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安裝快速入門

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15

本《快速入門》引導您逐步完成安裝 SUSE® Linux Enterprise


Server 15 的過程。

出版日期: July 19, 2018

目錄
1 歡迎安裝 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 2

2 法律聲明 27

3 GNU Free Documentation License 28

1 SLES 15
1 歡迎安裝 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
執行以下程序可在所有支援的硬體平台上安裝該產品。這些程序假設您已成功開機
至/透過 IPL 進入安裝系統。如需更詳細的安裝說明和部署策略,請參閱《部署指南
》。若要瞭解需執行哪些特定於某平台的準備工作才能開機,或透過 IPL 進入安裝系
統,請參閱前述指南的以下部分︰

《部署指南 》, 第 2 章「在 AMD64 和 Intel 64 上安裝」

《部署指南 》, 第 3 章「在 ARM AArch64 上安裝」

《部署指南 》, 第 4 章「在 IBM POWER 上安裝」

《部署指南 》, 第 5 章「在 IBM Z 上安裝」

1.1 預設安裝程序
從 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 15 開始,安裝媒體僅包含安裝程式 - 一個用於安
裝、更新和註冊 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 的指令行式精簡系統。安裝期間,您
可以在安裝程式之上選取所要安裝的模組以新增功能。
預設的安裝方式需要透過網路存取 SUSE Customer Center 或本地儲存庫管理工具伺服
器,以擷取模組的儲存庫資料。如果您想在不存取網路的情況下執行安裝,您還需要第
二個安裝媒體,即 SLE-15-Packages ISO 影像。
若要安裝 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server,請從安裝程式媒體開機至或透過 IPL 進入
安裝程式,然後開始安裝。

2 歡迎安裝 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server SLES 15


1.1.1 語言、鍵盤和產品選擇

系統會依據您在開機畫面上選擇的語言來啟始化語言和鍵盤配置設定。如果您未變更預
設設定,則語言為「英文 (美國)」。如果需要,可在此處變更設定。使用鍵盤測試文
字方塊可測試配置。
使用安裝程式可以安裝所有 SUSE Linux Enterprise 基礎產品︰

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (本文件已介紹)

SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop (參閱 https://www.suse.com/documentation/


sled/ 中的安裝說明)

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Performance Computing (參閱 FIXME 中的安裝說


明)

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server for SAP Applications (參閱 https://


www.suse.com/documentation/sles-for-sap/ 中的安裝說明)

選取要安裝的產品。您需要有相應產品的註冊代碼。通篇文件假設您已選擇 SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server。按繼續以繼續。

3 預設安裝程序 SLES 15
1.1.2 授權合約

閱讀授權合約。此內容以您在開機螢幕上選擇的語言顯示。可以透過授權語言下拉
式方塊獲得翻譯。您需要核取我同意授權條款接受該合約,才能安裝 SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server。按繼續以繼續。

4 預設安裝程序 SLES 15
1.1.3 網路設定

隨後會進行系統分析,在此過程中,安裝程式會查探儲存裝置,並嘗試尋找其他安裝的
系統。如果在開始安裝期間已透過 DHCP 自動設定了網路,則您將轉至註冊步驟。
如果尚未設定網路,則網路設定對話方塊將會開啟。從清單中選取網路介面,然後使
用編輯對其進行設定。您也可以手動新增一個介面。請參閱《部署指南 》, 第 8 章
「安裝步驟」, 第 8.6 節「網路設定」和《管理指南》, 第 17 章「基本網路功能」,
第 17.4 節「使用 YaST 手動設定網路連接」以獲得更多資訊。如果您希望在不存取網
路的情況下執行安裝,請不做任何變更跳過此步驟,然後按下一步以繼續。

1.1.4 IBM Z︰磁碟啟用
如果不是在 IBM Z 硬體上安裝,請跳過此步驟。

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設定連接的硬碟。請選取 DASD、光纖通道連接的 SCSI 磁碟 (zFCP) 或 iSCSI 來安
裝 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。僅當連接了相應的裝置時,才可以使用 DASD 與
zFCP 組態按鈕。按下一步以繼續設定選取的磁碟類型。

