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Prof.

Santosh Nemade
9833590231

CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION
Importance of RF circuit:
Due to rapid growth of wireless communication there is need to design more
compact amplifiers, filters, oscillators, mixers and use this circuitary at frequencies
above 1GHz.
Reason for using RF/Microwave:
1] Wider Bandwidth due to higher operating frequency because of this it is
possible to carry more information.
2] Smaller component size leading to a compact size of system.
3] More available and less crowded frequency spectrum.

4] Lower interference due to lower signal crowding.

5] High speed of operation.


6] High antenna gain and directivity are possible with a smaller size
antenna.
The major applications of RF/Microwave signals are
1] Telecommunication application such as cellular radio.
2] RADAR .
3] Navigation.
4] Remote sensing.
5] Domestic and industrial applications.
6] Medical applications.
7] Surveillance system.
8] Astronomy and space communication.
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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

9] Microwave communication relay links and satellite communication.


Radio frequency electronic circuit differs from the low frequency electronic
circuit because of presence of following effects.
1] Presence of stray capacitance and stray inductance affect the operation of the
circuit. Stray capacitance is the capacitance that exist between
Conductor of circuit.
Conductor and component or ground.
Between component.
Stray inductance is the normal inductance of conductor that connects components
and inductance of component leads. Stray capacitance and inductance have
negligible effect at low frequencies but at Radio frequency they play an important
role in the operation of circuits.
2] Skin effect exists at Radio frequency
As frequency increases skin effect produces smaller zone of conduction and
correspondingly higher values of AC resistance compare to DC resistance.
3] Radiation:
It exists at RF frequencies. The signal at RF frequency find easier to radiate both
form the circuit and within the circuit thus the coupling effect between elements of
the circuits, between circuits and its environments and from environment to circuit
becomes more critical at RF.
Dimension and unit:
In free space the plane EM waves propagate in the Z direction is represented as
Ex = Eox cos(wt-βz)
Hy = Hoy cos(wt-βz)
Where, Ex is electric field in x direction.
Hy is magnetic field in y direction.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Ex & Hy are perpendicular to each other and both are orthogonal to the direction of
propagation of wave. This is known as Transvers EM waves.
Propagation constant of TEM wave is
𝛾 = α + jβ
α = Attenution constant its unit is nepher/m
For free space α = 0
∵ γ = jβ
β = Phase constant, it is defined as the measure of phase shifts in ‘rad/unit length’
its unit is rad/m.

β= = ω√μ0 ϵ0 for free space.
λ

The EM waves propagate in air with the speed of light C = 3 X 108 m/sec.
When wave propagate in another medium then its speed is reduces and it is called
‘phase velocity’.
C
VP = ∈r = Relative permittivity.
√ ∈r
ω
VP =
β

The wavelength of the wave is defined as the distance travel by the wave in one
cycle duration.
C
λ = For free space
f

For other dielectric media


2π 𝑉𝑃
λ= = Its unit is ‘m’
β 𝑓

Intrinsic OR characteristics impedance of wave is

𝜇 𝜇𝑜 𝜖𝑜
𝑍=√ =√
𝜖 𝜇𝑟 𝜖𝑟

For nonmagnetic material 𝜇𝑟 = 1

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

𝜇𝑜 1 377
𝑍=√ × = Ω
𝜖𝑜 √𝜖𝑟 √𝜖𝑟

For free space


μ0
Z0 = √ = 120π or 377Ω
ϵ0

Frequency Spectrum (IEEE)

Microwave frequency band

From VHF/UHF the dimension of wavelength is equivalent to the physical size of the
component or circuit from this region we need to take into account the wave nature
of current and voltages in the respective electronic circuit.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The radio frequency spectrum is associated from VHF to S band. The microwave
frequency associated with radar system operating in the C band and above.

RF Passive Components:-
1] Wire:
Wire in an RF circuit it can take many form wire wound resistor, inductor and axial &
radial leaded capacitors all use a wire of same size and length either in their lead or
in in the actual body of the component. Wire is also used in many interconnected
application in the lower RF frequency spectrum.
The behavior of the wire depends on the wire diameter and length. To standardize
the size of wire ‘American Wire Gauge’ System (AWG) is used. In AWG system the
diameter of wire will be approximately double for every six wire gauge.
e.g. Diameter of AWG 50 wire is 1mil; then what is the diameter of AWG 14 wire?
Skin effect:
A conductor at low frequencies utilizes its entire cross sectional area as a transport
medium for charge carriers. But as the frequency increases the magnetic field
produced by AC charge carrier also increases at the center of the conductor this
magnetic field offer the impedance for the charge carrier therefore the current
density at the Centre of the conductor decreases and it is increases near the edge of
the conductor. This is called ‘Skin effect’. It occurs in all conductors including
component lead.
The depth into the conductor at which charge carrier current density falls to
1
or 37% of its value along the surface is known as ‘Skin depth’. Different
e
conductors have different skin depth & it is
1
δ=
√πfμσ

σ  Conductivity of medium.
μ  Permeability of medium.
f  Operating frequency.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The net result of skin effect is an effective decrease in the cross sectional area of the
conductor & therefore a net increase in the AC resistance of wire.
The DC resistance of proper conductor of radius ‘a’ & length ‘l’, conductivity ‘σ’
𝜌𝑙
𝑅𝐷𝐶 =
𝐴

𝑙
𝑅𝐷𝐶 =
𝜋𝑎2 𝜎
The ac resistance of proper wire is
a
R = 𝑅𝐷𝐶

a
R = 𝑅𝐷𝐶 √πfμδ
2
This equation shows that the AC resistance increase in frequency and it is inversely
proportional to ‘Skin depth’ or Cross sectional skin area.
The internal inductance of straight wire is associated with the magnetic field buildup
within the conductor and it is
a
𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑡 = 𝑅𝐷𝐶
2wδ
The external inductance takes into account the magnetic field outside the current
carrying conductor and it is
𝜇𝑂 𝑙 2𝑙
𝐿𝑒𝑥 = [ln ( ) − 1]
2𝜋 𝑎

Explain with the equivalent cicuits RF behavior of resistor, inductance and


capacitor?
2] Resistors at High Frequency:
Resistance is the property of material that determines the rate at which electrical
energy is converted into heat energy for given electric current.
Various types of resistances are
i] Carbon composition Resistor: made up of high density carbon granular.
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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Ii] Wire wound Resistor: of nickel or other winding material.


iii] Metal film resistor: of temperature stable material.
iv] Thin film chip resistor: of Aluminum or beryllium based material.
Out of these thin film chip resistors are used at RF & microwave circuits as ‘Surface
mounted Devices’.(SMD). Chip resistors are popular because of extremely small size
& offer very small parasitic reactance up to 2GHz.

The equivalent circuit of resistor at RF frequency is

Where R  Resistance value itself. L  Lead inductance.


Ca  Distributed Capacitance. C𝑏  Inter-electrode Capacitance.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The behavior of resistor at RF frequency is

For low frequencies jwl & jwc are very small. Therefore neglect it & Z is nearly equal
to R then as the frequency increases above 10MHz the effect of stray capacitance
becomes dominate because of this impedance of resistor decreases with increase in
frequency. At very high frequency i.e. near about 20 GHz the resonance occurs and
resistor provides minimum impedance.
As the frequency increases above resonant frequency the lead inductance becomes
dominant which increases the impedance of resistor with frequency. Thus at high
frequencies resistor can behave as inductor and capacitance also.
3] Capacitors at High Frequency:
The capacitor is the device which opposes the change in voltage and it consists of
two conducting surfaces separated by an insulating material or dielectric. The
capacitors are used extensively in RF applications such as bypassing, inter stage
coupling in resonant circuit and in filters.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The capacitance is given by


∈A ∈0 ∈𝑟 A
C= =
d 𝑑

∈𝑟  Permittivity of dielectric.
d Distance/separation between plates.
A  Cross sectional area of plate.
Ideally there is no current flow between the plate. However at high frequencies
dielectric material becomes lossy and current flows through dielectric. So the
conductance offered by the dielectric is ’Ge’. So the total impedance of capacitor
can be written as the parallel combination of conductance and susceptance jWC.
1
Where Z=
Ge +jWC

1 1 𝜎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙
Ge = = = 𝐴
R e δd 𝑑
A
Dissipation factor or series loss tangent is the parameter of dielectric material that
quantifies the dissipation of EM energy in dielectric.
Ge 𝜎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑙
Df = tan ∆s = =
WC W∈

The series loss tangent is defined as the ratio of an equivalent series Resistance
(ESR) to the capacitive reactance.
ESR
tan ∆s =
XC

series loss tangent of dielectric or dissipation factor measure how much lossy the
dielectric material is
σ
If ≪ 1 then material is good dielectric.

σ
If ≫ 1 then material is good conductor.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The equivalent circuit of high frequency capacitor is

Where
L Lead inductance.
R S Losses in lead resistance.
R e  Dielectric loss resistance.
Impedance offered by the capacitor at radio frequency is
1
Z = (R S + jWL) +
Ge +jWC

i] At Low Frequencies i.e. when f < 𝐟𝐫


1
≫ R S + jWL
Ge +jWC

∴Neglecting R S + jWL the impedance of capacitor in this region is

1
Z ≅
Ge + jWL

This shows that in this region as the frequency increases the impedance offered by
the capacitor decreases. Thus in this region capacitor behave like ideal capacitor.
ii] At F = 𝐟𝐫 inductive reactance becomes equal to capacitive reactance. Therefore
series resonance occurs and capacitor offer minimum impedance and it is
Z = RS + Re
The resonance frequency of capacitor is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

1 1 1
f𝑟 = √ − 2 2
2π LC R C

iii] At high frequencies when F > 𝐟𝐫


1
(R S + jWL) ≫
Ge +jWC

So the impedance offered by capacitor is


𝑍 = R S + jwL
This shows that in this region impedance of capacitor increases with increase in
frequency. Thus in this region the capacitor behave like a inductor. The variation of
impedance of capacitor with respect to frequency is as shown.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

iv] Inductor at High Frequency:

2a Diameter of wire.
2𝑟  Diameter of air core.
d  Separation between turns.
l  Length of coil.
N  Number of turns
lwire  Length of wire.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Inductor is a coil formed by winding a straight wire in cylindrical forms. It offers an


inductance in addition to frequency dependent resistance. The figure shows how
the inductor really looks at radio frequencies.
Whenever we bring two conductors into close proximity but separated by dielectric
then a capacitance is formed. Such a distributed capacitance formed in an inductor.
Therefore the equivalent circuit of inductor at radio frequency is

The parasitic shunt capacitance CS and series resistance RS represent composite


effect of distributed capacitance Cd and resistance Rd respectively
The impedance offered by inductor is,
1
Z = (R S + jWL) ||
jWCs
The effect of distributed capacitance on the behavior of inductor is as shown in
figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

i]At low frequency i.e f < fr


1
≫ R S + jWL
jWCs

The impedance offered by the inductor in this region is


Z = R S + jwl
This shows that as frequency increases so impedance increases so in this region
inductor behave like ideal inductor.
ii]At f = fr parallel resonance occurs in the circuit the impedance offer by the
inductor is maximum and it is
L
Z=
CR S
The resonant frequency is

1 1 R2
fr = √ −
2π LC L2

iii]At high frequencies i.e. when f >fr


1
≪ R S + jWL
jWCs

So the impedance offered by the inductor is


1
Z≅
jWCs
This shows that as frequency increases impedance of inductor decreases. Thus in
this region inductor behave like a capacitor.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Chip Components:
1] Chip resistor:

The size of chip resistor can be as small as 40 x 20mil for 0.5W Power and it is 1 x 1
inch for 1000W Power rating usually used in Power amplifier.
The standard sizes of chip resistor are
Size Code Length mil Width mil
0402 40 20
0603 60 30
0805 80 50
1206 120 60
1218 120 180
First two digits in code denotes length of component in 10’S of mil and last two digit
denotes width of component in 10’S of mil.The chip resistors are available in the
range of 0.1Ω to 1MΩ with tolerance ‘± 5% to ± 0.01% ’.
The disadvantage of high value of resistance is
i] Difficult to manufacture.
ii] Produce parasitic field which affect the linearity of resistance verses frequency.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Construction of Chip Resistor:


1] A metal film usually of nichrome layer is deposited on ceramic body.
2] The resistance layer can be adjusted to desired value by reducing its length and
inserting inner electrode.
3] Contacts are made on both ends of resistor so that component to be solder on
the board.
4] The resistance film is coated with protective layer to prevent interference.
2] Surface mounted capacitors / chip capacitors:

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The chip capacitors are implemented as single plate configuration or multiple layer
design. The single plate capacitor is combine in cluster of two element sharing a
common dielectric material and a common bottom electrode. The standard size of
capacitor are from 15 x 15mil to 400 x 425mil. The capacitance available in the
range of 0.1pF to several microfarad with tolerance range is ±2% to ±50% for small
capacitances tolerances are usually expressed in terms of pF instead % present e.g.
(0.5±0.25)pF.
3] Surface Mounted Inductor:

It is in the forms of wire wound coil with air core .Typical sizes surface mounted wire
wound inductors are 60 X 30mil to 180 X 120mil. The inductor available in the range
of 1nH to 1000μH.

