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Instrumentation
&
Basic Process Control

Course content: 
 Introduction to process control 
 Pressure Measurement  
 Temperature Measurement  
 Level Measurement  
 Flow Measurement  
 
* Introduction to process control 
 Process Overview 
 Process Flow Diagrams 
 P&ID Diagrams 
 Loop Diagrams 
 Functional Diagrams 
 Control Loop Elements 
 Modes of control 
 

 
 
 * Pressure measurement: Is the analysis of 
an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on 
a surface. Pressure is typically measured in 
units of force per unit of surface area. Many 
techniques  have  been  developed  for  the 
measurement  of  pressure  and vacuum. 
Instruments  used  to  measure  and  display 
pressure  in  an  integral  unit  are 
called pressure  gauges or vacuum  gauges. 
A manometer is a good example, as it uses 
a  column  of  liquid  to  both  measure  and 
indicate pressure. Likewise, the widely used 
Bourdon  gauge  is  a  mechanical  device, 
which  both  measures  and  indicates  and  is 
probably the best‐known type of gauge. 
A vacuum gauge is a pressure gauge used 
to  measure  pressures  lower  than  the 
ambient atmospheric pressure, which is set 
as  the  zero  point,  in  negative  values  (e.g.: 
−15 psig or  −760 mmHg equals  total 
vacuum).  Most  gauges  measure  pressure 
relative to atmospheric pressure as the zero 
point,  so  this  form  of  reading  is  simply 
referred to as "gauge pressure". However, 
anything  greater  than  total  vacuum  is 
technically  a  form  of  pressure.  For  very 
accurate  readings,  especially  at  very  low 
pressures, a gauge that uses total vacuum 
as  the  zero  point  may  be  used,  giving 
pressure readings in an absolute scale 
 Mechanical Pressure Elements  
o Bellows 
o Diaphragms 
o Burdon Tubes 
 Electrical Pressure Elements 
o Piezo‐resistive (Strain Gauges) 
o Differential Capacitance 
* Temperature Measurement  
 Units and terminology  
Celsius ,, Delisle ,, Fahrenheit ,, Gas Mark 
,, Kelvin ,, Leiden ,, Newton ,, Planck ,, 
Rankine ,, Réaumur ,, Rømer ,, 
Wedgwood,, etc. 
C+273.15 = K 
C x 9/5 + 32 = F  
C x 4/5  = R  
F+ 459.67=R 
(F‐32) x5/9=C 
(F‐32) x4/9=R 
Rx5/4=C 
Rx9/4 + 32=F 
 
 Temperature Elements 
o Bi‐metal Sensors 
o Filled‐Bulb Sensors 
 Non‐Contact Temperature Sensor 
o Concentrating Pyrometers 
o Thermal Gun 
o Thermal Imaging 
 Temperature Sensors Accessories 
o RTD & Thermistors 
o Thermocouples 
*Flow Measurement  
 Units and terminology 
 Reynolds Number & Flow Properties 
 Standardized Volumetric Flow 
 Pressure‐Based Concept Flow 
Techniques 
o Orifice Plate 
o Venturi Tube 
o Nozzle/Flow Tube 
o V‐Cone 
o Pitot Tube 
o Segmental Wedge Elements 
 Velocity Concept Flow Techniques 
o Turbine Flowmeter 
o Vortex Flowmeter 
o Magnetic Flowmeter 
o Ultrasonic Flowmeter 
o Optical Flowmeter 
 Positive Displacement Concept Flow 
Techniques 
 Variable Area Concept Flow Techniques 
o Rotameter 
o Weirs 
 Mass Flow Techniques 
o Coriolis Flowmeter 
o Thermal Flowmeter 
Course objective: as an introduction to 
process control and In order to safely and 
effectively operate an oil and gas 
processing plant, the process operator 
must have an accurate measurement of all 
the process variables that are related to 
making a quality product. 
This course gives in‐depth training on the 
measuring techniques used for process 
parameters. This is designed to acquaint 
users with the problems and solutions for 
high accuracy transfer of liquid and gas 
petroleum products from supplier to 
customer and also inside the same process 
ownership including measuring Pressure, 
Temperature, Level and Flow. 
Measurement correction and instrument 
calibration & testing methods will be 
discussed in details  
Control  in  process  industries  refers  to  the 
regulation  of  all  aspects  of  the  process. 
Precise  control  of  level,  temperature, 
pressure  and  flow  is  important  in  many 
process  applications.  This  module 
introduces  you  to  control  in  process 
industries,  explains  why  control  is 
important, and identifies different ways in 
which  precise  control  is  ensured.  The 
following five sections are included module 
❑ The importance of process control  
❑ Control theory basics   
❑ Components of loops & symbols   
❑ Controller algorithms and tuning  
❑ Process control systems  
As  you  proceed  through  the  module, 
answer  the  questions  in  the  activities 
column on the right side of each page. Also, 
note  the  application  boxes  (double‐
bordered  boxes)  located  throughout  the 
module.  Application  boxes  provide  key 
information  about  how  you  may  use  your 
baseline knowledge in the field. When you 
see  the  workbook  exercise  graphic  at  the 
bottom  of  a  page,  go  to  the  workbook  to 
complete  the  designated  exercise  before 
moving  on  in  the  module.  Workbook 
exercises  help  you  measure  your  progress 
toward  meeting  each  section’s  learning 
 
objectives.  
  

