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EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY NE T WORK

THIRD INTERNATIONAL MEE TING


BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY NE T WORK
THIRD INTERNATIONAL MEE TING
BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
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EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY NE T WORK


THIRD INTERNATIONAL MEE TING
BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
Third International Meeting EAHN Book of Abstracts
European Architectural History Network

Conference Chair Local organizing committee Editor


Michela Rosso, Politecnico di Torino, DAD – Dipartimento di Architettura Michela Rosso
Italy e Design, Politecnico di Torino
DIST – Dipartimento Interateneo
Scientific committee di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del
EAHN – European Architectural Territorio, Politecnico di Torino Coordinator Copyright
History Network Nicole De Togni The authors
Silvia Beltramo, Mauro Bonetti,
Cânâ Bilsel, Mersin Üniversitesi, Gaia Caramellino, Elena Dellapiana, English editing Publishing
Mimarlık Fakültesi, Turkey Filippo De Pieri, Caterina Franchini, Adrian Forty Politecnico di Torino
Maristella Casciato, Centre Andrea Longhi, Edoardo Piccoli, Josephine Kane
Canadien d’Architecture, Canada Michela Rosso Nancy Stieber Printed by
Sonja Dümpelmann, Harvard SIREA - Torino
University, USA Editorial proof-reading
Adrian Forty, The Bartlett School Secretariat Studio Associato Comunicarch ISBN
of Architecture, UK Comunicarch, Torino 978-88-8202-049-1
Hilde Heynen, KU Leuven, Belgium DAD – Dipartimento di Architettura Cover Image
Merlijn Hurx, Universiteit Utrecht, e Design, Politecnico di Torino Mauro Melis
Netherlands www.eahn2014.polito.it
Mari Hvattum, Arkitektur- og Layout
designhøgskolen i Oslo, Norway Elisa Bussi
Valérie Nègre, École Nationale
Supérieure d’Architecture Paris-
La Villette, France
Michela Rosso, Politecnico di Torino,
Italy

2
Contents

Introduction, Michela Rosso 15


EAHN Board Session 1 Producing Non-Simultaneity: Construction Sites as Places of 17
Progressiveness and Continuity, Eike-Christian Heine, Christoph Rauhut
Until June 2014 Since June 2014 S1.1 Mixing Time: Ancient-Modern Intersections Along the Western 18
President: Adrian Forty President: Alona Nitzan-Shiftan Anatolian Railways, Elvan Cobb
1st vice president: Mari Hvattum 1st vice president: Hilde Heynen S1.2 Steel as Medium. Constructing WGC, a Tallish Building in Postwar 18
2nd vice president: Michela Rosso 2nd vice president: Kathleen James Sweden, Frida Rosenberg
Secretary: Merlijn Hurx Chakraborty S1.3 Between Technological Effectiveness and Artisanal Inventiveness: 19
Treasurer: Ruth Hanisch Secretary: Merlijn Hurx Concreting Torres Blancas (1964-1969), Marisol Vidal
Treasurer: Ruth Hanisch S1.4 The Global Construction Site and the Labor of Complex Geometry, 20
Roy Kozlovsky

Session 2 Afterlife of Byzantine Architecture in the Nineteenth 23


and Twentieth, Century, Aleksandar Ignjatovic
S2.1 A Modern Catholic Tradition: Neo-Romanesque and Byzantine Church 25
Architecture for the Roman Catholic Church in Mid-Twentieth-century Britain,
Robert Proctor
S2.2 One Last Chance to Find the Right Style: the Byzantine Revival 25
Synagogue in America, Michael B. Rabens
S2.3 France-Byzantium: the Authority of the Sacré-Cœur, Jessica Basciano 26
S2.4 Revisiting Byzantium: Architectural Explorations of Byzantine Revival 29
in Early Twentieth-century Greek Nation-Building, Kalliopi Amygdalou

Session 3 Histories of Environmental Consciousness, Panayiota Pyla 29


S3.1 Concrete Conduits in Gandhi’s Ashram. Tangled Environmental 31
Aesthetics in Post-Independence Indian Modernism, Ateya Khorakiwala
S3.2 “We Want to Change Ourselves to Make Things Different”, 31
Caroline Maniaque-Benton
S3.3 Zoo Landscapes and the Construction of Nature, 32
Christina Katharina May
S3.4 Experiments on Thermal Comfort and Modern Architecture: 33

5
the Contributions of André Missenard and Le Corbusier, Ignacio Requena Ruiz, S7.3 After Nature: an Architectural History of Environmental Culture, 58
Daniel Siret Daniel Barber
S3.5 The United Nations Headquarters and the Global Environment, 34 S7.4 Looking Back, Looking Now: Architecture’s Construction of History, 59
Alexandra Quantrill Inbal Ben-Asher Gitler, Naomi Meiri-Dann
S7.5 Radical Histories and Future Realities – NOW, Lara Schrijver 60
Session 4 In-between Avant-Garde Discourse and Daily Building Practices: 37
the Development of the Shopping Centre in Post-War Europe, Session 8 Building by the Book? Theory as Practice in Renaissance 61
Tom Avermaete, Janina Gosseye Architecture, Sara Galletti, Francesco Benelli
S4.1 Shopping à l’américaine in the French New Towns, Kenny Cupers 39 S8.1 “Restauramenti e restitutioni di case”: Book VII on Architecture by 63
S4.2 From Million Program to Mall: Consumerism in the Swedish Town 39 Serlio and the Dissemination of the Classical Order, Alessandro Ippoliti,
Centre, 1968-1984, Jennifer Mack Veronica Balboni
S4.3 Reinventing the Department Store in Rotterdam: Breuer’s Bijenkorf, 40 S8.2 “Libri tre nei quali si scuopre in quanti modi si può edificare vn Monast.o 63
1953-1957, Evangelia Tsilika sÿ la Chiesa”: Architectural Treatise of Capuchin Friar Antonio da Pordenone,
S4.4 Chilean Snail Buildings: Architecture, Typology, Shopping and the City, 41 Tanja Martelanc
Mario Marchant S8.3 Foundations of Renaissance Architecture and Treatises in Quinten 64
S4.5 Building European Taste in Broader Communities: David Jones in 42 Massys’ St-Anna Altarpiece, Jochen Ketel, Maximiliaan Martens
Australia, Silvia Micheli S8.4 An Invented Order: Francesco di Giorgio’s Architectural Treatise and 65
Quattrocento Practice, Angeliki Pollali
Session 5 Fortified Palaces in Early Modern Europe, 1400–1700, 43 S8.5 “Donami tempo che ti do vita”: Francesco Laparelli, Envisioning the 66
Pieter Martens, Konrad Ottenheym, Nuno Senos New “City of the Order”, Valletta, Conrad Thake
S5.1 Fortified Palaces in Early Modern Sicily: Models, Image Strategy, 45
Functions, Emanuela Garofalo, Fulvia Scaduto Session 9 Architecture and Conflict, c. 300 – c. 1600, Lex Bosman 67
S5.2 The “Castrum Sanctae Crucis” in Cremona: from a Fortified Castle 45 S9.1 The Chrysotriklinos Within the Great Palace of Constantinople as Site of 69
to a Courtly Residence, Jessica Gritti, Valeria Fortunato Contestation Between Byzantium and Sasanian Iran, Nigel Westbrook
S5.3 From Old to New: the Transformation of the Castle of Porto de Mós, 46 S9.2 Building Identity and Community in the Post-Crusade Morea: the 69
Luís Gil Architecture of Interaction in the Thirteenth-century Peloponnesos,
S5.4 Symphony in Brick: Moscow Kremlin at the Time of Ivan III, 47 Heather E. Grossman
Elena Kashina S9.3 Sienese Fortifications in the Age of the Guelph Commune, Max Grossman 70
S5.5 Seventeenth-century Fortified Villas in the County of Gorizia 48 S9.4 “Faciendo sette et sedicion”: Architecture and Conflict in 71
with Residences Modelled on the Type of a Venetian Palace, Helena Seražin Sixteenth-century Verona, Wouter Wagemakers
S9.5 Political Power Through Architectural Wonder, Susanna Pisciella 72
Session 6 Public Opinion, Censorship and Architecture in the Eighteenth 49
Century, Carlo Mambriani, Susanna Pasquali Session 10 Ideological Equality: Women Architects in Socialist Europe, 73
S6.1 Distinguished Sociability or a Mockery of the Enlightenment: 51 Mary Pepchinski, Mariann Simon
the Building of Felix Meritis, Freek Schmidt S10.1 Emancipation and Professional Obstinacy: GDR Women Architects, 75
S6.2 “Fair Manly Candid Criticism”: Architecture and Libel in 51 Harald Engler
Eighteenth-century Britain, Timothy Hyde S10.2 Women in Hungarian Industrial Architecture, Péter Haba 75
S6.3 Audible Disagreement: the Politics of Acoustics in Late 52 S10.3 Women Architects in the People’s Republic of Poland, Piotr Marcinak 76
Eighteenth-century Europe, Joseph Clarke S10.4 Emancipated but still Accompanied: Slovak Women Architects, 77
Henrieta Moravčíková
Session 7 The Historiography of the Present, Andrew Leach 55 S10.5 Female Students of Josef Plečnik Between Tradition and Modernism, 78
S7.1 Claiming the End of Postmodernism in Architecture, Valéry Didelon 57 Tina Potočnik
S7.2 Architectural Discourse and the Rise of Cultural Studies, Antony Moulis 57