The flat coil configuration is as shown in figure. Flat inductors are offer integrated
with micro strip Transmission line. Such thin wire coil has low inductance of the
order of 1nH to 500nH but since this is operated on GHz frequency they can offer
reactance beyond 1KΩ.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

CHAPTER- 2
Transmission line
Transmission line is a medium for transmitting information as guiding energy from
one point to another.

Consider the simple electric circuit consists of load resistor R L and voltage source VS
with internal resistance R S connected to load by means of 1.5cm long copper wire.
The resistance of copper wire is negligible if we apply source signal of frequency
1MHz and wire having ∈𝑟 = 10 and μr = 1 then the wavelength of signal is
VP C 3×108
λ= = =
f f√∈r 106 ×√16

λ = 94.86m
For 1MHz signal the wavelength (λ) = 94.86m which is much large as compared to
1.5cm copper wire because of that voltage and current are assumed to be constant
along the length of the wire. So the Kirchhoff’ circuit law (KCL) can be applied for the
analysis of 1.5cm copper wire.
However when the frequency of source signal is increased to 10GHz then the
wavelength of the signal reduces to λ = 0.0949cm and this is approximately 2/3 of

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

length of wire. Because of this voltage and current are not constant along the length
of line. i.e voltage and current are spatial in nature. So the Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law
cannot be directly applied.
To overcome this drawback if the line is subdivided into elements of small segments
over which voltage and current can assumed to be remains constant then the
Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law can be applied for the analysis of such line.
When the wavelength of signal is less than or equal to 10 times the length of
discrete components then Transmission line theory is used which is based on
distributed components.
In this case the length of Transmission line is 1.5cm

λ ≤ 10 l
VP
≤ 10 × 1.5cm
f
C
≤ 1.5cm
√∈r f
C
f≥
√∈r ×15cm
3 × 108
f ≥
√10 ×15 ×10−2 f ≥ 633MHz

As long as f < 633MHz we can use circuit theory based on KVL and KCL & when
f ≥ 633MHz we have to use Transmission line theory based on distributed
components.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Equivalent circuit of Transmission line:

The Transmission line is subdivided into the small segment of length ∆𝑍 . For this
small segment we can apply Kirchhoff’s Circuit Law. When current flows through the
conductor, magnetic field produces around it. This magnetic field opposes the
change in current through the conductor which indicates that conductor has the
inductance. There is a potential drop across the line which indicates that the line has
resistance. In Transmission line two conductors are separated by insulator.
Therefore the line has capacitance. The line is separated by dielectric and no
dielectric is a perfect insulator, so the dielectric provides some conductance.
Therefore the equivalent circuit of Transmission line is as shown in figure. If the
resistance and inductance of the upper and lower conductor are combined then the
simplified forms of equivalent circuit of Transmission line is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Primary constant & secondary constant of transmission line:


The component R, L, C & G are distributed along the length of Transmission line
therefore they are called distributed components and they are measured in per unit
length of line. The values of distributed components depend on geometry of
Transmission line, characteristics of dielectric material and operating frequency. R,
L, C, and G are called primary constants of Transmission line.
R  Resistance per unit length of line (Ω/m)
L Inductance per unit length of line(H/m)
C  Capacitance per unit length of line(F/m)
G  Conductance per unit length of line(℧/m)
The secondary constants of Transmission line are propagation constant
γ & characteristics impedance Z0
The propagation constant of lossless Transmission line is

γ = √(R + jWL)(G + jWC)


The characteristics impedance of lossless Transmission line is

R+jWL
Z0 = √
G+jWC

But R=0 and G=0

L
Z0 = √
C

General transmission and current law representation:


Kirchhoff’s voltage and current law representation:
(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Infinite Transmission line:


The line is said to be infinite if its length tends to infinity. For such line any signal fed
from the transmitting end will never reach to the receiving end which will never
cause back reflection of signals. The ratio of voltage and current at any point of such
line is called characteristics impedance. Practically such line is impossible to
construct therefore to prepare a workable model of such line we terminate any
Transmission line into its characteristics impedance. So the Transmission line which
is terminated by its characteristics impedance is called infinite Transmission line. For
such line the forward waves will be completely absorbed by the load and there is no
back reflection so the Transmission line equation of an infinite Transmission line
reduces too.

V = Vf e-rz = Vs e-rz
Vs
I = If e-rz = Zo e-rz
Terminated lossless Transmission line:
A Transmission line is said to be lossless if the conductivity of the line is infinite and
the dielectric medium between the lines is lossless i.e. the conductivity of dielectric
is zero. So the line is said to be lossless if R=G=0. The characteristics impedance of
lossless Transmission line is

R+jWL
Z0 = √
G+jWC

But R=0 and G=0

L
Z0 = √
C
The propagation constant of lossless Transmission line is

γ = √(R + jWL)(G + jWC)


But R=G=0

γ = jW√LC = α + jβ

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

α=0

β = W√LC

The phase velocity (VP ) is


W 1
VP = =
β √LC

This equation shows that the phase velocity is independent on frequency therefore
lossless Transmission line is non-dispersive medium like free space.The medium is
said to be dispersive if phase velocity is the function of frequency.
The propagation constant α, β, γ & Z0 is called secondary constants of
Transmission line.
Reflection Coefficient (⎾0 ):
The voltage reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of reflected voltage to the
incident voltage. The reflection coefficient is a vector quantity.
reflected voltage
⎾0 =
Forward voltage

Vr
⎾0 =
VF
Consider a finite Transmission line segment of length ‘l’ and is terminated by
load ZL ≠ Z0 .

The load is assumed to be located at Z=0 and the source is coupled to line at Z = - l

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

V Vf +Vr Vf +Vr
ZL = I = If +Ir
= Vf Vr

Z0 Z0

Vf +Vr
= Z0 ( )
Vf −Vr
V
(1+ Vr )
f
ZL = Z0 Vr
(1− V )
f

Vr Vr
ZL (1 − ) = Z0 (1 + )
Vf Vf

V
(ZL − Z0 ) = (ZL + Z0 ) ( r )
Vf

Vr ZL −Z0
⎾0 = =
Vf ZL +Z0

This equation shows that

1] For open circuit Transmission line ZL = ∞


ZL −Z0
∴ ⎾0 =
ZL +Z0
Z
(1−Z0 )
L
= Z0
(1+Z )
L

As ZL = ∞
⎾0 = 1

This means the reflected voltage wave return with the same polarity with the
incident voltage wave.

2] For short circuit Transmission line 𝑍𝐿 = 0

∴ ⎾0 = −1
This means the reflected voltage wave return with the inverted polarity w.r.t.
incident voltage wave.
3] When the load impedance matched with the line impedance
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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

i.e. ZL = Z0 no reflection occurs.

𝑉𝑟 = 0 ∴ ⎾0 = 0
Which means incident wave is completely absorbed by the load.

Standing Waves:

When ZL = Z0 , all the incident power is absorbed by the load this is called matched
line, non resonant line or resistive line.
When ZL ≠ Z0 some of the incident power is absorbed by the load and some is
returned to the source such line is called mismatch line or resonant line.
With mismatched line there are two electromagnetic waves travelling in opposite
direction at the same time along the length of Transmission line. When the incident
and reflected wave of same amplitude and frequency pass each other stationary
pattern of voltage and current wave are produced along the Transmission line called
as 'Standing Waves’. They are called stationary waves because the position of
maxima and minima are fixed along the Transmission line. The voltage and current
standing waves has maxima and minima separated by half wavelength as shown in
figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Standing Wave Ratio (SWR):


Standing wave ratio is defined as the ratio of maximum voltage to minimum voltage
or maximum current to minimum current of standing wave on Transmission line. It
is measure of mismatch between ZL & Z0
Vmax I
SWR = | | = | max|
Vmin Imin

Voltage maxima occur when the incident & reflected waves are in phase and voltage
minima occurs when the incident and reflected waves are out of phase.
Vmax = Vf + Vr
Vmin = rf + Vr
Vf +Vr
SWR =
Vf −Vr

V
(1+ r r )
f
= Vr
(1− r )
f

1+ |⎾0 |
SWR=
1−|⎾0 |
&
SWR − 1
|⎾0 | =
SWR + 1
1] For matched Transmission line i.e ZL = Z0
|⎾0 | = 0
∴ SWR = 1
2] For short circuit and open circuit Transmission line
|⎾0 | = 1
∴ SWR = ∞
Thus the standing wave ratio varies between 1 to ∞ as the reflection coefficient
varies from 0 to 1.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Higher the values of SWR indicates there is more mismatch betweenZL & Z0 .
When ZL is purely resistive
ZL
SWR = if ZL > Z0
Z0

Z0
= if Z0 > ZL
ZL

Disadvantage of mismatch Transmission line:


1] All the incident power does not reach to the load.
2] Reflection and Re-reflection causes more power loss.
3] Reflection causes Ghost images.
4] Mismatch causes noise interference.
Q. Derive the expression of input impedance of Transmission line terminated by
load impedance 𝐙𝐋 .
(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Special Termination Condition:


1] Input impedance of lossless Transmission line
For lossless Transmission line
R=G=0&α=0
γ = jβ
tanh(𝛾𝑙) = tanh(𝑗𝛽𝑙) = 𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)
Therefore impedance of lossless Transmission line is,
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

L W 2π
Where Z0 = √ , β = =
C VP λ

2] Input impedance of short circuit Transmission line


Consider Transmission line of length ‘l’ terminated by short circuit

We know that,

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑍𝐿 tanh(𝛾𝑙)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

But 𝑍𝐿 = 0
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)
For lossless Short circuit line
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)

We know that
𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑉𝑟 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + ⎾0 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

For short circuit line ⎾0 = −1


𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 − 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

𝑉(𝑑) =j2𝑉𝑓 sin( 𝛽𝑑)


𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑓
Similarly 𝐼(𝑑) = (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 ) = 2 cos(𝛽𝑑)
𝑍𝑜 𝑍𝑜

The variation of input impedance, voltage &current of short circuit Transmission line
w.r.t. distance ‘l’ from load in as shown

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

i] If length of Transmission line (d) = 0 then input impedance(𝑍𝑆𝐶 ) = 0.


ii] for increasing ‘d’ the impedance of short circuited Transmission line increases
and it is in +J form which indicates that the line is exhibits inductive behavior as
𝜆
long as 𝑑 < .
4
𝜆
iii] When 𝑑 = then impedance of line is infinite which indicate that quarter
4
wavelength short circuit Transmission line behave like a parallel resonant circuit.
𝜆 𝜆
iv] When d is in between 𝑡𝑜 then its input impedance in the form of – j which
4 2
indicate that line exhibit capacitive behavior.
𝜆
v] When 𝑑 = then its input impedance is zero which indicates that half
2
wavelength short circuited Transmission line behaves like series resonant circuit.
𝜆
the input impedance of Transmission line repeated for 𝑑 > . Thus input
2
𝜆
impedance of Transmission line is periodic in nature repeated after distance from
2
load.
3] Input Impedance of open circuit Transmission line:
Consider Tx line of length ‘l’ terminated by open circuit as shown
We know that
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂 tanh(𝛾𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑍𝐿 tanh(𝛾𝑙)
Z0
1+ tanh(𝛾𝑙)
ZL
Zin = Z0
Z0
+ tanh(𝛾𝑙)
ZL
But ZL = ∞
Therefore input impedance open circuited Transmission line is
𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = = 𝑍𝑂 coth(𝛾𝑙)
tanh(𝛾𝑙)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

For lossless line


𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 = = −𝑗𝑍𝑂 cot(𝛽𝑙)
𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)

We know that
𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑉𝑟 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑

𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + ⎾0 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

For short circuit line ⎾0 = 1


𝑉(𝑑) = 𝑉𝑓 (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 + 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 )

𝑉(𝑑) =2𝑉𝑓 cos( 𝛽𝑑)


𝑉𝑓 𝑉𝑓
Similarly 𝐼(𝑑) = (𝑒 −𝑗𝛽𝑑 − 𝑒 𝑗𝛽𝑑 ) = 𝑗2 sin(𝛽𝑑)
𝑍𝑜 𝑍𝑜

The variation of Zin , voltage and current w.r.t. distance from load is as shown

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The input impedance of open circuit Transmission line also varies w.r.t. frequency.
Zin = ZOC = −j cot(βl) × Z0
2πf
= −j cot ( l) × Z0
Vp

The variation of Zin w.r.t. frequency as shown

4] Matched Transmission line:


The input impedance of lossless Transmission line
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)
For matched Transmission line
ZL = Z0
∴ Zin = Z0

Thus the input impedance of matched Transmission line is Zin = Z0 & it is


independent on length of Transmission line.