 
  
Refining,  combining,  handling,  and 
otherwise  manipulating  fluids  to 
profitably produce end products can be a 
precise,  demanding,  and  potentially 
hazardous  process.  Small  changes  in  a 
process  can  have  a  large  impact  on  the 
end  result.  Variations  in  proportions, 
temperature, flow, turbulence, and many 
other  factors  must  be  carefully  and 
consistently  controlled  to  produce  the 
desired  end  product  with  a  minimum  of 
raw materials and energy. Process control 
technology  is  the  tool  that  enables 
manufacturers  to  keep  their  operations 
running  within  specified  limits  and  to  set 
more  precise  limits  to  maximize 
profitability, ensure quality and safety.  

  
TARGET OF  PROCESS CONTROL   

PROCESS  CONTROL  Process  control  refers 


to  the  methods  that  are  used  to  control 
process  variables  when  manufacturing  a 
product.  For  example,  factors  such  as  the 
proportion  of  one  ingredient  to  another, 
the temperature of the materials, how well 
the ingredients are mixed, and the pressure 
under  which  the  materials  are  held  can 
significantly  impact  the  quality  of  an  end 
product.  Manufacturers  control  the 
production process for three reasons:   
❑ Reduce variability  
❑ Increase efficiency  
❑ Ensure safety  
  
Module 1 – Feedback Control   
  

  
  
  
  

  
  
  
  
 
Bathroom toilet tank ( working as feedback control system)   

  
  
  
  
  
STEAM BOILER   
  

  
  
Consequently, there are two sensor’s element 
both in linear characteristics (temperature and 
pressure), therefore this process must contain 
root retractors before using comparator 
selector switches      
      
Module 2 – Process Control Modes  
 To control level of liquid vessels  
 Level Detection Circuitry as a Remote indication provides  
vital level information to a central location Menu 
1 Level Detection Circuitry 
1.1 Remote Indication 
1.2 Environmental Concerns 
2 Level Detectors 
2.1 Gauge Glass 
2.2 Ball Float 
2.3 Chain Float 
2.4 Magnetic Bond Method 
2.5 Conductivity Probe Method 
2.6 Differential Pressure Level Detectors
 
Remote Indication
Remote indication is necessary to provide transmittal of vital level
information to a central location, such as the control room, where all level
information can be coordinated and evaluated. There are three major
reasons for utilizing remote level indication:
 Level measurements may be taken at locations far from the main facility
 The level to be controlled may be a long distance from the point of control
 The level being measured may be in an unsafe/restricted area.
Figure 1 illustrates a block diagram of a typical differential pressure
detector. It consists of a differential pressure (D/P) transmitter (transducer),
an amplifier, and level indication. The D/P transmitter consists of a
diaphragm with the high pressure (H/P) and low pressure (L/P) inputs on
opposite sides. As the differential pressure changes, the diaphragm will
move. The transducer changes this mechanical motion into an electrical
signal. The electrical signal generated by the transducer is then amplified
and passed on to the level indicator for level indication at a remote
location. Using relays, this system provides alarms on high and low level.
It may also provide control functions such as repositioning a valve and
protective features such as tripping a pump.

 
Figure 1 Block Diagram of a Differential Pressure Level Detection Circuit 
Environmental Concerns 
Density of the fluid whose level is to be measured can have a large effect on level detection 
instrumentation. It primarily affects level sensing instruments which utilize a wet reference 
leg. In these instruments, it is possible for the reference leg temperature to be different from 
the temperature of the fluid whose level is to be measured. An example of this is the level 
detection instrumentation for a boiler steam drum. The water in the reference leg is at a lower 
temperature than the water in the steam drum. Therefore, it is more dense, and must be 
compensated for to ensure the indicated steam drum level is accurately indicated. 
Ambient temperature variations will affect the accuracy and reliability of level detection 
instrumentation. Variations in ambient temperature can directly affect the resistance of 
components in the instrumentation circuitry, and, therefore, affect the calibration of 
electric/electronic equipment. The effects of temperature variations are reduced by the 
design of the circuitry and by maintaining the level detection instrumentation in the proper 
environment. 
The presence of humidity will also affect most electrical equipment, especially electronic 
equipment. High humidity causes moisture to collect on the equipment. This moisture can 
cause short circuits, grounds, and corrosion, which, in turn, may damage components. The 
effects due to humidity are controlled by maintaining the equipment in the proper 
environment. 
Level Detectors 
Liquid level measuring devices are classified into two groups: (a) direct method, and (b) 
inferred method. An example of the direct method is the dipstick in your car which measures 
the height of the oil in the oil pan. An example of the inferred method is a pressure gauge at 
the bottom of a tank which measures the hydrostatic head pressure from the height of the 
liquid. 
Gauge Glass 
A very simple means by which liquid level is measured in a vessel is by the gauge glass method 
(Figure 2). In the gauge glass method, a transparent tube is attached to the bottom and top 
(top connection not needed in a tank open to atmosphere) of the tank that is monitored. The 
height of the liquid in the tube will be equal to the height of water in the tank. 

