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Gas Shielded Welding Processes

Gas Metal Arc Welding


(GMAW)

Lecture 4 p1
Gas Metal Arc Welding (

Process Fundamentals

• In GMAW the welding heat sour~ is an arc maintained-


between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece
• The weld is formed by melting and solidification of the
joint edges together with filler material transferred from
the electrode
• An flow of inert gas shields the high-temperature arc and
weld pool from reactions with the surrounding
atmosphere

4 p2
GMAW Process Fundamentals
Electrode
Shielding Gas In


Direction
of Travel

/GaSNOZZle
CONSUMABLE
ELECTRODE GAS
_~~~~,~/ SHIELD

BaseMetal~
A~£P~ Metal

Lecture 4 p:
GMAW Metal Transfer Modes (

• Short Circuiting or "Dip" Transfer


• Globular Transfer
• Spray Transfer
• Pulsed or Synergic Transfer

I
,

p4
GMAW Short Circuiting Transfer

II
(.) ZE~Rn=O==~---~:::=====~------=~-_' - Time
z
o ARCING PERIOD
E

II n
7ize'iiR
~ I
o ---rTTl'-.--.---.-i::=------

Lecture 4 p~
GMAW Globular Transfer Mode (
GAS NOZZLE

p~ELECTRODE
( I r~
I(~L -

I I I I I
'" (AI
R
R-Anode reaction
P-Electromagnetic
"pinch" force

I
{~(~
I I
g I
j
\..
V
IB)

p6
GMAW Spray Transfer
Variation in volume and rate of drop transfer with welding current
300 15.10·'

.
"- ,•• 20

§
0..
I
I 1/16 in. (1.6 mm)
~
~
~
~

E
0 200 DROP I 10 .S E
II:
0 VOLUME I MILD STEEL W 15
W
a! I ELECTRODE. DCRP ::E ::E
...
w 3
~
I ARGON-I% OXYGEN 0
'"z TRANSITIO~
SHIELDING GAS >
~
10

...~0
1/4 in. (6.4 mm)
100 CURRENT I ARC LENGTH 5 a.. ~
0..
0 0
II:
W c 5 ~
i
0 0 0
0 100 200 300 400 600 600
CURRENT, A

Lecture 4 p
GMAW Spray Transfer (

p8

~---~- - - -
GMAW Pulsed Transfer
PULSE PEAK CURRENT SPRAY TRANSFER

«
-,--------
PULSE
TRANSITION
2
3
CURRENT RANGE
- --------
4
GLOBULAR .
5 TRANSFj;R.
1-' CURRENT CURRENT
zUJ RANGE
1
a:
a:
:J 1 2 3 4 5
u

~U~~U
BACKGROUND CURRENT

TIME

• Pulse frequency and amplitude determine wire melting rate


• "Synergic" control automatically gives the optimum pulse
conditions for a given wire feed rate

Lecture 4 p'
GMAW Welding Procedures (

• Process Variables
- Welding current (electrode melting rate)
- Polarity
- Arc voltage (length)
- Travel speed
- Electrode extension
- Electrode size
- Shielding gas composition

4 p10
GMAW Electrode Melting Rate

-
.-
C 800 20 C
E
c
cLLI
LLI 500
700

600
- E
E
-15 C
-
.-

W
w
a..
en 0-
cLLI 400 10 en
cW
LLI 300
U. W
I&.
LLI 200 5 W
0::
~ 100 -3a:::
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

WELDING CURRENT (A)

Lecture 4 pl
GMAW Torch Geometry (

Nozzle

Contact Tube to Electrode Extension


Work Distance
I \
,; \, Arc Length
I \
.---'-- 'rL------,

p12
GMAW Consumables

• Electrode composition is usually similar to


desired weld metal composition with ad9itional
deoxidizers e.g. Si, AI, Ti
• Electrodes are covered by AWS and other
specifications
- Carbon steel electrodes AWS A 5.18.