Show that the characteristics impedance of Transmission line is 𝐙𝟎 = √𝐙𝐒𝐂 𝐙𝐎𝐂 .

 ZSC is the input impedance of short circuited Transmission line and it is


jZO tan(𝛽𝑙) . ZOC is the input impedance of open circuited Transmission line and
𝑍𝑂
it is 𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑆𝐶 =
𝑗 tan(𝛽𝑙)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
ZO
∴ ZSC . ZOC = jZO tan βl ×
j tan βl
∴ ZSC . ZOC = ZO2

∴ ZO = √ZSC ZOC

5] Half wavelength Transmission line:


𝜆
Consider the lossless Transmission line of length 𝑙 = terminated by load ZL .
2

The input impedance of lossless Transmission line is

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝜆
For half wavelength line 𝑙 =
2
2π λ
βl = . = π ∴ tan(π) = 0
λ 2
ZL
∴ Zin = Zo . ∴ Zin = ZL
ZO

If the line is exactly half wavelength long then its input impedance is equal to load
impedance and it is independent on characteristics impedance of Transmission line.
The input impedance of Transmission line repeats for every half wavelength.
6] Quarter wavelength Transmission line (Quarter wavelength Transformer)
𝜆
Consider the lossless Transmission line of length 𝑙 = terminated by ZL as shown.
4
𝜆
Let the impedance of Transmission line is ZT
4

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Input impedance of lossless Tx. Line is


𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑂 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑂
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)
λ
For Quarter wavelength line 𝑙 = , ZO = ZT
4
2π λ π
β𝑙 = . =
λ 4 2

𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 tan(𝛽𝑙)
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇
𝑍𝑂 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan(𝛽𝑙)

𝜋
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 tan ( )
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2
𝜋
𝑍𝑇 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 tan (2 )
𝜋
sin ( )
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 2
𝜋
cos ( )
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2
𝜋
sin ( )
𝑍𝑇 + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 2
𝜋
cos ( )
2
𝜋 𝜋
𝑍𝐿 cos ( ) + 𝑗𝑍𝑇 sin ( )
𝑍𝐼𝑁 = 𝑍𝑇 2 2
𝜋 𝜋
𝑍𝑇 cos (2 ) + 𝑗𝑍𝐿 sin ( 2 )

ZT
∴ Zin = ZT .
ZL
This is input impedance of Quarter wavelength Transmission line is

ZT = √Zin . ZL
λ
Where ZT  Characteristics impedance of Transmission line
4

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
λ
Transmission line of length 𝑙 = is called Quarter wavelength transformer. It is
4
used to match the characteristics impedance of Transmission line with the purely
resistive load. The Quarter wavelength transformer is actually a Transmission line of
λ
length which acts as a transformer.
4

The input impedance of Transmission line varies from minimum to maximum for
every Quarter wavelength, therefore a Transmission line of Quarter wavelength act
as step up or step down transformer depending on whether ZL > Z0 or ZL < ZO .
λ
For impedance matching transformer is placed between a Transmission line and
4
its load as shown.

Source and Loaded Transmission line:


If the source VG with its internal impedance ZG connected to Transmission line
which is terminated by load ZL as shown in figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

There are four reflection coefficients associated with Transmission line.


1] Input Reflection Coefficient (⎾𝐢𝐧 )
It measures the mismatching between input impedance Zin and characteristics
impedance ZO of Transmission line.
𝑍𝐼𝑁 − 𝑍𝑂
⎾in =
𝑍𝐼𝑁 + 𝑍𝑂
2] Source Reflection Coefficient ( ⎾𝒔 )
It measures the miss matching between source impedance ZG and characteristics
impedance ZO of Transmission line

𝑍𝐺 − 𝑍𝑂
⎾S =
𝑍𝐺 + 𝑍𝑂
3] Output Reflection Coefficient ( ⎾𝐨𝐮𝐭 )
It measures the mismatching between output impedance 𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 and characteristic
impedance ZO of Tx. Line.

𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 − 𝑍𝑂
⎾out =
𝑍𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑍𝑂

4] Load Reflection Coefficient (⎾𝐋 = ⎾𝟎 )


It measures the mismatch between load impedance ZL and characteristic ZO of Tx.
Line.
𝑍𝐿 − 𝑍𝑂
⎾L =
𝑍𝐿 + 𝑍𝑂
The reflection Coefficient of Transmission line is a function of distance from the load
Therefore Reflection Coefficient at a distance ‘d ‘from load is

⎾(d) = ⎾𝟎 e−j2βd
If d = 0
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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

⎾(d = 0) = ⎾0
If d = 𝑙 which is length of Transmission line
⎾((d = 𝑙)) = ⎾in = ⎾0 e−j2βl
Transmission Coefficient (T):
Transmission coefficient is defined as the ratio of transmitted voltage at the load to
the incident voltage.
We know that V(z) = 𝑉𝑓 e−γz + 𝑉𝑟 eγz

For lossless line & at Z = 𝑙


V(𝑙) = 𝑉𝑓 e−jβl + 𝑉𝑟 ejβl

V(𝑙) = 𝑉𝑓 (e−jβl + ⎾0 ejβl )

Transmitted voltage at load 𝑙 =0 is


V(𝑙 = 0) = 𝑉𝑓 (1 + ⎾0 )
V(𝑙)
T = = 1 + ⎾0
𝑉𝑓

For Transmission line it is easier to measure reflection Coefficient and transmission


coefficient at high frequency rather than to measure impedance. Therefore they are
more commonly used to characterize mismatching at input and output side of Tx.
Line.
Derive the expression of input power or power delivered to load of lossless
Transmission line terminated by load 𝐙𝐋 .
(Refer class note)

Return Loss:
Return loss is defined as the ratio of reflected power to the power incident at its
input.
Pr Pin−
Return Loss (R.L.) = =
Pi Pin+

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Power is always proportional to square of voltages


|Vin− |2
R. L. = 2
|Vin+ |

|Vin− |2
∴ R. L. =
|Vin+ |2

R. L. = |⎾in |2
Return loss is expressed in decibel as
P
∴ R. L = −10 log | r|
Pi

= −10 log|⎾in |2
R. L = −20 log|⎾in |

Insertion Loss:
Insertion loss is defined as the ratio of transmitted power to the incident power at
its input.
Pt Pi −Pr P
Insertion Loss (I.L) = = = (1 − r)
Pi Pi P i

I. L = (1 − |⎾in |2 )
Insertion Loss in dB:
I. L = −10 log(1 − |⎾in |2 )

Show that return loss and insertion loss can be expressed in terms of standing
wave ratio as,
𝐒𝐖𝐑+𝟏
R.L= 𝟐𝟎 𝐥𝐨𝐠 ( )
𝐒𝐖𝐑−𝟏
𝐒𝐖𝐑+𝟏
& I.L = 𝟐𝟎 𝐥𝐨𝐠 ( )
𝟐√𝐒𝐖𝐑

(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Types of Transmission line:


1] Two wire Transmission line
2] Co axial Transmission line
3] Micro strip line
1] Two wire Transmission line:

Two wire Transmission line are capable of transmitting high frequency signals from
one location to another.
It consists of two conductors of radius ‘a’ separated by dielectric of permittivity ∈𝑟 .
Disadvantages:
1. The electric and magnetic lines emanating/originating from the conductor and
extend to infinity. Thus this affects the electronic equipment which is in the
vicinity of transmission line.
2. The wire pair acts as a large antenna therefore provide high radiation loss.
Application:
1. It is commonly used as 50Hz – 60Hz power line.
2. It is used to connect TV set to the yagi-uda Antenna.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

3. Used in local telephone connection. In telephony the voice signal frequency is


low. Therefore the wavelength of signal is very high in kilometers. Therefore
the distance can be easily extended to several kilometers. So that the length
of wire is comparable to that of wavelength of the signal.

2] Coaxial line:

It consists of inner conductor of radius ‘a’ and outer conductor of radius ‘b’
separated by dielectric of permittivity ′ ∈𝑟 ′ . Usually the outer conductor is in the
form of mesh which minimizes radiation loss and field interference.
Application:
It is used for almost all measuring equipment at frequencies up to 10GHz.

3] Microstrip Lines:

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Microstrip line is a transmission line consisting of open strip conductor of thickness


(t), width (w) and a conducting ground plane separated by dielectric substrate of
thickness (h) & permittivity ∈𝑟 .
The field pattern of microstrip line is as shown in figure. Due to open structure of
microstrip line, the electromagnetic field is not confined to dielectric but this is
partly exposed to surrounding air. Therefore microstrip involves abrupt dielectric
interference between substrate and air above it. Therefore microstrip line is mixed
dielectric Transmission line system. Any Transmission line which is filled with
uniform dielectric can support single mode of propagation like TEM but the
microstrip line do not have a uniform dielectric filling. Therefore cannot support
single mode of propagation. Although this is true the most of energy is travel along
the Transmission line with field distribution like TEM. The mode of propagation of
microstrip line is usually referred as Quazi-TEM.
Because of mixed dielectric some field is radiated into the air this is called fringing.
w
The fringing field depends on ratio of microstrip line.
h

The dielectric constant of microstrip line is called effective dielectric constant and it
is defined as
C
∈eff =
C1
Where C=> Capacitance per unit length of microstrip line with dielectric substrate.
C1 => Capacitance per unit length of microstrip line with air dielectric.
w
For wide microstrip i.e when >> 1 then most of field is confined to the dielectric
h
substrate and it is very similar to parallel plate capacitor and fringing field is almost
negligible.

Such microstrip lines is used as Transmission line.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
w
For narrow microstrip line i.e <<< 1 then the most of field are field are fring out
h
and very small electric field confined to substrate.

Such microstrip lines are used as microstrip antenna. Microstrip line have been used
extensively because
1] The mode of propagation is almost TEM.
2] Easily manufactured using PCB.
3] They provide air free and accessible surface on which solid state devices can be
placed.
4] It is suitable for frequency above 1 GHz.

Design steps( formulae )of Microstrip Line:


w
1] If and ∈r are given then to find characteristics impedance Z0 and effective
h
constant ∈eff .
w
i] If ≤1
h
60 8h w
Z0 = ln [ + ]
√∈eff w 4h

−1⁄
∈r +1 ∈r −1 12h 2 w 2
∈eff = + [(1 + ) + 0.04 (1 − ) ]
2 2 w h

w
ii] If If >1
h
377
Z0 = w 2 W
√∈eff [1.393+ h + 3 ln( h +1.444)]

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
−1⁄
∈r +1 ∈r −1 12h 2
∈eff = + (1 + )
2 2 w
w
2] If Z0 and ∈eff are given to find
h
W
i] For narrow microstrip ( ) ≤ 2, Z0 ≥ 44.2 ∈r
h

W 8eA
=
h e2A −2

Z0 ∈𝑟 +1 ∈𝑟 −1 0.11
Where A = √ + (0.23 + )
60 2 ∈𝑟 +1 ∈𝑟

𝑊
Ii] 𝐹𝑜𝑟 ≥2

𝑊 2 ∈𝑟 − 1 0.61
= [𝐵 − 1 − ln(2𝐵 − 1) + {ln(𝐵 − 1) + 0.39 − }]
ℎ 𝜋 2 ∈𝑟 ∈𝑟
Where
377𝜋
𝐵=
2𝑍𝑜 √∈𝑟

Transmission line parameters:


Parameter Twowire line Coaxial cable Parallel plate line
R 1 1 1 1 1
( + )
πaσcond δ 2πσcond δ a b Wσcond δ

L μ D μ b d
cos h ( ) ln ( ) μ
π 2a 2π q w

G πσdiel 2πσdiel W
D σdiel
cos h ( ) b d
2a ln ( )
q

C πϵ 2πϵ W
D ∈
cos h ( ) b d
2a ln ( )
q

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

CHAPTER- 4
RF FILTER DESIGN
Filter is a device which passing specific band of frequencies with maximum gain or
zeroing attenuation and rejecting or heavily attenuates the frequencies outside
these bands.
Depending upon the frequencies allowed to pass the filters are classified as
1] Low Pass Filter 2] High Pass Filter
3] Band Pass Filter 4] Band reject / Band stop Filter
1] Law Pass Filter:
It is allowed to pass low frequencies (W < W0 ) with maximum gain and heavily
attenuate the high frequencies(W > W0 ).

