :Only depletion capacitance is significant C = CJ

3]VA>Vdiff : Only diffusion capacitance is significant C = Cd

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Q. Explain schottky contact with the help of energy band diagram for metal &

semiconductor do not interact and metal semiconductor contact?

Schottky diode is normally constructed by a metal and n – type semiconductor in

which the work function of metal (WM = qV𝑚 ) is larger than that of semiconductor

(WS = qVS ) where V𝑚 &VS are the potential difference between the Fermi level &

vacuum level of the metal & semiconductor respectively. The work function of any

material is defined as the energy required in removing an electron from the Fermi

level to the vacuum level. When the metal and semiconductor are brought into

contact to form a metallic junction, there exists a potential barrier at the junction

which is faced by the electron in the metal side into the semiconductor side. This

kind of metal-semiconductor junction is called schottky contact or schottky junction.

The energy band diagrams of the metal and semiconductor before and after making

a schottky contact are shown in fig.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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required to remove an electron from the bottom of the conduction bond Wc to

vacuum level. The parameter WFm is the Fermi level of metal, WFs is the Fermi level

of n-type semiconductor.WFi is the energy level of intrinsic semiconductor under

isolated condition WFi and WFm are assumed at the same energy level and WFs is

above Fermi WFm of the metal. Then the average energy of an electron in the

conduction band is higher by an amount Wb =q (V𝑚 − 𝑧) than that of an electron at

the metal side.

When the metal and semiconductor brought to make a contact, the electron

from higher energy state of semiconductor can easily enter the lower energy states

of the metal and the Fermi level of the metal and semiconductor are aligned into a

common Fermi level. However the difference in energy e (Vm-Z) between Wc and

WFm remain unchanged at the junction point even after the junction is being

mode. The parameter Wb = e (Vm – Z) = eVB is the energy barrier seen by an

electron in the metal to move into the conduction based of the semiconductor.

VB = Vm - Z is called the schottkey barrier height of the metal semiconductor

junction. If any electron in the metal gains energy of at least equal to Wb , it may

overcome the barrier enter into the conduction band of the semiconductor.

It is already maintains that electrons form the semiconductor are move into the

metal side as the junction is formed because of this, built in potential barrier as well

as depletion region is created in semiconductor. because of higher concentration of

holes, the valence band bends toward the Fermi level. The conduction band as a

result of a lower concentration of electrons bends away from Fermi level. Since

these are no holes in the metal side, electron entered from the semiconductor is

confined in the form of a sheet charge in the metal side of the junction and virtually

no depletion region is formed into the metal side. Hence depletion layer at the

schottky junction is mainly extended into semiconductor side.

the built in Schottky barrier voltage V𝑑 in semiconductor is

V𝑑 = (Vm − Z) − VC

Where VC = VT ln(NC ⁄ND )

1

2∈ (Vd −V𝐴 ) −2

The length of space charge in the semiconductor is dS = [ ]

𝑞 ND

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When VA is the applied forward bias voltage across the scottky junction,The junction

∈A q∈ND

capacitance of the schottky contact Cj = = A√

ds 2(V𝑑 −VA )

Q. Explain Schottky diode with cross sectional view & circuit model?

Schottey diode is one of the diodes which have zero diffusion capacitance and

smaller transition capacitance than any normal p-n junction diode. The diode is

formed by the junction between metal and a n- type semiconductor.

I

The reverse saturation current density JS = S is much higher than that of any p-n

A

junction diode JS = 10−6 A/cm2 in case of schottky diode compared with 10-

11

A/cm2 of a conventional p-n junction diode. This shows that lower values of

forward voltage are required in schottky diode to produce the same quiescent

current of a p-n junction diode. In a schottky diode there is no minority carriers in

metal. Therefore only the majority carriers contribute to the current of the device.

The current voltage relation can be obtained from the thermionic emission theory.

Due to the minority carrier free region schottky diode cannot store the charge.

Therefore the reverse recovery time of the diode is much smaller the p-n junction

diode. Hence it is suitable for high speed switching application it can be operates

above 300MHz. The cross sectional view of schottky diode with corresponding

circuit element as shown in fig.