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Roundtable 1 Piedmontese Baroque Architecture Studies Fifty Years on, 81 S13.4 Health, Hygiene and Sanitation in Colonial India, Iain Jackson 105
Susan Klaiber S13.5 Climate, Disaster, Shelter: Architecture, Humanitarianism, 106
RT1.1 Architectural Exchanges Between Rome and Turin Before Guarini, 83 and the Problem of the Tropics, Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi
Marisa Tabarrini
RT1.2 Guarino Guarini: the First “Baroque” Architect, Marion Riggs 83 Session 14 How it All Began: Primitivism and the Legitimacy of 107
RT1.3 The Multifaceted Uses of Guarini’s Architettura Civile in 1968, 84 Architecture in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries,
Martijn van Beek Maarten Delbeke, Linda Bleijenberg, Sigrid de Jong, Caroline van Eck
RT1.4 Idealism and Realism: Augusto Cavallari Murat, Elena Gianasso 85 S14.1 On the Colonial Origins of Architecture: Building the “Maison rustique” 109
RT1.5 A Regional Artistic Identity? Three Exhibitions in Comparison, 86 in Cayenne, French Guiana, Erika Naginski, Eldra D. Walker
Giuseppe Dardanello S14.2 Out of the Earth: Prehistoric Origins and Gothic Ambitions in Primitive 109
RT1.6 An Enduring Geography: Piedmontese Architecture and Political Space, 86 Monuments, Jennifer Ferng
Cornelia Jöchner S14.3 Viel de Saint-Maux and the Symbolism of Primitive Architecture, 110
Cosmin C. Ungureanu
Session 11 The Published Building in Word and Image, Anne Hultzsch, 89 S14.4 Primitivism’s Return: Theories of Ornament and Their Debt to 111
Catalina Mejia Moreno Eighteenth-century Antiquarianism, Ralph Ghoche
S11.1 Catalogues and Cablegrams, Mari Lending 91 S14.5 Cultural Transformations and Their Analysis in Art and Science: 112
S11.2 Illustrated Picturesquely and Architecturally in Photography – 91 Anthropological and Curatorial Concepts Stimulated by the Great Exhibition
William Stillman and the Acropolis in Word and Image, Dervla MacManus, of 1851, Claudio Leoni
Hugh Campbell
S11.3 Lost for Words: How the Architectural Image Became a Public 92 Session 15 Missing Histories: Artistic Dislocations of Architecture 115
Spectacle on Its Own, Patrick Leitner in Socialist Regimes, Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss, Carmen Popescu
S15.1 Scene(s) for New Heritage?, Dubravka Sekulić 117
S11.4 In Wort und Bild: Sigfried Giedion, Walter Gropius and the Fagus-Werk, 93
S15.2 Radical Space for Radical Time: Intersections of Architecture and 117
Jasmine Benyamin
Performance Art in Estonia, 1986-1994, Ingrid Ruudi
S11.5 Distance, Juxtapositions and Semantic Collisions of Text and Image 94
S15.3 Commemoration, Appropriation, and Resistance: a Shifting Discourse 118
in Architectural Periodicals of the 1920s and 1930s, Hélène Jannière
on Political Architecture in Socialist China, Yan Geng
S15.4 “Our House”: the Socialist Block of Flats as Artistic Subject-Matter, 119
Session 12 On Foot: Architecture and Movement, Christie Anderson, 95
Juliana Maxim
David Karmon
S12.1 Porticoes and Privation: Walking to Meet the Virgin, Paul Davies 97
Open Session 1 On the Way to Early Modern: Issues of Memory, 121
S12.2 Defining the Boundaries of London: Perambulation and the City in the 97
Identity and Practice, Valérie Nègre
Long Eighteenth Century, Elizabeth McKellar
OS1.1 Quadrature and Drawing in Early Modern Architecture, Lydia M. Soo 122
S12.3 Walking Through the Pain: Healing and Ambulation at Pergamon 98
OS1.2 Andrea Palladio and Silvio Belli’s Theory of Proportions, 122
Asklepieion, Ece Okay
Maria Cristina Loi
S12.4 Raymond Unwin Tramping the Taskscape, Brian Ward 99
OS1.3 Moralizing Money Through Space in Early Modernity, Lauren Jacobi 123
OS1.4 Staging War in Maghreb: Architecture as a Weapon by the 1500s, 124
Session 13 European Architecture and the Tropics, Jiat-Hwee Chang 101
Jorge Correia
S13.1 The Afro-Brazilian Portuguese Style in Lagos, Ola Uduku 103
S13.2 Tectonics of Paranoia: the Tropical Matshed System Within the First 103
Open Session 2 Layers of Meanings: Architectural Narratives 125
Fabrication of Hong Kong, Christopher Cowell
and Imageries, Cânâ Bilsel
S13.3 Architecture of Sun and Soil. European Architecture in Tropical 104
OS2.1 The Plan as eidos: Bramante’s Half-Drawing and Durand’s marche, 126
Australia, Deborah van der Plaat
Alejandra Celedon Forster