2] High Pass Filter:


It is allowed to pass high frequencies with maximum gain and heavily attenuated the
low frequencies(W < W0 ).

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

3] Band Pass Filter:


It is allowed to pass one band of frequencies which is in between WL & WH and
reject or heavily attenuate two bands of frequencies which are below or above pass
band.

The range of frequencies allowed by the filter is called its ‘Bandwidth’


BW = WH − WL
The quality factor of filter is
f0 f0
Q= =
BW fH −fL

4] Band Stop Filter:


Band stop filter reject one band of frequency which is in between WL & WL &
allowed to pass other band of frequencies.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Filter Approximation:

The frequency response of Low Pass Filter using different approximation is as shown
in figure. In reality there is no circuitary which provide the ideal frequency response
of filter. We use the practical circuit which provides the approximate frequency
response which is closer to the ideal one. This is called filter approximation. The
filter approximation depends on the alignment of its quality factor which in turn
depends upon values of filter component.
Q. Explain why the ideal filter response cannot be realized?
Ideal response of filter having zero attenuation in the pass band because we assume
that filter component L&C are lossless however practically L&C have the losses, also
ideal filter does not have transition band or skirt that means Ideal filter provides
infinite attenuation for the undesired signal frequency but due to the component

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

imperfections & due to the limited number of filter component infinite attenuation
is not possible.
There are three types of filter approximation.
1] Butterworth approximation.
2] Chebyshev approximation.
3] Elliptic approximation.
1] Butterworth approximation:
These are the medium quality factor filters usually used for audio communication.
To get butterworth approximation the quality factor is set to 0.707. its advantages is
that It provides maximally flat frequency response during pass band and its
response is monotonic. But its drawback is that its frequency response is slower in
transition band i.e roll of rate is less in transition band.to achieve a steep
attenuation transition from passband to stopband a large number of components is
needed which increases the complexity of circuit.
2] Chebyshave approximation:
These are the high quality factor filters. It provides better steeper attenuation in
transition band at the expense of ripples during pass band region.
3] Elliptical approximation:
This provides steepest transiton from passband to stopband at the expense of ripple
in both the band. For such filter quality factor is very high.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Filter Parameters:
The generic attenuation profile for a band pass filter is as shown in figure.

1] Insertion Loss:
When the lossless Transmission line is matched with source and load then power
delivered to load is equal to the input power.
if the filter is inserted between source and load then some power dissipated across
the filter during its passband so the power delivered to load reduced and it is less
than input power. So the insertion loss is defined as the amount of loss of power
across the filter during its pass band and it quantifies how much below the 0dB line
the power amplitude response drops.
Pin
I. L[dB] = 10 log | |
PL

= −10 log(1 − |⎾in |2 )


2] Ripple:
It measures the flatness of response in passband of filter and it is expressed in either
in decibel or neper. It is difference between the maximum and minimum amplitude
response in the pass band of the filter.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

3] Bandwidth:
It is the difference between the higher and lower cutoff frequency of the filter at
which its response is 3dB below from the pass band response. It is also called half
power bandwidth.
𝐵𝑊 = 𝑓ℎ − 𝑓𝑙
4] Shape factor:
It is defined as the ratio of bandwidth at 60dB to the bandwidth at 3dB & its
measure the steepness of the frequency response. For ideal filter shape factor is 1
and for practical filter shape factor is > 1.
BW at 60dB
Shape Factor =
BW at 3dB

5] Rejection:
Ideal filter provides infinite attenuation for the undesired signal frequency but due
to the component imperfections & due to the limited number of filter component
infinite attenuation is not possible. So, practical filter design specifies 60dB as
rejection rate.
6] Quality Factor:
It is a ratio of resonant frequency to the bandwidth of filter
f0 f0
Q= =
B.W B.W

It is the measure of selectivity of filter. Higher the Q, narrow is the bandwidth and
higher is its selectivity. Consider the filter is connected between source and load as
shown in figure.

Total dissipation in the circuit.


d = df + dE

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Where df  Dissipation factor of filter.


dE Dissipation factor of external component.
The total loaded quality factor of filter is inversely proportional to total dissipation
factor.
1 1 1
= +
Q LD Q F Q E

Where Q LD  Loaded quality factor


Q F Quality factor of filter circuit (unloaded Q F )
Q E  Quality factor of external components.

1]Low Pass Filter:

Let ZG = R G & ZL = R L
1
1 RL C RL
S
R L || = 1 =
CS RL +C RL CS +1
S

Therefore from circuit output of filter is


RL
(RL CS +1)
V0 = RL VG VDR
+RG +R
(RL CS +1)

The transfer function of filter is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

V0 RL
H(S) = =
Vi RL +(R+RG )(RL CS +1)
1
= 1
1+(R+RG )(CS +R )
L

Put S = jw
1
H(jw) =
1
1 + (R + R G ) (jWC +
RL)

1] At low frequencies i.e w=0


RL
H(jw) = = Constant
RL +RG +R

At low frequency the gain is maximum and constant.


2] At high frequencies i.e w = ∞
H(jw) =0
Therefore high frequencies are rejected by the filter and the circuit acts as low pass
filter.
Attenuation in dB of LPF
α(dB) = −20 log|H(jW)|

The phase of filter is


I H(jW)
∅ = tan−1 ( m )
Re H(jW)

Group delay:
It is defined as the rate of change of phase angle with respect to input frequency
‘w’.
The typical frequency response of low pass filter for different load will be as shown
in figure.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

2]High Pass Filter:

Let ZL = R L , ZG = R G
R.RL
R ||R L =
R+RL

From circuit the output filter is


R.RL
R+RL
V0 = R.RL 1
VG (VDR)
R+RL
+(C +RG )
S

T.F of filter is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

V0 R.RL
H(S) = = 1
VG R.RL +(R+RL )(RG +C )
S

1 1
= 1 = 1 1 1
1+(R+RL )(RG + ) 1+( + )(RG + )
CS RL R CS
R.RL

Put S = jw
1
H(w) = 1 1 1
1+( + )(RG + )
RL R jWC

1] At low frequencies i.e w=0


H(jw) = = 0
Low frequencies are attenuated by filter.
2] At high frequencies w = ∞
1
H(jw) = 1 1
= Constant
1+(R +R)RG
L

So at high frequency gain is maximum and constant. Therefore circuit acts as high
pass filter.The frequency response for different values of load is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

3] Band Pass Filter:

Let ZG = R G , ZL = R L
The series RLC circuit acts as BPF. The impedance of series RLC circuit is
1
Z = R + jwL +
jWC

1
= R + j (wL − )
WC

Therefore the output voltage of BPF is


ZL
V0 = V (VDR)
ZL +ZG +Z G

Therefore transfer function of BPF is


V0 ZL
H(jw) = = 1
VG ZL +ZG +R+j(wL−WC)

The attenuation in dB is
α = −20 log|H(jw)|

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

ZL
= −20 log [ 2
]
√(ZL +ZG +R)2 +(wL− 1 )
WC

The phase angle is


1
wL−
−1 WC
φ(W) = tan [Z ]
L +ZG +R

Circuit operation:
In Low Frequency region i.e. when 𝑓 < 𝑓𝑙 reactance offered by capacitance is very
high. Therefore the impedance of series RLC circuit is large so the voltage drop
across series RLC circuit is more and hence output voltage is less. Gain is less. In this
way low frequencies are heavily attenuated by this filter.
Similarly in the high frequency region i.e when 𝑓 > 𝑓ℎ inductive reactance is high.
Therefore the impedance of series RLC circuit is high so drop across it is more and
hence output voltage is less so gain is less. Thus high frequencies are heavily
attenuated by this filter.
In mid frequency region the inductive reactance is neutralized with capacitive
reactance & series resonance occurs in circuit. So the impedance of series RLC
circuit is minimum. So the drop across it is less and hence output voltage is more so
gain is high. Thus the mid frequencies are allowed to pass through filter with
maximum gain and hence series RLC circuit act as band pass filter.

Quality Factor of BPF :

ZG = R G , ZL = R L

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

R E = R G + R L  external component

i] Unloaded quality factor or filter quality factor:


W0 L 1
QF = =
R RW0 C
ii] External quality factor.
W0 L 1
QF = =
RE R E W0 C
iii] Loaded quality factor(Q LD ):
1 1 1
= +
Q LD Q F Q E
W0 L 1
Q LD = =
(R + R E ) (R + R E )W0 C

4] Band Stop Filter:

Parallel RLC circuit act as band pass filter.


The admittance of parallel RLC circuit is
1
Y = G + CS +
LS

1
= G + j (wc − )
WL

The output of BSF is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
V0 ZL
H(jw) = = 1
VG ZL +ZG +(WC−WL)

ZL
V0 = × VG (VDR)
ZL +ZG +Z

ZL
= 1 × VG
ZL +ZG +
Y

The transfer function of BSF


V0 ZL
H(jw) = =
VG Z + Z + (WC − 1 )
L G WL
The typical frequency response is as shown

Circuit operation:
In low frequency region the inductive reactance of parallel RLC circuit is less.
Impedance of parallel RLC circuit is inductive and it is less so drop across it is less
output voltage is more so gain is high. Therefore the low frequency signals are
allowed to pass by this filter with high gain.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Similarly in high frequency region impedance of parallel RLC circuit is capacitive and
it is less so drop across it is less output voltage is more so gain is high. Hence high
frequencies are allowed to pass through this filter with high gain.
For mid frequencies parallel resonance occurs in circuit so impedance of parallel RLC
circuit is high hence drop across it is more and output voltage is less gain is less.
Thus the mid frequencies are heavily attenuated by this filter.

Impedance of series RLC circuit in terms of Quality Factor:


(Refer class notes)
Expression of Insertion loss of BPF:
(Refer class notes)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Specified Filter Realization:


In filter realization first the low pass filter is designed at the normalized frequency
𝑊
Ω= = 1Hz and source and load resistance of 1Ω. Such filter is called Prototype
𝑊𝐶
Low Pass Filter. Then it can be transformed into HPF, BPF and Band stop filter.
1] Butterworth filters realization:
Butterworth filter is medium quality factor filter it is used in application where
maximally flat magnitude response is required. Butterworth response does not have
ripple in the passband.

Properties of Butterworth response:


1] The frequency range 0 ≤ Ω ≤ 1 is called Pass band.
2] The frequency range Ω ≥ 1 is called Stop band.
3] In Pass band response is maximally flat.
4] In Stop band response is monotonic.
5] The magnitude of transfer function of butter worth response is
𝐻
|𝐻(Ω)| =
√1+Ω2 𝑁

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Where, H is Pass band gain and N is order of Filter.


𝐻
6] At Ω = 1 |𝐻(Ω)| =
√2

Therefore Ω = 1 is called normalized cut off frequency or 3dB frequency.


7] In Stop band the slope of magnitude response is -20NdB/ decade.
8] The attenuation in stop band is called Insertion loss.
𝐴𝑑𝐵 = 𝐼. 𝐿 = 10 log[1 + Ω2𝑁 ]
There are two types of Prototype LPF which are as shown.