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The metal electrode (tungsten, Al, gold etc) is in contact with a weakly doped n-

semiconductor layer epitaxically grown over a highly doped n+ substrate.

The current voltage relation is described by the equation

V

(− 𝑏 ) KT

IS = A[R∗ T 2 e VT ] Where VT = & R∗ is called Richardson constant for

q

thermionic emission of the majority carrier across the potential barrier. A typical

value of R∗ for Si is 100A/cm2K2 .

The small signal model schottky diode as shown in fig.

LS = bond wire inductance & it is fixed its value is ≅ 0.1 Nh

Cj = Junction capacitance

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CHAPTER-6

ACTIVE RF MODELLING

Q.Explain different types of diode models (RF) & differentiate them w.r.t junction

capacitance, band gap energy and conductance

There are two types of RF diode model

i) Nonlinear model

ii) Linear model

Nonlinear diode model:

When the diode is operated on large signal i.e. on high power signal,the current

through diode is nonlinearly varies with applied large signal.The large scale

nonlinear diode model is as shown in fig

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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The model taken into account the nonlinear relation between current and voltage

which is represented by diode equation

VA

ID = IS (e ηVT

− 1)

ID = Forward current, IS = Reverse saturation current

𝐾𝑇

VA = applied voltage, VT = = thermal voltage

𝑞

Diffusion (CD) and junction capacitance (Cj ) affects the performance of diode at high

frequencies. The effect of both capacitances is combined in a single capacitance ‘C’.

The value of junction capacitance is nonlinearly dependent on the applied voltage as

larger as VA < Vm where Vm is threshold potential which is half of built in potential

Vm = 0.5Vdiff. but the Cj becomes linearly dependent on the applied voltage when it

exceeds Vm

CJO

Cj = V VA ≤ Vm

(1− V A )m

diff

C𝐽𝑂 VA −Vm

Cj = m [1 + m ( ) ] If VA > Vm

V Vdiff −Vm

(1− V m )

idiff

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Where m is known as junction grading coefficient for abrupt junction m=0.5 and for

gradual transition junction m lies in the range of 0.2≤ m ≤ 0.5.

IS VA

⁄ηV

Cd = τT e T

ηVT

τT = Transition time

The total voltage drop across the diode is

I

V = R S Id + ηVT ln(1 + D )

IS

Where R S series resistance and the second term is indicates that the temp

dependencies can also be introduced into this model. Besides the obvious thermal

K

voltageVT = T , the reverse saturation current IS is strongly influenced by temp; it

9

also depends on band gap energy Wg (T) . As temp increases, this band gap

decreases, making it easier for charge carrier to transition from the valence band to

conduction band.

Linear diode model:

If the diode is operated at a particular DC voltage bias point & the signal variation

about this point are small. We can develop a linear or small signal model of diode.

The concept of linearization means the approximation of exponential I.V.

characteristics through a tangent at the bias or Q point .The tangent at Q point is

the differential conductance Gd , which can find as

dID

1 dVA IQ

Gd = = =

Rd VQ ηVT

The tangent approximates is shown in figure along with the simplified circuit model.

Only the diffusion capacitance present at this Q point.

VQ

IS ⁄

Cd = τT e ηVT

ηVT

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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Transistor model:

Large signal model:

Eber’s Moll model which is one of the most popular large signal model. It is valid for

forward active mode as well as reverse active mode. Injection version of Eber’s Moll

is represented in terms of forward injection factor αF and reverse injection factor

αR

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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αR => 0.02 − − − 0.05 => Reverse current gain of CB configuration

From circuit

IE = αR IR − IF & IC = αF IF − IR

Where IF & IR are the forward currents through diode in forward active mode and

reverse active mode resp.

VBC VBe

IR = ICS (eVT

− 1) & IF = IES (e

VT

− 1)

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Where ICS & IES are reverse saturation current of two diodes related with

transistor leakage current as αF IES = αR ICS = IS

Forward Active mode :

In forward active mode base-emitter junction is forward bias and base-collector

junction reverse bias.

∴ IR = 0 so αR IR = 0

∴ model reduces to.