 
Figure 2 Transparent Tube 
Figure 2 (a) shows a gauge glass which is used for vessels where the liquid is at ambient 
temperature and pressure conditions. Figure 2 (b) shows a gauge glass which is used for 
vessels where the liquid is at an elevated pressure or a partial vacuum. Notice that the gauge 
glasses in Figure 2 effectively form a "U" tube manometer where the liquid seeks its own level 
due to the pressure of the liquid in the vessel. 
Gauge glasses made from tubular glass or plastic are used for service up to 450 psig and 
400°F;. If it is desired to measure the level of a vessel at higher temperatures and pressures, a 
different type of gauge glass is used. The type of gauge glass utilized in this instance has a 
body made of metal with a heavy glass or quartz section for visual observation of the liquid 
level. The glass section is usually flat to provide strength and safety. Figure 3 illustrates a 
typical transparent gauge glass. 

 
Figure 3 Gauge Glass 
Another type of gauge glass is the reflex gauge glass (Figure 4). In this type, one side of the 
glass section is prism‐shaped. The glass is molded such that one side has 90‐degree angles 
which run lengthwise. Light rays strike the outer surface of the glass at a 90‐degree angle. The 
light rays travel through the glass striking the inner side of the glass at a 45‐degree angle. The 
presence or absence of liquid in the chamber determines if the light rays are refracted into the 
chamber or reflected back to the outer surface of the glass. 

 
Figure 4 Reflex Gauge Glass 
When the liquid is at an intermediate level in the gauge glass, the light rays encounter an air‐
glass interface in one portion of the chamber and a water‐glass interface in the other portion 
of the chamber. Where an air‐glass interface exists, the light rays are reflected back to the 
outer surface of the glass since the critical angle for light to pass from air to glass is 42 
degrees. This causes the gauge glass to appear silvery‐white. In the portion of the chamber 
with the water‐glass interface, the light is refracted into the chamber by the prisms. Reflection 
of the light back to the outer surface of the gauge glass does not occur because the critical 
angle for light to pass from glass to water is 62‐degrees. This results in the glass appearing 
black, since it is possible to see through the water to the walls of the chamber which are 
painted black. 
A third type of gauge glass is the refraction type (Figure 5). This type is especially useful in 
areas of reduced lighting; lights are usually attached to the gauge glass. Operation is based on 
the principle that the bending of light, or refraction, will be different as light passes through 
various media. Light is bent, or refracted, to a greater extent in water than in steam. For the 
portion of the chamber that contains steam, the light rays travel relatively straight, and the 
red lens is illuminated. For the portion of the chamber that contains water, the light rays are 
bent, causing the green lens to be illuminated. The portion of the gauge containing water 
appears green; the portion of the gauge from that level upward appears red. 
 
Figure 5 Refraction Gauge Glass 
Ball Float 
The ball float method is a direct reading liquid level mechanism. The most practical design for 
the float is a hollow metal ball or sphere. However, there are no restrictions to the size, 
shape,or material used. The design consists of a ball float attached to a rod, which in turn is 
connected to a rotating shaft which indicates level on a calibrated scale (Figure 6). The 
operation of the ball float is simple. The ball floats on top of the liquid in the tank. If the liquid 
level changes,the float will follow and change the position of the pointer attached to the 
rotating shaft. 

 
Figure 6 Ball Float Level Mechanism 
The travel of the ball float is limited by its design to be within 30 degrees from the horizontal 
plane which results in optimum response and performance. The actual level range is 
determined by the length of the connecting arm. 
The stuffing box is incorporated to form a water‐tight seal around the shaft to prevent leakage 
from the vessel. 
Chain Float 
This type of float gauge has a float ranging in size up to 12 inches in diameter and is used 
where small level limitations imposed by ball floats must be exceeded. The range of level 
measured will be limited only by the size of the vessel. The operation of the chain float is 
similar to the ball float except in the method of positioning the pointer and in its connection 
tothe position indication. The float is connected to a rotating element by a chain with a weight 
attached to the other end to provide a means of keeping the chain taut during changes in level 
(Figure 7). 

 
Figure 7 Chain Float Gauge 
Magnetic Bond Method 
The magnetic bond method was developed to overcome the problems of cages and stuffing 
boxes. The magnetic bond mechanism consists of a magnetic float which rises and falls with 
changes in level. The float travels outside of a non‐magnetic tube which houses an inner 
magnet connected to a level indicator. When the float rises and falls, the outer magnet will 
attract the inner magnet, causing the inner magnet to follow the level within the vessel (Figure 
8). 
 