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1.1.5 註冊

若要獲得技術支援與產品更新,需在 SUSE Customer Center 或本地註冊伺服器中註冊


並啟用產品。在此階段註冊 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server,您可以立即獲得存取更
新儲存庫的權限。如此,您便可將最新的更新和可用的修補程式隨系統一起安裝。
註冊時,將從註冊伺服器載入下一步中可能會安裝的模組和延伸的儲存庫與相依項。
如果您處於離線狀態,或者想跳過註冊,請啟用跳過註冊。依照第 1.2 節 「安裝但不
註冊」中的說明繼續安裝。
若要在 SUSE Customer Center 中註冊,請輸入與您的 SCC 帳戶關聯的電子郵件地
址,以及 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 的註冊代碼。如果您的組織提供了本地註冊
伺服器,您也可以在該伺服器中註冊。啟用透過本地 SMT 伺服器註冊系統,然後從下
拉式方塊中選擇 URL,或者輸入位址。

提示:在安裝時安裝產品修補程式
成功註冊 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 後,系統會在安裝期間詢問您是否安
裝最新的可用線上更新。如果您選擇是,最新的套件將隨系統一起安裝,如此便
不必在安裝後套用更新。建議啟用此選項。

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1.1.6 延伸與模組選項

成功註冊系統後,安裝程式會列出 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 可使用的模組和延


伸。模組是用於視需要定制產品功能的元件。它們是免費提供的。延伸可新增功能至產
品。它們以訂閱的形式提供,並需要註冊金鑰,因此是收費的。
您在安裝的第一步中所選擇的產品,將決定有哪些模組或延伸可用。如需模組及其生
命週期的描述,請選取一個模組以查看隨附文字。版本說明 (https://www.suse.com/
releasenotes/x86_64/SUSE-SLES/15/#Intro.Module) 中提供了更多詳細資訊。
模組的選擇會間接影響安裝範圍,因為該選擇定義了哪些軟體來源 (儲存庫) 可用於安
裝,以及可用於執行中的系統。
以下模組和延伸適用於 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server︰

Basesystem 模組
此模組在安裝程式的基礎上新增一個基本系統。其他所有模組和延伸都需要此模
組。只包含基礎系統的安裝其範圍相當於舊版 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
的精簡系統安裝模式。
相依項︰無

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Containers 模組
包含容器的支援和工具。
相依項︰Basesystem

Desktop Applications 模組
將圖形使用者介面和最基本的桌面應用程式新增至系統。此模組也是伺服器應用
程式和開發工具模組的必要元件。
相依項︰Basesystem

Development Tools 模組
包含編譯器 (包括 gcc ) 以及應用程式編譯和除錯時所需的程式庫。
相依項︰Basesystem、Desktop Applications

Legacy 模組
包含舊版 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 中提供,但 SLES 15 中已棄用的套
件。從舊版 SLES 移轉時,建議使用此模組。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

Public Cloud 模組
包含建立影像所需的全部工具,這些影像用於在雲端環境 (例如 Amazon Web
Services (AWS)、Microsoft Azure、Google Compute Platform 或 SUSE
OpenStack Cloud) 中部署 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

Server Applications Module


透過提供 DHCP 伺服器、名稱伺服器或 Web 伺服器等網路服務,來新增伺服器功
能。
相依項︰Basesystem

SUSE Cloud Application Platform Tools 模組


新增用來與 SUSE Cloud Application Platform 產品互動的工具。
相依項︰Basesystem

SUSE Package Hub


用於存取 openSUSE 社群所維護的各個 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 套件。
對這些套件不提供 L3 支援,且它們不會影響 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
的支援。如需詳細資訊,請參閱 https://packagehub.suse.com/ 。
相依項︰無

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Web and Scripting 模組
包含用於執行中 Web 伺服器的套件。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

SUSE Enterprise Storage


將 Ceph 的分散式儲存支援新增至 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。需要單獨的
授權金鑰。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension


將關鍵任務型設定的叢集支援新增至 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。此延伸需
要單獨的授權金鑰。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

SUSE Linux Enterprise Live Patching


新增無需關閉系統即可執行關鍵修補的支援。此延伸需要單獨的授權金鑰。
相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

SUSE Linux Enterprise Workstation Extension


使用 SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop 中與其他桌面應用程式 (例如辦公室套裝
軟體、電子郵件用戶端、圖形編輯器等) 類似的套件和程式庫延伸 SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server 的功能。使用該延伸可將這兩個產品相結合,打造功能完備
的工作站。此延伸需要單獨的授權金鑰。
相依項︰Basesystem、Desktop Applications