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OS2.2 “What do Pictures really Want’? Photography, Blight and Renewal in 126 Roundtable 2 The Third Life of Cities: Eediscovering the Post-Industrial 151
Chicago, Wesley Aelbrecht City Centre, Davide Cutolo, Sergio Pace
OS2.3 Content, Form and Class Nature of Architecture in 1950s-China, 127 RT2.1 When Turin Lost Its Myths, Cristina Accornero 153
Ying Wang, Kai Wang RT2.2 The Case of Paris, Joseph Heathcott 154
RT2.3 Prague: Buildings, Spaces and People in Its Rediscovered Centre, 155
Session 16 “Bread & Butter and Architecture”: Accommodating 129 Petr Kratochvíl
the Everyday, Ricardo Agarez, Nelson Mota RT2.4 Turin to Naples Stopping in Milan: Urban Transformations Between 156
S16.1 Humdrum Tasks of the Salaried-Man: Edwin Williams, an LCC 131 Heritage and Theme Parks, Guido Montanari
Architect at War, Nick Beech RT2.5 Rediscovering a Port-city: Genoa’s New Waterfront, Luca Orlandi 156
S16.2 Third Text: Albert Kahn and the Architecture of Bureaucracy, 131 RT2.6 A Return to Growth, Ted Sandstra 156
Claire Zimmerman
S16.3 Architect, Planner and Bishop: the Shapers of Dublin, 1940-1960, 132 Session 19 Architects, Craftsmen and Interior Ornament, 1400–1800, 159
Ellen Rowley Christine Casey, Conor Lucey
S16.4 Layers of Invisibility: Portuguese State Furniture Design 1933-1974, 133 S19.1 Architecture Before the Architects: Building St Theodore’s Chapel 161
João Paulo Martins, Sofia Dini of St Mark’s Basilica in Venice, 1486-1493, Maria Bergamo
S16.5 Bureaucratic Avant-Garde: Norm-Making as Architectural Production, 134 S19.2 Decoration in Religious Architecture of the Eighteenth Century in the 161
Anna-Maria Meister South Eastern Part of Central Europe, Dubravka Botica
S19.3 Architects of the Islamic Work and Phrasing Concepts in Geometry, 162
Session 17 Lost (and Found) in Translation: the Many Faces 137 Hooman Koliji, Mohammad Gharipour
S19.4 Architects, Craftsmen and Marble Decoration in Eighteenth Century 163
of Brutalism, Réjean Legault
Piedmont, Roberto Caterino, Elena Di Majo
S17.1 When Communism Meets Brutalism: The AUA’s Critique of Production, 139
Vanessa Grossman
Session 20 Architecture, Art, and Design in Italian Modernism: 165
S17.2 Gravitas and Optimism: the Paradox of Brutalism in Skopje, 139
Strategies of Synthesis 1925-1960, Daniel Sherer
Mirjana Lozanovska
S20.1 Fantasia degli Italiani as Participatory Utopia: Costantino Nivola’s 167
S17.3 Bringing it all home: Australia’s Embrace of Brutalism, 1955-1975, 140 Way to the Synthesis of the Arts, Giuliana Altea
Philip Goad S20.2 The Enchanted Rooms of Carlo Mollino: Confrontations with Art in a 167
S17.4 African Ethic, Brutalist Aesthetic: Vieira da Costa in Huambo, 141 Company Town (1930-1960), Michela Comba
Ana Tostões, Margarida Quintã S20.3 The Logics of arredamento: Art and Civilization 1928-1936, 168
S17.5 Hard Cases: Bricks and Bruts from North and South, Ruth Verde Zein 142 Ignacio González Galán
S20.4 The “Synthesis of the Arts” as a Critical Tool and a Necessity for 169
Session 18 Socialist Postmodernism Architecture and Society 145 Modern Architecture, Luca Molinari
Under Late Socialism, Vladimir Kulić S20.5 Gio Ponti’s Stile, Cecilia Rostagni 170
S18.1 A Dialectic of Negation: Modernism and Postmodernism in the USSR, 147
Richard Anderson Session 21 The Architecture of State Bureaucracy: Reassessing 171
S18.2 When Tomorrow Was Cancelled: Critique of Modernism in the 1970s, 147 the Built Production of (Colonial) Governments, Johan Lagae, Rika Devos
Daria Bocharnikova, Andres Kurg S21.1 SOM, 1939-1946: from “Engineered Dwelling” to the Manhattan 173
S18.3 The Friedrichstadt Palace, Florian Urban 148 Project, Hyun-Tae Jung
S18.4 Neither Style, nor Subversion: Postmodern Architecture in Poland, 149 S21.2 Unmonumental Buildings, Monumental Scale: Santiago Civic District, 173
Lidia Klein, Alicja Gzowska Daniel Opazo
S18.5 Sources of Postmodern Architecture in Late Socialist Belgrade, 149 S21.3 Architecture’s Red Tape: Governmental Building in Sweden 1964-1972, 174
Ljiljana Blagojević Erik Sigge
S21.4 Provisional Permanence. The NATO Headquarters in Brussels, 175
Sven Sterken

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S21.5 Para-State “Greyness” and the Frontier Headquarters in Tel-Aviv, 176 S24.1 Charles Moore’s Perspecta: Essays and Postmodern Eclecticism, 197
Martin Hershenzon Patricia A. Morton
S24.2 Between Language and Form: Exhibitions by Reima Pietilä, 197
Session 22 Southern Crossings: Iberia and Latin America in 177 1961-1974, Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen
Architectural Translation, Marta Caldeira, Maria González Pendás S24.3 Bau Magazine and the Architecture of Media, Eva Branscome 198
S22.1 Southern Readings. Lúcio Costa on Modern Architecture, 179 S24.4 Entertaining the Masses: IAUS’s Economy of Cultural Production, 199
Carlos Eduardo Comas Kim Förster
S22.2 Avant-garde Crossings Between Italy, Argentina and Spain: from 179 S24.5 Image, Medium, Artifact: Heinrich Klotz and Postmodernism, 200
Gropius and Argan to Nueva Visión and Arte Normativo, Paula Barreiro López Daniela Fabricius
S22.3 Shells Across Continents, Juan Ignacio del Cueto Ruiz-Funes 180
S22.4 Emili Blanch Roig and Modern Architecture: Catalonia and Mexico, 181 Roundtable 3 Revolutionizing Familiar Terrain: the Cutting Edge of 201
Gemma Domènech Casadevall Research in Classical Architecture and Town-Planning, Daniel Millette,
S22.5 Antonio Bonet’s Return to Spain, Ana María León 182 Samantha L. Martin-McAuliffe
RT3.1 Residency Patterns and Urban Stability: a Theory and Strategy for 202
Session 23 Histories and Theories of Anarchist Urbanism, 183 Republican Rome, Lisa Marie Mignone
Nader Vossoughian RT3.2 The Pompeii Quadriporticus Project 2013: New Technologies and 202
S23.1 The Legacy of the Anti-urban Ideology in Bruno Taut’s Architectural 184 New Implications, Eric Poehler
Practice in Ankara (1936-1938), Giorgio Gasco RT3.3 Reconstructing Rhythm: Digital Modeling and Rendering as Tools for 203
S23.2 Henri Lefebvre’s Vers une architecture de la jouissance (1973): 184 Evaluating the Play of Light and Shadow on the Parthenon,
Architectural Imagination After May 1968, Łukasz Stanek Paul Christesen, Aurora Mc Clain
S23.3 City of Individual Sovereigns: Josiah Warren’s Geometric Utopia, 185 RT3.4 The Urban Development of Late Hellenistic Delos, 205
Irene Cheng Mantha Zarmakoupi
S23.4 Architectural Avatars of the Revolutionary City, Peter Minosh 186 RT3.5 Classical Architecture, Town Planning and Digital Mapping of Cities: 206
S23.5 “Housing Before Street”: Geddes’ 1925 Plan for Tel Aviv and its 187 Rome AD 320, Lynda Mulvin
Anarchist Disruption of the Dichotomy Between Top-Down Planners-Ideologues RT3.6 Digital Modeling in the Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace, 206
and Bottom-Up Urban Citizens, Yael Allweil Bonna D. Wescoat

Open Session 3 Strategies and Politics of Architecture and Urbanism 189 PhD Roundtables 207
After wwii, Adrian Forty
OS3.1 From Visual Planning to Outrage: Townscape and the Art of 190 PhDRT1 Architectural History in Italian Doctoral Programs: 209
Environment, Mathew Aitchison Issues of Theory and Criticism, Maristella Casciato,
OS3.2 Germany’s “Grey Architecture” and its Forgotten Protagonists, 190 Mary McLeod
Benedikt Boucsein PhDRT1.1 Meyer and Paulsson on Monumentality: The Beginning of 210
OS3.3 Process above All: Shadrach Woods’ Non-School of Villefranche, 191 a Debate,1911-1940, Giacomo Leone Beccaria
Federica Doglio
PhDRT1.2 A Relational Issue: Towards an International Debate on Habitat, 211
OS3.4 Sacred Buildings in Italy after World War II: the Case of Turin, 192
Giovanni Comoglio
Carla Zito
PhDRT1.3 The Urban Landscape as Cultural Heritage. The Contemporary 213
OS3.5 Architecture Resisting Political Regime: the Case of Novi Zagreb, 192
Debate in France and Italy, Elena Greco
Dubravka Vranic
PhDRT1.4 “A Home”: Östberg’s Search for the Total Artwork, 214
Chiara Monterumisi
Session 24 The Medium is the Message: the Role of Exhibitions 195
PhDRT1.5 Order and Proportion: Dom Hans van der Laan and the 216
and Periodicals in Critically Shaping Postmodern Architecture,
Véronique Patteeuw, Léa-Catherine Szacka Expressiveness of the Architectonic Space, Tiziana Proietti