Figure 8 Magnetic Bond Detector 
 
Ultrasonic Level Transmitter Working Principle 
An ultrasonic level transmitter is mounted on the top of the tank and transmits an ultrasonic 
pulse down into the tank. This pulse, travelling at the speed of sound, is reflected back to the 
transmitter from the liquid surface. The transmitter measures the time delay between the 
transmitted and received echo signal and the on‐board microprocessor calculates the distance 
to the liquid surface using the formula. 
Distance = ( Speed of sound in air x time delay) / 2 
Once the transmitter is programmed with the bottom reference of the application – usually 
the bottom of the tank – the liquid level is calculated by the microprocessor. The basic 
equation for calculating the tank level is 
Level = Tank Height – Distance 
 

 
 
Displacer Level Transmitter Working Principle 
The buoyancy force of the displacer is transferred via transmission lever and torque tube to 
operating rod of the sensor, where it acts on free end of sensor element.Four thin film metal 
strain gauge elements are sputtered onto sensor element, which change their resistance in 
the ratio of the tensile or pressure tension. These four thin film metal strain gauge elements 
are connected as a Wheatstone full bridge supplied from amplifier. 

 
The voltage at the diagonal bridge section which is proportional to the effective weight is fed 
to the electronic amplifier as an input signal. This voltage is converted via the electronic 
amplifier into the 4 to 20 mA or digital two‐wire output signal. The amplifier is supplied by the 
signal current circuit in two wire mode. 
Schematic Diagram of a open tank DP level transmitter installation 

 
Open Tank DP Level Transmitter Calibration  
 
 
D/p CELL FUNCTION IN (FLOW / TEMPERATURE / LEVEL & PRESSURE ) 
CALCULATIONS. 
Conductivity Probe Method 
Figure 9 illustrates a conductivity probe level detection system. It consists of one or more level 
detectors, an operating relay, and a controller. 
When the liquid makes contact with any of the electrodes, an electric current will flow 
between the electrode and ground. The current energizes a relay which causes the relay 
contacts to open or close depending on the state of the process involved. The relay in turn will 
actuate an alarm, a pump, a control valve, or all three. A typical system has three probes: a 
low level probe, a high level probe, and a high level alarm probe. 

 
Figure 9 Conductivity Probe Level Detection System 
Differential Pressure Level Detectors 
The differential pressure (ΔP) detector method of liquid level measurement uses a ΔP detector 
connected to the bottom of the tank being monitored. The higher pressure, caused by the 
fluid in the tank, is compared to a lower reference pressure (usually atmospheric). This 
comparison takes place in the ΔP detector. Figure 10 illustrates a typical differential pressure 
detector attached to an open tank. 
 
Figure 10 Open Tank Differential Pressure Detector 
The tank is open to the atmosphere; therefore, it is necessary to use only the high pressure 
(HP) connection on the P transmitter. The low pressure (LP) side is vented to the atmosphere; 
therefore, the pressure differential is the hydrostatic head, or weight, of the liquid in the tank. 
The maximum level that can be measured by the P transmitter is determined by the maximum 
height of liquid above the transmitter. The minimum level that can be measured is determined 
by the point where the transmitter is connected to the tank. 
Not all tanks or vessels are open to the atmosphere. Many are totally enclosed to prevent 
vapors or steam from escaping, or to allow pressurizing the contents of the tank. When 
measuring the level in a tank that is pressurized, or the level that can become pressurized by 
vapor pressure from the liquid, both the high pressure and low pressure sides of the ΔP 
transmitter must be connected (Figure 11). 

 
Figure 11 Closed Tank, Dry Reference Leg 
The high pressure connection is connected to the tank at or below the lower range value to be 
measured. The low pressure side is connected to a "reference leg" that is connected at or 
above the upper range value to be measured. The reference leg is pressurized by the gas or 
vapor pressure, but no liquid is permitted to remain in the reference leg. The reference leg 
must be maintained dry so that there is no liquid head pressure on the low pressure side of 
the transmitter. The high pressure side is exposed to the hydrostatic head of the liquid plus 
the gas or vapor pressure exerted on the liquids surface. The gas or vapor pressure is equally 
applied to the low and high pressure sides. Therefore, the output of the ΔP transmitter is 
directly proportional to the hydrostatic head pressure, that is, the level in the tank. 
Where the tank contains a condensable fluid, such as steam, a slightly different arrangement 
is used. In applications with condensable fluids, condensation is greatly increased in the 
reference leg. To compensate for this effect, the reference leg is filled with the same fluid as 
the tank. 
The liquid in the reference leg applies a hydrostatic head to the high pressure side of the 
transmitter, and the value of this level is constant as long as the reference leg is maintained 
full. 
If this pressure remains constant, any change in ΔP is due to a change on the low pressure side 
of the transmitter (Figure 12). 

 
Figure 12 Closed Tank, Wet Reference Leg 
The filled reference leg applies a hydrostatic pressure to the high pressure side of the 
transmitter, which is equal to the maximum level to be measured. The ΔP transmitter is 
exposed to equal pressure on the high and low pressure sides when the liquid level is at its 
maximum; therefore, the differential pressure is zero. As the tank level goes down, the 
pressure applied to the low pressure side goes down also, and the differential pressure 
increases. As a result, the differential pressure and the transmitter output are inversely 
proportional to the tank level 
 
It explains the four modes of control action that are 
commonly used to control industrial process operations 
(i.e., two‐position, proportional, integral, and derivative). 
Objectives: Identify the four types of process control 
modes. Classify each of the four process control modes as 
either discrete or continuous.  