In Reverse active mode base-collector junction is forward biased and base-emitter

junction is reverse bias.

∴ IF = 0 so αF IF = 0

For RF operation model may include the resistive and inductive properties of the

lead wire as well as parasitic capacitances between terminal points.

Above Eber’s moll model is static model it does not consider internal charge

distribution i.e capacitive effect. This model can be modified for dynamic operation

by including diffusion capacitance and junction capacitances.

Cde = Diffusion capacitance across emitter junction in forward active mode.

Cdc = Diffusion capacitance across forward biased base-collector junction in

Reverse active mode.

Cje = Junction capacitance in reverse active mode across b-e junction.

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For CE Transistor

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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= 𝐼𝐸𝐶 =

∝𝑅 ∝𝑅 𝛽𝑅

= 𝐼𝐶𝐶 =

𝛼𝐹 𝛼𝑅 𝛽𝑅

βR = Reverse current gain of CE Transistor.

From circuit

IEC ICC

IC = ICC − & IE = IEC −

βR βF

Here the output current ICC in forward mode is controlled by input voltage VBE and

output current in reverse active mode is controlled by VBC voltage

VBE VBC

ICC = IS (e VT

− 1) & IEC = IS (e VT

− 1)

Combining two current sources into a single source ICOM = ICC − IEC

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Where RBB’, RCC’ and REE’ are spread resistances at base, collector emitter

respectively. Cbe and Cbc are the combined diffusion and junction capacitances.

IES

Only for forward active mode = 0 .Therefore remove B-C diode and replace B-E

βR

ICC

forward diode by its equivalent current source IB =

βF

Gummel-poon model:

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Eber’s Moll model was one of the first BJT circuit representations and has retained

its popularity and wide acceptance. However shortly after its introduction, It is seen

that the number of physical phenomena could not be taken into account in this

model are

1]BF and BR are current dependent.

2] The saturation current IS is affected by base collector voltage i.e. Early effect does

not take into account.

By including above two phenomenon’s in Eber’s moll, Gummel-poon model is

formed. Therefore large signal Gummel-poon model in normal active mode is

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The small signal hybrid- π model that takes into account the internal charge

distribution is

Where rb , rc , & re are the resistance between internal active region & external

passive region.

rπ => Forward bias resistance of base emitter junction.

rμ => Reverse resistance of reverse bias base collector junction which very high

in MΩ.

r0 => Dynamic output resistance.

Cπ => Diffusion capacitance due to forward biased base emitter junction.

Cμ => Transition capacitance due to reverse biased base collector junction.

ic ic ICQ

i) Trans conductance g m = = =

Vπ vbe VT

β

ii)Input Resistance = rπ = hie = βre =

gm

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VAN

iii) Output Resistance = T0 = VAN => Early voltage

ICQ

Neglecting rb , rc & re and hence rμ is very high. Consider it is open circuit. The RF

circuit model is

1

cM2 = Cbc (1 − ) ≅ Cbc

AV

Q. Draw the small signal h-parameter represents of BJT and finds the values of

𝐫𝛑 , 𝐂𝛑 , 𝐫𝟎 , & 𝐠 𝐦

ICQ = 6mA , IBQ = 40𝝁𝑨 , VAN(Early voltage)=30V, FT = 30GHr VT=26mv

The small signal hybrid-𝜋 model is

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rb,rc,re are the resistance between internal active region and external passive

region.

rπ = resistance of F − B base emitter junction

rμ = resistance of R. B. Collector junction

Cπ = diffusion capacitance

Cμ = Transister capacitor

ic iC ICQ 6

1] Trans conductance gm = = == = =230.79mS

Vπ Vb VT 0.026

β IC 6m

2]i/P resistance rπ = hie = βre = = = =150K

gm IB g m 40μx

VAN 30

3] o/p resistance r0 = = = 5kΩ

ICQ 6M

gm gm 230.79𝑚

4]Cπ = fT = ∴ Cπ = = = 99.27Pf.

