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PORTFOLIO IN

GENERAL
BIOLOGY

Submitted by; Submitted to;

Haidee S. Villanueva Mrs. Rosalie


Villanueva

11-Aristotle Teacher

I. Cell
A. Cell Theory

Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology

All living organisms are composed of cells, and all cells arise from other cells. These simple and powerful statements
form the basis of the cell theory, first formulated by a group of European biologists in the mid 1800s.

Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in every living thing. Development of this theory
during the mid 17th century was made possible by advances in microscopy. This theory is one of the foundations of
biology. The theory says that new cells are formed from other existing cells, and that the cell is a fundamental unit of
structure, function and organization in all living organisms.

The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. He examined (under a coarse, compound microscope) very thin
slices of cork and saw a multitude of tiny pores that he remarked looked like the walled compartments of a honeycomb.

The first man to witness a live cell under a microscope was Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek (although the first man to make
a compound microscope was Zacharias Janssen), who in 1674 described the algae Spirogyra and named the moving
organisms animalcules, meaning ''little animals''. Leeuwenhoek probably also saw bacteria. Cell theory was in contrast to
the vitalism theories proposed before the discovery of cells.

The observations of Hooke, Leeuwenhoek, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow, and others led to the development of the
cell theory. The cell theory is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things. The cell
theory states:

- All living things or organisms are made of cells.

- New cells are created by old cells dividing into two.

- Cells are the basic building units of life.

B. Cell Structure and Functions

There are many cells in an individual, which performs several functions throughout the life. The different types of cell
include-prokaryotic cell, plant and animal cell. The size and the shape of the cell range from millimeter to microns, which
are generally based on the type of function that it performs. A cell generally varies in their shapes. A few cells are in
spherical, rod, flat, concave, curved, rectangular, oval and etc. These cells can only seen under microscope.

Cell wall: It helps in protecting the plasma membrane and plays a vital role in supporting and protecting the cells.
It is a thick outer layer made of cellulose.

Cell membrane: It is a double layered, thin barrier, surrounding the cell to control the entry and exit of certain
substances.

Cytoplasm: It is a membrane, which protects the cell by keeping the cell organelles separate from each other.
This helps to keep a cell in stable. Cytoplasm is the site, where many vital biochemical reactions take place.

Nucleus: They are the membrane bound organelles, which are found in all eukaryotic cells. It is the very important
organelle of a cell as it controls the complete activity of a cell and also plays a vital role in reproduction.

Nuclear membrane: The bilayer membrane, which protects the nucleus by surrounding around it and acts as a
barrier between the cell nucleus and other organs of a cell.

Nucleolus: It is an important membrane found inside the nucleus. It plays a vital role in the production of cell's
ribosome.

Chromosomes: It is made up of DNA and stored in the nucleus, which contains the instructions for traits and
characteristics.

Endoplasmic reticulum: It helps in the movement of material around the cell. It contains an enzyme that helps
in building molecules and in manufacturing of proteins. The main function of this organelle is storage and secretion.
Ribosome: It plays a vital role in protein synthesis.

Mitochondria: They are double membrane, filamentous organelles, which play a vital role in generating and
transforming the energy. Mitochondria play a vital role in various functions of the cell metabolisms including oxidative
phosphorylation.

Golgi Bodies: It helps in the movement of material within the cell.

Lysosomes: It is also called as suicidal bags as it helps in cell renewal and break down old cell parts.

Vacuoles: It helps plants in maintaining its shape and it also stores water, food, waste, etc.

Chloroplast: They are the site of photosynthesis, which are present in chlorophyll bacteria, blue- green algae, etc.

C. Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Cells

II. Structures and Functions of Biological molecules

1. Carbohydrates
- Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules.
They are often called sugars. Other carbohydrate molecules are very large (polysaccharides such as starch and
cellulose).

Carbohydrates are:

 a source of energy for the body e.g. glucose and a store of energy, e.g. starch in plants
 building blocks for polysaccharides (giant carbohydrates), e.g. cellulose in plants and glycogen in the human body

 components of other molecules e.g. DNA, RNA, glycolipids, glycoprotein, ATP

Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars. They are the building blocks from
which all bigger carbohydrates are made.

Glucose
Glucose is the most important carbohydrate fuel in human cells. Its concentration in the blood is about 1 gdm -3. The
small size and solubility in water of glucose molecules allows them to pass through the cell membrane into the cell.
Energy is released when the molecules are metabolised (C 6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O). This is part of the process
of respiration.

