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on HHT and SVM Using Wide-area Information

Yiran Guo, Changqing Li, Yali Li, Shibin Gao

Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

Email: 779144969@qq.com

ABSTRACT

A power system fault classification method based on the Hilbert-Huang transformation (HHT) and support vector

machine (SVM) is proposed in this paper. According to different types of faults taking place in area and the outer area,

this paper uses HHT to extract the instantaneous amplitude and Hilbert marginal spectrum of the current signal. Then a

fault classifier consisting of a series of SVM classifiers that are optimized by using cross validation method is

constructed. Finally, inputting the feature vector sets that are conversed by the HHT into the fault classifier, the fault

type and locate the fault area will be distinguished. The simulation results show that this approach is very effective to

classify the fault type especially when the sample is small.

handling signals with EMD, and another one is to get the

An accurate diagnosis of grid faults type is very

time-frequency spectrum by handling IMF with Hilbert

important to the stable operation of power networks.

transform [9, 10]. Any signal can be broken down into

Wavelet analysis and wavelet packet analysis are used to

some IMFs and a remainder function through handling it

extract feature vectors when dealing with the

with EMD.

non-stationary signals that are generated when a fault

Through Hilbert transform, IMFs can be turned into as

occurs in a power system [1, 2]. As a new signal follows:

processing means, HHT adopts Empirical Mode

Decomposition (EMD), and HHT is applicable to 1 I j ( )

y j (t ) d

analyze non-stationary signals. HHT has been t (1)

successfully used in wave analysis, fault location and

flicker measurement. There are some methods being used z j (t ) is composed of two parts: y j (t ) , the real part;

for classification, such as Neural Network (NN), SVM and I j (t ) , the imaginary part. Meanwhile,

and so on [3-6]. When the sample is small, SVM will be i j ( t )

z j (t ) Aj (t )e (2)

a better choice with the higher accuracy rate and the

better generalization ability [7, 8]. where: A j is the instantaneous amplitude.

In this paper, the first step is to dissolve the original

signals with EMD. And then instantaneous amplitude A j (t ) I j 2 (t ) y j 2 (t )

and marginal spectrum are extracted with HHT. A SVM

y j (t )

j (t ) arctg

I j (t )

multiple classifier is setup by integrating a series of SVM

classifiers. And the last step is: inputting the instantane-

ous amplitude and marginal spectrum into the SVM mul-

tiple classifier whose parameters has been optimized with Depending on the definition of instantaneous

cross-validation methodology, then different types of frequency, the instantaneous frequency of IMF is:

power system faults will be distinguished. d j (t )

j (t ) (3)

2. Fundamentals of HHT and SVM dt

After transforming all IMFs with Hilbert transform, a

2.1. Operating Principle of HHT

series of analytic functions and instantaneous frequencies

Y. R. GUO ET AL. 139

shunt through stray capacitance between lines or earth

2.2. Operating Principia of SVM and lines. Purity of high-frequency signals will decrease

with the distance increases. Its distribution is unequal in

Support vector machine (SVM) is a new method based

different phases. In this paper, high frequency signal

on principles of statistics [11]. Its core is separating line-

levels(S) are chosen to be the characteristic quantity of

arly separable problems by a hyperplane in the N-dimen-

the marginal spectrum.

sional space.

It can be regarded as a convex quadratic program:

4. Constitution of SVM Classifier

1 2

min || || 4.1. Selection of Kernel Function and Parameter

,b 2 (4)

Optimization

s.t. yi (( x) b) 0, i 1, , N

When structuring a SVM classifier, the kernel function

and the quadratic programming problem can be rewritten should be chosen properly and optimized along with its

as an optimization problem: relative parameters.

min 1) Selection of kernel function

There are two kinds of kernel functions. One is global

N N N

1

min

j 2 yi y j ( xi x j ) i j (5) kernel and another is local kernel. Local kernel is more

suitable for classification problems. So Gaussian kernel

j 1 i 1 j 1

N function is chosen which is a typical local kernel of SVM

s.t. yi i 0, C i 0, i 1, , N classifier. And its form is as followed:

i 1

|| x xi ||

when dividing nonlinear separable problem, the data K ( x, xi ) exp( ) (6)

should be mapped from the original space to high 2 2

dimension feature space to make it linearly separable and The final classification function is:

the kernel function will be instructed to realize the data

N

|| x xi || N

transformation in order to output the final classification f ( x) sgn[ i yi exp( ) yi yi i ( xi x j )]

results. i 1 2 2

i 1

(7)