2πcπ 2πfT 2𝜋.37𝐺

Q Show the RF small signal circuit model of BJT and equivalent model using Miller

effect. Find the values of 𝐂𝐌𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂𝐌𝟐 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐂𝐛𝐜 , 𝐕𝐜𝐞 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐕𝐛𝐞 .

Solution : The RF small circuit model of BJT and equivalent model using Miller effect

is as shown.

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The current IP is found by taking the voltage difference between output and input

divided by the feedback impedance

(V1 −V2 )

IP =

Z12

And for the equivalent input and output impedances Z11 , Z22

V1 Z V1 V2 −1

Z11 = = (V 12 )

= Z12 (1 − )

IP 1 −V2 V1

And

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V Z V2

Z12 = (−I2 ) = (V 12 = Z12 (1 − V1 /V2 )−1

P 2 −V1 )

1 1 1

With the assignments Z12 = (jωC , Z11 = (jωC , Z22 = (jωC and V1 =

cb ) M1 ) M2 )

vbc , V2 = vce , we find the equivalent capacitances

vce

CM1 = Cbc (1 − )

vbe

And

vbe

CM2 = Cbe (1 − )

vce

1] FET are unipolar device. Current through FET due to either electron OR holes.

2] FET is a voltage controlled device. A variable electric field controls the current

flow from source to drain by changing the applied voltage at the gate electrode.

3] Metal semiconductor FET (MESFET): It is similar to JFET except reverse bias p-n

junction is replace by a schottky contact the channel can be controlled similar to

JFET. MESFET find application up to 60 – 70 GHZ. However JFET cannot used above

1GHZ.

Functionality :

MESFET’S are used extensively in RF & micro-wave amplifier, mixer and oscillator

circuits. Therefore we focus our analysis on the MESFET, Whose physical behavior is

in many ways similar to the JFET.

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When VDS is positive w.r.t to source and VGS is negative then schottky contact builds

up a space charge domain(depletion layer) that affect current flow from source to

drain. The space charge extent ds can be controlled via the gate voltage VGS.

2ε Vd −VGS

ds = √ ( )

d ND

The resistance between source and drain is

L

R=

σ(d−ds)W

The drain current equation is

VDS 2ε Vd −VGS

ID = = G0 [1 − √ 2( )] VDS

R 9d ND

σwd

Where G0 = => conductance

L

For small value of VDS drain current increases linearly with VDS. If VDS further

increases the space charge domain near the drain contact increases as well,

resulting in a no uniform distribution of the depletion region along the channel as

shown. Therefore Id increases non linearly with VDS . At particular value of VDS, the

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space charge extend over the entire channel depth d and channel is pinch off or

saturated. the value of VDS at which channel is saturated is

VDS Sat = VGS − VT0

VT0 = Vd − VP => threshold voltage

qN d2

0

VP = => pinch off voltageS

2ε

3

VP 2

ID Sat = G0 [ − (Vd − VGS ) + (Vd − VGS )2 )]

3 3√VP

VGS 2

IDSat = IDSS = ID (1 − )

VP

Frequency Response :

The high frequency MESFET performance is determinate by the transit time of

charge carriers travelling between source and drain and the RC time constant of the

device. Since electrons have much higher mobility than holes, n – channel MESFET

are used in RF & MW applications. Furthermore the electron mobility of Ga As is

roughly five times higher than that of Si , therefore Ga As MESFET are usually

preferred over Si devices.

The transit time ′τ′ of electron travelling through channel of gate length L is

computed as

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L

τ= Vsat => fixed saturation velocity.

VSat

Limiting values :

The MESFET must be operated in a domain limited by IDmax , VDSmax & VGSmax . The

maximum power dissipated in MESFET is

Pmax = VDS ID

Which is related to the channel temp TC and ambient temp Ta and the thermal

resistance TC = Ta + R th p

Advantage of FET over BJT :

1] FET exhibit a better temp. behavior.

2] In terms of noise performance FET is superior to BJT.

3] The input impedance of FET’S is normally very high, making them ideal for

preamplification stages.

4] The upper frequency limit exceeds, often by a substantial margin, that of a BJT

5] The power consumption of a FET is smaller.

6] FET is more linear as compared to BJT.