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PhDRT1.6 The Use of the Convenzioni Urbanistiche in the Historic Centre
of Milan: Negotiation and Planning Instruments After WWII, Nicole De Togni
217
Introduction

PhDRT2 Architectural History in Italian Doctoral Programs: Histories 221


of Buildings, Architects and Practices, Mari Hvattum
PhDRT2.1 Ahmedabad. Workshop of Modern Architecture: The National 222
Institute of Design, Elisa Alessandrini
PhDRT2.2 Transformations of Public Space in Paris. From Infrastructure 223
to Forme Urbaine, Daniele Campobenebetto
PhDRT2.3 Architecture that Teaches. Swiss School Buildings during the 224
1950s and 1960s, Marco Di Nallo
PhDRT2.4 Star-Shaped Rib Vaulting in the Church of San Domenico, Cagliari, 226
Federico Maria Giammusso
After the two successful International Meetings in Guimarães (2010) and
PhDRT2.5 Layers of Narration: the Architecture of Piero Bottoni in Ferrara, 227
Brussels (2012), and in accordance with the EAHN mission statement, this
Matteo Cassani Simonetti
Meeting again proposes to increase the visibility of the discipline, to foster
PhDRT2.6 The Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum. Paradigm of Modern 229
transnational, interdisciplinary and multicultural approaches to the study of
Architecture in Postwar Germany, Benedetta Stoppioni
the built environment, and to facilitate the exchange of research results in
PhDRT2.7 “Magnificentia”, Devotion and Civic Piety in the Renaissance 230
the field.
Venetian Republic, Emanuela Vai
Though the scope of the Meeting is European, a larger scholarly community
PhDRT2.8 From the South. Ernesto Basile’s Routes and Destinations, 231
was invited to participate with themes related not only to Europe’s geograph-
Eleonora Marrone
ical framework, but also to its transcontinental aspects. The main purpose
of the Meeting is to map the general state of research in disciplines related
Index of Authors 233
to the built environment, to promote discussion of current themes and con-
cerns, and to foster new directions for research in the field. 
Preparations for the Turin conference started two years ago.
The call for sessions and roundtables launched in the summer 2012 far ex-
ceeded the Committees’ expectations: we received 100 proposals of which
27 were selected. These 27 sessions and roundtables made up the call for
papers. Again the response was very significant - if rather varied for the
different sessions. On average, session chairs received about four times
as many abstracts as they could accommodate. Thanks to this exceptional
response, three open sessions were activated.
In addition to this, and in order to encourage an exchange between the main
research topics addressed by the international scholarly community and the
studies conducted by younger and emerging scholars within the Italian PhD
programs, the local Executive Committee, in accordance with the Advisory
Committee of the Meeting, chose to promote two roundtables exclusively
devoted to the presentation of studies recently carried on in PhD programs
affiliated to Italian Universities. The aim of this initiative was to overcome
the difficulties that often obstacle the dissemination of some of the most
promising outputs of Italian PhD programs by providing them with a truly

14 15
international arena of discussion. This further call resulted in 37 proposals Session 1: Producing Non-Simultaneity:
of which 15 were selected. Construction Sites as Places
The 32 sessions and roundtables cover different periods and geographies
in the history of architecture, extending from antiquity to the present and of Progressiveness and Continuity
touching a variety of disciplines and approaches to the built environment,
including historiography, the history of the decorative arts, the intersec-

s1
tions between art history and the history of architecture, landscape and
urban history. An interesting chronological and thematic balance was then
achieved, providing an extensive oversight of the research paths being fol-
lowed at this time.
Because of the massive response to the call for sessions and roundtable
proposals, to the subsequent calls for papers and discussion positions, and Session Chairs:
thanks to the careful selection carried out firstly by the EAHN 2014 Advisory Eike-Christian Heine, Universität Stuttgart, Germany
Committee and then by the session chairs, we feel confident about the high Christoph Rauhut, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
standards met by the scientific material to be presented and discussed.
EAHN 2014 is deeply thankful to Nancy Stieber for language proof-editing Ever since Ernst Bloch coined the term Ungleichzeitigkeit – nonsimultaneity
the texts published in this book, and to the past EAHN General Chairs, Jorge – the concept has been widely accepted, particularly in German-speaking
Correia, Hilde Heynen and Janina Gosseye, for their generous support and historiography. A place where progress and tradition markedly co-exist is
advice, and for providing us with information which proved essential to the the construction site. Especially since the Industrial Age, new technologies
achievement of this challenging enterprise. and the ever larger scale of sites and numbers of workers on one hand
The very last and special thanks goes to the EAHN 2014 Advisory Commit- were accompanied by continuity and custom on the other. However, Unglei-
tee to whom we all owe the scientific quality of this event. chzeitigkeit is a relatively new theme in the study of construction sites. The
grand narrative of construction history for the nineteenth century custom-
Michela Rosso arily focuses on the technological innovations of buildings such as London’s
Conference General Chair EAHN 2014 Crystal Palace, while social history has concentrated mainly on the craft
character of the building sector. And architectural history for the first part
of the twentieth century repeatedly ignored the ambiguity of construction
NOTA BENE sites and interpreted them as mere symbols of modernity. Only recently
The papers’ abstracts and titles published in the present book conform to has research started to engage with the complexity of construction sites
the versions originally submitted by authors before publication on the EAHN more fully. On construction sites, progressiveness and tradition do not sim-
2014 website and further proof-edited by an English speaker of the EAHN ply co-exist, they are places that represent non-simultaneity. These spaces
board. Between the editing of the Book of Abstracts and the preparation of offer the symbolic resources to demonstrate and stage both progressive-
the Proceedings, a number of authors changed the titles and abstracts of ness and, at the same time, continuity and custom.
their papers. These newer versions were finally included in the Conference The session invites discussion of the nineteenth and twentieth century
Proceedings, available at www.eahn2014.polito.it and www.eahn.org. construction site as places of production within this broad perspective, as
locations of progressive and traditional practices as well as sites repre-
sentative of an ambivalent modernity. Papers are invited from all academic
fields concerned with construction, including the history of architecture,
the history of technology, and the history of knowledge or social history.
Papers that address the issue either conceptually or through case studies
will be considered equally.

16 17
S1.1 Mixing Time: fiers of modernity with the ancient Iron was the back-bone of Sweden’s collaboration safeguarded moderni-
Ancient-Modern sites and the contemporary inhabit- economic structure. However, the zation in terms of new methods of
Intersections Along ants of the landscape, who fit into universality of reinforced concrete construction. Yet, steel did not be-
the Western Anatolian neither an ancient nor a modern dominated the building industry at come established as a conventional
Railways category within the touristic gaze. the time. Therefore technical ad- building material until the 1980s.
The loci of this disparity were often vancements were captured in pub- How do we understand the role of
s1

