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Frequency Distribution, Cross-Tabulation, and Hypothesis Testing

True/False Questions

1. In a frequency distribution, two variables are considered at a time.


(False, => one variable)
In frequency distribution, one variable is considered at a time.

2. Frequency data may be used to construct a histogram, or a vertical bar chart.


(True,

3. Mean, median, and mode are measures of variability.


(False,
Mean, median and mode are measures of tendency/location.

4. Measures of location or central tendency include the mean, median, and mode.
(True,

5. If a variable is measured on a nominal scale, the median should be used.


(False, => use the mean)
*median is suitable for testing a variable which is measured on a interval scale.

6. If all the values in the data are multiplied by a constant, the range is multiplied by the
same constant.
(True,

7. In a symmetric distribution, the values on either side of the center of the distribution
are the same, and the mean mode, and median are equal.
(True,

8. If the kurtosis is positive, the distribution is more peaked than a normal distribution.
(True,

9. The null hypothesis refers to a specified value of the population parameter, not a
sample statistic.
(True,

10. In tests of associations (relationship, more than 1 variables), the null hypothesis is
that there is no association between the variables (H0:….is NOT related to….).
(True,

11. A cross-tabulation is the merging of the frequency distribution of two or more


variables in a single table to help us to understand how one variable relates to
another variable.
(True,

12. Cross-tabulation examines associations between variables, not causation.

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(True,

38. Nonparametric tests are used when the independent variables are nonmetric
(nominal, ordinal).
(True,

Multiple Choice Questions

53. A frequency distribution helps _____.


a. determine how close a sample comes to the null hypothesis
b. us to understand how one variable, X, relates to another variable, Y
c. determine if a systematic association exists between two variables
d. determine the shape of the empirical distribution of the variable
(d,

57. The value obtained by summing all elements in a set and dividing by the number of
elements is the _____.
a. mean
b. median
c. mode
d. range
(a,

58. A measure of central tendency given as the value above which half of the values fall
and below which half of the values fall is the _____.
a. mean
b. median
c. mode
d. range
(b,

60. A statistic that indicates the distribution’s dispersion is a _____.


a. measure of variability
b. measure of shape
c. measure of occasion
d. measure of location
(a,

61. The difference between the smallest and the largest values in a distribution is the
_____.
a. mean
b. median
c. mode
d. range
(d,

67. The _____ is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, expressed as a
percentage, and it is a unitless measure of relative variability.
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a. standard deviation
b. coefficient of variation
c. variance
d. interquartile range
(b,

69. _____ is a measure of the relative peakedness or flatness of the curve defined by the
frequency distribution.
a. Kurtosis
b. Type I error
c. Skewness
d. Type II error
(a,

70. The alternative hypothesis: the percentage of Internet users who use the Internet for
shopping is greater than .40, is a _____.
a. Type I error
b. two-tailed test
c. Type II error
d. one-tailed test
(d,

71. _____ occurs when the sample results lead to the rejection of a null hypothesis that is
in fact true.
a. Type I error
b. Two-tailed error
c. Type II error
d. One-tailed error
(a,

72. The _____ is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact false,
and should be rejected.
a. Type I error
b. level of significance
c. Type II error
d. power of a test
(d,

80. Which of the research questions/hypotheses below is best answered using cross-
tabulations?
a. Is familiarity with a new product related to age and education levels?
b. The department store is being patronized by more than 10 percent of households.
c. One hotel has a more upscale image than its close competitor.
d. Both ‘b’ and ‘c’ are correct.
(a,

93. _____ are hypothesis testing procedures that assume that the variables are
measured on a nominal or ordinal scale.
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a. Parameter tests
b. Parametric tests
c. Nonparametric tests
d. None of the above
(c,

94. Suppose we wanted to test the hypothesis that the mean familiarity rating exceeds 4.0,
the neutral value on a seven-point scale. The hypotheses may be formulated as:
a. H0:µ1 = µ2
H1:µ1 ≠ µ2
b. H0:σ12 = σ22
H1:σ12 ≠ σ22
c. H0:µ < 4.0
H1:µ > 4.0

d. H0: π1 = π 2
H1: π 1 ≠ π 2
(c,

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