Two glucose molecules react to form the dissacharide maltose. Starch and cellulose are polysaccharides made up of
glucose units.

Galactose
Galactose molecules look very similar to glucose molecules. They can also exist in α and β forms. Galactose reacts with
glucose to make the dissacharide lactose.

Fructose
Fructose, glucose and galactose are all hexoses. However, whereas glucose and galactose are aldoses (reducing sugars),
fructose is a ketose (a non-reducing sugar). It also has a five-atom ring rather than a six-atom ring. Fructose reacts with
glucose to make the dissacharide sucrose.
Disaccharides
Monosaccharides are rare in nature. Most sugars found in nature are disaccharides. These form when two
monosaccharides react.

Polysaccharides
Monosaccharide can undergo a series of condensation reactions, adding one unit after another to the chain until very
large molecules (polysaccharides) are formed. This is called condensation polymerisation, and the building blocks are
called monomers. The properties of a polysaccharide molecule depend on:
 its length (though they are usually very long)
 the extent of any branching (addition of units to the side of the chain rather than one of its ends)

 any folding which results in a more compact molecule

 whether the chain is 'straight' or 'coiled'

Starch
Starch is often produced in plants as a way of storing energy. It exists in two forms: amylose and amylopectin. Both are
made from α-glucose. Amylose is an unbranched polymer of α-glucose. The molecules coil into a helical structure. It
forms a colloidal suspension in hot water. Amylopectin is a branched polymer of α-glucose. It is completely insoluble in
water.

Glycogen
Glycogen is amylopectin with very short distances between the branching side-chains. Starch from plants is hydrolysed in
the body to produce glucose. Glucose passes into the cell and is used in metabolism. Inside the cell, glucose can be
polymerised to make glycogen which acts as a carbohydrate energy store.

Cellulose
Cellulose is a third polymer made from glucose. But this time it's made from β-glucose molecules and the polymer
molecules are 'straight'.
2. Lipids

- Lipids are important constituent of the diet because they are a source of high energy value. Lipids are also
important because of the fat-soluble vitamins, and essential fatty acids found in the fat of the natural food stuffs. Body fat
serves as a very good source of energy, it is stored in adipose tissues. They also act as insulating material in the
subcutaneous tissues and are also seen around certain organs. Lipids combined with proteins are important constituents
of the cell membranes and mitochondria of the cell. Lipids are not generally macromolecules.

Lipids are naturally occurring organic compounds, commonly known as oils and fats. Lipids occur throughout the living
world in microorganisms, higher plants and animals and also in all cell types. Lipids contribute to cell structure, provide
stored fuel and also take part in many biological processes.

3. Proteins

- are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins
perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA
replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one
another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and
which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.
Most proteins fold into unique 3-dimensional structures.
Primary structure: the amino acid sequence. A protein is a polyamide.

Secondary structure: regularly repeating local structures stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The most common
examples are the α-helix, β-sheet and turns. Because secondary structures are local, many regions of different
secondary structure can be present in the same protein molecule.

Tertiary structure: the overall shape of a single protein molecule; the spatial relationship of the secondary
structures to one another. Tertiary structure is generally stabilized by nonlocal interactions, most commonly the
formation of a hydrophobic core, but also through salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, and
even posttranslational modifications. The term "tertiary structure" is often used as synonymous with the term fold.
The tertiary structure is what controls the basic function of the protein.

Quaternary structure: the structure formed by several protein molecules (polypeptide chains), usually
called protein subunits in this context, which function as a single protein complex.

1. Enzymes

-One of the main functions of proteins in the human body is to act as an enzyme–a catalyst that increases the rate of
chemical reactions. Enzymes increase the rate of the thousands of reactions in the body without being consumed or
altered. The orientation of the amino acids forming the protein chain determines the specific activity of the enzyme.
Some enzymes consist of the protein along with other cofactors, like metalions, or coenzymes like vitamins, needed to
activate the enzyme. Enzymes are a specific type of protein that enable biochemical reactions in the body. These
reactions may occur without enzymes, but enzymes make the reactions happen faster. Many different types of reactions
in the body are driven by the action of enzymes, which affect breathing, digestion and nervous system functions.
Enzymes are also critical to metabolism, a series of biochemical reactions that turn food into energy.

