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# Cambridge​ ​IGCSE​ ​Chemistry

## Topic​ ​4:​ ​Stoichiometry

The​ ​mole​ ​concept

Notes

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(Extended​ ​only)​ ​Define​ ​the​ ​mole​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Avogadro​ ​constant

● Chemical​ ​amounts​ ​are​ ​measured​ ​in​ ​moles​ ​(therefore​ ​it​ ​is​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of
substance).​ ​The​ ​symbol​ ​for​ ​the​ ​unit​ ​mole​ ​is​ ​mol.
o Mole​ ​=​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​substance
● The​ ​number​ ​of​ ​atoms,​ ​molecules​ ​or​ ​ions​ ​in​ ​a​ ​mole​ ​of​ ​a​ ​given​ ​substance​ ​is​ ​the
Avogadro​ ​constant:​ ​6.02​ ​x​ ​10​23​​ ​per​ ​mole.

(Extended​ ​only)​ ​Use​ ​the​ ​molar​ ​gas​ ​volume,​ ​taken​ ​as​ ​24dm3​ ​​ ​at​ ​room
temperature​ ​and​ ​pressure

● Equal​ ​amounts​ ​in​ ​mol.​ ​of​ ​gases​ ​occupy​ ​the​ ​same​ ​volume​ ​under​ ​the​ ​same
conditions​ ​of​ ​temperature​ ​and​ ​pressure​ ​(e.g.​ ​RTP)
● Volume​ ​of​ ​1​ ​mol.​ ​of​ ​any​ ​gas​ ​at​ ​RTP​ ​(room​ ​temperature​ ​and​ ​pressure:​ ​20˚C​ ​and​ ​1
atmosphere​ ​pressure)​ ​is​ ​24​ ​dm​3
● This​ ​sets​ ​up​ ​the​ ​equation:
Volume​ ​(dm​3​)​ ​of​ ​gas​ ​at​ ​RTP​ ​=​ ​Mol.​ ​x​ ​24
● Use​ ​this​ ​equation​ ​to​ ​calculate​ ​the​ ​volumes​ ​of​ ​gaseous​ ​reactants​ ​and​ ​products​ ​at
RTP

## (Extended​ ​only)​ ​Calculate​ ​stoichiometric​ ​reacting​ ​masses,​ ​volumes​ ​of​ ​gases

and​ ​solutions,​ ​and​ ​concentrations​ ​of​ ​solutions​ ​expressed​ ​in​ ​g/dm3​ ​​ ​and
mol/dm3​ ​​ ​(Calculations​ ​involving​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​limiting​ ​reactants
may​ ​be​ ​set.)

● You​ ​can​ ​convert​ ​between​ ​moles​ ​and​ ​grams​ ​by​ ​using​ ​this​ ​triangle:
o moles​ ​=​ ​mass​ ​÷​ ​formula​ ​mass
● You​ ​can​ ​work​ ​out​ ​the​ ​moles​ ​or​ ​volume​ ​of​ ​a​ ​gas​ ​at​ ​RTP​ ​using​ ​the
equation:
o volume​ ​=​ ​moles​ ​x​ ​24
o rearranged​ ​to:​ ​moles​ ​=​ ​volume​ ​÷​ ​24
● You​ ​can​ ​work​ ​out​ ​concentrations​ ​of​ ​solutions​ ​in​ ​g/dm​3​​ ​using​ ​the​ ​equation:
o concentration​ ​=​ ​mass​ ​of​ ​solute​ ​÷​ ​volume
● you​ ​can​ ​work​ ​out​ ​concentrations​ ​of​ ​solutions​ ​in​ ​mol/dm​3​​ using​ ​ ​the​ ​equation:
o concentration​ ​=​ ​moles​ ​of​ ​solute​ ​÷​ ​volume
● to​ ​convert​ ​between​ ​concentration​ ​in​ ​mol/dm​3​​ ​and​ ​g/dm​3​:
o mol/dm​3​​ ​→​ ​g/dm​3​​ ​multiply​ ​by​ ​Mr
o g/dm​3​​ ​→​ ​mol/dm​3​​ ​divide​ ​by​ ​Mr
● if​ ​you​ ​are​ ​given​ ​a​ ​reacting​ ​mass/volume/concentration​ ​and​ ​are​ ​asked​ ​to​ ​work
out​ ​the​ ​mass/volume/concentration​ ​of​ ​another​ ​reactant​ ​or​ ​a​ ​product:
o calculate​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​moles​ ​(use​ ​the​ ​appropriate​ ​equation​ ​from
above)