Disadvantage:

1] FET’S have less gain.

2] Because of the high input impedance, matching networks are more difficult to

construct.

3] The power handling capabilities is less compared to BJT.

When the FET operated on large signal, it has static as well as dynamic model. The

basic n-channel, deplation mode model with negative threshold voltage is shown

along with the transfer and output characteristics.

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Making the transition from the static to the dynamic FET model requires only the

addition of gate-drain and gate-source capacitancees.Also shown in this model are

source and drain resistors associated with source-gate and drain-gate channel

resistances.A gate resistor is typically not included because the gate current is

negligible.

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CGS => Zero bias gate to source capacitance.

rd => Drain resistance. rs => Source resistance.

rgs => Small gate to source channel resistance i. e charging resistance of Cgs

Cgd => Gate to drain capacitance which is very small.

g m => Transconductance.

For a Ga As MESFET having a gate length of 1𝜇m and a gate width of 250𝜇m. The

typical values are Cgs = 0.3PF, Cgd = 0.02PF, Cds = 0.05PF

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length L = 0.5𝜇m, FT= 60GHZ. Clearly very short gate length are essential for high

frequency operation. The Threshold frequency of FET is

gm 1 VSat

Ft = = =

2π(Cgs +Cgd ) 2πτ 2πL

D.C. Characterizations of BJT :

The D.C. parameter of Ebers-Moll model of BJT can obtained using forward

measurement technique and reverse measurement technique.

The Ebers-Moll equation of collector current and base current are

VBE VBC

IS

IC = IS (e VT

− 1) − (e VT

− 1) -----------(1)

βR

VBE VBC

IS IS

Iβ = (e

VT

− 1) + (e VT

− 1) ------------(2)

βF βR

IS , BR , BF and forward and reverse early voltageVAN and VBN .

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Reverse saturation current IS , forward current gain βf and VAN are called forward

mode parameter of BJT and current gain in reverse mode βR α VBN are reverse

mode parameter of BJT.

1] Forward Measurement:

∴ VBC = 0

∴ Equation (1) and (2)reduces to

VBE

IC = IS (e VT − 1)

VBE

IS

Iβ = (e

VT

− 1)

βF

Monitoring base current and collector current as function of VBE result in the graph

as shown

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VBE

Hence e VT

≫ 1 neglect 1

VBE

IC = IS e VT

-----------------------------------------(3)

VBE

IS

Iβ = (e VT

) -------------------------------------(4)

βF

VBC

lnIC = lnIS +

VT

1

lnIβ = VBE + lnIS

VT

gives us lnIS and then IS

Similarly equation (4) becomes

I VBE

lnIB = ln ( S ) +

β F VT

1

ln(IB ) = VBE + [ln IS ]

VT

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I

axis gives us ln( S ). From which we can determine βf . If we draw the tangent to the

β F

IC curve and projecting this tangent line on VCE axis then it intersect on VCE axis at

VAN . Therefore in this way we can find VAN .

The determination of the Reverse mode parameter βR , VBN is carried out by

interchanging the collector with emitter terminal and then following the identical

procedure as done in the forward direction.

Measurement of A.C. Parameter of BJT :

The small signal low frequency circuit model of BJT is as shown

dIC ICQ

1]Transconductance : g m = ⁄ VCE = 0 =

dVBE VT

dVBE Vbe β0

2]Input Resistance : rπ = ⁄ VCE = constant = ⁄ Vce = 0 =

dIB ib gm

1 dIC ICQ

3]Output conductance : = ⁄ VBE = constant =

r0 dVCE VAN

ICQ

4]Input capacitance(Diffusion capacitance) :Cπ = τbc

VT

Where the collector current in the presence of the early effect is

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VCE

IC = g m IB (1 + )

VAN

To measure A.C. parameter of BJT, set the desired Q point Note IBQ , ICQ and VAN

using these 3 parameter we can obtained from slope of I.V curve a.c. parameter as

