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C–GAS

Technologies for Biomethanisation


of Biogenic Residuals
and Renewable Raw Materials

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Provider of Technology

Since 2006 SFC Umwelttechnik GmbH has had a project


related cooperation with one of the leading German
specialists for biomethanisation plants i.e.

EnviConsult GmbH / Biocomplett GmbH


(Norbert Schwarting, M.Sc.)

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„ What is biogas ?
„ How is biogas produced ?
„ Utilization of fermentation remainders
„ Biogas outputs
„ Feed-in remuneration
„ Services
„ from farmer to energy economist

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What is Biogas ?

Biogas from liquid manure Biogas is a gas mixture consisting of


1,5%
33,5%

ƒ 50 - 70 % methane - CH4
(an inflammable gas contained in
natural gas to the amount of 96 % )
0,5%
65%
• 30 – 50 % carbon dioxide - CO2
46,5%
• < 2 % hydrogen sulfide - H2S
Biogas
Methan aus Nawaro
Kohlendioxid Schwefelwasserstoff 53,0% • traces of hydrogen and other gases

M ethan Kohlendioxid Schwefelwasserstoff

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How is Biogas Produced ?
„ Micro-organisms degrade organic matter under anaerobic
conditions.
„ In nature this process can be found in the stomachs of ruminants or
in swamps.
„ This natural principle is simulated in a biomethanisation plant.
During anaerobic fermentation biogas is produced from:

Liquid manure

Plant residuals in agriculture and renewable raw materials

Organic wastes like leftovers, stale food, kitchen wastes, wastes of


food production / processing and beverage industries

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Biogas – a Metabolic Product of Anaerobic Degradation of
Organic Matter

1-stage 2-stage
Process Polymeríc Substrates Process
(Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins)
Hydrolysis phase

Fragments und Dissolved Polymers


1. Stage
Acidification phase

H2 CO2 Org. Acids Acetic Acid Alcohols

Acetogenic Phase

Acetic Acid(Acetate),H2,CO2 2. Stage

Methanogenic Phase

Methane CH4 und Carbondioxide CO2


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EnviConsult GmbH

Application of Biomethanisation

Agricultural industry, Agriculture, and Animal Farming


Horticulture Plant breeding
Horticulture
Food and semi-luxury food industry Bakeries
Sugar factories
Chocolate production
Sweets production
Milk processing
Icecream production
Slaughterhouses and meat processing
Fish processing
Starch industry
Cooking oil production
Fruit and vegetable processing
Potato processing
Distilleries / Breweries
Hide glue and gelatin production
Yeast production

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EnviConsult GmbH

Application of Biomethanisation

Chemical Industry Pharmaceutical companies


Citric acid production
Fermentation industry
Other Industries Pulp production
Card board factories
Wool laundries
Disposal Facilities, Landscape and Sewage sludge
Aquatic Environment Conservation Green wastes
Biowastes
Rendering plants
Gastronomy Restaurants
Canteen kitchens
Catering
Trade Food wholesale and retail trade,
Weekly markets, Market halls,
Fruit- und vegetable hypermarkets

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Technology Portfolio

„ CSTR – Process (standard process)


(continuously fed and stirred mesophilic reactor)

„ SUP Schwarting – Uhde – Process (two-stage process for the


fermentation of especially energy rich raw substrates)

„ Production of biomethane (methane enrichment and feeding


into the natural gas distribution system)

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CSTR - Process

The CSTR – Process („Continuous Stirred Tank


Reactor“) is the standard process for the
continuous mesophilic (or thermophilic)
fermentation of organic substrates in a
continously fed and completely stirred reactor.
The advantage of CSTR is that it allows for high
solid contents both of substrate and liquor in the
reactor (depending on the type and processing of
the raw substrate).
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Example of a CSTR - Plant

supposing:

- 10,000 t / a liquid manure


- 26,000 t / a solid organic residuals

for the production of at least 1.0 MWel electric


energy

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Biogas Power Plant ca. 1.0 MWelectr Scheme Pre-treatment

Liquid manure
10,000 t/a
Corn silage
8,000 t/a Solids
Dosing Station

Leftovers
10,000 t/a
Stale Food
6,000 t/a
Mixing Mixed Substrate
Extracted 64,000 t/a
Vessel
grease
2,000 t/a
Hygienization