某些模組需要已安裝其他模組。因此,在選取某個模組時,可能會自動選取其他模組來
符合相依關係。
根據具體的產品,註冊伺服器可能會將模組和延伸標示為建議安裝。系統會將推薦的模
組和延伸預先選為要加以註冊和安裝。若要避免安裝這些推薦的項目,請手動取消選
取。
選取要安裝的模組和延伸,然後按下一步以繼續。如果您選擇了一或多個延伸,系統會
提示您提供相應的註冊代碼。根據所做的選擇,您可能還需要接受附加的授權合約。

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1.1.7 附加產品

使用附加產品對話方塊,您可以將不是 SUSE Customer Center 提供的其他軟體來源


(即「儲存庫」) 新增至 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。此類附加產品可以包括協力
廠商產品和驅動程式,或適用於您系統的其他軟體。

提示:在安裝過程中新增驅動程式
您還可以透過附加產品對話方塊新增驅動程式更新儲存庫。http://
drivers.suse.com/ 上會提供 SUSE Linux Enterprise 的驅動程式更新。已
透過 SUSE SolidDriver Program 建立這些驅動程式。

如果要跳過此步驟,請按下一步繼續。否則,請啟用我想安裝附加產品。請指定媒體類
型、本地路徑或託管儲存庫的網路資源,然後依照畫面上的指示操作。

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核取下載儲存庫描述檔案可立即下載描述儲存庫的檔案。如果不啟用,系統將在安裝啟
動後下載它們。按下一步繼續,並根據需要插入媒體。您可能需要接受其他授權合約,
具體取決於產品的內容。按下一步繼續。如果您選擇了需要註冊金鑰的附加產品,在繼
續下一步之前,系統將要求您輸入該金鑰。

1.1.8 系統角色

可用的系統角色取決於所選的模組和延伸。例如,系統角色定義磁碟分割建議,以及要
預先選定加以安裝的軟體模式集。請參考畫面上的描述做出選擇。選取角色,然後按下
一步以繼續。

提示:版本說明
從此步驟開始,在安裝過程中,您可以在任一螢幕上選取版本說明來檢視版本說
明。

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1.1.9 建議的分割

查看系統建議的分割區設定。如果需要,可以變更它們。您可以選擇以下選項︰

引導式設定
啟動用於調整磁碟分割建議的精靈。此處可用的選項取決於系統設定。如果系統
包含多個硬碟,則您可以選擇要使用的磁碟,以及要放置根分割區的位置。如果
磁碟已包含分割區,請決定是要移除分割區,還是調整分割區的大小。
在後續步驟中,您也可以新增 LVM 支援和磁碟加密。您可以變更根分割區的檔案
系統,並決定是否建立單獨的主分割區。

專家分割程式
開啟進階磁碟分割程式,如《部署指南 》, 第 9 章「專家分割程式」, 第 9.1
節「使用進階磁碟分割程式」中所述。此選項可讓您完全控制磁碟分割設定,以
及建立自訂設定。它適用於進階使用者。

若要接受建議的設定而不做任何變更,請選擇下一步繼續。

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提示:版本說明
從此步驟開始,在安裝過程中,您可以在任一螢幕上選取版本說明來檢視版本說
明。

1.1.10 時鐘和時區

選取系統中使用的時鐘和時區。若要手動調整時間或設定 NTP 伺服器以保持時間的同


步,請選擇其他設定。請參閱《部署指南 》, 第 8 章「安裝步驟」, 第 8.12 節「時
鐘和時區」以獲得詳細資訊。按下一步繼續。

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1.1.11 區域使用者

若要建立本地使用者,請在使用者全名欄位中輸入姓氏和名字,在使用者名稱欄位中輸
入登入名稱,在密碼欄位中輸入密碼。
密碼至少必須有 8 個字元,且應包含大小寫字母及數字。密碼的最大長度為 72 個字
元,並且有大小寫之分。
出於安全考慮,強烈建議您不要啟用自動登入。此外,也不應 將此密碼做為系統管理
員的密碼,而應在安裝的下一步中提供一個單獨的 root 密碼。按繼續以繼續。

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1.1.12 系統管理員「root」的密碼

請輸入系統管理員帳戶 (稱為 root 的使用者) 的密碼。


切勿忘記 root 的密碼!在此處輸入密碼後,您將無法再從系統取回密碼。如需詳細
資訊,請參閱《部署指南 》, 第 8 章「安裝步驟」, 第 8.14 節「系統管理員的密
碼」。按下一步繼續。