2. Hormones.

-Some hormones are also proteins. Hormones regulate growth and development and are crucial during puberty. They
affect fertility by regulating the menstrual cycle and production of sperm. Hormones also regulate muscle mass, hair
growth, metabolism and even mood. Hormone levels change throughout life and help regulate the aging process, from
childhood to adulthood to the later stages of life.

3. Antibodies

-Antibodies are another type of protein essential to human health .Antibodies are a major component of the immune
system and help fight infections caused by bacteria and viruses. The immune system produces many different antibodies,
each with a slightly different structure that allows it to recognize a specific type of bacteria, virus or other type of
invading organism. Once an antibody recognizes and binds to an invading germ, it signals the immune system to destroy
the invader.

4. Digestive Enzyme

-Breakdown nutrients, in food into small pieces that can be absorbed.

5 .Messenger

-Transmit signals to coordinate biological processes between different cells, tissues and organs.

7 4. Enzyme

Enzymes are very efficient catalysts for biochemical reactions. They speed up reactions by providing an alternative
reaction pathway of lower activation energy.

Like all catalysts, enzymes take part in the reaction - that is how they provide an alternative reaction pathway. But they do
not undergo permanent changes and so remain unchanged at the end of the reaction. They can only alter the rate of
reaction, not the position of the equilibrium.

Most chemical catalysts catalyse a wide range of reactions. They are not usually very selective. In contrast enzymes are
usually highly selective, catalyzing specific reactions only. This specificity is due to the shapes of the enzyme molecules.

Many enzymes consist of a protein and a non-protein (called the cofactor). The proteins in enzymes are usually globular.
The intra- and intermolecular bonds that hold proteins in their secondary and tertiary structures are disrupted by changes
in temperature and pH. This affects shapes and so the catalytic activity of an enzyme is pH and temperature sensitive.

Cofactors may be:

 organic groups that are permanently bound to the enzyme (prosthetic groups)
 cations - positively charged metal ions (activators), which temporarily bind to the active site of the enzyme, giving
an intense positive charge to the enzyme's protein

 organic molecules, usually vitamins or made from vitamins (coenzymes), which are not permanently bound to the
enzyme molecule, but combine with the enzyme-substrate complex temporarily.

5. Nucleic Acids

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed
of nucleotides, which are monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and
a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a simple ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from
ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. They are found in abundance in all living things, where
they function to create and encode and then store information in the nucleus of every living cell of every life-
form organism on Earth. In turn, they function to transmit and express that information inside and outside the cell
nucleus—to the interior operations of the cell and ultimately to the next generation of each living organism. The
encoded information is contained and conveyed via the nucleic acid sequence, which provides the 'ladder-step'
ordering of nucleotides within the molecules of RNA and DNA.

III. Organismal Biology

Organismal biology, the study of structure, function, ecology and evolution at the level of the organism, provides a rich
arena for investigation on its own, but also plays a central role in answering conceptual questions about both ecology
and evolution. Organisms connect ecology, physiology, and behavior to the fields of comparative genomics, evolutionary
development, and phylogenetic.

A. Plant Organ System and their Functions

A plant has two organ systems:


1) Shoot system
The shoot system is above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers (if the plant has any),
and fruits (if the plant has any).
2) Root system
The root system includes those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes.
A. Animal Organ System and their Functions

The Respiratory System


All cells need oxygen, the crucial ingredient for extracting energy from organic compounds. Animals
obtain oxygen from their environment with their respiratory systems: the lungs of land-dwelling vertebrates
gather oxygen from the air, the gills of ocean-dwelling vertebrates filter oxygen from the water, and the
exoskeletons of invertebrates facilitate the free diffusion of oxygen (from the water or the air) into their bodies.
Equally important, the respiratory systems of animals excrete carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolic
processes that would be fatal if allowed to accumulate in the body.
The Circulatory System
Once their respiratory systems obtains oxygen, vertebrate animals supply this oxygen to their cells via
their circulatory systems, networks of arteries, veins and capillaries that carry oxygen-containing blood
cells to every cell in their bodies. (The circulatory systems of invertebrate animals are much more
primitive; essentially, their blood diffuses freely throughout their much smaller body cavities.) The
circulatory system in higher animals is powered by the heart, a densely packed mass of muscle that
beats millions of times throughout a creature's lifetime.