ICQ

1]Transconductance : g m =

VT

ICQ

2]DC current gain : β0 =

IBQ

β0

3]Input resistance : rπ =

gm

4]Input capacitance Cπ

Transition frequency fT is the frequency at which A.C. current gain is unity. This

transition frequency can be measured with network analyser, by sweeping the

frequency until the base current is equal to the collector current. This frequency

fT used to find Cπ

𝑖 𝛽0

| 𝑐| = | |=1

𝑖𝑏 √1+𝑗𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝐶𝜋

𝛽0

= =1

√1+(𝑊𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝐶𝜋 )2

But 𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝑐𝜋 ≫ 1 ∴ 𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 1

𝛽0

= =1

𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝑐𝜋

𝛽0

= 𝑐𝜋 = Thus by putting 𝛽0 , 𝑟𝜋 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑇 𝑤𝑒 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝜋

2𝜋𝑓𝑇 𝑟𝜋

Q An npn transistor is operated under DC bias of 𝑰𝑪𝑸 = 𝟔𝒎𝑨 , 𝑰𝑩𝑸 = 𝟒𝟎𝝁𝑨 and

the early voltage is recorded to be 𝑽𝑨𝑵 = 𝟑𝟎𝒗.through a network analyser

measurement the transition frequency is determined to be 𝐟𝐓 = 𝟑𝟕𝟔𝐇𝐳 at room

temperature. Determine the hybrid 𝛑 parameter :𝛃𝟎 , 𝐫𝛑 , 𝐂𝛑 , 𝐫𝟎 𝐚𝐧𝐝𝐠 𝐦

Solution : Neglecting feedback from output to input

ICQ 6 × 10−3

1] g m = = = 232ms

VT 0.026

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ICQ 6×10−3

2] β0 = = = 150

IBQ 40×10−6

β0 150

3] rπ = = = 647Ω

gm 232×10−3

VAN 30

4] r0 = = = 5kΩ

ICQ 6×10−3

β0 150

5] cπ = = = 1PF

2πfT rπ 2π×37×109 ×647

1] The drain current of MESFET & HEMT in saturation region is

ID = IDSat = β(VGS − VT0 )2 -------------------(1)

Where β is the conduction parameter of FET and VT0 is the threshold voltage.

VT0 = Vd − VP (MESFET)

∆WC

VT0 = Vd − − VP (HEMT)

q

VP => Pinch off voltage.

∆WC => Energy difference between the conduction bands of the

Hetrostructure in a HEMT.

2]The conduction parameter β and VT0 can be measured by plotting

√IdVS VGS as shown

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KeepVDS constant greater than VDSSat so that FET operates in the saturation region

and for two different gate to source voltage VGS1 & VGS2 measured drain current

ID1 & ID2 then from equation (1)

Now if we select VGs1 & VGs2 such that ID2 = 4ID1 then from above equation

√𝐼𝐷2 = √𝐼𝐷1

2

√𝛽 (VGS2 − VT0 ) = √𝛽 (VGS1 − VT0 )

VT0 = 2VGS1 − VGS2

ID1

β=

(VGS2 −VGS1 )2

Q. Explain construction and functionality of High Electron Mobility Transistor?

or modulation-doped FETs (MODFETs), are field effect transistors incorporating a

junction between two materials with different band gaps (i.e., a heterojunction) as

the channel instead of a doped region, as is generally the case for MOSFETs.

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The key element within a HEMT is the specialized PN junction that it uses. It is

known as a hetero-junction and consists of a junction that uses different materials

either side of the junction. The most common materials used aluminium gallium

arsenide (AlGaAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Gallium arsenide is generally used

because it provides a high level of basic electron mobility and this is crucial to the

operation of the device. Silicon has a much lower level of electron mobility and as a

result it is never used in a HEMT. The HEMT or High Electron Mobility Transistor is a

form of field effect transistor (FET) that is used to provide very high levels of

performance at microwave frequencies. It offers a combination of low noise figure

combined with the ability to operate at the very high microwave frequencies

arsenide is set down on the semi-insulating gallium arsenide layer. This is only about

one micron thick. About one micron thick is set down. Next a very thin layer

between 30 and 60 Angstroms of intrinsic aluminium gallium arsenide is set down

on top of this. Its purpose is to ensure the separation of the hetero-junction

interface from the doped aluminium gallium arsenide region. This is critical if the

high electron mobility is to be achieved. The doped layer of aluminium gallium

arsenide about 500 Angstroms thick is set down above this as shown in the

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Prof.Santosh Nemade

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diagrams. Precise control of the thickness of this layer is required and special

techniques are required for the control of this.