Control loops  
  
Example Of A continuous flow control loop. Signalling is by 
industry standard 4‐20 mA current loops, and a "smart" 
valve positioner ensures the control valve operates 
correctly.  

The fundamental building block of any industrial control 
system is the control loop, which controls just one process 
variable. An example is shown in the accompanying 
diagram, where the flow rate in a pipe is controlled by a PID 
controller, assisted by what is effectively a cascaded loop in 
the form of a valve servo‐controller to ensure correct valve 
positioning.  

Some large systems may have several hundreds or 
thousands of control loops. In complex processes the loops 
are interactive, so that the operation of one loop may 
affect the operation of another. The system diagram for 
representing control loops is a P&I D  

Piping and instrumentation diagram.  

Example of level control system of a continuous stirred-tank reactor. The


flow control into the tank would be cascaded off the level control  

  
  
  
  
  

A further example is shown. If a control valve were used to 
hold level in a tank, 
 
 

 the level controller would compare the equivalent reading 
of a level sensor to the level setpoint and determine 
whether more or less valve opening was necessary to keep 
the level constant. A cascaded flow controller could then 
calculate the change in the valve Commonly used 
controllers are programmable logic controller (PLC), 
Distributed Control System (DCS) or SCADA. position. A 
programmable logic controller (PLC) is a specialized 
processor/ computer with all the hardware and software to 
do a specific automation task, say running a plant/factory. 
This means that all the Field/REL world Inputs are 
processed by the PLC (using Input interface hardware And 
the same then issues commands to various devices and 
actuators(via Output interface).  

  
  
  

  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  
  

Module 3 – Process Characteristics  

Crude oil treatment: 


 

Crude oil cannot be used directly for industrial


purposes. Thus, before being delivered to the
users it must be subjected to the process plant
to reach the quality  
standards defined in the specifications
of sale. The crude oil must
therefore: 
- Be stabilized to eliminate the volatile
components such as methane. 
- The emulsified water content must be
reduced. 
- Be more or less free from the salts. 
 

The important of the process plant: 


 

* To separate formation water.  


* To separate the salt from the crude oil. 
* To separate the associated gas. 
 

The procedures of crude oil treatment: 


Movement: from wellhead to process area. 
Separation: separation of water and
associated gases. Stabilization and
treatment: elimination of emulsified water. 
 
 

Treatment of emulsions: 
 
Emulsions are mixtures of two or more
dissimilar fluids. They are normally created by
the individual components being subjected to
changes in pressure and agitation. Such
conditions arise when oil and water leave the
reservoir and move up the production string
through the choke and other items of
equipment, end route – track -  
to the separator. 
 

Water is associated with the crude oil as


following: 
 

1- Free water: 
This water is not intimately mixed in with the
crude. It is basically a volume of water that just
happens to be moving along with the crude,
such as in a pipeline. 
Free water should settle out the oil in any
quiescent zone.  
It should settle in separators, knockout
separator and storage tanks. 
The rate of settling of an immiscible liquid
(water) from another liquid (oil) can be
calculated from the following  
equation: 
 

K (ρw - ρo) gd2 


Rate of settling =
μ 
 

Where: 
 

K = constant of system involved. 


ρw =
density of water.
ρo = density of oil.
g = gravity factor. 
d = diameter of droplet. 
μ = viscosity of oil.  
2- Emulsified water: 
 

If the water and crude oil have been intimately


mixed due to turbulent flow together or by the
shearing action when passing through pumps,
orifices, valves, etc. Then an emulsion is
formed. Tiny droplets of water are scattered
through the continuous oil phase that called  
water-in-oil emulsion. 
The electrical, heating and chemical treatment
are the efficient way to separate the emulsified
water from the oil. 
On the other hand, we deliberately inject wash
water into the crude to create an emulsion to
wash out salts and  
solids. 
 

3- Soluble water: 
 

The solubility of water in oil is to a great


extent a function of temperature but is also
dependent upon the  
type of hydrocarbon. 
Soluble water will not settle out with time. In
fact lowering the temperature of the oil is
really the only way to remove at least some of
the soluble water. Neither electrical nor
chemical dehydration will remove soluble  
water. 
API is the American petroleum
institute. API gravity is based on
empirical scale gravities in degrees.  
API gravity and normal specific gravity are
linked by the formula:  
 
 

API degree = (141.5/ sp. Gravity) - 131.5

 
Module 4 – Process Variables  
  

  
    

Process variable is a condition of the


process fluid  
(a liquid or gas ) that can change the
manufacturing process in some way. The
measured variable is the condition of
process fluid that must be kept at the
designated set point.  