Recirculate Recirculate
28,000 m3/a 28,000 m3/a

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Biogas Power Plant ca. 1.0 MWelectr Scheme Biogas Plant

Biogas
3.830,000 m3/a

Output
Mixed Substrate Biogas Plant
64,000 t/a Methanisation 59,800 t/a

Recirculate Recirculate
28,000 m3/a 28,000 m3/a

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Biogas Power Plant 1.0 MWelectr
Scheme: Gas- und Substrate Processing

Gas Storage
Biogas
3.830,000 m3/a
Degassing Vessel Solids
11,800 t/a

Output
Biogas Plant
Solids
59,800 t/a Separation

Gas-Processing
Heat- Energy BPP
10,600 MWh/a

Cogeneration Electric Energy


Plant 8.000 MWh/a
Filtrate-Recirculate

Recirculate Remainder Filtrate


28,000 m3/a 20,000 m3/a

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Utilization of Fermentation Remainders

Output Biogas
Plant Direct Agricultural
Utilization
ca. 5%DS

Solid / Liquid Solids Agricultural


Separation Utilization

BTL

Agricultural
Filtrate Utilization
Liquid Fertilizer

Recirculate

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Biogas Output from Selected Substrates

m3/ kg VSS
„ Liquid manure from cattle
„ Liquid manure from pigs
„ Chicken manure
„ Corn silage
„ Grain cereals
„ Full plant silage - Rye
„ Grass silage
„ Beet leaves
„ Spent grains
„ Apple / wine rape
„ Leftovers
„ Extracted grease
„ Market wastes

0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7

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Comparison of Electric Power Output per Ton
FM = Fresh Material
DS
Power Output kWh / t FM
%
Biowastes 40 % 350
Leftovers 18 % 150 - 400
Stale food 25 % 150 - 400
Extracted grease 70 % 1.000 - 1.400
Market wastes 18 % 120 - 300
Corn silage 34 % 300 - 500
Grass silage 35 % 300 - 600
GPS- rye 34 % 320 - 500
Liquid manure from 10 % 50 - 75
cattle
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SUP
Schwarting – Uhde – Process

„ two-stage process (mesophilic / thermophilic)


„ for substrates of high energy density and solids
content
„ increased biogas yield at shorter reactor
residence time (typically 10 days)

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Flow Scheme Two-Stage Fermentation

Biogas

Primary clarifier

Digester I Digester II
mesophilic thermophilic
Final clarifier

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Comparison
Conventional Process – SUP Schwarting Uhde Process

Biogas

Conventional
Process

SUP Schwarting-Uhde
Process

Endreinigung
Residence time VSS Degradation Rate Biogas Production

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SUP Special Digester Internals

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BIOMETHANE PRODUCTION

™ Processfor the purification of raw biogas and


methane enrichment in natural gas quality

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Biogas Processing in Natural Gas Quality – „Biomethane“

raw biogas CMG - CGH2 –


Compressed Compressed
BHKW Methane Gas Gaseous Hydrogen
biological with reformer
pressure tank or
gas desulfurization bottles for fuel cell

desulfurized
biogas

CH4-Enrichment
z.B. DWA Process natural gas distribution system
biomethane > 95 % CH4

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Utilization of Biomethane

¾ in the gas distribution system


by an external consumer
¾ in pressure tanks or gas bottles
fuel for gas motors – vehicle and stationary
motors
¾ via steam reformer
for the production of compressed gaseous
hydrogen used in fuel cells

Transport of biogas in China


What about gas in bottles ?

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Reference List (Excerpt)

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Plant for the Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater
from a Vegetable Processing Plant
SUP Schwarting – Uhde Process

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Liquid Manure Treatment Plant Göritz (Germany)
SUP Schwarting – Uhde Process

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SUP - Plant Leonberg

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Biomethanisation Plant Friedrich (Germany)

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Biomethanisation Plant Finsterwalde
(Germany)

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Biomethanisation Plant Alteno (Germany)

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Biomethanisation Plant Karstädt (Germany)

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SFC Umwelttechnik GmbH

Construction
Ecological Utilization
Biomethanation Plants of Energy Resources

Start-up EU –
Optimization Emission Trade

Financing Biogas Processing


Biomethane
Operation

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