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EC ENGR132B-HW Set #2 Prof.

Izhak Rubin

Problem 1
Suppose users share a 2.4 Mbps communication link. Also suppose that the traffic
generation process of each user alternates (independently of the other users) between
periods of activity (active modes) when the user generates data at a constant rate of
300 Kbps and periods of inactivity (inactive mode) when the user generates no data.
Suppose further that the user is active (independent of other users) only 10 percent
of the time.

(1) When fixed-assigned time division multiplexing (TDM) is used to allocate re-
sources on the shared link, how many users can be supported?

(2) Given that your answer obtained in (1) is equal to X. Suppose now that users
are supported by a communications channel which is shared on a statistical
multiplexing manner. Assume that the communications channel is used to sup-
port a number of users that is 5 times the number of users supported under
the fixed-assigned TDM operation. Use normal distribution to approximate the
probability that more than X users are simultaneously active.

Problem 2
For the Gaussian distribution with mean µ and variance σ 2 , find the moment
generating function. Using the moment generating function, calculate the mean and
the variance. (Hint: The probability density function for a Gaussian random variable
X with mean µ and variance σ 2 is given by
!
1 (x − µ)2
fX (x) = √ exp − .
2πσ 2 2σ 2

Problem 3
Consider the following probability density function:

λe−λ|x|
fX (x) = , ∀x ∈ (−∞, ∞),
2
where λ > 0.

(a) Calculate the mean directly.

(b) Calculate the variance directly.

(c) Find the moment generating function.

(d) Find the mean and the variance from the moment generating function.

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EC ENGR132B-HW Set #2 Prof. Izhak Rubin

Problem 4
A coin is flipped until at least a head occur and at least two tails occur. Define
three random variables X, Y , Z to be the trial numbers at which the first head, the
first tail, and the second tail are observed, respectively. Assume that at any trial, the
probability that a head occurs is p ∈ (0, 1). Let q = 1 − p.

(a) Find the joint probability P (X = m, Y = n, Z = r).


P
(b) Verify that your answer in (a) is valid by checking P (X = m, Y = n, Z =
m,n,r
r) = 1.

(c) Calculate P (Z < X) using the joint probability derived in (a).

Problem 5
Two DTEs are communicating via modems and RS-232C interfaces over a half
duplex link. Data transmission is one directional with each message of length M .
After a message is transmitted, the sender waits for a CTS message of length na before
sending another message. Assume error-free operation and the following parameter
values:

• R (line bit rate) = 10 Kbps

• M (message length) = 1500 bits (all data bits)

• nh (overhead in each message packet) = 20 bits

• na (acknowledgement length) = 20 bits

• tp (propagation time in one direction) = 2 msec

Minimum transition time between states (1,2) and (1,0) (CTS delay) is equal to
10 msec at message transmitting end, and 20 msec at message receiving end (CTS
transmitting end). All other delays during message transmission and reception are
assumed to be negligible. For the stated conditions, determine the effective data rate
in bps.