Filter element can be obtained as


𝑔0 = 𝑔𝑁+1 = 1
(2m−1)π
g m = 2 sin [ ] Where m=1,2,……..N
2N

Filter element have symmetry


g1 = g N
g 2 = g N−1 g 3 = g N−2 & So on
Frequency Denormalization:

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

In a prototype filter design we design the filter at normalized frequency Ω = 1. But


the actual operating frequency is different than normalized frequency. So there is
need to convert from normalized frequency to actual frequency & this is done by
using frequency denormalization.
WC = 2πfc

Impedance Denormalization:
In a prototype filter design the normalized source and load impedance is of 1 Ω.
However in actual circuit these impedances are different than 1 Ω. Therefore there is
need to convert normalized resistance into actual resistances by using impedance
denormalization.
Znew
Z=
Zold

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9833590231

2]Chebyshev Filter Realization:

Chebyshev filter is high quality factor filter it is used when,


1] Steeper decrease into stop band of response is required.
2] Pass band response is no longer required to be flat i.e ripple can be allowed in pass
band. higher the ripple in the passband, the magnitude response is more steeper in
stop band.
3] The attenuation or insertion loss of chebyshev filter can be obtained as
𝐴𝑑𝐵 = 10 log[1 + 𝑎2 TN2 (Ω)]
Where, 𝑇𝑁 (Ω) = 𝑁𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑏𝑦𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑣 𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑦𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑎𝑙, 𝑖𝑡 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑏𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠
𝑇𝑁 (Ω) = cos[𝑁 cos −1 (Ω)] 𝑓𝑜𝑟 |Ω| ≤ 1
= cosh[𝑁 cos −1 Ω] 𝑓𝑜𝑟 |Ω| > 1
The chebyshev polynomials for different values of N are,
T0 (Ω) = 1
T1 (Ω) = Ω
TN (Ω) = 2Ω TN−1 (Ω) − TN−2 (Ω)
The higher order chebyshev polynomial can be obtained by using the formula
TN (Ω) = 2Ω TN−1 (Ω) − TN−2 (Ω)

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

‘a’  constant factor that allows us to control the height of ripple in the passband
region and it can be obtained as

∴ a = √100.1𝐾𝑃 −1
Where K p = Maximum ripple allowed in Passband
The magnitude of transfer function is
1
|H(Ω)| =
√1+a2 T2N (Ω)

Properties of Chebyshev Response:


1] Frequency range 0 ≤ Ω ≤ 1 is called Pass band.
2] Frequency range Ω ≥ 1 is called Stop band.
3] In Pass band the response exhibit equal ripple characteristics.
4] The stop band response is monotonic.
1
5] At Ω = 1 the magnitude of response is |H(Ω)| = & it is independent on
√1+a2
order of filter.
6] The magnitude of Transfer Function is
|H(Ω)| = 1 for N = odd When Ω = 0
1
|H(Ω)| = for N = even When Ω = 0
√1+a2

7] In Pass band the peak corresponding to frequency at which the value of chebyshev
polynomial TN (Ω) = 0 & valley corresponding to frequency at which chebyshev
polynomial TN (Ω) = 1
To find the order of Chebyshev filter:
1] The Normalized frequency is
f
Ω=
fc

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

10 0.1KS
−1
2] M = √ 0.1KP K S = Minimum attenuation in Stop band.
10 −1

COSh−1 (M)
3] N =
COSh−1 (Ω)

Filter Implementation:
In filter design so far use lumped elements but the filter beyond 500MHz are difficult
to realize using lumped element because the wavelength of signal is short and
becomes comparable with the size of lumped component which results in various
losses in filter circuit which degrade the performance of filter circuit. So there is need
to convert the lumped element into the distributed element and this is achieved by
using ‘Richard’s Transformation’. The distributed element can be obtained by fixed
length Transmission line segment called as ‘Stub’.
We cannot realize series stub due to the practical difficulties. Hence series stub are
converted into shunt stub by using ‘Kuroda’s Identity’. The distance between the
distributed elements can be maintained by using unit element.
Richard’s transformation:
Richard’s states that the open and short circuit Transmission line segment can replace
the lumped element of filter circuit.
The input impedance of short circuited line is
Zin = jZ0 tan(βl)
= jZ0 tan(θ)
Where θ = βl
λ0
Consider the short circuit transmission line of length
8
2π λ0
θ = βl = .
λ 8
VP
2π f0
= VP ×
8
f

π f
= ×
4 f0

π 𝑊
θ= Ω Ω= is normalized frequency.
4 𝑊𝐶

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
π
Zin = jZ0 tan ( Ω)
4

Short circuit line act as inductor when Zin = jwL


π
jwL = LS = jZ0 tan ( Ω)
4

Z0 = L &
π Is the Richard’s transformation.
S = j tan ( Ω)
4

Thus Richard’s transformation allows us to replace lumped inductor with short circuit
λ
stub of length 0 with characteristics impedance Z0 = L
8

Consider the input impedance of open circuit transmission line is


Zin = −jZ0 cot(βl)
Z0
=
j tan(βl)

λ0
For open circuit stub of length
8
π
𝛽𝑙 = 𝜃 = Ω
4
Z0
Zin = π
j tan( 4 Ω)

λ0 1
Open circuit stub of length act as capacitor When Zin =
8 jWC

1 1 Z0
= = π
jWC CS j tan( 4 Ω)

π 1
∵ S = j tan ( Ω) & Z0 =
4 C

Thus Richard’s transformation allow us to replace lumped capacitor by the open


λ 1
circuit stub of length 0 with characteristics impedance (Z0 ) =
8 C

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Unit element:
While converting lumped element into transmission line segment there is need to
maintain separation between elements this is achieved by inserting unit element.
λ0
Unit element is the transmission line of length with characteristics impedance
8
’Zue ’
ABCD matrix of unit element is
cos(βl) j Zue sin(βl)
A B
[ ] = [ j sin(βl) ]
C D cos(βl)
Z
ue

By using Richard’s transformation

π
S = j tan ( Ω)
4

π
= j tan θ Where θ = ( Ω)
4
1
cos θ =
√1 − S 2
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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

S
j sin θ =
√1 − S 2
ABCD Parameter of unit element are
1 Zue S
A B 1
[ ]= [ S ]
C D √1 − S 2 Z 1
ue

Kuroda’s Identities:
In filter design it often becomes necessary to convert a difficult-to- implement design
to a more suitable filter realization. For example series inductance is implemented by
short circuit stub is more complicated to realize than shunt stub so to facilitate the
conversion between conversion between series and shunt stub kuroda’s has
developed four identities
1]Proof of Kuroda’s first identity

The ABCD parameter of LHS is


1 0 1 1 Z1 S
A B
[ ] = [S 1] √1−S2 [ S ]
C D Z2
1
Z1

1
1 Z1 S
= [ 1 1 Z1 ]
√1−S 2 (Z + Z ) S S2 + 1
1 2 22

The ABCD Parameters of R.H.S network is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
Z2
1 Z1 S
A B 1 NS 1
[ ]= [
2 NS
][ NS ]
C D √1−S
1 0 1
Z2

Z1 +Z2
1 ( )S
1 N
= [NS Z1 2
]
√1−S2
S +1
Z2 Z2

Z2 Z1 +Z2
But N = 1 + =
Z1 Z1

1
1 Z1 S
= [ 1 1 Z1 ]
√1−S2 (Z + Z ) S S2 + 1
1 2 Z2

= LHS
2]

ABCD parameter of LHS Network is


1 Z2 S
A B 1 Z1 S 1
[ ]=[ ] [S ]
C D 0 1 √1−S2 Z 1
2

Z1
1+ S2 (Z1 + Z2 )S
1 Z2
= [ S ]
√1−S2
1
Z2

ABCD parameter of RHS Network is


1 NZ1 S 1 0
A B 1
[ ]= [ S ][ S 1]
C D √1−S2 1 NZ
NZ 1 2

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9833590231
Z1
1+ S2 NZ1 S
1 Z2
= [ 1 1 S
]
√1−S2
(Z + Z ) N 1
1 2

Z2 Z1 +Z2
But N = 1 + =
Z1 Z1

Z1
1+ S2 (Z1 + Z2 )S
1 Z2
= [ S ] = RHS
√1−S2
1
Z2

The ABCD parameter of LHS Network is


Z2 1 Z1 S
A B 1 1
[ ]= [ S] [S ]
C D 0 1 √1−S2 1
Z1

Z Z2
1+ 1 Z1 S +
1 Z S
= 2
[ S 2 ]
√1−S
1
Z1

The ABCD parameter of RHS Network is


1 NZ1 S NZ2 N 0
A B 1 1
[ ]= [ S ][ S ] [0 1]
C D √1−S2 1 0 1 N
NZ 1

Z2
1 NZ1 S N
S
=[ S ][ 1]
1 0
NZ1
N

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
Z2
1
N + Z1 S
S
= [
2 S Z2 1]
√1−S +
Z1 NZ1 N

Z2
Put N = 1 +
Z1

Z Z2
1+ 2 Z1 S +
1 Z1 S
= 2
[ S Z 1
]
√1−S
Z1
(1 + Z2) N
1

Z2 Z2
1+ Z1 S +
1 Z1 S
= [ S ]
√1−S2
1
Z1

= LHS
4]

The ABCD parameter of LHS Network is


1 0 1 1 Z2 S
A B
[ ]=[1 1] √1−S2 [
S ]
C D 2N
1
Z2

1
1 Z2 S
= [ 1 1 Z2 ]
√1−S 2 + +1
Z1 S Z2 Z1

ABCD parameter of RHS Network is


Z2
A B 1 1 0 1 0
1 NS
[ ]= [ ][ N
1] [ N ]
C D √1−S2 NS 1
Z2
Z1 S 0 N

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
Z2 1
1 0
1 NS N
= [
2 NS
][ 1 ]
√1−S 1 N
Z2 Z1 S

1 Z2
+ Z2 S
1 N NZ1
= [
2 S 1 ]
√1−S
+ N
Z2 Z1 S

1 Z
1
(1 + 2) Z2 S
N Z 1
= [ 1 S Z2
]
√1−S2
+ 1+
Z1 S Z2 Z1

1
1 Z2 S
= [ 1 S Z2 ] = LHS
√1−S2 + 1+
Z1 S Z2 Z1

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Microstrip Filter Design:


Step I:
Select the normalize filter parameter to meet the design criteria.
Step II:
λ0 λ0
Replace inductor by series stub of length and capacitor by shunt stub of
8 8

Step III:
Convert series stub into shunt stub by using unit element and kuroda’s identity.
Step IV:
Denormalize and select equivalent microstrip line.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

CHAPTER-5
ACTIVE RF COMPONENTS
Semiconductor basics:
Properties of Semiconductors:
1] The pure form of semiconductor is called intrinsic semiconductor. The
concentration of electrons & holes are equal in intrinsic semiconductor.
n = P = ni
Where n=concentration of electrons
p=concentration of holes
ni = Intrinsic carrier concentration.
The concentration of electrons in conduction band & holes in valance band are
−(EC −EF )⁄
[ kT]
n = NC e
−(EF −EV )⁄
[ kT]
P = NV e
3 3
̅T 2
2πmn K ̅T 2
2πmp K
Nc = 2 ( ) NV = 2 ( )
h2 h2
ev
̅ = 1.6 × 10−19 𝐾
Where 𝐾 & K = 8.62 × 10−5 = Boltsmann constant
0𝐾

EC → Energy level associated with conduction band


EV → Energy level associated with valence band
EF →Fermi energy level
mn →Effective mass of electron.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

mp → Effective mass of holes


T →Temp. in 0𝐾 h →Plank constant = 6.626 × 10−34 J − sec

In intrinsic semiconductor the Fermi level is at the Centre of the forbidden energy
gap.

EC +EV
EF =
2

Using Mass Action Law in intrinsic semiconductor


np = ni 2
−(EC −EV )
[ ]
∴ ni = √NC NV e 2KT

Eg
[− ]
= √N C N V e 2kT

In Intrinsic semiconductor, the current is due to electron as well as holes therefore


the current density is

J = (qn𝜇𝑛 + qp𝜇𝑝 )E = σE

Therefore conductivity of semiconductor is


σ = qn𝜇𝑛 + qp𝜇𝑝

σ = qni (𝜇𝑛 + 𝜇𝑝 )

Where 𝜇𝑛 = Mobility of electron 𝜇𝑝 = Mobility of holes.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

2] By adding the impurities in intrinsic semiconductor we get extrinsic


semiconductor.
Adding donor impurities (ND ), we get N- type semiconductor & adding accepter
impurities (NA ), we get P- type semiconductor.
The N- type & P- type semiconductors are electrically neutral
ND + Pn = NA + nn
In N – type semiconductor, NA = 0
∴ nn = ND − Pn
Where Pn = minority hole concentration in N – type. Since the number of electrons
are much greater than holes.
nn ≅ ND Concentration of electrons in N –type

we know that nn Pn = ni2


ni2 ni2
∴ Pn = Pn =  Concentration of holes in N – type
nn ND

Similarly for P- type semiconductor


ni2
PP = NA np =
NA
P – N Junction:

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Current flow in the pn- junction


When P – type semiconductor is in contact with n-type semiconductor the P-N
junction diode is formed because of the difference in the carrier concentration
between the two type of semiconductors, majority charge carrier cross the junction
& produce the current across the junction this current is called diffusion current & it
is composed of electron and holes. We know that the diffusion whole current
density JP is
dp
JP = −qDP
dx

And diffusion electron current density Jn is


dn
Jn = −qDn
dx
In diff dn
= Jn ∴ 𝐼𝑛 diff = qA Dn
A dx
dp
IP diff = AJP = qADP
dx

Therefore total diffusion current is Idiff = dP diff + In diff


dn dp
= qA(Dn + DP )
dx dx

Where A is semiconductor cross sectional area Dn & Dp are the diffusion constant
for electron and holes
DN DP KT
= = VT =
μn μP q
KT
VT = Thermal potential, its 26mv at 3000K
q

Due to the diffusion current the potential developed across the junction called as
built in potential, potential barrier or diffusion barrier voltage & it is