** common process variables include :  


Pressure / Temperature / Level / Flow /
Density / Ph (alkalinity or acidity) /
Conductivity, Etc.    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 5– Instrumentation Symbols   
 
Flow Sensors Symbols Used in P&IDs:  
 
  
  
  

  
  
FLOW SENSORS
There are several types of flow meter that rely on
Bernoulli's principle, either by measuring the
differential pressure within a constriction, or by
measuring static and stagnation pressures to derive the
dynamic pressure
FOR LIQUIDS : various units are used depending upon
the application and industry, but might include gallons
(U.S. or imperial) per minute, liters per second, bushels
per minute or, when describing river flows, cumecs
(cubic meters per second) or acre-feet per day. In
oceanography a common unit to measure volume
transport (volume of water transported by a current for
example) is a Sverdrup (Sv) equivalent to 106 m3/s

FOR GAS : Gas mass flow rate can be directly


measured, independent of pressure and temperature
effects, with thermal mass flow meters, Coriolis mass
flow meters, or mass flow controllers
A volume of gas under one set of pressure and
temperature conditions is not equivalent to the same gas
under different conditions. References will be made to
"actual" flow rate through a meter and "standard" or
"base" flow rate through a meter with units such as
acm/h (actual cubic meters per hour), sm3/sec (standard
cubic meters per second), kscm/h (thousand standard
cubic meters per hour), LFM (linear feet per minute), or
MMSCFD (million standard cubic feet per day)
  
   
  
Module 6– Instrument Loop Diagrams  
There are different loops for instruments system 
depends upon its function in electric, pneumatic, 
mechanic, etc.  
 (4‐20)mA  (also called 20% offset) 
 (0‐20)mA 
 (1‐5) Volts DC  
 (0‐5) Volts DC  
 (0‐10) Volts DC 
 (‐10 to 10) Volts DC 
 (3‐15) psi 
The (4–20 Ma) convention was born in the 1950s 
out of the earlier highly successful( 3–15 psi) 
pneumatic control signal standard, when 
electronics became cheap and reliable enough to 
emulate the older standard electrically. The( 3–
15 psi) standard had the same features of being 
able to power some remote devices, and have a 
"live" zero. However the (4–20 Ma) standard was 
better suited to the electronic controllers then 
being developed.  
 

 
 
The transition was gradual and has extended into 
the 21st century, due to the huge installed base 
of 3–15 psi devices. As the operation of 
pneumatic valves over motorized valves has many 
cost and reliability advantages, pneumatic 
actuation is still an industry standard.   
 
 
BASIC OF FLAPPER / NOZZLE SYSTEM AS AN
PNEUMATIC LOOP  

 
 
 

To allow the construction of hybrid systems, where the


4–20 mA is generated by the controller, but allows the
use of pneumatic valves, a range of current to pressure
(I to P) converters are available from manufacturers.
These are usually located locally to the control valve and
convert 4–20 mA to 3–15 psi (or 0.2– 1.0 bar). This
signal is then fed to the valve actuator or more
commonly, a pneumatic positioner.  
 
 
 
The positioner is a dedicated controller which has a mechanical linkage to
the actuator movement. This ensures that problems of friction are overcome
and the valve control element moves to the desired position. It also allows
the use of higher air pressures for valve actuation.  
With the development of cheap industrial micro-processors, "smart" valve
positioners have become available since the mid-1980s and are very
popular for new installations. These include an I to P converter, plus valve
position and condition monitoring. These latter are fed back over the current
loop to the controller, using such as the HART protocol.  
 
 
 
 
 
Module 7– Piping and Instrumentation Drawings  
The P&ID acts as a directory to all field instrumentation
and control that will be installed on a process and thus
is a key document to the control engineer. Since the
instrument tag number assigned to field devices is
shown on this document. The instrument tag associated
with, for example, a measurement device or actuator of
interest may be quickly found. 

 
Module 8‐ Controller Tuning  
A control loop is a process management system designed to
maintain a process variable at a desired set point. Each step in
the loop works in conjunction with the others to manage the
system. Once the set point has been established, the control
loop operates using a four-step process.  
 

PROPORTIONAL & DERIVATIVE (PD)


 
 

PROPORTIONAL, DERIVATIVE, INTEGRAL (PDI)

  
 
 

 
 
Control tuning with the others to manage the system. Once
the set point To tune the control device then must refer to the
set value in manual mode before transfer to automatic mode.  

PID controller theory  


 
The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three
separate parameters; the proportional, the integral and
derivative values. The proportional value determines the
reaction to the current error, the integral value determines the
reaction based on the sum of recent errors, and the derivative
value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the
error has been changing. The weighted sum of these three
actions is used to adjust the process via a control element
such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of
a heating element.  
By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm,
the controller can provide control action designed for specific
process requirements. The response of the controller can be
described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to
an error, the degree to which the controller overshoots the
setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. Note that the
use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee
optimal control of the system or system stability.  
Some applications may require using only one or two modes
to provide the appropriate system control. This is achieved by
setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. A PID
controller will be called a PI, PD, P or I controller in the
absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers are
particularly common, since derivative action is very sensitive
to measurement noise, and the absence of an integral value
may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to
the control action.  
 

