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Geology, Petrel and Static Modeling Training.

Topic 7a: Property Modeling.


Once the distribution of the facies has been completed and a basic assessment of the reservoirs
lateral Net to Gross, including Gross Rock and Net Rock volumes, has been completed the Static
Modeling process can move on to ‘property’ modeling.
Property modeling is the process of distributing a number of different properties (mainly) within
the ‘net reservoir’ in order to assess the lateral heterogeneity and resulting hydrocarbon distribution.
There are a number of properties that that are commonly distributed within the model including
Porosity, Permeability, and Water Saturation. The method of creating/distributing these properties is
different in each case.
The first property to distribute after facies modeling is porosity. We have already upscaled the
porosity in to the model (biased to facies) and as with facies modeling we need to assess the results of
the Upscaling of the porosity and ensure that the porosity within the model is representative of the
porosity in our wells. Data Analysis is undertaken on this upscaled porosity data, including variogram
analysis, and porosity value distribution to ensure that we have a good understanding of the porosity
within the reservoir zones.
Once assessed, the porosity is commonly distributed using only a single algorithm, this is
Sequential Gaussian Simulation. As with facies modeling a single seed (random) is selected (by the
algorithm) and porosity values are distributed within the model based on the porosity value distribution
from the well data, the variogram (connectivity), and any trends (LVA) we may consider appropriate.
This topic will cover Porosity Data Analysis, Porosity modeling (SGS), Average Porosity Maps,
porosity modeling results analysis, Pore Volume volumetrics and updating the Main Workflow.
Data Analysis
Familiarise yourself with the porosity distribution within the Diamond and Ruby Zones using
the Data Analysis window. What are the minimum, mean and maximum porosity values within the
sands in each zone?
► Process tab ►Property Modeling ► Data Analysis
► Select the PHIE property.
► Select the well data icon to analyse the porosity in the well data and NOT the upscaled
porosity in the upscaled cells.
► We do not need to analyse any porosity in the Upper & Lower Miocene as we are not
interested in these zones.
► Select the Diamond Zone.
► Condition to Facies ► Select the Adjusted_Facies property.
We are not going to model the porosity in the Shale rocktype as we know it is low and will not
contain hydrocarbons and ths do not need to do data analysis on this rocktype.
► Select Sand.
Porosity distribution – get a good understand of the porosity values you have in the Sand. Some
may be too low and some too high due to bad log data, bad hole, or incorrectly interpreted facies
resulting in some porosity being allocated to the wrong facies type.
► Click on ‘Normal Score’ ► Define curve ► Estimate. You will get an idea of the porosity
distribution.
► Change the ‘intervals’ to approximately the number of layers in the zone.
► Click the ‘fit’ icon to fit the blue line to the well porosity distribution. The blue line will be the
distribution of porosity that the SGS algorithm will use to distribute the porosity.
► Click the ‘smooth’ icon to smooth the distribution.
The data Analysis window should look something like this …..

You should have a porosity distribution for Diamond sands similar to the one below.

You can see that there are a lot of low porosity values. This are misrepresenting the sand as we believe
that the sand should have higher porosities. Is it recommended that we remove any low (or excessively high)
values when we are defining the distribution.
Data points can be removed using the ‘Input Truncation’ that will remove these specific data points. In
the Diamond Zone there are some low porosity value that we don’t want to use in the modeling.
► Click on Input truncation ► insert above the ‘Normal Score’ in the list
► Click on Minimum and Maximum ► Change the Minimum value to 0.09 which will be the minimum
porosity value we want to use in the distribution
► Click on ‘outside values undefined’.
► Click on ‘Normal Score’ again and the histogram no longer has the low porosity values.

► Click on Estimate and the Min value should change.


► Re-tie the blue porosity distribution to the histogram data ► Click Estimate ► Click Fit curve.
….. and again ► Click Estimate ► Click Fit curve. The Min and Max of the histogram will adjust to the
new porosity extremities.
The blue distribution curve will now be the porosity distribution that will be used when distributing the
porosity within the model.