3. Characteristic Quantity of Fault Current where C i 0

Signal 2) Parameter Optimization

To get the characteristic quantity of the current signal, Penalty factor C and kernel bandwidth do have great

first of all, fault time should be confirmed and then effects on the classification of a SVM classifier whose

handling it with Hilbert-Huang transform. kernel function is Gaussian kernel function. Cross-vali-

High-frequency signals will be generated when dation methodology is selected to confirm this two

short-circuit fault occurs which reside in IMF1. So the parameters [12,13]. Sample data is divided into N sets,

instantaneous frequency of IMF1 will mutate picking N-1 sets as training data and the rest as testing

immediately the short-circuit fault takes places. data. So a series of average accuracy related to different

According to which the fault time can be judged. parameters will be figured out. Then the set of parameter

1) Characteristic Quantity of the Instantaneous vector with the highest accuracy will be chosen as the

Amplitude very optimized parameter.

Through EMD decomposition, the original current

signal can be changed into some IMFs. Choosing the 4.2. The SVM Multiple Classifier

IMF with the largest amplitude, and handling it with the

A SVM multiple classifiers are made up by a series of

HHT transform, the instantaneous amplitude feature can

SVM classifiers to distinguish all kinds of grid failures.

be got which can reflect the basic change rule of the

original signal’s amplitude. Each SVM classifier can recognize one kind of grid

For instantaneous amplitudes of the current of the failure with the output to be 1 or 0 to show what kind of

same line, their range and changing rate will increase grid failure happens. To distinguish four kinds of grid

sharply after short circuit happens. So value E and failures, four SVM classifiers is needed to compose a

standard deviation X are chosen as characteristic quantity SVM multiple classifier.

of instantaneous amplitudes in order to present the

changeable characteristics of breakdown signals. 5. Detection of Fault Classification

2) Characteristic Quantity of the Marginal spectrum 1) Extract current signal and get IMFs through EMD.

140 Y. R. GUO ET AL.

Confirm the fault time by the instantaneous frequency of The length of line 15 is 180 km while the line 9 is 120

IMF1. km long. Taking nodal point 9 as an example, different

2) Deal with current signals measured in this nodal types of faults are set in line 15 and line 9, then

point or others next to it to figure out the characteristic three-phase current data of nodal points 8,9,5,10 is

quantity E, X of the instantaneous amplitude and S of the recorded, finally analyzing the characteristic quantity and

marginal spectrum. transfer them to node 9.

3) Optimize parameters of SVM classifiers with Through simulation 54 sets of fault currents are

generalized cross validation. obtained, taking 41 sets of them as the training sets and

4) Figure out support vectors to structure all kinds of others as the test sets. For example, the single-phase fault

SVM classifiers. happens on line 9, and the current waveform,

5) Gain the result by putting all characteristic quantity instantaneous frequency, IMF, instantaneous amplitude,

in the SVM multiple classifiers. marginal spectrum will be shown in Figures 3-7.

The whole process is shown in Figure 1. Penalty factor C and kernel bandwidth are showed in

Table 1.

6. Simulation Verification The simulation results are showed in Table 2.

Firstly, an IEEE-14 bus system is built with PSCAD, as In Table 2, a, b, c, d, e respectively represents

is shown in Figure 2. single-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit, two-

phase grounding fault, three-phase short circuit and

normal operation. A being 1 means single-phase short

circuit occurs in this area. A being -1 means that there’s

no single-phase short circuit occurring in this area. And

the

10

L15

L14

8

L12 7 6

L9

L13

L11

L10 L8

1 4

L2 5 L7

L1 L5 L4

L6

2

L3

Figure 2. IEEE-14 bus system. Figure 4. IMF1 instantaneous frequency of fault current.

Y. R. GUO ET AL. 141

SVM1 69 17

SVM2 82 17

SVM3 90 93

SVM4 109 84

sequence

fault location Fault type Outcome

number

2 About 20 km from Two-phase short circuit fault -1 1 - - -

Figure 5. IMF signals of fault current.