• Shielding Gases
- Various shielding gases are used depending on metal
being welded and desired transfer mode
- Principally Ar, C02 and mixtures of Ar-G02, 02 or He
- Several commercial "brand-name" compositions

Lecture 4 pt
GMAW TlPical Welding Procedures (

Carbon Steel

pz ??
R
zzJl/fl ??
zzl T
'Q
~eM+F
~~-
~R
A B C

p14
GMAW Welding Equipment

ELECTRODE SuPPLY Shielding


~as
Supply

Welding Gun

Workpiece
(j) WOAK WoO @ CABLEA&SEMIM.Y
(i) WA1eATOQU.I <i> 8HElDING OM FROM cvt.HJER
() WATERFAONQUN ~ WELlllNO OOHTACl'OA CONTflOl
@ GUNSWfTCH CIACUT '" PCMEA CAaE
<!> SHfElDlNG GAS TO GUN ® """"""'H'UTPOWER

Lecture 4 P 1!
GMAW Welding Gun (

WIRE CONOUIT
SHIELDING GAS PATH
ELECTRODE INPUT WATER LINE
Q
o

WATERCHAMBER~~~~'--­
CONTACT TIP
CONTROL
GAS NOZZLE POWER BLOCK SWITCH POWER CABlE!
RETURN WATER

4 p16
GMAW Applications

• Aluminum alloys, copper/bronze, magnesium.


titanium, austenitic stainless steels, nickel
alloys
• Sheet metal fabrication (short circuit mode)
- eg automotive, appliance, light structures

• General structural fabrication (spray/pulsed


mode)
• High production, mechanised and robotic
welding

Lecture 4 p17
GMAW Mechanized Application (

Field welds in oil/gas transmission pipelines

Weld preparation
and bead sequence

P 18
. . . .__.. . _--.. .-----.. .
.;.,;,0; Uk ~.U;6lJ
----------""J----------'-~~"'<.c
.1Mf; Ii i!CI : .

GMAW: Mechanized Applications


Transfer Flask Shielded Workstation

r.w,:=-Welding guns & seam trackef

Spent Fuel Bay


Fuel cominer
.J
Cover seal welded
~.,.,
o A/
Undelwaler
loading station

after loading
i i '"X:.<'""''''
",52
"'X>
Fuel Bundles '. j-,/, .
,.- '-{".

Lecture 4 p19
(
GMAW: Mechanized applications
Shielded station wall

Welding guns mounted on


automatic seam trackers
I'" IIr~~+---f:+----"
TV Camera -+ ,-+1-----.!::,~J--' fl"----'
1...... 1 Wire
I I feeder
Shielding
1 1 Gas
I", 1
I" I
L---liI---+ I Control
"'-1 Panel
1 ~--,

I
L-----1r----'IC""
I

L------ft----t-"......
l
lop

~
\
1
o Video mon~or

p20
_ _ _ _. . . ._ ......... . . . ._ .......... nl"il"" ~ __ ~ · "

Process Control
Component Status

SEAM
Weld overlap
,
Cycle start
Weld Cycle TIme

,
Cycle end

Tracking
TRACKER
Drive In/Out
Idle

Motion
TURNTABLE
Idle

Welding Current
waDING
EQUIPMENT Shield gas flow
Idle

Lecture 4 P21
GMAW Capabilities & Limitations (

+ Applicable to range of - Complex equipment


metals and and set up _
thicknesses • Wire feeding can
+ Higher production be temperamental
rates than SMAW or - Less portable than
GTAW SMAW
+ No flux or slag - Gas shield sensitive to
residues air currents
+ Adaptable to manual
or mechanized/robotic
applications

p22
WELDING PROCESSES

GAS TUNGSTEN ARC


WELDING
(GTAW)

Lecture 4 p23
GTAW: Process Fundamentals (

• In GTAW the welding heat source is an arc


maintained between a non-consumable
tungsten electrode and the workpiece
• Inert gas shields the arc and weld zone from
atmospheric contamination
• Filler need not always be added (autogenous
welding)
• Filler if required is added to the weld pool in the
form of wire or rod.