Diamond Zone : Sand porosity distribution (Well Data)


Once you are satisfied with the distribution click on Apply.
► Complete the same analysis and truncation for the Ruby Zone.
Ruby Zone : Sand porosity distribution (Well Data)
Remember to ‘Apply’ and ‘Save’ your project regularly when doing the time consuming Data Analysis
tasks.
Variogram Analysis has to be completed on the porosity distribution. As with the facies analysis, we are
assessing the lateral and vertical connectivity of the porosity distribution.
How quickly does the porosity vary laterally and vertically within our dataset?
► Variogram Tab ► Diamond Zone ► Sand
Set the lag distances and Number of lags to the same values that you used when doing the Facies variogram
analysis. With the porosity specific to the sands one would NOT expect that the porosity variogram ranges to be
greater than the facies ranges. The ranges will be smaller (or the same)than the facies variogram ranges.
For simplicity we can use the same variograms that we used in the Facies modeling based on our
‘Geological concept’. With real datasets with large amounts of data this variogram analysis process has to be
completed accurately. In our case we already believe that we have specific fan trends, and also the LVA for
Diamond that we have created and we have removed any sand outside the fans using our fan regions.
Porosity Modeling
►Process Tab ►Property Modeling ►Petrophysical Modeling.
►Select the Porosity property. Ensure the Global Seed is greyed/faded out. We want a random seed.
Upper Miocene Zone ► unlock the zone ► Method for zone/facies ► Assign Values ► Constant 0.
Lower Miocene Zone ► unlock the zone ► Method for zone/facies ► Assign Values ► Constant 0.
Diamond Zone ► Facies ► Condition to Facies ► Adjusted_Facies property chosen.
► Shale ► Method for zone/facies ► Assign Values ► 0.
► Sand ► Method for zone/facies ► Gaussian ► Sequential Gaussian Simulation.
SGS Sequentially distributes porosity originating from a random seed, following the porosity distribution
determined in the data analysis window (blue line), the variograms, and the LVA trend Map.
► Select the Variogram and Distribution icons so as to use the analysis we have completed in the Data
Analysis process.
► Variogram Tab ► Local varying Azimuth ► Place the Diamond LVA map in here.
► Distribution seed Tab ► Seed ► click off
Nothing else needs to be changed at this stage.
Ruby Zone ► Facies ► Condition to Facies ► Adjusted_Facies property chosen.
► Shale ►Method for zone/facies ► Assign Values ►0.
► Sand ► Method for zone/facies ► Gaussian ►Sequential Gaussian Simulation.
► Select the Data Analysis Variogram porosity distribution usage icons.
► Variogram Tab ► I am not going to use the LVA for Ruby in my example.
► Distribution seed Tab ► Seed ► click off
Nothing else needs to be changed at this stage.
► Click OK and the porosity modeling will run for the model.
► Check the Message Log window.

QC Results (Visually, Data Analysis, Statistics, Histogram)


► Open a 3D window and an Intersection window.
► Assess the porosity distribution laterally and vertically in the two zones.
Check both Zones in Intersetion Window and 3D Window checking the porosity against the fan
polygons
► Now check the Data Analysis window.
► View the ‘grid’ data (will show as a histogram) against the blue well data distribution.

Diamond Sand porosity distribution : Wells = Blue, Model = histogram

Ruby Sand porosity distribution : Wells = Blue, Model = histogram


We can also view the porosity statistics in the settings window of the porosity property in the model tab,
however we have to filter out the shale facies in order to get a good idea of the porosity distribution in the sand
(Keep your 3D window open to see the changes)
► Properties ► RMB ► Show Settings ► Filter Tab ► Select the Facies property used
(Adjusted_Facies) ► Click use filter ► Click on sand ►Apply
The 3D window will now only show the porosity values within the sand facies.
► Properties ► PHIE ► RMB ► Show Settings Show Settings ► Statistics Tab
► Click on the ‘For Zone’ box to select your zone.
View the porosity distribution for all facies in the Diamond Zone.

► Click on the filter icon at the top of this Settings window.

In the filtered statistics we can see that the lowest porosity value in the sand is 7.51%
The filter has no effect in the Data Analysis window as the Data Analysis is only focusing on the Sand as
it is ‘conditioned to facies’.
Another way to assess the porosity modeling results is to use a Histogram Window.
► Histogram Window ► Select the PHIE Property in the Models tab/Properties
Check the porosity distribution in the Histogram window without the sand filter turned on. With the filter
off there are a lot of cells with 0 (zero), the Shale. Fewer cells with sand.
► Select the Diamond Zone and turn off the Ruby Zone in the grid.
► Turn the filter on again and see the effects
► Select specific Zones and analyse.
► Save your project in a new version.
► For documentation you would normally create an excel file with the min, max and mean porosity values
for each zone and each facies (but not shale) and compare the well data values and the model values. The
distribution and general trends should be the same as the well data.