3 node 9 on L15 two-phase ground fault -1 -1 1 - -

4 bolted three-phase fault -1 -1 -1 1 -

5 one-phase short-circuit 1----

6 About 70 km from Two-phase short circuit fault -1 1 - - -

7 node 9 on L15 two-phase ground fault -1 -1 1 - -

8 bolted three-phase fault -1 -1 -1 1 -

9 About 40 km from one-phase short-circuit -1 -1 -1 -1 1

10 node 10 on L9 Two-phase short circuit fault -1 -1 -1 -1 1

（outside the

11 region） two-phase ground fault -1 -1 -1 -1 1

12 bolted three-phase fault -1 -1 -1 -1 1

-1 -1 -1 -1

13 trouble-free trouble-free

-1

Figure 6. Instantaneous amplitude of IMF. the results of 13 sets of tests are right.

6. Conclusions

In this paper, HHT and SVM are adopted to distinguish

different types of power system faults. Downtime is

determined by using HHT. Through analysis of the fault

current, instantaneous amplitude and marginal spectrum

are defined to characterize electric current fluctuation

characteristic. The method of cross-validation is used to

optimize the parameters of SVM classifiers. Then a SVM

multiple classifier is set up using wide-area information

to test power system faults by taking advantage of

SVM’s abilities of its self learning and dealing with

small samples. And the simulation results show that this

approach can distinguish fault types of power supply line

with a high accuracy.

Figure 7. Hilbert marginal spectrum of fault current.

REFERENCES

next step is using the SVM classifier and outputting the [1] X. Z. Yi and X. Q. Li, “Diagnosis of Power Supply Line

value of b. For example, (-1 -1 1 - -）means two-phase Fault Based on Wavelet Analysis and Support Vector

grounding fault;（-1 -1 -1 -1 1）means external fault;（-1 Machine,” Journal of Beijing institute of Petro-chemical

142 Y. R. GUO ET AL.

Technology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2005, pp. 36-40. of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems,

[2] Y. H. Liu, Y. Y. Wang and Z. H. Song, “Adaptive Fault man, and cybernetics, 2009, pp. 1869-1874

Feature Extraction Based on Stationary Wavelet Packet [8] D. C. Yang, C. Rehtanz, Y. Li, W. Tang and R. Q. Qu,

Decomposition and Hilbert Transform,” Transacions of “Researching on Low Frequency Oscillation in Power

China Electrotechnical Society, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2009, pp. System Based on Improved HHT Algorithm,”

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[3] X. L. Zhang, X. J. Zeng, H. J. Ma, et al., “Power Grid pp.102-108.

Faults Location with Traveling Wave Based on [9] H. Jiang, X. Q. Wang and J. C. Peng, “Method to

Hilbert-Huang Transform,” Automation of electric power Measure Voltage Flicker Based on Hilbert-Huang

systems, Vol. 32, No. 8, 2008, pp. 64-67 Transform,” Power System Technology, Vol. 35, No. 9,

[4] S. Han, L. Q. He, B. Sun, et al., “Hilbert-Huang 2012, pp. 250-256.

Transform Based Nonlinear and Non-Stationary Analysis [10] Q. Zhang and Y. Q. Yang, “Research of the Kernel

of Power System Low Frequency Oscillation and Its Fuction of Support Vector Machine,” Electric Power

Application,” Power System Technology, Vol. 32, No. 4, Science and Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 5, 2012, pp. 42-45.

2008, pp. 56-60. [11] T. Y. Li, C. L. Chen, W. L. Cheng, et al., “Application of

[5] Y. X. Su, Z. G. Liu, K. L. Li, et al., “Application of cross Validation in Power Quality Denoisin,” Automation

Hilbert-Huang Transform in Harmonic Detection of of Electric Power Systems, Vol. 319, No. 16, 2007, pp.

Electrified Railway,” Power System Technology, Vol. 32, 75-78.

No. 18, 2008, pp. 30-35 [12] J. Ma, X.Wang and Z. P. Wang, “A New Fault Phase

[6] Z. J. Kang, L. Xu, J. C. Fan, et al., “Fault Location for Identification Method Based on Phase Current

High Voltage Transmission Lines With the Series Difference,” Proceedings of the CSEE, Vol. 31, No. 10,

Compensation Capacitor Based on Hilbert-Huang 2011, pp. 102-108

Transform and Neural Network,” Power System [13] Y. Wang, Y. X. Zhang and S. X. Xu, “Fault Location and

Technology, Vol. 33, No. 20, 2009, pp. 142-146 Phase Selection for Parallel Transmission Lines Based on

[7] J. Manikandan and B. Venkataramani, “Design of a Wide Area Measurement System,” Automation of Electric

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