NA ND
Vdiff = VT ln ( 2 )
𝑛𝑖

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

P-N Junction with space charge extent :

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Dn = is the extent of space change region in N – type semiconductor & it is


1⁄
2ε Vdiff NA 1 2
dn = { ( )}
q N D NA + ND
Where ε = εo εr
Dp = is the extent of space charge region in P – type semiconductor & it is
1⁄
2 ε Vdiff ND 1 2
dp = { ( )}
q NA NA +ND

The entire length of space charge region is the addition of Dp & Dn and it is
1⁄
2
2ε Vdiff 1 1
dS = { (( + ))}
q NA ND

The junction capacitance is an important parameter of RF devices, since low


capacitances gives rapid switching speed and suitable for high frequency operation.
εA
C=
ds
1⁄
qε NA ND 2
C = A{ }
2Vdiff NA +ND

If the external voltage is VA is applied across the junction, in forward bias


condition as VA increases the space change region reduces & when VA = Vdiff ,
ds = 0 . So when VA > Vdiff the diode turn on and the forward current flows
through diode due to majority charge carriers. In reverse bias condition, as
VA increases the length of space change region ds increases.The diode is in off
state, only small leakage current flows through diode due to minority charge
carriers.
When VA is applied, replace with Vdiff − VA
1⁄
2ε(Vdiff −VA ) ND 1 2
dp = { ( )}
q NA NA +ND

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9833590231
1⁄
2ε(Vdiff −VA ) NA 1 2
dn = { ( )}
q ND NA +ND

This leads to length of space charge region


1⁄
2ε(Vdiff −VA ) 1 1 2
dS = { ( + )}
q NA ND
1⁄
2
qε NA ND
The junction capacitance is Cj = A { VA N +N }
2Vdiff(1− ) A D
Vdiff

This is depletion layer or transition or space charge capacitance formed in reverse


biased p - n junction diode. However, under forward bias condition,the diffusion
capacitance exist across the junction & it is obtains as
V
I0 τT VA
Cd = e T
VT

Where τT → transition time of carriers through the diode. It is seen to be strongly


dependent on the operating voltage.
In general the total capacitance ‘C’ of the p-n diode can roughly divided into three
region
1]VA < 0 :Only depletion capacitance is significant C = CJ

2]0< VA<Vdiff : depletion & diffusion capacitance or combineC = CJ + Cd


3]VA>Vdiff : Only diffusion capacitance is significant C = Cd

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

Q. Explain schottky contact with the help of energy band diagram for metal &
semiconductor do not interact and metal semiconductor contact?
Schottky diode is normally constructed by a metal and n – type semiconductor in
which the work function of metal (WM = qV𝑚 ) is larger than that of semiconductor
(WS = qVS ) where V𝑚 &VS are the potential difference between the Fermi level &
vacuum level of the metal & semiconductor respectively. The work function of any
material is defined as the energy required in removing an electron from the Fermi
level to the vacuum level. When the metal and semiconductor are brought into
contact to form a metallic junction, there exists a potential barrier at the junction
which is faced by the electron in the metal side into the semiconductor side. This
kind of metal-semiconductor junction is called schottky contact or schottky junction.
The energy band diagrams of the metal and semiconductor before and after making
a schottky contact are shown in fig.

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

The parameter qz represent electron affinity of semiconductor which is energy


required to remove an electron from the bottom of the conduction bond Wc to
vacuum level. The parameter WFm is the Fermi level of metal, WFs is the Fermi level
of n-type semiconductor.WFi is the energy level of intrinsic semiconductor under
isolated condition WFi and WFm are assumed at the same energy level and WFs is
above Fermi WFm of the metal. Then the average energy of an electron in the
conduction band is higher by an amount Wb =q (V𝑚 − 𝑧) than that of an electron at
the metal side.
When the metal and semiconductor brought to make a contact, the electron
from higher energy state of semiconductor can easily enter the lower energy states
of the metal and the Fermi level of the metal and semiconductor are aligned into a
common Fermi level. However the difference in energy e (Vm-Z) between Wc and
WFm remain unchanged at the junction point even after the junction is being
mode. The parameter Wb = e (Vm – Z) = eVB is the energy barrier seen by an
electron in the metal to move into the conduction based of the semiconductor.
VB = Vm - Z is called the schottkey barrier height of the metal semiconductor
junction. If any electron in the metal gains energy of at least equal to Wb , it may
overcome the barrier enter into the conduction band of the semiconductor.
It is already maintains that electrons form the semiconductor are move into the
metal side as the junction is formed because of this, built in potential barrier as well
as depletion region is created in semiconductor. because of higher concentration of
holes, the valence band bends toward the Fermi level. The conduction band as a
result of a lower concentration of electrons bends away from Fermi level. Since
these are no holes in the metal side, electron entered from the semiconductor is
confined in the form of a sheet charge in the metal side of the junction and virtually
no depletion region is formed into the metal side. Hence depletion layer at the
schottky junction is mainly extended into semiconductor side.
the built in Schottky barrier voltage V𝑑 in semiconductor is
V𝑑 = (Vm − Z) − VC
Where VC = VT ln(NC ⁄ND )
1
2∈ (Vd −V𝐴 ) −2
The length of space charge in the semiconductor is dS = [ ]
𝑞 ND

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9833590231

When VA is the applied forward bias voltage across the scottky junction,The junction
∈A q∈ND
capacitance of the schottky contact Cj = = A√
ds 2(V𝑑 −VA )

Q. Explain Schottky diode with cross sectional view & circuit model?
Schottey diode is one of the diodes which have zero diffusion capacitance and
smaller transition capacitance than any normal p-n junction diode. The diode is
formed by the junction between metal and a n- type semiconductor.
I
The reverse saturation current density JS = S is much higher than that of any p-n
A
junction diode JS = 10−6 A/cm2 in case of schottky diode compared with 10-
11
A/cm2 of a conventional p-n junction diode. This shows that lower values of
forward voltage are required in schottky diode to produce the same quiescent
current of a p-n junction diode. In a schottky diode there is no minority carriers in
metal. Therefore only the majority carriers contribute to the current of the device.
The current voltage relation can be obtained from the thermionic emission theory.
Due to the minority carrier free region schottky diode cannot store the charge.
Therefore the reverse recovery time of the diode is much smaller the p-n junction
diode. Hence it is suitable for high speed switching application it can be operates
above 300MHz. The cross sectional view of schottky diode with corresponding
circuit element as shown in fig.

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The metal electrode (tungsten, Al, gold etc) is in contact with a weakly doped n-
semiconductor layer epitaxically grown over a highly doped n+ substrate.
The current voltage relation is described by the equation

I = IS (e(VA−IRS) − 1) Where the reverse saturation current is given by


V
(− 𝑏 ) KT
IS = A[R∗ T 2 e VT ] Where VT = & R∗ is called Richardson constant for
q
thermionic emission of the majority carrier across the potential barrier. A typical
value of R∗ for Si is 100A/cm2K2 .
The small signal model schottky diode as shown in fig.

R j = junction resistance depends on bias current typical value 200 Ω- 2kΩ

R S= Repi + R sub => diode series resistance Rs = 2 – 5Ω


LS = bond wire inductance & it is fixed its value is ≅ 0.1 Nh
Cj = Junction capacitance

Cg = Capacitance between metal contact Cg = 0.1 – 0.2PF

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CHAPTER-6
ACTIVE RF MODELLING
Q.Explain different types of diode models (RF) & differentiate them w.r.t junction
capacitance, band gap energy and conductance
There are two types of RF diode model
i) Nonlinear model
ii) Linear model
Nonlinear diode model:
When the diode is operated on large signal i.e. on high power signal,the current
through diode is nonlinearly varies with applied large signal.The large scale
nonlinear diode model is as shown in fig

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The model taken into account the nonlinear relation between current and voltage
which is represented by diode equation
VA
ID = IS (e ηVT
− 1)
ID = Forward current, IS = Reverse saturation current
𝐾𝑇
VA = applied voltage, VT = = thermal voltage
𝑞

𝞰 = is emission coefficient usually 𝞰 = 1


Diffusion (CD) and junction capacitance (Cj ) affects the performance of diode at high
frequencies. The effect of both capacitances is combined in a single capacitance ‘C’.
The value of junction capacitance is nonlinearly dependent on the applied voltage as
larger as VA < Vm where Vm is threshold potential which is half of built in potential
Vm = 0.5Vdiff. but the Cj becomes linearly dependent on the applied voltage when it
exceeds Vm
CJO
Cj = V VA ≤ Vm
(1− V A )m
diff

C𝐽𝑂 VA −Vm
Cj = m [1 + m ( ) ] If VA > Vm
V Vdiff −Vm
(1− V m )
idiff

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Where m is known as junction grading coefficient for abrupt junction m=0.5 and for
gradual transition junction m lies in the range of 0.2≤ m ≤ 0.5.

It is seen that diffusion capacitance Cd also depends on VA


IS VA
⁄ηV
Cd = τT e T
ηVT

τT = Transition time
The total voltage drop across the diode is
I
V = R S Id + ηVT ln(1 + D )
IS

Where R S series resistance and the second term is indicates that the temp
dependencies can also be introduced into this model. Besides the obvious thermal
K
voltageVT = T , the reverse saturation current IS is strongly influenced by temp; it
9
also depends on band gap energy Wg (T) . As temp increases, this band gap
decreases, making it easier for charge carrier to transition from the valence band to
conduction band.
Linear diode model:
If the diode is operated at a particular DC voltage bias point & the signal variation
about this point are small. We can develop a linear or small signal model of diode.
The concept of linearization means the approximation of exponential I.V.
characteristics through a tangent at the bias or Q point .The tangent at Q point is
the differential conductance Gd , which can find as
dID
1 dVA IQ
Gd = = =
Rd VQ ηVT

The tangent approximates is shown in figure along with the simplified circuit model.
Only the diffusion capacitance present at this Q point.
VQ
IS ⁄
Cd = τT e ηVT
ηVT

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Transistor model:
Large signal model:
Eber’s Moll model which is one of the most popular large signal model. It is valid for
forward active mode as well as reverse active mode. Injection version of Eber’s Moll
is represented in terms of forward injection factor αF and reverse injection factor
αR

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αF => 0.95 − − − 0.99 => Forward current gain of CB configuration


αR => 0.02 − − − 0.05 => Reverse current gain of CB configuration

From circuit
IE = αR IR − IF & IC = αF IF − IR
Where IF & IR are the forward currents through diode in forward active mode and
reverse active mode resp.
VBC VBe
IR = ICS (eVT
− 1) & IF = IES (e
VT
− 1)

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Where ICS & IES are reverse saturation current of two diodes related with
transistor leakage current as αF IES = αR ICS = IS
Forward Active mode :
In forward active mode base-emitter junction is forward bias and base-collector
junction reverse bias.
∴ IR = 0 so αR IR = 0
∴ model reduces to.

Reverse Active mode :


In Reverse active mode base-collector junction is forward biased and base-emitter
junction is reverse bias.
∴ IF = 0 so αF IF = 0
For RF operation model may include the resistive and inductive properties of the
lead wire as well as parasitic capacitances between terminal points.
Above Eber’s moll model is static model it does not consider internal charge
distribution i.e capacitive effect. This model can be modified for dynamic operation
by including diffusion capacitance and junction capacitances.
Cde = Diffusion capacitance across emitter junction in forward active mode.
Cdc = Diffusion capacitance across forward biased base-collector junction in
Reverse active mode.
Cje = Junction capacitance in reverse active mode across b-e junction.

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Cjc = Junction capacitance across b-c junction in forward active mode.

2] Transport version Eber’s Moll Model :


For CE Transistor

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𝐼𝐸𝐶 1−∝𝑅 𝐼𝐸𝐶


= 𝐼𝐸𝐶 =
∝𝑅 ∝𝑅 𝛽𝑅

𝐼𝐶𝐶 1−𝛼𝐹 𝐼𝐶𝐶


= 𝐼𝐶𝐶 =
𝛼𝐹 𝛼𝑅 𝛽𝑅

βF = Forward current gain of CE Transistor.