4 p24
GTAW: Process Fundamentals

• DIRECTION OF
WELDING

SHIELDING
GAS IN

I NON-CONSUMABLE
TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE

ARC SOUDIFIED
WELD METAL

Lecture 4 p25,
GTAW: Process Variables (

• Welding current
- DC, pulsed DC, high frequency pulsation, AC, variable
polarity AC -

• Arc length (Voltage)


• Weld travel speed
• Oscillation
• Filler addition
• Shielding gas composition & flow rate
- generally Ar or He or mixtures.

P 26
GTAW: Current Polarity

• DCEP is mostly used


- approx 70% of heat produced at anode (workpiece)

• DCEN used to disperse tenacious surface


oxides when welding AI, Mg
• AC also used in AI welding
- variable polarity pulsed AC

Lecture 4
GTAW: Effect of Polarity (

e4 p28

----~-
- .. _ - ._ _- ._ _--_.. _--------- ---------_._-----~
..-,

GTAW: Arc Voltage


ARC LENGTH
TUNGSTEN ARC.
30 - - 0.08 in. (2 mm)
ALUMINUM
- 0.16 in. (4 mm) -
> 25

C)
<{
~
20
, HELIUM
~
0
> 15
u
a:
'...
.--!lo-"'~d"

<{
10

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
ARC CURRENT, A

Lecture 4 P 2~
Pulsed GTAW (PGTAW) (

pulse duration 0.1 - 1sec


Peak
~ r--
~ooIt.< current

".I'~
"O.IL
I "'...... Background
- '--- '-- --l::-.......J-+-'>..--L.. current

TIME

Pulsed DC advantages:
,f Greater penetration for given average current
,f Minimizes heat affected zone & distortion

,f Improved capability to weld in all positions

,4 P 30
GTAW: Gas backing

Lecture 4 p3'
GTAW: Pipe internal purge (

GAS INLET PURGE GAS


OUTLET
!!::~~~~====~--BAFFLE

PIPE WELD JOINT

,4 P 32
GTAW Equipment Schematic

TORCH ELECTRICAL
CONDUCTOR

POWER
ARC SOURCE

Lecture 4 p3::
GTAWTorch (

POWER CONDUCTOR ...

COOLING WATER IN/OUT ~1Sl '"

SHIELDING GAS INLET

/
HANDLE

SHIELDING GAS OUTLET- ---.......

TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE:- _

4 p34
Mechanized GTAW Applications
• Mechanization of
- weld head travel motions
- wire feed (if required)
- process controls: start/stop sequence, weld current profile,
shielding gas flow, etc

• Typical applications: Pipe, tube, tube-tubesheet


welding, longitudinal welds in formed tubes.
• Advantages of mechanization
-Increased productivity
- reduced weld defect rates
- shorter joint completion times
- reduced need for skilled labour

Lecture 4 p35
Hot Wire GTAW (

HIGH SPEED FILLER


AUX. WIRE FEEDER
SHIELDING "-.~
GAS •
CON~\ GTAW
TUBE---~ TORCH
AC HOT DC
WIRE GTAW
POWER ~.:=- .. POWER

HEATED
WIRE

4 P 36
GTAW Deposition Rates
20 9
HOT WIRE WITH
'C
.c
18 OSCILLATION~,/ / . 8
:0 16
:::::;.
14
, 7
W
,," 6
~ 12
, ,, 5 ...
,,
Z 10
HOTWlRE
.c
0 8 4~

"
I- COLD WIRE 3
,
-
I
(/) 6
\
I
0 2
a..

--
4
w 1
0 2
0 0
2 4 6 8 10
ARC ENERGY (kW)

Lecture 4 P 37
Narrow-Gap GTAW (

Special Narrow-Gap.
v.::::.-..~Torch

Narrow-Gap Joint
~.Lh4- Preparation

4 p38
GTAW Capabilities & Limitations
+ Superior quality - Low deposition rates
welds free from flux - Higher welder_ skill
residues or spatter required in manual
+ Excellent control of processes
penetration - Gas shielding
+ Applicable to almost sensitive to air
all metals currents
+ Adaptable to manual
or precision
mechanized
applications

Lecture 4 p39