FUNCTIONALITY:

The operation of the HEMT is somewhat different to other types of FET and as a

result it is able to give a very much improved performance over the standard

junction or MOS FETs, and in particular in microwave radio applications.

Electrons from the n-type region move through the crystal lattice and many remain

close to the hetero-junction. These electrons for a layer that is only one layer thick

forming what is known as a two dimensional electron gas. Within this region the

electrons are able to move freely because there are no other donor electrons or

other items with which electrons will collide and the mobility of the electrons in the

gas is very high.

A bias applied to the gate formed as a schottky barrier diode is used to modulate

the number of electrons in the channel formed from the 2 D electron gas and in turn

this controls the conductivity of the device. This can be compared to the more

traditional types of FET where the width of the channel is changed by the gate bias.

HEMT ADVANTAGES:

In the HEMT the conduction channel is a bi-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)

confined at the interface between two materials with different band gap instead of

a three dimensional structure like in conventional FETs. The 2DEG takes place in a

slightly doped material. As a result, it has significantly less Coulomb scattering,

resulting in a very high mobility device structure.

1. High speed

2. High gain

3. Low noise

4. High power density

∆WC qND d2

VT0 = Vd − − VP Where VP =

q 2EH

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The drain current in HEMT is

WEH Vd2 S

ID = μn [VDS (VGS − VT0 ) − ]

Ld 2

Pinch off occurs when the VDS ≤ VGS − VT0 If VDS = VGS − VT0 above equation

becomes

WEH

ID = μn (VGS − VT0 )2

2Ld

If 𝑉𝑇0 < 0 HEMT operated in Enhancement mode.

Output charactaristics of HEMT is as shown

Frequency Response :

The high frequency performance of the HEMT is determined by the transit time of

electron which usually expressed in terms of terms of electron mobility 𝜇𝑛 𝛼 drain

source voltage VDS.

𝐿 𝐿2

𝜏= =

𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝜇𝑛 𝑉𝐷𝑆

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1 μn VDS

FT = =

2πτ 2πL2

For HEMT of gate length L = 1μm α mobility of μn = 8000cm2/v.s

FT = 190GHZ at VDS = 1.5V.

Problems on semiconductor basics :

1] For a Si pn junction the doping concentration are given to be

NA = 1018 cm−3 and ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 With an intrinsic concentration of ni =

1.5 × 1010 cm−3 . Find the barrier voltage for T = 3000K.

Solution:

NA = 1018 cm−3 => Concentration of accepter atoms

ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 => Concentration of donar atoms

The potential barrier voltage across the junction is

NA ND

Vdiff = VT ln [ ] K = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K 0

ni2

KT NA N D

= ln [ ]

q ni2

= ln [ ]

1.6 × 10−19 (1.5 × 1010 )2

Vdiff = 0.796 V

2] For a P – type semiconductor whose doping concentration at room temp contain

NA = 5 × 1016 boron atoms per cubic centimeter (ni = 1.5 × 1010 cm−3 ). Find

the majority and minority carrier concentration as well as conductivity of the

semiconductor.

Solution:

In P – type semiconductor the majority carrier concentration is approximately equal

to the concentration of acceptors.

P = NA = 5 × 1016 cm−3

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ni2 ni2 1.5 × 1010

n= = =

P NA 5 × 1016

= 4500cm−3

The conductivity of semiconductor is

σ = q (nμn + PμP )

q = 1.6 × 10−19

μn = electron mobility in Si conductor = 1350cm2 / v. s

σ = 1.6 × 10−19 (4500 × 1350 + 5 × 1016 × 480)

σ = 3.84 s/cm

3] The intrinsic carrier concentration is typically recorded at room temp. For GaAs

we find at T = 3000K the effective densities of stateNC = 4.7 × 1017 cm−3 ,

NV = 7 × 1018 cm−3 . Assuming the band gap energy of 1.4L ev remains constant

a) Find the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature.

b) Compute ni at T = 4000K.

c) Compute ni at T = 4500K.