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o use​ ​the​ ​large​ ​numbers​ ​in​ ​the​ ​balanced​ ​equation​ ​to​ ​work​ ​out​ ​the​ ​mole
ratio​ ​(e.g.​ ​for​ ​the​ ​equation​ ​H​2​​ ​+​ ​Cl​2​​ ​→​ ​2HCl,​ ​one​ ​mole​ ​of​ ​H​2​​ ​reacts​ ​to​ ​form
2​ ​moles​ ​of​ ​HCl,​ ​so​ ​the​ ​mole​ ​ratio​ ​is​ ​1:2)
o use​ ​the​ ​mole​ ​ratio​ ​to​ ​work​ ​out​ ​how​ ​many​ ​moles​ ​of​ ​the​ ​other​ ​reactant​ ​or
product​ ​you​ ​have​ ​(in​ ​the​ ​example​ ​above,​ ​if​ ​you​ ​had​ ​2​ ​moles​ ​of​ ​H​2​,​ ​you
would​ ​make​ ​4​ ​moles​ ​of​ ​HCl)
o using​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​moles​ ​and​ ​the​ ​appropriate​ ​equation​ ​above,​ ​calculate
the​ ​mass/volume/concentration
● limiting​ ​reagents:
o in​ ​a​ ​reaction,​ ​often​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reactants​ ​will​ ​be​ ​a​ ​limiting​ ​reagent.​ ​This
means​ ​that​ ​this​ ​reactant​ ​will​ ​be​ ​used​ ​up​ ​first​ ​and​ ​will​ ​cause​ ​the​ ​reaction
to​ ​stop.
o in​ ​calculations,​ ​if​ ​given​ ​the​ ​mass/volume​ ​of​ ​a​ ​limiting​ ​reagent​ ​and
another​ ​reagent,​ ​you​ ​must​ ​use​ ​the​ ​mass/volume​ ​of​ ​the​ ​limiting​ ​reagent​.

## ● empirical​ ​formula​ ​from​ ​molecular​ ​formula:

o if​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​common​ ​multiple​ ​in​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​different​ ​elements​ ​in​ ​your
molecular​ ​formula,​ ​then​ ​divide​ ​by​ ​this​ ​number​ ​to​ ​give​ ​you​ ​the​ ​simplest
whole​ ​number​ ​ratio
o e.g.​ ​Fe​2​O​4​,​ ​common​ ​multiple​ ​is​ ​2,​ ​empirical​ ​formula​ ​is​ ​FeO​2
● Molecular​ ​formula​ ​from​ ​empirical​ ​formula​ ​and​ ​relative​ ​molecular​ ​mass:
o Find​ ​relative​ ​molecular​ ​mass​ ​of​ ​the​ ​empirical​ ​formula
o Divide​ ​relative​ ​molecular​ ​mass​ ​of​ ​compound​ ​by​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​empirical
formula
o If​ ​answer​ ​was​ ​2​ ​and​ ​the​ ​empirical​ ​formula​ ​was​ ​Fe​2​O​3​​ ​then​ ​the​ ​molecular
formula​ ​would​ ​be​ ​empirical​ ​formula​ ​x​ ​2​ ​=​ ​Fe​4​O​6

## (Extended​ ​only)​ ​Calculate​ ​percentage​ ​yield​ ​and​ ​percentage​ ​purity

Percentage​ ​yield​ ​=​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Amount​ ​of​ ​product​ ​produced​​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​x​ ​100
​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​Maximum​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​product​ ​possible
● It​ ​is​ ​not​ ​always​ ​possible​ ​to​ ​obtain​ ​the​ ​calculated​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​a​ ​product​ ​for​ ​3
reasons…
o Reaction​ ​may​ ​not​ ​go​ ​to​ ​completion​ ​because​ ​it​ ​is​ ​reversible
o Some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​product​ ​may​ ​be​ ​lost​ ​when​ ​it​ ​is​ ​separated​ ​from​ ​the​ ​reaction
mixture
o Some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​reactants​ ​may​ ​react​ ​in​ ​ways​ ​different​ ​to​ ​the​ ​expected
reaction
● Amount​ ​of​ ​product​ ​obtained​ ​is​ ​known​ ​as​ ​yield
● Percentage​ ​purity​ ​calculation
o Divide​ ​the​ ​mass​ ​of​ ​the​ ​pure​ ​substance​ ​by​ ​the​ ​mass​ ​of​ ​the​ ​sample,​ ​then
multiply​ ​this​ ​by​ ​100​ ​(you​ ​may​ ​have​ ​to​ ​use​ ​moles​ ​to​ ​find​ ​masses)

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