s1
Elvan Cobb the construction sites themselves. lic newspapers, described in trade material within the frame of non-
Cornell University, USA As one traveling preacher noted: “In magazines and mediated through a simultaneity?
digging, too, the foundations for the 15 minute long documentary. This
Since the 1860s, the first rail- [train] station, the workmen came on placed focus on how material con-
roads in Ottoman Anatolia (today’s an old Christian cemetery, […] many ditioned architecture beyond tradi- S1.3 Between
Turkey) have united the prominent of the monuments were broken by tional building methods. My paper Technological Effectiveness
port of Izmir with the fertile valleys the workmen, and not a few slabs argues that the building site in the and Artisanal
of the Gediz and Menderes rivers. of white marble bearing elegant media was a symbol that reaffirmed Inventiveness: Concreting
The richness of these inland areas sculpture have been built irregularly the myth of modernity, meaning that Torres Blancas
derives not only from their mineral into the wall of the road” (Somerville modernization was perceived as a (1964-1969)
and agricultural products, but also 1885). With the simultaneous exis- participatory production through po-
from their ancient histories re- tence of modern railroads, ancient litical enactment. Marisol Vidal
corded by Herodotus, Strabo, and sites and the tourist gaze, the con- The steel lattice truss was in prin- Technische Universität Graz, Austria
the New Testament. This powerful struction sites of Anatolian railroads ciple the same kind of system used
legacy attracted an influx of foreign were places where multiple percep- in Ménier’s chocolate factory of the In the 1960s, a new era in rein-
tourists who could now comfortably tions were often deeply entangled. 1870s. However, the inclination forced concrete construction began
and quickly visit archaeological sites towards the top together with the and the elaborate traditional timber
such as the cities of the Biblical rhombic footprint challenged design- beam formworks were progressively
Seven Churches. Yet, with the lay- S1.2 Steel as Medium. ers and contractors. A new project replaced by standardised systems
ing of each additional mile of track, Constructing WGC, a process enforced precision, stati- with plywood boards, metal props
the railroad itself changed this land- Tallish Building in Postwar cal calculations and prefabrication and beams. These convenient engi-
scape, directly altering the touristic Sweden that also had to cope with the lack neered formwork systems allowed
experience. The construction sites of norms as well as inexperienced new levels of precision and smooth-
of bridges, massive hillside cuts, Frida Rosenberg workers. Wenner-Gren Center signi- ness while significantly increasing
embankments, and the rails them- Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Sweden fies a modern trend toward highly the speed of construction and low-
selves, embodied an unprecedented skilled experts who had to deal with ering the number of craftsmen. But
and jarring juxtaposition with the Between 1959 and 1962 the Wen- new materials and processes. This handcraft and bricolage never left
ancient landscapes of Anatolia. The ner-Gren Center in Stockholm was addresses the non-simultaneous as- the construction site; they can be
writings of tourists such as Mark built to promote international coop- pect of the construction site where found at the most advanced building
Twain reflect a general dissonance eration in scientific research. It in- traditional craftsmanship such as sites until today.
between imagined expectations of cludes a 25-story tall building, which welding was moved off-site but per- The concrete works of the residen-
the Ottoman Empire and observed reintroduced the steel frame as a sisted alongside the modernization tial tower Torres Blancas by Fran-
realities. Conditioned by orientalist construction method to the Swedish of construction technologies. cisco Javier Saénz de Oíza in Madrid
stereotypes, the touristic experienc- building context that was abandoned This building complex dedicated to (1964-1969) are a good example of
es often failed to mediate the signi- since before the First World War. peace, research and international this. The client for Torres Blancas

18 19
was the prosperous patron Juan S1.4 The Global work process could thus be typified resent Tel Aviv as a global city by cre-
Huarte Beaumont, who also owned Construction Site and as un-synchronous in its utilization ating a highly polished architectural
the most advanced construction the Labor of Complex of skill-based and mechanized tech- image of fluidity. Yet this project was
company at this time in Spain. No Geometry niques, often requiring the workers’ made possible by labor and mana-
expenses were therefore spared to participation in realizing the unprec- gerial practices that are un-synchro-
make his dream of a modern resi- edented design. nous with such an image, thus high-
s1

s1
Roy Kozlovsky
dential tower in Madrid come true. Tel Aviv University, Israel In conclusion, the paper argues for lighting the ambivalence inherent in
Coated plywood panels, table form the relevance of Bloch’s interpretive contemporary architectural culture
systems and the newest climbing This paper analyses the construc- framework of the non-simultaneous between effortless integration into
formwork were used in a construc- tion of Preston Scott Cohen’s 2010 for theorizing the culture of globaliza- global culture on the one hand, and
tion site that the whole country – addition to the Tel Aviv Museum and tion in its local manifestations. The reliance on an un-synchronous mode
and for the first time for a long time its complex, computer generated museum’s design was chosen to rep- of production on the other.
also the rest of Europe – were look- torqued geometry in relation to the
ing at. But soon after the construc- labor process that materialized it in
tion started it became clear that the order to argue for importance of the
complexity of the geometry could construction site and its labor prac-
only be tackled by traditional meth- tices in interpreting architectural
ods. Torres Blancas would have be- culture under globalization by point-
come a much different building if it ing to its un-synchronous reality.
had been built only within the con- The encounter between elite ar-
straints of the formwork system. chitectural discourse and local
After the successful completion construction practices is studied
of the building both the architect through interviews with workers,
and the constructor agreed that, contractors and architects. In a first
despite its spearheading technol- step, labor on the site is examined
ogy, the accomplishment of Torres using Braverman’s deskilling thesis.
Blancas wouldn’t have been pos- In a second step, the construction is
sible without the ingeniousness of understood historically within the po-
experienced formwork carpenters, litical economy of Israel’s building in-
steel fixers and concrete finishers. dustry, which has been characterized
With the help of this example I will by labor intensive “wet” construction
illustrate why this interplay between techniques based on exploitation of
technological effectiveness and ar- non-unionized labor from the Occu-
tisanal inventiveness is inherent to pied Territories. Work on the build-
the nature of reinforced concrete. ing site was organized as a flexible
assemblage of local experts and an
international labor force recruited
for its mastery of traditional building
trades. At the level of management,
it entailed a step back from the mod-
ern system of subcontracting. The

20 21
Session 2: Afterlife of Byzantine
Architecture in the Nineteenth
and Twentieth Century

S2
Session Chair:
Aleksandar Ignjatovic, Univerzitet u Beogradu, Serbia

The nineteenth and twentieth centuries witnessed a continuous, controver-


sial and unexpectedly complex revival of Byzantine architecture. This process
left its mark in Europe, USA and beyond, where a significant number of build-
ings associated with the Byzantine style altered the appearance of many ur-
ban landscapes, including Sainte-Marie-Majeure in Marseilles (1852-1893),
San Spiridione in Trieste (1858-1869), Westminster Cathedral in London
(1893-1903), Notre Dame d’Afrique in Algiers (1858-1872), the National
Shrine in Washington (1919-1961), the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in
Moscow (1883, 2000), Saint-Espirit in Paris (1828-1835) and the Austral-
ian War Memorial in Canberra (1927-1941). Yet there is no clear overview
of this rich tradition of neo-Byzantine architecture, which remains marginal
and largely incomprehensible due to rigid national or regional patterns of
interpretation, scholarly disinterest and historiographical reluctance.
This session considers the discrepancy between the plenitude, diversity and
importance of re-imagined and re-used Byzantine architecture and its per-
sistently peripheral status in historiography. This paradox is especially ap-
parent in the context of Byzantine and neo-Byzantine architecture, frequently
perceived as both a model for, and a precursor of, architectural modernism.
A link between Byzantine and modern architecture, based on the ideas of
structural rationalism, tectonics, truthfulness and anti-naturalism, as rep-
resented in neo-Byzantine architecture and elaborated by various historians
and theoreticians - from John Ruskin and Henri Labrouste to Henry-Russell
Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, Roger Fry and Clement Greenberg - seems
to be, however, only part of an unexplored kaleidoscopic picture. The ques-
tion of the origins, importance and roles of architecture associated with
the Byzantine style in different contexts throughout the nineteenth and
twentieth century remains obscure and elusive. Nevertheless, this archi-