Note: Due to the diversity of the field of control theory and


application, many naming conventions for the relevant
variables are in common use  
 
This section describes the parallel or non-interacting form of
the PID controller. For other forms please see the Section
"Alternative notation and PID forms".  
The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting
terms, whose sum constitutes the manipulated variable (MV).
Hence  

 
where Pout, Iout, and Dout are the contributions to the output
from the PID controller from each of the three terms, as
defined below  
 

Proportional term  

The proportional term (sometimes called gain) makes a change


to the output that is proportional to the current error value. The
proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error
by a constant Kp, called the proportional gain  
 

The proportional term is given by:  


 
Where  
• Pout: Proportional term of output  

• Kp: Proportional gain, a tuning parameter  

• e: Error = SP − PV  

• t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)  

A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output


for a given change in the error. If the proportional gain is too
high, the system can become unstable (See the section on loop
tuning). In contrast, a small gain results in a small output
response to a large input error, and a less responsive (or
sensitive) controller. If the proportional gain is too low, the
control action may be too small when responding to system
disturbances.  
In the absence of disturbances, pure proportional control will
not settle at its target value, but will retain a steady state error
that is a function of the proportional gain and the process gain.
Despite the steady-state offset, both tuning theory and
industrial practice indicate that it is the proportional term that
should contribute the bulk of the output change. Integral term  

 
Plot of PV vs time, for three values of Ki
(Kp and Kd held constant)The contribution from the integral
term(sometimes called reset) is proportional to both the
magnitude of the error and the duration of the error. Summing
the instantaneous error over time (integrating the error) gives
the accumulated offset that should have been corrected
previously. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the
integral gain and added to the controller output. The
magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the
overall control action is determined by the integral gain, Ki.  
The integral term is given by:  

 
Where  
• Iout: Integral term of output  

• Ki: Integral gain, a tuning parameter  

• e: Error = SP − PV  

• t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)  

• τ: A dummy integration variable  

The integral term (when added to the proportional term)


accelerates the movement of the process towards setpoint and
eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a
proportional only controller. However, since the integral term
is responding to accumulated errors from the past, it can cause
the present value to overshoot the setpoint value (cross over
the setpoint and then create a deviation in the other direction).
For further notes regarding integral gain tuning and controller
stability, see the section on loop tuning  
 

Derivative term  

 
Plot of PV vs time, for three values of Kd
(Kp and Ki held constant)  
The rate of change of the process error is calculated by
determining the slope of the error over time (i.e., its first
derivative with respect to time) and multiplying this rate of
change by the derivative gain Kd. The magnitude of the
contribution of the derivative term (sometimes called rate) to
the overall control action is termed the derivative gain, Kd The
derivative term is given by:  

 
Where  
• Dout: Derivative term of output  

• Kd: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter  

• e: Error = SP − PV  

• t: Time or instantaneous time (the present)  

The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller


output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller
setpoint. Hence, derivative control is used to reduce the
magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral
component and improve the combined controller-process
stability. However, differentiation of a signal amplifies noise
and thus this term in the controller is highly sensitive to noise
in the error term, and can cause a process to become unstable
if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large  
Summary  
The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are summed to
calculate the output of the PID controller. Defining u(t) as the
controller output, the final form of the PID algorithm is:  

 
The Tuning Parameters Are: Proportional gain, Kp larger
values typically mean faster response since the larger the error,
the larger the Proportional term compensation. An excessively
large proportional gain will lead to process instability and
oscillation.  

Integral gain, Ki  

larger values imply steady state errors are eliminated more


quickly. The trade-off is larger overshoot: any negative error
integrated during transient response must be integrated away
by positive error before we reach steady state. Derivative
gain, Kd larger values decrease overshoot, but slows down
transient response and may lead to instability due to signal
noise amplification in the differentiation of the error.  
 

  Manual tuning ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺻﺔ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻤﻬﻨﺪﺱ‬


If The System Must Remain Online, One Tuning Method Is
To First Set  
Ki And Kd Values To Zero. Increase The Kp Until The Output
Of The  
Loop Oscillates, Then The Kp Should Be Left Set To Be
Approximately Half Of That Value For A "Quarter
Amplitude Decay" Type Response.  
Then Increase Ki Until Any Offset Is Correct In Sufficient
Time For The  
Process. However, Too Much Ki Will Cause Instability.
Finally, Increase  
Kd, If Required, Until The Loop Is Acceptably Quick To
Reach Its  
Reference After A Load Disturbance. However, Too Much Kd
Will Cause  
Excessive Response And Overshoot. A Fast PID Loop
Tuning Usually  
Overshoots Slightly To Reach The Setpoint More Quickly;
However,  
Some Systems Cannot Accept Overshoot, In Which Case An
"OverDamped" Closed-Loop System Is Required, Which
Will Require A Kp Setting Significantly Less Than Half That
Of The Kp Setting Causing Oscillation.  
Effects of increasing parameters    

Parameter Rise time   Overshoot Settling Error at


time   equilibrium  

Kp   Decrease   Increase   Small Decrease  


change  

Ki   Decrease   Increase   Increase   Eliminate  

Kd   Indefinite (small Decrease   Decrease   None  


decrease or
increase)  

 
 

The Final Control Element


 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
Being The Final Control Element In A System Is Not
An Easy  
Job. To Start With, You Are Blamed For Any And
All Problems  
That Crop Up In The Process. You Are Subjected To
Corrosion,  
High Velocity, Cavitations, Flashing Liquids,
Cryogenic  
Temperatures, High Temperatures, Abrasion, And
Thermal  
Shock. You Are Expected Not Only To Throttle
Along Through  
All This, But Most Likely, You Are Also Being
Asked To Act As A Block Valve And Shut Off Tight. 
As You Work With Control Valves Always Keep In
Mind That
 
 

 
A Control Valve Only Does What It Is Told To
Do. 
 