The Nervous System


The nervous system is what enables animals to send, receive, and process nerve and sensory impulses, as well
as to move their muscles. In vertebrate animals, this system can be divided into three main components: the
central nervous system (which includes the brain and spinal cord), the peripheral nervous system (the smaller
nerves that branch off from the spinal cord and carry nerve signals to distant muscles and glands), and the
autonomic nervous system (which controls involuntary actions such as heartbeat and
digestion). Mammals possess the most advanced nervous systems, while those of invertebrates are much more
rudimentary.
The Digestive System
Digestive system– (oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus)
Breaks down food to be absorbed and eliminates indigestible waste.

The Endocrine System


Endocrine system– (gland, pituitary gland, pineal thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis)
Glands from the endocrine system secrete hormones that regulate many processes like growth, metabolism,
and reproduction.
The Reproductive System
MALE (prostate gland, penis, testis, scrotum, ductus deferens)

FEMALE (Mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube)

The main function of the reproductive system is to produce offspring. Sex hormone and sperm are produced by the male
testes. Male ducts and glands help deliver the sperm. Ovaries produce female sex hormones and eggs. Other female
reproductive structures serve as sites of fertilization and development. For instance, the mammary glands produce milk
for the newborn.

The Muscular System


Muscular system– (skeletal muscles) Maintains posture and produces movement (locomotion). Produces heat.

The Skeletal (Support) System


Skeletal system– (bones, joints) Supports and protects the body’s organs. Provides a framework muscles use
(movement). Bones also store minerals and create blood cells.
The Urinary System
Urinary system– (kidney, ureter, urinary, urethra y bladder) eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body.
Regulates acid-base, electrolyte and WATER balance of blood.

The Integumentary System


Integumentary system– (skin, hair, nails) Forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from
injury. Houses cutaneous receptors, sweat glands, oil glands, and synthesizes vitamin D.
Feedback Mechanism

Feedback Mechanism: It is the general mechanism of nervous or hormonal control and regulation in Human.
Negative feed-back mechanism
The receptors (sensory cells) present on the body of vertebrates constantly monitors the reference point of internal
environment. Any changes in the internal environment can activate the receptor cells, which relay messages to the
control center (Brain or spinal cord). The control center determines the deviation and activates the effectors. Effectors
are generally muscles or glands. The effectors respond to the stimulus and corrects the reference point either by
increasing or decreasing the activities. As soon as the system is corrected, the control center and effectors are turned off
by the mechanism called Negative feed-back.
In negative feed-back mechanism, changes occurring in the system automatically activate the corrective mechanism,
which reverse the changes and bring back the system to the normal. The principle of thermostat is analog to the
Negative feed-back mechanism. In thermostat, when the temperature exceeds the normal ranges, the receptor detects
the changes and signals the control center of thermostat to turn off the heating plate, allowing the thermostat to cool
down. When the thermostat cool down below the set point, it turn ON the heating plates, so the temperature starts rise
again.

Positive feed-back mechanism


Positive feedback mechanism causes destabilizing effects in the body, so does not results in homeostasis. It is mainly
responsible for amplification of the changes caused by the stimulus.
Positive feedback is relatively less common than negative feedback, since it leads to unstable condition and extreme
state. Most positive feedback mechanisms are harmful and in some cases resulting in death. For example, if a person
breathes air that has very high carbon dioxide content. The amount of oxygen in blood decreases while the
concentration of carbon-dioxide in blood increases. This is sensed by carbon dioxide receptors, which cause the
breathing rate to increase. So the person breathes faster, taking in more carbon dioxide, which stimulates the receptors
even more, so they breathe faster and faster which ultimately results in death.

IV. Genetics

Inborn errors of metabolism

Inborn errors of metabolism are rare genetic (inherited) disorders in which the body cannot properly turn food
into energy. The disorders are usually caused by defects in specific proteins (enzymes) that help break down
(metabolize) parts of food.

A food product that is not broken down into energy can build up in the body and cause a wide range of
symptoms. Several inborn errors of metabolism cause developmental delays or other medical problems if they
are not controlled.
There are many different types of inborn errors of metabolism.
A few of them are:
 Fructose intolerance
 Galactosemia
 Maple sugar urine disease (MSUD)
 Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Diagram about the Evolution of a Domesticated Crop