23
tectural tradition has been developed under different social, ideological and S2.1 A Modern Catholic signs from this model, from books
political circumstances associated with concepts as diverse as nationalism Tradition: Neo-Romanesque on Italian Romanesque and Byzan-
and modern imperialism; clericalism and religious messianism; authoritari- and Byzantine Church tine architecture, from their travels
anism, monarchism and conservatism; spiritual regeneration and the re- Architecture for the and from each other. At the same
interpretation of classical antiquity. Roman Catholic Church time many architects proposed
This session invites participants to investigate the complex and still largely in Mid-Twentieth-century that their tradition was also mod-
s2

s2
unacknowledged architectural and ideological legacy of neo-Byzantine archi- Britain ern, often embracing new materials
tecture, which has appeared across the globe in a dizzying array of build- and techniques and incorporating
ing types: from Roman Catholic cathedrals to Protestant churches; from Robert Proctor aspects of modern styles. In some
congregational temples for the Eastern Orthodox Christians to synagogues; Glasgow School of Art, UK extraordinary cases, church build-
from war memorials to exhibition pavilions and other secular buildings. ings in a fully understood modernist
The predominant style of church de- style accommodated historicising
sign for Roman Catholic churches elements to express a development
in Britain from around 1920 until of this supposed Catholic tradition.
1960 was a simplified Romanesque This paper will consider the ways
or Byzantine revival based loosely on in which such church architecture
north Italian models. Many of the could be conceived of as simultane-
architects who favoured this style ously adhering to “tradition” and to
remain little known, as regional ar- the “modern”. Bringing both terms
chitects specialising in a mode of into tension, neo-Romanesque and
architecture deliberately opposed Byzantine church architecture of
to the development of modernism. this period can be considered less
F. X. Velarde in Liverpool; Reyn- as the retrograde rejection of mod-
olds & Scott in Manchester and E. ernism by an “other” branch of ar-
Bower Norris in the Midlands; H. S. chitectural practice than as highly
Goodhart-Rendel and Adrian Gilbert symptomatic of twentieth-century
Scott, and many others, favoured anxieties and contexts.
variants on the style. Few needed
to explain their motivations, since
they were always in demand by the S2.2 One Last Chance
clergy, who were aware that the to Find the Right Style:
Church explicitly required “tradition- the Byzantine Revival
al” forms. Those who attempted an Synagogue in America
explanation articulated a defence of
a Catholic tradition of church build- Michael B. Rabens
ing. It was a tradition, however, that Oklahoma State University, USA
only began in the early twentieth
century with the completion of J. F. This paper examines an architec-
Bentley’s Roman Catholic Cathedral tural phenomenon that flourished
at Westminster, and was actualised for little more than a decade – the
by architects who derived their de- Byzantine Revival synagogue of the

24 25
1920s. From the beginning of the lar, as well as how it was justified as Hardy’s Basilica of Notre-Dame du S2.4 Revisiting Byzantium:
nineteenth century, when syna- the most appropriate solution to the Rosaire in Lourdes (1883-1889); Architectural Explorations
gogue architecture emerged from architectural problem of the syna- Victor Laloux’s Basilica of Saint-Mar- of Byzantine Revival in
the shackles previously imposed gogue. I shall also try to explain why tin in Tours (1886-1925), as well Early Twentieth-century
upon it, until the triumph of interna- this proved to be a singularly Ameri- as the competing, unbuilt project Greek Nation-Building
tional Modernism after World War can phenomenon, without substan- of Alphonse-Jules Baillargé (1872-
s2

s2
II, synagogue architects embraced a tial parallels in European synagogue 1874); and Louis Cordonnier’s Ba- Kalliopi Amygdalou
bewildering array of historical revival design. silica of Sainte-Thérèse in Lisieux The Bartlett School of Architecture, UK
styles. The objective was usually the (1929-1954). By incorporating Byz-
same: to discover a style that could antine architectural forms, pilgrim- The assessment and incorporation
be readily identified as Jewish. This S2.3 France-Byzantium: age churches evoked the campaign of Byzantine heritage in the national
goal was hampered by the lack of the Authority of the of national reparation embodied by historiographies of the nation-states
suitable precedents for monumen- Sacré-Cœur the Sacré-Cœur. They reflected the that succeeded the Ottoman Em-
tal synagogues, and each effort at theories of archaeologists such as pire took many forms and have be-
achieving consensus was destined Jessica Basciano Albert Lenoir, Félix de Verneilh, and come a point of strong intellectual
to be temporary. The Byzantine Re- Columbia University, USA Jules Quicherat on the interaction debates. In the Greek context, the
vival was perhaps the most anach- between Byzantine and Western theory of continuity of the Greek na-
ronistic, certainly the last, but sure- Building churches was integral to medieval architecture. And the ex- tion, which established Byzantium
ly one of the most brilliant of these the resurgence of pilgrimage in otic forms of Byzantium embodied as the intermediate inextricable link
attempts to find the right style. France that began in the mid-nine- ultramontanism: a commitment to between antiquity and the modern
Nearly every major American city teenth century and continued into a centralized Church, tied to legiti- times, provided a necessary ideo-
came to possess an example of the the twentieth century. The most mism, which dominated French Ca- logical background for architectural
genre. My paper will examine three famous of the shrines is the Sacré- tholicism. Furthermore, they encap- explorations of the Byzantine Revival
of the most imposing of them: the Cœur on Montmartre in Paris sulated the internationalism of the Style. This was manifested to a full
Temple (Congregation Tifereth Isra- (1874-1919). Conceived as an act pilgrimages. In 1937, two hundred extent during the reconstruction of
el) in Cleveland, Temple Isaiah in Chi- of expiation in response to the cri- thousand pilgrims from around the the city of Thessaloniki after a mas-
cago, and Temple Emanu-El in San sis of 1870-1871, plans to build world attended the benediction of sive fire had consumed its historic
Francisco. Each of these structures the church developed at the height the Basilica of Sainte-Thérèse that centre in 1917; the architectural
was built for a well-established con- of the pilgrimage movement. Paul was presided over by papal legate committee in charge for the new
gregation that had no qualms about Abadie designed it in the Romano- Cardinal Pacelli. In sum: this paper design, including prominent figures
claiming its place in the cityscape, Byzantine style, inspired by the addresses important, overlooked such as Ernest Hébrard, Thomas
and each one was designed by an domed Romanesque churches that questions about the relationships Mawson and Aristotelis Zahos. They
architect who had little or no pre- he had restored in southwestern between Christian archaeology, ul- employed the Byzantine Revival as
vious experience working with the France, which were thought to be tramontanism, and the revival of the appropriate architectural style
Byzantine Revival style. The focus of linked to the Hagia Sophia by way Byzantine forms in modern archi- for the facades of the main streets
my paper will be Chicago’s Temple of Saint Mark’s in Venice. Soon af- tecture. of the new city centre. Zahos, who
Isaiah (Alfred S. Alschuler, archi- ter, Byzantine-inspired pilgrimage was influenced by Jugendstil and
tect, 1923-1924), which is one of churches began to multiply. This searched for an authentic modernıty
the purest examples of the style. I paper analyzes the influence of the in the local traditıon, would later
shall explore the reasons why the Sacré-Cœur, focusing on three pil- follow similar lines in the construc-
Byzantine Revival became so popu- grimage churches: Léopold-Amédée tion of the University of Ionia in the

26 27
then Greek-occupied Izmir. Yet the newly acquired territory of Izmir will Session 3: Histories of Environmental
Byzantine Revival itself was not a serve as a window through which I Consciousness
homogenous movement and its will address issues of the agency,
proponents often came from very representation and fluidity of mean-
different ideological backgrounds. ing in a period of competition among
These two case studies, an urban national, religious and imperial iden-
s2

s3
scale application in Thessaloniki and tities.
a building scale intervention in the