βR = Reverse current gain of CE Transistor.
From circuit
IEC ICC
IC = ICC − & IE = IEC −
βR βF

Here the output current ICC in forward mode is controlled by input voltage VBE and
output current in reverse active mode is controlled by VBC voltage
VBE VBC
ICC = IS (e VT
− 1) & IEC = IS (e VT
− 1)
Combining two current sources into a single source ICOM = ICC − IEC

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Where RBB’, RCC’ and REE’ are spread resistances at base, collector emitter
respectively. Cbe and Cbc are the combined diffusion and junction capacitances.
IES
Only for forward active mode = 0 .Therefore remove B-C diode and replace B-E
βR
ICC
forward diode by its equivalent current source IB =
βF

Gummel-poon model:

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Eber’s Moll model was one of the first BJT circuit representations and has retained
its popularity and wide acceptance. However shortly after its introduction, It is seen
that the number of physical phenomena could not be taken into account in this
model are
1]BF and BR are current dependent.
2] The saturation current IS is affected by base collector voltage i.e. Early effect does
not take into account.
By including above two phenomenon’s in Eber’s moll, Gummel-poon model is
formed. Therefore large signal Gummel-poon model in normal active mode is

Small signal model of BJT :

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The small signal hybrid- π model that takes into account the internal charge
distribution is

Where rb , rc , & re are the resistance between internal active region & external
passive region.
rπ => Forward bias resistance of base emitter junction.
rμ => Reverse resistance of reverse bias base collector junction which very high

in MΩ.
r0 => Dynamic output resistance.
Cπ => Diffusion capacitance due to forward biased base emitter junction.
Cμ => Transition capacitance due to reverse biased base collector junction.

ic = g m Vπ => Voltage controlled current source.


ic ic ICQ
i) Trans conductance g m = = =
Vπ vbe VT

β
ii)Input Resistance = rπ = hie = βre =
gm

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VAN
iii) Output Resistance = T0 = VAN => Early voltage
ICQ

Neglecting rb , rc & re and hence rμ is very high. Consider it is open circuit. The RF
circuit model is

Using Miller transformation Cbc can be spitted as

Where CM1 = Cbc (1 − AV )


1
cM2 = Cbc (1 − ) ≅ Cbc
AV

Q. Draw the small signal h-parameter represents of BJT and finds the values of
𝐫𝛑 , 𝐂𝛑 , 𝐫𝟎 , & 𝐠 𝐦
ICQ = 6mA , IBQ = 40𝝁𝑨 , VAN(Early voltage)=30V, FT = 30GHr VT=26mv
The small signal hybrid-𝜋 model is

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rb,rc,re are the resistance between internal active region and external passive
region.
rπ = resistance of F − B base emitter junction
rμ = resistance of R. B. Collector junction

r0 = Dyanimic output resistance


Cπ = diffusion capacitance
Cμ = Transister capacitor
ic iC ICQ 6
1] Trans conductance gm = = == = =230.79mS
Vπ Vb VT 0.026

β IC 6m
2]i/P resistance rπ = hie = βre = = = =150K
gm IB g m 40μx
VAN 30
3] o/p resistance r0 = = = 5kΩ
ICQ 6M

gm gm 230.79𝑚
4]Cπ = fT = ∴ Cπ = = = 99.27Pf.
2πcπ 2πfT 2𝜋.37𝐺

Q Show the RF small signal circuit model of BJT and equivalent model using Miller
effect. Find the values of 𝐂𝐌𝟏 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂𝐌𝟐 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐂𝐛𝐜 , 𝐕𝐜𝐞 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐕𝐛𝐞 .
Solution : The RF small circuit model of BJT and equivalent model using Miller effect
is as shown.

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The current IP is found by taking the voltage difference between output and input
divided by the feedback impedance

(V1 −V2 )
IP =
Z12

And for the equivalent input and output impedances Z11 , Z22
V1 Z V1 V2 −1
Z11 = = (V 12 )
= Z12 (1 − )
IP 1 −V2 V1

And

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V Z V2
Z12 = (−I2 ) = (V 12 = Z12 (1 − V1 /V2 )−1
P 2 −V1 )

1 1 1
With the assignments Z12 = (jωC , Z11 = (jωC , Z22 = (jωC and V1 =
cb ) M1 ) M2 )
vbc , V2 = vce , we find the equivalent capacitances
vce
CM1 = Cbc (1 − )
vbe

And
vbe
CM2 = Cbe (1 − )
vce

RF Field Effect Transistor (FET)


1] FET are unipolar device. Current through FET due to either electron OR holes.
2] FET is a voltage controlled device. A variable electric field controls the current
flow from source to drain by changing the applied voltage at the gate electrode.
3] Metal semiconductor FET (MESFET): It is similar to JFET except reverse bias p-n
junction is replace by a schottky contact the channel can be controlled similar to
JFET. MESFET find application up to 60 – 70 GHZ. However JFET cannot used above
1GHZ.

Functionality :
MESFET’S are used extensively in RF & micro-wave amplifier, mixer and oscillator
circuits. Therefore we focus our analysis on the MESFET, Whose physical behavior is
in many ways similar to the JFET.

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When VDS is positive w.r.t to source and VGS is negative then schottky contact builds
up a space charge domain(depletion layer) that affect current flow from source to
drain. The space charge extent ds can be controlled via the gate voltage VGS.

2ε Vd −VGS
ds = √ ( )
d ND

Vd => Barrier potential = 0.9V for Ga AS − Au interface


The resistance between source and drain is
L
R=
σ(d−ds)W

σ Conductivity and W is the gate width.


The drain current equation is

VDS 2ε Vd −VGS
ID = = G0 [1 − √ 2( )] VDS
R 9d ND

σwd
Where G0 = => conductance
L

For small value of VDS drain current increases linearly with VDS. If VDS further
increases the space charge domain near the drain contact increases as well,
resulting in a no uniform distribution of the depletion region along the channel as
shown. Therefore Id increases non linearly with VDS . At particular value of VDS, the

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space charge extend over the entire channel depth d and channel is pinch off or
saturated. the value of VDS at which channel is saturated is
VDS Sat = VGS − VT0
VT0 = Vd − VP => threshold voltage
qN d2
0
VP = => pinch off voltageS

The associated drain saturation current is


3
VP 2
ID Sat = G0 [ − (Vd − VGS ) + (Vd − VGS )2 )]
3 3√VP

It can be approximated by shockly equation as


VGS 2
IDSat = IDSS = ID (1 − )
VP

Frequency Response :
The high frequency MESFET performance is determinate by the transit time of
charge carriers travelling between source and drain and the RC time constant of the
device. Since electrons have much higher mobility than holes, n – channel MESFET
are used in RF & MW applications. Furthermore the electron mobility of Ga As is
roughly five times higher than that of Si , therefore Ga As MESFET are usually
preferred over Si devices.
The transit time ′τ′ of electron travelling through channel of gate length L is
computed as

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L
τ= Vsat => fixed saturation velocity.
VSat

Limiting values :
The MESFET must be operated in a domain limited by IDmax , VDSmax & VGSmax . The
maximum power dissipated in MESFET is
Pmax = VDS ID
Which is related to the channel temp TC and ambient temp Ta and the thermal
resistance TC = Ta + R th p
Advantage of FET over BJT :
1] FET exhibit a better temp. behavior.
2] In terms of noise performance FET is superior to BJT.
3] The input impedance of FET’S is normally very high, making them ideal for
preamplification stages.
4] The upper frequency limit exceeds, often by a substantial margin, that of a BJT
5] The power consumption of a FET is smaller.
6] FET is more linear as compared to BJT.

Disadvantage:
1] FET’S have less gain.
2] Because of the high input impedance, matching networks are more difficult to
construct.
3] The power handling capabilities is less compared to BJT.

Large signal FET Model:


When the FET operated on large signal, it has static as well as dynamic model. The
basic n-channel, deplation mode model with negative threshold voltage is shown
along with the transfer and output characteristics.

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Making the transition from the static to the dynamic FET model requires only the
addition of gate-drain and gate-source capacitancees.Also shown in this model are
source and drain resistors associated with source-gate and drain-gate channel
resistances.A gate resistor is typically not included because the gate current is
negligible.

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CGD => Zero bias gate to drain capacitance.


CGS => Zero bias gate to source capacitance.
rd => Drain resistance. rs => Source resistance.

Small signal FET Model :

rg , rd , rs => gate, drain , source reisitances.

Cgs => Gate to source capacitance.

rgs => Small gate to source channel resistance i. e charging resistance of Cgs

rds => Drain to source resistance.


Cgd => Gate to drain capacitance which is very small.

Cds => Drain to source capacitance.


g m => Transconductance.
For a Ga As MESFET having a gate length of 1𝜇m and a gate width of 250𝜇m. The
typical values are Cgs = 0.3PF, Cgd = 0.02PF, Cds = 0.05PF

rds = 600Ω, g m = 40ms, rgs = 2.5Ω

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The high frequency model of FET is

In Ga As maximum orbit velocity of electrons = 2 × 107 cm/s. So that for a gate


length L = 0.5𝜇m, FT= 60GHZ. Clearly very short gate length are essential for high
frequency operation. The Threshold frequency of FET is
gm 1 VSat
Ft = = =
2π(Cgs +Cgd ) 2πτ 2πL

Measurement of Active Devices:


D.C. Characterizations of BJT :
The D.C. parameter of Ebers-Moll model of BJT can obtained using forward
measurement technique and reverse measurement technique.
The Ebers-Moll equation of collector current and base current are
VBE VBC
IS
IC = IS (e VT
− 1) − (e VT
− 1) -----------(1)
βR

VBE VBC
IS IS
Iβ = (e
VT
− 1) + (e VT
− 1) ------------(2)
βF βR

The unknown coefficient to be determined through measurement are


IS , BR , BF and forward and reverse early voltageVAN and VBN .

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Reverse saturation current IS , forward current gain βf and VAN are called forward
mode parameter of BJT and current gain in reverse mode βR α VBN are reverse
mode parameter of BJT.
1] Forward Measurement:

Under forward Measurement condition the base collector is short circuited


∴ VBC = 0
∴ Equation (1) and (2)reduces to
VBE
IC = IS (e VT − 1)
VBE
IS
Iβ = (e
VT
− 1)
βF

Monitoring base current and collector current as function of VBE result in the graph
as shown

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VBE
Hence e VT
≫ 1 neglect 1
VBE
IC = IS e VT
-----------------------------------------(3)
VBE
IS
Iβ = (e VT
) -------------------------------------(4)
βF

Taking log of both equation


VBC
lnIC = lnIS +
VT

1
lnIβ = VBE + lnIS
VT

This equation is of the form of y = mx +c . Therefore intersection of IC curve on y axis


gives us lnIS and then IS
Similarly equation (4) becomes
I VBE
lnIB = ln ( S ) +
β F VT

1
ln(IB ) = VBE + [ln IS ]
VT

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This equation is also of the form of y = mx+c . Therefore intersection of IB curve on y


I
axis gives us ln( S ). From which we can determine βf . If we draw the tangent to the
β F
IC curve and projecting this tangent line on VCE axis then it intersect on VCE axis at
VAN . Therefore in this way we can find VAN .
The determination of the Reverse mode parameter βR , VBN is carried out by
interchanging the collector with emitter terminal and then following the identical
procedure as done in the forward direction.
Measurement of A.C. Parameter of BJT :
The small signal low frequency circuit model of BJT is as shown

For a Q point in forward active mode, we can define A.C. Parameters as


dIC ICQ
1]Transconductance : g m = ⁄ VCE = 0 =
dVBE VT

dVBE Vbe β0
2]Input Resistance : rπ = ⁄ VCE = constant = ⁄ Vce = 0 =
dIB ib gm

1 dIC ICQ
3]Output conductance : = ⁄ VBE = constant =
r0 dVCE VAN

ICQ
4]Input capacitance(Diffusion capacitance) :Cπ = τbc
VT

τbc = forward transit time of Base emitter diode.