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1.1.13 安裝設定

使用安裝設定螢幕查看多個建議的安裝設定,並依據需要變更。每個設定的當前組態都
在此處列出。若要進行變更,請按一下標題。有些設定 (如防火牆或 SSH) 可以直接透
過按一下相應連結變更。

提示:遠端存取
此處可變更的設定也可以日後在安裝的系統中加以變更。但是,如果您在安裝後
需要立即進行遠端存取,此時應該檢查防火牆和 SSH 設定。

軟體
您為此安裝所選的模組和延伸定義了安裝範圍。不過,根據您所做的選擇而定,
系統不一定會安裝模組內所有可用的套件。
按一下軟體會開啟軟體選項和系統任務螢幕,您可在此處透過選取或取消選取某
些模式來變更軟體選擇。每個模式都包含特定功能 (例如 KVM 主機伺服器) 所
需的多個軟體套件。如果想查看要安裝之軟體套件更為詳細的選擇,請選取詳細
資料切換至 YaST軟體管理員。如需相關資訊,請參閱《部署指南 》, 第 16 章
「安裝或移除軟體」。

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開機
此區段顯示開機載入程式組態。建議您僅在確實需要時才變更預設設定。如需詳
細資訊,請參閱《管理指南》, 第 12 章「開機載入程式 GRUB 2」。

防火牆與 SSH
依預設,系統會對為公用區域設定的所有網路介面啟用防火牆。如需組態詳細資
料,請參閱《Security Guide》, 第 16 章「Masquerading and Firewalls」,
第 16.4 節「firewalld」。
SSH 服務預設處於啟用狀態,其連接埠 (22) 已開啟。按一下啟用並開啟可切換
這些設定。請注意,如果 SSH 已停用,則您無法從遠端登入。

Kdump
如果核心當機,Kdump 可將記憶體影像 (「磁心傾印」) 儲存至檔案系統中。如
此,您便可以透過對傾印檔案除錯找出當機原因。Kdump 已預先設定好,預設處
於啟用狀態。如需相關資訊,請參閱《System Analysis and Tuning Guide》,
第 17 章「Kexec and Kdump」, 第 17.7 節「Basic Kdump Configuration」。

預設 Systemd 目標
如果您已安裝 Desktop Applications 模組,系統會開機至支援網路、多重使用
者和顯示管理員的圖形目標。如果您不需要透過顯示管理員登入,請切換至多使
用者。

系統
按一下系統可檢視詳細的硬體資訊。在隨後顯示的螢幕中,還可以變更核心設
定,如需詳細資訊,請參閱《部署指南 》, 第 8 章「安裝步驟」, 第 8.15.8
節「系統資訊」。

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1.1.14 開始安裝

在安裝設定螢幕上確定系統組態後,按一下安裝。根據您做的軟體選擇,您可能需要
同意授權合約,安裝確認螢幕才會顯示。到目前為止,我們尚未對您的系統進行任何變
更。當您再次按一下安裝後,安裝過程即會開始。

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1.1.15 安裝程序

安裝期間,詳細資料索引標籤會顯示詳細的安裝進度。
安裝常式完成後,電腦會重新開機至安裝的系統。登入並啟動 YaST 以微調系統。如果
您使用的不是圖形桌面或者正在從遠端工作,請參閱《管理指南》, 第 5 章「文字模
式的 YaST」獲得有關從終端機使用 YaST 的資訊。

1.2 安裝但不註冊
如果您執行安裝時未連接至註冊伺服器,則無法在安裝期間註冊您的系統。因而將無法
從註冊伺服器接收模組和延伸的儲存庫組態。為了支援一般安裝,SUSE 提供了另一種
安裝媒體︰SLE-15-Packages ISO 影像。

注意:註冊 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server


需要註冊您的系統和延伸,才能擷取更新以及獲得支援資格。如果在安裝期間未
註冊,以後隨時都可在執行中系統上註冊。要進行此操作,請執行 YaST 產品註
冊。

20 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
若要執行安裝但不註冊,請確定安裝期間可以存取 SLE-15-Packages ISO 影像的內
容。將此影像複製到本地硬碟或抽取式快閃隨身碟、燒錄到 DVD 或者放在本地網路
中,即可實現此目的。選擇您的硬體支援的方法。