Session Chair:
Panayiota Pyla, University of Cyprus, Cyprus

Contemporary environmental strategies in architecture are usually framed


as responses to recent concerns with ozone depletion, global warming, or
energy shortages. But environmental concerns have a much more com-
plex relationship with the history and politics of modern architecture and
urbanism. This session enlarges the historical and theoretical context of
environmental awareness, debate and praxis in architecture, with the aim
to historicize sustainability and enlarge the historical perspective on current
debates – and as such it can be perceived as an extension of the SAH 2010
session Counter Histories of Sustainability (also chaired by P. Pyla). The ses-
sion invites papers that investigate the relationship between environmental
concerns and architectural culture in the midtwentieth century, before the
popularization of environmentalism in the 1970s. The topic of this session
does not pertain to concepts of Nature or biological analogies that influ-
enced architecture through time, but rather it focuses specifically on post-
World War II strategies that emphasized the prevention of environmental
destruction on a local, regional or global level. Some such practical or theo-
retical strategies in architecture focused on low technologies of building and
appropriations of particular knowledge systems, materials and techniques.
Others forged partnerships with industrial production and advanced tech-
nologies. Others still put their emphasis on large-scale managerial control
of natural resources, becoming entangled with the politics of colonial or
post-colonial modernization. And others concentrated on small-scale experi-
ments with single buildings, becoming entangled with other sets of politics.
Taken together, all these approaches – and their contradictions – constitute
an important history of environmental consciousness in architecture.
Papers that present critical analyses of particular case studies (such as low
or high tech utopias, discourses on appropriate technologies, or versions

28 29
of “green” architecture) are most welcome. Papers should analyze the so- S3.1 Concrete Conduits in a museum commission that he won
cial, cultural, and environmental repercussions of the cases presented. Also Gandhi’s Ashram. Tangled right out of MIT. The Sabarmati Ash-
welcome are papers that cut across geographical locales to offer broader Environmental Aesthetics ram, built on the site of Mahatma
reflections on environmentalism, historicizing terms like Ecology, Nature, in Post-Independence Gandhi’s home in Gujarat, in homage
Environment, and related concepts of “environmental balance”, “natural Indian Modernism to the leader, sat at the intersection
resources”, and so on. In what ways did social reformist visions in archi- of three distinct intellectual lineages
s3

s3
tecture become aligned with arguments for curbing industrial pollution or Ateya Khorakiwala – Gandhi’s politics, Tagore’s aesthet-
for preserving environmental “quality”? How did particular strategies for ur- Harvard University, USA ics, and Nehru’s techno-science.
ban amelioration or mass housing, become intertwined with environmental This paper uses Correa’s Sabarmati
fears? Post-independence India’s concep- Ashram project to interrogate the
tion of nature as risk-resource threads of environmental conscious-
system fuelled its project of mod- ness nested within the decoloniza-
ernization. Dams were construed tion paradigm to argue that although
as techno-scientific operations in these threads look like sustainability,
systems designed to circumvent di- they belong to a different history,
saster. The corresponding cultural and although they seemed to be a
project of architectural modernism counter-narrative to big science and
borrowed anti-colonial politics’ es- big dams, they were wrought of the
sentialist strategy, foregrounding a same anti-colonial political origins.
search for identity and taking its cue Although the Gandhi/Nehru/Tagore
from climate and vernacular tech- lineage was politically contradictory
nology. Although driven by resource- and certainly never resolved, this
dearth, Indian modernists wrought paper will look for architectural and
scarcity into an aesthetic language: aesthetic references to limn the al-
louvers, chajjas, verandahs, and lat- ternate possibilities for what envi-
tices came to dominate Indian mod- ronmental consciousness may have
ernism’s vocabulary. For Charles been before the 1970s. 
Correa, climate provided raw mate-
rial for a new, yet ancient, aesthetic
language. His early conceptual proj- S3.2 “We Want to Change
ect – the Tube House (1962) – a Ourselves to Make Things
unit designed to be low cost and Different”
easily multiplied, used deep louvers,
a courtyard, and shaded windows Caroline Maniaque-Benton
to regulate the internal climate. The École Nationale Supérieure
prototype has been called “ahead of d’Architecture Paris-Malaquais, France
its time”, as if it were a proleptic part
of sustainability; however, the pro- In a letter to Stewart Brand, in De-
ject was rooted in a different set of cember 1968, editor of the Whole
political and aesthetic lineages that Earth Catalog, the inventor Steve
came into play in a parallel project, Baer recalled: “I have now attended

30 31
two engineering conferences. I was different”. The Meeting had the Veterinary and behavioural research S3.4 Experiments
both impressed and disappointed. weaknesses of its strengths: many as well as new materials like con- on Thermal Comfort
They seem to be wonderful op- diverse ideas without a dominant fo- crete, glass and tiles supported the and Modern Architecture:
portunities to get at problems and cus. The paper uses the Alloy con- conditions for conservational tasks the Contributions
push right through them – you have ference to test the efficacy and am- like health and fertility. Neverthe- of André Missenard
people with such a variety of experi- bition of alternative thinking of the less, the zoo’s environment should and Le Corbusier
s3

s3
ence that questions are answered 1960s with respect to the environ- appear as a surrogate of Nature to
almost as soon as they are raised. ment, which cast a long shadow in enhance the public’s awareness of Ignacio Requena Ruiz
The disappointment has been hear- the careers of thinkers, architects, conservational concerns and eco- École Nationale Supérieure
ing speakers cut off a question by engineers and designers who would logical relations. d’Architecture Nantes, France
saying that, although it is an inter- play important roles in the 1970s. The artist Kurt Brägger modelled il- Daniel Siret
esting question, it is a philosophical lusionistic natural habitats with the École Nationale Supérieure
question”. help of a semiotic program, which d’Architecture Nantes, France
The Alloy conference that Steve Baer S3.3 Zoo Landscapes transferred geomorphological struc-
organized in the Spring of 1969 in- and the Construction tures of the regional landscape of The early scientific researches into
tended to remedy this defect. A of Nature Basel into the zoo. A dramaturgy the thermo-regulative response of
range of inventive and diverse minds of sight-lines and lightning effects the human body during the 1920s
were invited to an abandoned tile fac- Christina Katharina May led the visitors through the park and the 1930s normalized ther-
tory in New Mexico for three days. Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany to immerse the recipients into a mal conditions in working and edu-
Divided into sections and events – coherent landscape experience. cational environments to improve
energy, structure, evolution, materi- Since the 1950s zoos have taken up The new landscape design and the user’s performance. The European
als, man, magic, language, meals, the mission to make their audience souterrain buildings of the 1960s and American contexts of housing
play, projections, music – the Alloy aware of conservational issues. relied on contemporary theoretical promotion and industrial develop-
conference was attended by engi- The ideological shift towards con- studies about walking experiences ment during post-war extended this
neers, inventors, architects, among servational goals as well as public and phenomenological space. Con- approach to different environments.
others Jay Baldwin, Dean Fleming, concerns about living conditions of servational claims and ecological Geographers, physiologists and en-
Lloyd Kahn, Sim van der Ryn, Paolo captive wild animals influenced the rhetorics were closely related to gineers encouraged manufactured
Soleri, Stewart Brand. This was the concepts of zoo design. Zoos had behavioural research on the rela- indoor atmospheres that could
cream of left field thinkers behind to integrate popular imaginations tional space of territory and social overcome human shortcomings
the Whole Earth Catalog and the about naturalness and scientific behaviour. All these ideas influenced resulting from environmental and
alternative architectural movement. research on ecological issues, an the design of Nature for both kind of biological conditions. Climate, indoor
Their intention was to replace the ambivalent mixture between science users, for visitors and animals. The atmospheres and human body were
homogeneous thinking of the univer- and aesthetics. represention of zoological research interlinked to develop the ideal envi-
sities and industrial consultants by During the 1950s and the beginning contrasted the immersive effects ronment for modern society. Para-
combining a range of approaches 1960s planners have worked on a of the popular themed exhibition doxically, these original notions and
– practical, scientific, spiritual and new master plan for the Zoological space. Hence, the built environment researches have been used to pro-
traditional – to resolve the major en- Garden of Basel in Switzerland. The of the zoo condensed and combined mote both bioclimatic and weather-
vironmental problems of the day. A old buildings of the nineteenth-cen- contradictory ideas of progress, ized architectures along the second
feature of the discussion was a deep tury’s city zoo were demolished and conservation and reassurance. half of the twentieth century.
sense of soul searching: “We want replaced with animal houses styled The French engineer, researcher
to change ourselves to make things according to post-war modernism. and industrialist André Missenard