Where the collector current in the presence of the early effect is

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VCE
IC = g m IB (1 + )
VAN

To measure A.C. parameter of BJT, set the desired Q point Note IBQ , ICQ and VAN
using these 3 parameter we can obtained from slope of I.V curve a.c. parameter as
ICQ
1]Transconductance : g m =
VT

ICQ
2]DC current gain : β0 =
IBQ

β0
3]Input resistance : rπ =
gm

4]Input capacitance Cπ
Transition frequency fT is the frequency at which A.C. current gain is unity. This
transition frequency can be measured with network analyser, by sweeping the
frequency until the base current is equal to the collector current. This frequency
fT used to find Cπ
𝑖 𝛽0
| 𝑐| = | |=1
𝑖𝑏 √1+𝑗𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝐶𝜋

𝛽0
= =1
√1+(𝑊𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝐶𝜋 )2

But 𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝑐𝜋 ≫ 1 ∴ 𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡 1
𝛽0
= =1
𝑤𝑇 𝑟𝜋 𝑐𝜋
𝛽0
= 𝑐𝜋 = Thus by putting 𝛽0 , 𝑟𝜋 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑇 𝑤𝑒 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑜𝑏𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑐𝜋
2𝜋𝑓𝑇 𝑟𝜋

Q An npn transistor is operated under DC bias of 𝑰𝑪𝑸 = 𝟔𝒎𝑨 , 𝑰𝑩𝑸 = 𝟒𝟎𝝁𝑨 and
the early voltage is recorded to be 𝑽𝑨𝑵 = 𝟑𝟎𝒗.through a network analyser
measurement the transition frequency is determined to be 𝐟𝐓 = 𝟑𝟕𝟔𝐇𝐳 at room
temperature. Determine the hybrid 𝛑 parameter :𝛃𝟎 , 𝐫𝛑 , 𝐂𝛑 , 𝐫𝟎 𝐚𝐧𝐝𝐠 𝐦
Solution : Neglecting feedback from output to input
ICQ 6 × 10−3
1] g m = = = 232ms
VT 0.026

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ICQ 6×10−3
2] β0 = = = 150
IBQ 40×10−6

β0 150
3] rπ = = = 647Ω
gm 232×10−3

VAN 30
4] r0 = = = 5kΩ
ICQ 6×10−3

β0 150
5] cπ = = = 1PF
2πfT rπ 2π×37×109 ×647

Measurement of FET parameters :


1] The drain current of MESFET & HEMT in saturation region is
ID = IDSat = β(VGS − VT0 )2 -------------------(1)
Where β is the conduction parameter of FET and VT0 is the threshold voltage.
VT0 = Vd − VP (MESFET)
∆WC
VT0 = Vd − − VP (HEMT)
q

Vd => Schottky barrier voltage.


VP => Pinch off voltage.
∆WC => Energy difference between the conduction bands of the
Hetrostructure in a HEMT.
2]The conduction parameter β and VT0 can be measured by plotting
√IdVS VGS as shown

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KeepVDS constant greater than VDSSat so that FET operates in the saturation region
and for two different gate to source voltage VGS1 & VGS2 measured drain current
ID1 & ID2 then from equation (1)

√ID1 = √β(VGS1 − VT0 )

√ID2 = √β(VGS2 − VT0 )


Now if we select VGs1 & VGs2 such that ID2 = 4ID1 then from above equation

√𝐼𝐷2 = √𝐼𝐷1
2
√𝛽 (VGS2 − VT0 ) = √𝛽 (VGS1 − VT0 )
VT0 = 2VGS1 − VGS2
ID1
β=
(VGS2 −VGS1 )2

High electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT):


Q. Explain construction and functionality of High Electron Mobility Transistor?

High Electron Mobility Transistors, also known as heterostructure FETs (HFETs)


or modulation-doped FETs (MODFETs), are field effect transistors incorporating a
junction between two materials with different band gaps (i.e., a heterojunction) as
the channel instead of a doped region, as is generally the case for MOSFETs.

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The key element within a HEMT is the specialized PN junction that it uses. It is
known as a hetero-junction and consists of a junction that uses different materials
either side of the junction. The most common materials used aluminium gallium
arsenide (AlGaAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Gallium arsenide is generally used
because it provides a high level of basic electron mobility and this is crucial to the
operation of the device. Silicon has a much lower level of electron mobility and as a
result it is never used in a HEMT. The HEMT or High Electron Mobility Transistor is a
form of field effect transistor (FET) that is used to provide very high levels of
performance at microwave frequencies. It offers a combination of low noise figure
combined with the ability to operate at the very high microwave frequencies

Construction: In the manufacture of a HEMT, first an intrinsic layer of gallium


arsenide is set down on the semi-insulating gallium arsenide layer. This is only about
one micron thick. About one micron thick is set down. Next a very thin layer
between 30 and 60 Angstroms of intrinsic aluminium gallium arsenide is set down
on top of this. Its purpose is to ensure the separation of the hetero-junction
interface from the doped aluminium gallium arsenide region. This is critical if the
high electron mobility is to be achieved. The doped layer of aluminium gallium
arsenide about 500 Angstroms thick is set down above this as shown in the

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diagrams. Precise control of the thickness of this layer is required and special
techniques are required for the control of this.

FUNCTIONALITY:

The operation of the HEMT is somewhat different to other types of FET and as a
result it is able to give a very much improved performance over the standard
junction or MOS FETs, and in particular in microwave radio applications.

Electrons from the n-type region move through the crystal lattice and many remain
close to the hetero-junction. These electrons for a layer that is only one layer thick
forming what is known as a two dimensional electron gas. Within this region the
electrons are able to move freely because there are no other donor electrons or
other items with which electrons will collide and the mobility of the electrons in the
gas is very high.

A bias applied to the gate formed as a schottky barrier diode is used to modulate
the number of electrons in the channel formed from the 2 D electron gas and in turn
this controls the conductivity of the device. This can be compared to the more
traditional types of FET where the width of the channel is changed by the gate bias.

HEMT ADVANTAGES:
In the HEMT the conduction channel is a bi-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)
confined at the interface between two materials with different band gap instead of
a three dimensional structure like in conventional FETs. The 2DEG takes place in a
slightly doped material. As a result, it has significantly less Coulomb scattering,
resulting in a very high mobility device structure.

THE MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF HEMT ARE AS FOLLOWS:

1. High speed
2. High gain
3. Low noise
4. High power density

The threshold voltage for HEMT is


∆WC qND d2
VT0 = Vd − − VP Where VP =
q 2EH

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ND = Donar concentration EH = dielectric constant in the GaAlAs heterostructure


The drain current in HEMT is
WEH Vd2 S
ID = μn [VDS (VGS − VT0 ) − ]
Ld 2

Pinch off occurs when the VDS ≤ VGS − VT0 If VDS = VGS − VT0 above equation
becomes
WEH
ID = μn (VGS − VT0 )2
2Ld

If 𝑉𝑇0 < 0 HEMT operated in depletion mode.


If 𝑉𝑇0 < 0 HEMT operated in Enhancement mode.
Output charactaristics of HEMT is as shown

Frequency Response :
The high frequency performance of the HEMT is determined by the transit time of
electron which usually expressed in terms of terms of electron mobility 𝜇𝑛 𝛼 drain
source voltage VDS.
𝐿 𝐿2
𝜏= =
𝑉𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝜇𝑛 𝑉𝐷𝑆

Therefore Threshold frequency is

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231
1 μn VDS
FT = =
2πτ 2πL2

L => Gate length


For HEMT of gate length L = 1μm α mobility of μn = 8000cm2/v.s
FT = 190GHZ at VDS = 1.5V.
Problems on semiconductor basics :
1] For a Si pn junction the doping concentration are given to be
NA = 1018 cm−3 and ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 With an intrinsic concentration of ni =
1.5 × 1010 cm−3 . Find the barrier voltage for T = 3000K.
Solution:
NA = 1018 cm−3 => Concentration of accepter atoms
ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 => Concentration of donar atoms
The potential barrier voltage across the junction is
NA ND
Vdiff = VT ln [ ] K = 1.38 × 10−23 J/K 0
ni2
KT NA N D
= ln [ ]
q ni2

1.38 × 10−23 ×300 1018 ×5×1015


= ln [ ]
1.6 × 10−19 (1.5 × 1010 )2

Vdiff = 0.796 V
2] For a P – type semiconductor whose doping concentration at room temp contain
NA = 5 × 1016 boron atoms per cubic centimeter (ni = 1.5 × 1010 cm−3 ). Find
the majority and minority carrier concentration as well as conductivity of the
semiconductor.
Solution:
In P – type semiconductor the majority carrier concentration is approximately equal
to the concentration of acceptors.
P = NA = 5 × 1016 cm−3

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9833590231

The minority carrier concentration is np = ni2


ni2 ni2 1.5 × 1010
n= = =
P NA 5 × 1016

= 4500cm−3
The conductivity of semiconductor is
σ = q (nμn + PμP )
q = 1.6 × 10−19
μn = electron mobility in Si conductor = 1350cm2 / v. s
σ = 1.6 × 10−19 (4500 × 1350 + 5 × 1016 × 480)
σ = 3.84 s/cm
3] The intrinsic carrier concentration is typically recorded at room temp. For GaAs
we find at T = 3000K the effective densities of stateNC = 4.7 × 1017 cm−3 ,
NV = 7 × 1018 cm−3 . Assuming the band gap energy of 1.4L ev remains constant
a) Find the intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature.
b) Compute ni at T = 4000K.
c) Compute ni at T = 4500K.
Solution:
The intrinsic carrier concentration can be computed as
−Wg
( )
𝑛i = √NC NV e 2KT
K = 86 × 10−6 ev/0 k
−1.42
17 18 ( )
= √4.7 × 10 × 7 × 10 e 2×86×10−6 ×300

= 2.2 × 106 cm−3


The intrinsic concentration for diff. temp can be obtained as
3 −Wg
T 2 ( )
ni = √NC NV ( ) e 2KT
300

AT T= 4000K, ni = 3.22 X 109 cm−3

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

AT T= 4500k, ni = 3.79 X 1010 cm−3


4] An abrupt pn junction made of Si has the accepter and donar concentrations of
NA = 1018 cm−3 and ND = 5 × 1015 cm−3 respectively. Assuming that device
operates at room temp, determine
a) The barrier voltage
b) The space charge width in the P and N type semiconductor.
c) The peak electric field across the junction.
d) The junction capacitance for a cross sectional area of 10−4 cm2 and a relative
dielectric constant of Er = 11.7 . Let the ni = 1.5× 1010 cm−3 .
Solution:
a) Barrier voltage
KT NA ND
Vdiff = ln [ ]
q ni2

1.38 × 10−23 ×300 1018 ×5 × 1015


= ln [ ]
1.6 × 10−19 (1.5 × 1010 )2

= 0.8 V
b) Space charge width P type and N type
1
2EV N 1 2
dp = { qdiff ND (N +N )}
A A D

1
2 ×8.54 × 10−12 ×0.8 5 × 1015 1 2
= { × [ ]}
1.6 × 10−19 1018 5 × 1033

dp = 2.3nm

2EVdiff NA 1
dn = √ (N )
q ND A +ND

= 0.45 μm
c) The peak electric field across the junction
qNA qND
Epeak = dp = dn
E0 Er Er Ep

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9833590231

= 3.5 × 106 V/m


d) The junction capacitance
1
qE N A ND 2
Cj = A[ ]
2Vdiff NA +ND

A => Cross sectional area of pn junction.


1
1.6 × 10−19 × 8.854 × 10−12 ×11.7 5 × 1033 2
Cj = 10−4 [ × ]
2 ×0.8 108 +5 × 1017

= 2.27 PF
6]A silicon pn junction has a conductivity of 10 S/cm & 4 s/cm for p and n layer
respectively. Using necessary properties of silicon, calculate the built in voltage of
the junction at room temp.
The accepter concentration in P – region of the junction can be obtained as
𝜎𝑃 10
𝑁𝐴 = = = 1.3 × 1017 𝑐𝑚−3
𝑞𝜇𝑃 1.6 × 10−19 × 480

Similarly the donor concentration in n – type is


σn 4
𝑁𝐷 = = = 1.85 × 1016 cm−3
qμn 1.6 × 10−19 ×1350

The built in voltage is


NA N D 2
Vdiff = VT ln [ ]
ni2

1.3 × 1017 ×1.85 × 1016


= 0.026 ln [ (1.45 × 1010 )2
]

= 0.78 V
6] The junction field effect transistor with n-type channel has the following
W
parameter: = 10, μn = 1000 m2 / V. S. , d = 2μm, Er = 11.7 and VT0 = −3V .
L

Compute the saturation drain current at VGS = -1V.


The pinch off voltage for the FET is
qND d2
VP = = 4.02V
2E

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Prof.Santosh Nemade
9833590231

VT0 = Vd − VP
Vd = VT0 + VP = 1.02V
VGS 2
IDSat = IDSS (1 − )
VT0

σqND Wd q2 μn ND 2 Wd
G0 = =
L L

= 116.8ms
3
VP 2
IDSS = G0 [ − Vd + 3 Vd ]
2
3 √v.p

VGS 2
IDSat = IDSS (1 − )
VT0

= 32mA
7]An RF power BJT generates a total power of 15W at case temp.of 25 0C.The
maximum junction temp.is 150 0C and the maximum ambient operating temp.is
specified by user to be Ta= 60 0C.What is the maximum power dissipated if the
thermal resistances between case-to-sink and sink-to-air is 20K/W and 100K/W
respectively.
Tj −Tc
R jc = =8.330K/W
PW

Total thermal resistance is


R 𝑇𝑂𝑇 = R𝑗𝑐 + R 𝐶𝑆 + R𝑆𝐴 =20. 330K/W

Total power dissipated is


T𝑗 −T𝑎
P𝐷 = =4.43W
R𝑇𝑂𝑇

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