提示: 將 SLE-15-Packages ISO 影像中的


資料複製到抽取式快閃隨身碟
若要將 ISO 影像的內容複製到抽取式快閃隨身碟,請使用以下指令。

tux > sudo dd if=PATH_TO_ISO_IMAGE


of=FLASH_STORAGE_PARTITION bs=4M && sync

需要以此 ISO 影像檔案的相對或絕對路徑取代 PATH_TO_ISO_IMAGE 。

需要以快閃隨身碟裝置上某個分割區 (通常只有一個) 的路徑取代


FLASH_STORAGE_PARTITION 。若要識別該裝置及其分割區,請插入裝置,並使用下

面的範例中所示的指令︰

root # grep -Ff <(hwinfo --disk --short) <(hwinfo --usb --short)


disk:
/dev/sdc General USB Flash Disk
root # fdisk -l /dev/sdc | grep -e "^/dev"
/dev/sdc1 * 2048 31490047 31488000 15G 83 Linux

例如,在這種情況下,要使用的指令是︰

dd if=/tmp/SLE-15-Packages-x86_64-DVD1.iso \
of=/dev/sdc1 bs=4M && sync

確定裝置上有足夠大 (6 GB 或以上) 的分割區。此外,在執行 dd 指令時,不


得掛接該裝置。請注意,分割區中的所有資料將被去除!

1.2.1 開始安裝但不註冊
安裝遵循第 1.1 節 「預設安裝程序」中所述的相同工作流程,只是註冊系統及新增模
組/延伸的步驟有所不同。若要開始安裝,請執行第 1.1 節 「預設安裝程序」中的步
驟第 1.1.1 節 「語言、鍵盤和產品選擇」至第 1.1.4 節 「IBM Z︰磁碟啟用」。

21 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
1.2.2 跳過註冊
在註冊螢幕上,啟用跳過註冊。按一下確定接受警告,然後按下一步以繼續。

22 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
1.2.3 存取 SLE-15-Packages 影像

在附加產品對話方塊中,啟用我要安裝其他附加產品,並指定 SLE-15-Packages ISO


影像的來源。核取下載儲存庫描述檔可立即下載描述儲存庫的檔案。如果未啟用,系統
將在安裝啟動後下載它們。按下一步繼續。如果您選擇了 DVD 做為資料來源,系統會
提示您插入媒體。

23 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
1.2.4 選取延伸和模組

在延伸與模組選項對話方塊中,需要選取一個產品、至少一個模組,並視需要選取一或
多個延伸。
SLE-15-Packages ISO 影像包含所有 SUSE Linux Enterprise 產品的延伸和模組。請
務必僅選取下面所列的模組和延伸,否則系統最終可能安裝失敗,並且不能獲得 SUSE
的支援。

產品
必須選取一個產品。選擇 SLES 15 15-0。

模組
模組會延伸 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 的功能,並且是免費提供的。需
要安裝 Basesystem-Module 15-0。另外還建議您安裝 Server-Applications-
Module 15-0。
請注意,大部分模組依賴於其他模組。此處無法自動解決這些相依關係。請務
必手動解決相依關係,否則後面的安裝將會失敗。如需詳細資料,請參閱以下清
單。

24 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
Basesystem-Module 15-0:  此模組在安裝程式的基礎上新增一個基本系統。其
他所有模組和延伸都需要此模組。只包含基礎系統的安裝其範圍相當於舊版 SUSE
Linux Enterprise Server 的精簡系統安裝模式。相依項︰無

Containers-Module 15-0:  包含容器的支援和工具。相依項︰Basesystem

Desktop-Applications-Module 15-0:  新增圖形使用者介面 (Wayland) 和最基


本的桌面應用程式至系統。此模組也是伺服器應用程式和開發工具模組的必要元
件。相依項︰Basesystem

Development-Tools-Module 15-0:  包含編譯器 (包括 gcc ) 以及應用程式編譯


和除錯時所需的程式庫。

Legacy-Module 15-0:  包含舊版 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 中提供,


但 SLES 15 中已棄用的套件。從舊版 SLES 移轉時,建議使用此模組。相依項
︰Basesystem、Server Applications

Public-Cloud-Module 15-0:  包含建立影像所需的全部工具,這些影像用於


在雲端環境 (例如 Amazon Web Services (AWS)、Microsoft Azure、Google
Compute Platform 或 SUSE OpenStack Cloud) 中部署 SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server。相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