QC Results (Average Porosity Maps)


Once we are satisfied with the porosity distribution statistics, or if we want to complete more analysis, we
can create an average porosity map for the Sands.
► Keep the Facies Filter on for Sand in the Adjusted_Facies property
► PHIE ► RMB ► Show Settings ► Operations ► Make Map from property
In this list there are a number of different way to achieve getting the average porosity, I prefer to do it
specific to a zone one zone at a time.

► Make Average Map ►Zone = Diamond ► Filter Button is on ► Run.


The Average porosity ‘object’ will be created in the input tab. Create a folder for the Porosity analysis
work.
Create a Map view to show the Diamond Average Porosity distribution.

Run the porosity modeling a number of times and create an Average Porosity Map each time and check
that when using different random seeds the Average Porosity Map create is OK. You can run these maps with or
without the Sand Filter on.

Update Workflow
With porosity modelled and results QC’d we can add this porosity modeling process to our workflow.
Make a copy of the current workflow, rename it and edit this one. This will leave you a copy of the unedited
workflow in case there is an issue with the editing.
► Edit the workflow so that it ONLY contains the Facies Modeling, Facies Region adjustments, Net
Gross creation (NOT Net Maps) and Volumetric calculation. No Loop at this point.
► Add in the Petrophysical Modeling process in to the workflow after the creation of the Net to Gross.
► Processes ► Property Modeling ► Petrophysical Modeling.
► Open the porosity workflow process and check all the settings are OK.
► Turn off the Volumetric Calculation.
Open a 3D Window, select the PHIE property, and run the workflow to check that it runs OK.
Like the Net Sand Maps we can create automated Average Porosity Maps and place them in the
appropriate directory.
► Operators ► Make map from property ► Make average Map ► Select the property and the Zone
► Add a set template and a ‘Move’ option.
The workflow should look something like this …….
► Run the workflow and check the Average Maps are located in the correct directory and look OK in a
Map view.
Volumetrics – Pore Volume
We can now assess the Pore Volume in the model based on different realisations.
► Ensure any facies filter is deselected in the property filter option.
► Turn on the Volume Calculation process in the workflow.
► Double click Volume Calculation to open and edit the process.
► Edit existing ► Select Pass1_Vol
► Select General Tab ► Click the ‘1’ OFF for the porosity property ► Select the PHIE Property.
► Settings Tab ► Turn off the ‘Make property’ for all properties.
► Remove any old Bulk/Net Volume properties in the grid under Properties.
► Report Settings ► Click on Pore Volume for output ► OK.

A new addition to this workflow we will restrict the volume calculation for each zone based on their
respective fan polygons.

► Boundaries Tab ► From the input tab in the main Petrel window select the Diamond Apron polygon,
then click the blue arrow. Do the same for the Ruby Apron polygon.
► Run the workflow.

Check the output spreadsheet for the Pore Volume values. If all is OK remove all the Old Volumetric
Cases apart from the PRIMARY CASE.
With the Volume calculation now working we need to update the workflow and run multiple loops and
move the cases in to this specific case folder.
Create a folder in the Cases Tab
► Cases Tab ► RMB ► Insert Folder in Tree ► Rename the folder to Pass 1
In the Workflow window reinsert the LOOPs to the workflow : ‘For Loop’ at the start and ‘End Loop’ at
the end.
Create a ‘move’ operation to move the created cases in to the specific folder.

► WF tab ►Utilities ►Housekeeping ►Move ►Blue Arrow


► Select the ‘output case’ variable from the variables list ►Blue Arrow and place in the 1st box.
► Select the directory where you want the cases written to ► Blue Arrow and place in the 2nd box.
Add in some Comments lines and Message lines in the workflow for good description ….

The Workflow should look something like this …….

► Set the loops to 10


► Clear the Message Log window
► Run the workflow and watch the Message Log. Look at the messages and the information.
► View the variations in Net Volume and Pore Volume in the Histogram windows for the realisations.
Adjust the Histogram windows and view each zone and within each of the fan polygons by changing
the setting in the ‘Results Tab’.
► Save your project in a new version.
You should have some results similar to these below for the Pore Volume for Diamond.
You should have some results similar to these below for the Pore Volume for Ruby.