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I chose this lab report as a work sample because it was my final lab report from taking the course

BISC207 and I am proud of the work that I produced. This lab report cultivated every aspect of a
lab report that we had been learning how to write throughout the semester and this sample shows
a lot of growth from the beginning of the course.
Throughout this lab report I learned how to successfully write a lab report, a skill that would be
important for the rest of my time as an undergraduate student. I spent a lot of time working on
this lab report and I also learned how to manage my time and pace myself when I have a time-
consuming project to finish.
Effects of Temperature on Fermentation Rates of Glucose Solution
by
Hannah E. Cote
BISC207-054
November 6th, 2017
Introduction

Fermentation is an anaerobic metabolic process that occurs to break down organic molecules and

occurs when exposed to the right environmental factors. In this experiment, glucose was

fermented using yeast. Yeast replenishes ATP by breaking down organic molecules in cellular

respiration reactions. (Nauen, Kasprzak, 2016). In respiring cells, fermentation is used as a

backup to produce ATP when the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation is shut

down. Fermentation occurs in the cytosol of cells when an electron chain transport chain is not

present or is inactive because of lack of oxygen. The eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae is

used to make yeast, and in this experiment, reactions occur to convert pyruvate to an

acetaldehyde compound. This reaction gives off carbon dioxide, and in this experiment, it is

what is measured to determine the reaction productivity (Allison, 2017).

If the glucose solution is placed in an environment with higher temperatures, there will be a

higher rate of fermentation because it is a more ideal environment for fermentation and the

enzymes will be able to catalyze the reactions more quickly. This is because enzymes have

optimal temperature ranges where they function best at. With the enzymes in this yeast and

glucose reaction, the data was recorded to analyze at which temperatures the fermentation

reactions occurred best. The experiment is being done to determine which temperature is the

optimal temperature range.

Methods

This experiment used several water baths to create fermentation systems that were set up with

the same solution of glucose, so the fermentation rates could be compared with different

temperatures. The glucose solution was used because in previous experimenting, the protein did
not successfully ferment. There was no usable data with the protein solution fermentation, so for

this experiment the glucose was isolated as the sole solution to experiment and record accurate

data. The water baths were set up with distilled water, and set to the pre-determined

temperatures. Three vials were to be tested in water baths set at temperatures at 30, 40, and 50

degrees Celsius. In each of the three vials, 10mL of a yeast solution was placed in each using a

green pi-pump pipette. Then, each vial was filled with glucose to the brim of the vial. By

holding each vial upright, a slightly larger vial was placed upside down over top of it, and then

each vial was inverted so the original, smaller vial filled with the solutions was upside down.

Each vial was placed into a vial rack, so the vials stood upright in the water baths. The water

baths were set to their designated temperatures and then time passed until the thermometers read

the right time. The vials were checked periodically and then at the end of 50 minutes or until the

vial is filled 50% gas, the vials will be taken out. None of the vials ever reached 50% gas

accumulation, so the vials were in the water baths for the full 50 minutes. The gas columns will

be recorded and compared with the other temperatures (Nauen, Kasprzak, 2016).

Results

Temperature of Water Bath and Gas Column Height from Fermentation


Temperature (C) Gas Column Height (centimeters)

30 1.2cm

40 1.8cm

50 4.7cm

Figure 1: This table shows the recordings of each measurement, the height of the gas columns in
centimeters from the three vials and their corresponding temperature, recorded in Celsius.
Temperature vs. Gas Accumulation from Fermentation
5 4.7

4.5
y = 0.175x - 4.4333
Height of Gas Column (cm)

4
3.5
3
2.5
1.8
2
1.5 1.2

1
0.5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Degrees in Celsius

Figure 2: The temperature of water baths is shown with their recorded gas column heights is
shown in a more visual representation, the column heights are recorded in centimeters of gas in
each of the vials.