Server-Applications-Module 15-0:  透過提供 DHCP 伺服器、名稱伺服器或


Web 伺服器等網路服務,來新增伺服器功能。相依項︰Basesystem

Web-Scripting-Module 15-0:  包含用於執行中 Web 伺服器的套件。相依項


︰Basesystem、Server Applications

延伸
選擇延伸是選擇性的操作。延伸會新增更多核心功能至 SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server,它需要註冊代碼,因此是收費的。
請注意,延伸依賴於模組。此處無法自動解決這些相依關係。請務必手動解決相
依關係,否則後面的安裝將會失敗。如需詳細資料,請參閱以下清單。

SUSE Linux Enterprise High Availability Extension (SLEHA15 15-0): 


將關鍵任務型設定的叢集支援新增至 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。選擇
SLEHA15 15-0 可安裝此延伸。相依項︰Basesystem、Server Applications

25 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
SUSE Linux Enterprise Workstation Extension (SLEWE15 15-0):  使用 SUSE
Linux Enterprise Desktop 中與其他桌面應用程式 (例如辦公室套裝軟體、電子
郵件用戶端、圖形編輯器等) 類似的套件和程式庫延伸 SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 的功能。使用該延伸可將這兩個產品相結合,打造功能完備的工作站。選
擇 SLEWE15 15-0 可安裝此延伸。相依項︰Basesystem、Desktop Applications

警告:禁止的選項
請不要在 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 中安裝以下任何選項,否則系統最終
可能會安裝失敗,且不能獲得 SUSE 的支援。

HPC-Module 15-0
SAP-Applications-Module 15-0
SLE-15-HPC 15-0
SLE-15-SAP 15-0
SLED15 15-0

選完模組和延伸後,請按下一步以繼續。

26 安裝但不註冊 SLES 15
1.2.5 確認延伸和模組選擇

選擇安裝的所有模組會列在附加產品安裝對話方塊中。若要變更清單,請使用新增或刪
除選項。使用新增時,可以選擇性地新增其他附加產品。按下一步以繼續安裝。

1.2.6 完成安裝
從現在起,安裝將遵循預設安裝的相同路徑進行。從第 1.1 節 「預設安裝程序」中的
步驟第 1.1.8 節 「系統角色」繼續。

2 法律聲明
版權所有 © 2006–2018 SUSE LLC 和貢獻者。保留所有權利。
根據 GNU 自由文件授權 (GNU Free Documentation License) 1.2 版或 1.3 版 (自由
選擇),使用者可以複製、散佈與/或修改本文件;「恆常章節」為此著作權聲明與授
權。「GNU 自由文件授權」一節中包含 1.2 版授權的一份副本。

27 法律聲明 SLES 15
如需 SUSE 商標,請參閱 http://www.suse.com/company/legal/ 。所有其他協力廠
商的商標所有權分屬其各自的公司。®、等商標符號表示 SUSE 及其關聯公司的商標。
星號 (*) 表示協力廠商的商標。
本手冊中所有資訊在編輯時,都已全力注意各項細節。但這不保證百分之百的正確性。
因此,SUSE LLC 及其附屬公司、作者或譯者都不需對任何錯誤或造成的結果負責。

GNU Free Documentation License


Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Everyone is permitted
to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or non-commercially.
Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.
We have designed this License to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should
come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for
any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works
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1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work
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The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples
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HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text
near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

28 法律聲明 SLES 15
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication
that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or non-commercially, provided that this License, the copyright
notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of
the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of
copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts:
Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add
other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on
the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using
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It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the
Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and
modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than
five), unless they release you from this requirement.

C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.

D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.

F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.

29 法律聲明 SLES 15
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent
are not considered part of the section titles.

M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.

N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied
from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of
Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for
example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the
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arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by
arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list
them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy.
If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at
the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same
adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
"History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
Entitled "Endorsements".

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies
of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this
License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of
this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the
compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to
the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic
equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing
Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some
or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License,

30 法律聲明 SLES 15
and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of
this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original
version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title
(section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt
to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/
copyleft/ .
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.


Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
Free Documentation License”.

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the “with...Texts.” line with this:

with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free
software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

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