Solution:

The intrinsic carrier concentration can be computed as

−Wg

( )

𝑛i = √NC NV e 2KT

K = 86 × 10−6 ev/0 k

−1.42

17 18 ( )

= √4.7 × 10 × 7 × 10 e 2×86×10−6 ×300

The intrinsic concentration for diff. temp can be obtained as

3 −Wg

T 2 ( )

ni = √NC NV ( ) e 2KT

300

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4] An abrupt pn junction made of Si has the accepter and donar concentrations of

NA = 1018 cm−3 and ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 respectively. Assuming that device

operates at room temp, determine

a) The barrier voltage

b) The space charge width in the P and N type semiconductor.

c) The peak electric field across the junction.

d) The junction capacitance for a cross sectional area of 10−4 cm2 and a relative

dielectric constant of Er = 11.7 . Let the ni = 1.5× 1010 cm−3 .

Solution:

a) Barrier voltage

KT NA ND

Vdiff = ln [ ]

q ni2

= ln [ ]

1.6 × 10−19 (1.5 × 1010 )2

= 0.8 V

b) Space charge width P type and N type

1

2EV N 1 2

dp = { qdiff ND (N +N )}

A A D

1

2 ×8.54 × 10−12 ×0.8 5 × 1015 1 2

= { × [ ]}

1.6 × 10−19 1018 5 × 1033

dp = 2.3nm

2EVdiff NA 1

dn = √ (N )

q ND A +ND

= 0.45 μm

c) The peak electric field across the junction

qNA qND

Epeak = dp = dn

E0 Er Er Ep

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d) The junction capacitance

1

qE N A ND 2

Cj = A[ ]

2Vdiff NA +ND

1

1.6 × 10−19 × 8.854 × 10−12 ×11.7 5 × 1033 2

Cj = 10−4 [ × ]

2 ×0.8 108 +5 × 1017

= 2.27 PF

6]A silicon pn junction has a conductivity of 10 S/cm & 4 s/cm for p and n layer

respectively. Using necessary properties of silicon, calculate the built in voltage of

the junction at room temp.

The accepter concentration in P – region of the junction can be obtained as

𝜎𝑃 10

𝑁𝐴 = = = 1.3 × 1017 𝑐𝑚−3

𝑞𝜇𝑃 1.6 × 10−19 × 480

σn 4

𝑁𝐷 = = = 1.85 × 1016 cm−3

qμn 1.6 × 10−19 ×1350

NA N D 2

Vdiff = VT ln [ ]

ni2

= 0.026 ln [ (1.45 × 1010 )2

]

= 0.78 V

6] The junction field effect transistor with n-type channel has the following

W

parameter: = 10, μn = 1000 m2 / V. S. , d = 2μm, Er = 11.7 and VT0 = −3V .

L

The pinch off voltage for the FET is

qND d2

VP = = 4.02V

2E

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VT0 = Vd − VP

Vd = VT0 + VP = 1.02V

VGS 2

IDSat = IDSS (1 − )

VT0

σqND Wd q2 μn ND 2 Wd

G0 = =

L L

= 116.8ms

3

VP 2

IDSS = G0 [ − Vd + 3 Vd ]

2

3 √v.p

VGS 2

IDSat = IDSS (1 − )

VT0

= 32mA

7]An RF power BJT generates a total power of 15W at case temp.of 25 0C.The

maximum junction temp.is 150 0C and the maximum ambient operating temp.is

specified by user to be Ta= 60 0C.What is the maximum power dissipated if the

thermal resistances between case-to-sink and sink-to-air is 20K/W and 100K/W

respectively.

Tj −Tc

R jc = =8.330K/W

PW

R 𝑇𝑂𝑇 = R𝑗𝑐 + R 𝐶𝑆 + R𝑆𝐴 =20. 330K/W

T𝑗 −T𝑎

P𝐷 = =4.43W

R𝑇𝑂𝑇

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119

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