The trendline for the graph was y=0.175x – 4.4333. Understanding that there cannot be a

negative measurement of gas accumulation, when the temperature is 0 degrees Celsius the gas

column will not be -4.433 centimeters tall. This is a slight inaccuracy when evaluating the results

of the experiment, but can approximately estimate the values of what the gas accumulation might

record at between the temperatures of 30 and 50 degrees Celsius. These results were recorded by

using a ruler and measuring from the bottom of the gas column to the top. Another factor to

consider is the fact that there is one point where the gas column will reach its maximum. This is

because once all the glucose is fermented, there will not be any more reactions to occur. This

experiment did not calculate the maximum glucose, so the highest possible y value cannot be

determined, but it could be found in a further experiment.


Discussion

Looking at the data recorded from the experiment, there is a clear correlation between

temperature and gas accumulation. The hypothesis was supported because the higher the

temperature of the water bath, the higher fermentation rate because the gas accumulated in a

quicker time. From the data recorded, when the temperature of the water bath was set at 30

degrees Celsius then the gas accumulation was 1.2 centimeters. This measurement was also

recorded after the full 50 minutes of allotted time had passed, meaning that the fermentation was

most likely not finished. It can be concluded from the quantitative data from the vial, 1.2cm, and

the qualitative data, looking at the vial, that the glucose could have been fermented longer.

However, this experiment was just measuring the gas accumulation after 50 minutes for every

vial used. Comparing this data point to the next vial at 40 degrees Celsius which accumulated 1.8

centimeters of gas, the glucose solution in the water bath at the higher temperature had a faster

fermentation rate. This means that the solution could ferment quicker because when the yeast

was in the environment that was warmer, the gas accumulated in a shorter time than when the

environment was cooler. When the glucose solution was placed in a vial in a water bath at 50

degrees Celsius, the time that the glucose took to ferment was even shorter. The data of the gas

columns at 40 degrees vs. 50 degrees was significant. There was an increase of 2.9cm from

1.8cm to 4.7cm. This was a large increase, so it can be assumed that the ideal environment for

the fermentation to occur is high in the 40s near 50 degrees Celsius. The graph of the data shows

a positive trend because when the temperature is increased, the columns of gas accumulated also

increases.

The data can be compared to another experiment conducted measuring the CO2 production of

glucose fermentation at different temperatures. This study, “A Kinetic Study of the Fermentation
of Cane Sugar Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae” correlates with the data that was found in our

experiment. From 30 degrees to 36 degrees Celsius, the rate of fermentation increased.

However, in this experiment the enzymes started to denature at 38 degrees Celsius, which is a

lower temperature than this conducted experiment. In the data collected, the water baths were not

set higher than 50 degrees Celsius so a temperature at which the enzymes denatured was not

found (Felix, E., Clara, O., and Vincent, A., 2014).

Figure 3: Effect of temperature on fermentation rate using 50 (v/v%) subtrate, yeast 1.0 (w/v%),
and pH 5.0 from “A Kinetic Study of the Fermentation of Cane Sugar Using Saccharomyces
cerevisiae”.

Limitations to the data include variance in the temperatures. Due to a lack of time to conduct the

experiment, the temperatures were approximated more than they could have been. The

temperatures were measured using a thermometer. To get a more accurate temperature, an

electronic thermometer could be used to get the temperature down to the decimal. To conduct

this experiment with more accurate results, a LoggerPro computer system could be used to
record the fermentation rates instead of measuring the gas accumulation columns by measuring

with a ruler. This would measure the rates more efficiently and a graph could be produced of the

fermentation rates vs. temperature.


References

Allison, Lizabeth. Biological Science. Hoboken: Pearson Higher Education; 2017.

E. Felix, O. Clara and A. Vincent, "A Kinetic Study of the Fermentation of Cane Sugar Using
Saccharomyces cerevisiae," Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 26-31.
doi: 10.4236/ojpc.2014.41005.

Nauen, J. and Kasprzak, M. 2016. Introductory Biology I Laboratory Manual. Macmillan


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