 

 
 
A Control Valve Is A Power-Operated Device
Used To  
Modify The Fluid Flow Rate In A Process System.
Well, What  
Happens If The Power Is Cut Off? When A Control
Valve Is  
Sized Or Selected To Do A Particular Job, One Of
The First  
Questions You Should Consider Is How That Valve
Will  
Respond In The Event Of A Loss Of Signal Or
Power. This Is  
Called Its "Fail-Safe Mode" And Knowing The Fail-
Safe Mode Is The Key To Troubleshooting It. 
In Most Applications (About 80%), It Is
Desirable For  
Valves To Fail Closed. In Other Applications, You
Might Want  
A Valve To Fail Open Or Fail In Place. Safety
Concerns And  
Process Requirements Will Mandate The Fall Mode
Of The Valve. 
 
When A Valve Is Not Sitting In Its Fail
Position, It Is  
Being Told How And When To Move By
Some External Signal
 
By The Comments One Hears, You Would Be
Led To  
Believe That Control Valves Sit Around And Think
Up Things  
To Do On Their Own. Perhaps This Will Some Day
Be True When All Control Valves Are "Smart." 
If A Control Valve Is Observed In An Unstable
Condition Or  
Appears To Not Be Responding Correctly To An
Input Signal, Remember That  
 

Something Is Telling The Valve To Behave


That Way. A Control Valve Is Only As
Strong As Its Weakest Link. 
When The 1965 Ford Mustang First Appeared, It
Was Powered  
By A 6-Cylinder Engine With A 3-Speed
Transmission - But It  
Had A 140 M.P.H.(225 K.P.H.) Speedometer. The
Fact That It  
Had A 140 M.P.H.(225 K.P.H.) Speedometer Did
Not Mean It  
Could Actually Travel That Fast. In The Same Way,
A Control  
Valve With A 600# Rated Valve Body Cannot
Throttle And Shut Off Against 1440 Pounds Of
Pressure. 
There Are Two Basic Types Of Control Valves:
Rotary And  
Linear. Linear-Motion Control Valves Commonly
Have Globe,  
Gate, Diaphragm, Or Pinch - Type Closures. Rotary-
Motion  
Valves Have Ball, Butterfly, Or Plug Closures. Each
Type Of  
Valve Has Its Special Generic Features, Which May,
In A Given Application, Be Either An Advantage Or
A Disadvantage 
 
 
 

Linear Valve Features


• TORTUOUS FLOW PATH  
• LOW RECOVERY  
• CAN THROTTLE SMALL FLOW
RATES  
• OFFERS VARIETY OF SPECIAL
TRIM DESIGNS • SUITED
TO HIGH‐PRESSURE
APPLICATIONS •
USUALLY FLANGED OR
THREADED  
• SEPARABLE BONNET  

 
 
 
 
Rotary Valve Features
• STREAMLINED FLOW PATH  
• HIGH RECOVERY  
• MORE CAPACITY  
• LESS PACKING WEAR  
• CAN HANDLE SLURRY AND ABRASIVES  
• FLANGELESS  
• INTEGRAL BONNET  
• HIGH RANGEABILITY  

 
 
In Addition To Linear And Rotary, Control Valves Are Also  

Classified According To Their Guiding Systems And The


Types  
Of Services They Are Used In. 
 

Control Valve Classification

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CONTROL VAVE CHARACTERISTICS


 
 
 

 
Following important information in this chapter is
summarized below.  
Types of Valves Summary

* Gate valves are generally used in systems where low


flow resistance for a fully open valve is desired and there is
no need to throttle the flow. 
 Globe valves are used in systems where good throttling
characteristics and low seat leakage are desired and a
relatively high head loss in an open valve is acceptable.  
* Ball valves allow quick, quarter turn on-off operation
and have poor throttling characteristics.  
* Plug valves are often used to direct flow between several
different ports through use of a single valve.  
* Diaphragm valves and pinch valves are used in systems
where it is desirable for the entire operating mechanism to
be completely isolated from the fluid.  
* Butterfly valves provide significant advantages over
other valve designs in weight, space, and cost for large valve
applications.  
* Check valves automatically open to allow flow in one
direction and seat to prevent flow in the reverse direction.  
* A stop check valve is a combination of a lift check valve
and a globe valve and incorporates the characteristics of
both.  
* Safety/relief valves are used to provide automatic over
pressurization protection for a system