32 33
was a prominent contributor to the and 1952 marked the onset of a tic origins of the UN delegates, the surface of modernism embodied
study on the thermo-physiology of complex relationship between envi- envelope of the UN Secretariat was enmeshed aesthetic and technical
comfort as well as its experimental ronmental management and global designed to function as a manipu- ambitions. Drawing from contempo-
application to engineering and ar- development in the postwar pe- lable environmental control system rary discourses on technology and
chitecture. As a collaborator of the riod. Designed by an international accommodating the global popula- the organic, this paper will scrutinize
architect Le Corbusier, his influence committee of architects, the head- tion housed within, thereby fostering the ways in which the UN invoked
s3

s3
not only attempted technical fields, quarters were a vexed monument harmonious relations. Internation- science to address environmental
but to the whole notion of the ideal to world peace. At the same time ally published and widely imitated, management at a global and a highly
environment for modern society. the work of the fledgling institution the details of this thin, flat, smooth proximate level.
Consequently, Le Corbusier’s works reflected its incipient stance on en-
during the post-war became a col- vironmental and economic concerns
lective laboratory on hygro-thermal of a global order. The 1949 United
control, where passive and active Nations Conference on the Conser-
systems were constructs of what vation and Utilization of Resources
Missenard called “artificial climates”. promoted international cooperation
Based on an original research at the in allocating scientific research to
Foundation Le Corbusier archives resource disparity as a means of
and the French National Library, this keeping the peace. Scientists, engi-
communication presents the design neers, and technical experts offered
method of the Grille Climatique and strategies for prosperous member
the buildings for the Millowners As- states to address resource deficien-
sociation (Ahmadabad, India) and cies within developing tropical and
the House of Brazil (Paris, France) arctic regions, which were present-
as study cases. As a result, the pa- ed as the last frontiers of cultivation.
per discusses the influence of physi- Lewis Mumford remained highly cir-
ology and environmental technology cumspect regarding the UN Head-
in the early approaches to thermal quarters’ representation of a new
environments in architecture, what global order, questioning its uncon-
afterwards supported both biocli- scious symbolism of the “managerial
matic and mechanical viewpoints. revolution” and monopoly capitalism.
Indeed, Mumford pitted the degra-
dations of mechanization against his
S3.5 The United Nations theory of organic synthesis, in which
Headquarters and the science and the machine support
Global Environment life processes rather than diminish-
ing them. By contrast, in his pre-
Alexandra Quantrill sentation of the UN headquarters
Columbia University, USA Le Corbusier presented the organic
in terms of an exact biology facili-
The realization of the United Na- tated by new technology. Purport-
tions Headquarters between 1946 edly to address the diverse climac-

34 35
Session 4: In-Between Avant-Garde
Discourse and Daily Building Practices:
the Development of the Shopping Centre
in Post-War Europe

s4
Session Chairs:
Tom Avermaete, TU Delft, Netherlands
Janina Gosseye, University of Queensland, Australia

This session will focus on a new urban figure that emerged in western Eu-
rope in the post-war period: the shopping centre. Following the apparent
demise of pre-war modernism, post-war architectural culture was con-
cerned that people’s sense of responsibility to their local communities was
eroding and expected architecture and urban design – by allowing people
to identify with their immediate locale – to help buttress people’s sense of
belonging. The notion of a “core” that could engender community interac-
tion therefore became an important theme in the avant-garde discourse
on modern architecture and urbanism, and found a fertile breeding ground
in the (often) highbrow building programmes of the western European wel-
fare states. These building programmes not only targeted housing,health
care and education, but also gave rise to the development of community
infrastructure, which was to cater to all strata of the population equally:
leisure parks, community centres, school buildings, cultural centres, and
so on.
Parallel to these novel community-oriented infrastructures, another new
(commercially inspired) spatial figure became popular in western Europe:
the shopping centre. A fully-fledged architectural expression of the new
logics of mass distribution and mass consumption, the post-war shopping
centre gradually settled on the European territory. Even though it was
most commonly developed by private bodies, from a social point of view it
had much in common with the newly constructed welfare state centres,
offering spatial centrality, public focus and human density.
For this session, we invite papers that explore this parallel between gov-
ernment-funded community infrastructure and privately developed shop-
ping centres in post-war Europe. We want to discuss whether the mul-

37
tiple parallels between community infrastructure and shopping mall were a S4.1 Shopping society of consumption by bestowing
mere coincidence or, in fact, the result of the strong influence of contem- à l’américaine in the it with a touch of soul.” In France’s
porary avant-garde discourse about architecture and urbanism on daily French New Towns post-war suburbs the shopping mall
building practice. guaranteed the crowds and thus the
Kenny Cupers kind of liveliness reminiscent of that
of a traditional city. Focusing on the
s4

s4
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
USA new urban centres for Evry and Cer-
gy-Pointoise, this paper explores the
This paper explores how the rapid strategies planners and architects
development of shopping malls in employed to harness what they saw
post-war France shaped the design as “wild” and “anti-urban” private
of multi-use megastructure projects developments for their own urban
for the country’s New Towns in the projects. It argues that such de-
late 1960s and 1970s. Often cast signs were not so much signs of an
as exemplary of the Americaniza- architectural avant-garde influencing
tion of post-war Europe, suburban daily building practice than attempts
shopping was in fact not solely an to marry private development with
American import. In France, two dis- centralized planning.
tinct, competing types of suburban
shopping emerged simultaneously.
The hypermarché or hypermarket S4.2 From Million Program
– a French invention of sorts – was to Mall: Consumerism in
geared towards the low-cost seg- the Swedish Town Centre,
ment of the market while the more 1968-1984
upscale “regional commercial cen-
tre” was adapted directly from the Jennifer Mack
American dumbbell mall formula Uppsala Universitet, Sweden
and contained both department
stores and independent smaller In September 1968, Prince Bertil
boutiques. Despite intellectuals’ de- of Sweden inaugurated Skärholmen
nunciation of both types, which they Centrum, a new outdoor square on
cast as tasteless American imports the outskirts of Stockholm designed
threatening the French way of life, by the architects Boijsen & Efver-
suburban shopping became a key gren. As a neighbourhood core, this
source of inspiration for the archi- centrum (town centre) emerged in
tects and planners of France’s New the heyday of the so-called Million
Town program, launched in 1965. Program, as Swedish welfare state
Their approach was perfectly sum- politicians and architects construct-
marized in the words of Prime Minis- ed over one million dwelling units
ter Chaban-Delmas, who proclaimed between 1965 and 1974, often in
that France needed “to master the new town suburbs.

38 39
Here, I examine the transformation squares became indoor malls. If the to the Lijnbaan shopping centre and gy. Nowadays, they represent – per-
of the centrum from the late 1960s centrum’s “consumerism” originally the V&D department store – both haps by chance – the most risky and
to the mid-1980s, arguing that served as an epithet, how did it be- projects of the city’s reconstruction ephemeral experiment and model of
“community” and “consumerism” come a design goal in less than two period – we shed light on the unique Chilean commercial architecture. El
were originally regarded architectur- decades? identity of Breuer’s commercial bee- Caracol – its first specimen, literally
al and social antagonists but quickly hive and explore its role in the post- “snail” in reference to its spiral shape
s4

s4
became critical partners. When war modernist reconstruction plan – was built in Santiago in 1974. After
constructed, town centres adhered S4.3 Reinventing of the inner city of Rotterdam (Basic that, CL.CSB multiplied rapidly (over
to Social Democratic ideologies that the Department Store Plan, 1946). The paper thus draws 30 buildings) during an extremely
encouraged social cohesion among in Rotterdam: Breuer’s parallels between Breuer’s design short period of time (1974-1983)
citizens through “service”: stan- Bijenkorf, 1953-1957 and the Basic Plan, as both share all over the country and under a
dardized amenities like libraries, the same avant-garde spirit and dy- very particular context – Pinochet’s
hobby spaces, post offices, youth Evangelia Tsilika namic. Both designs are pure rep- dictatorship – in which Chile experi-
centres, and stores offering indus- Independent scholar, Greece resentations of their era (sincere, enced profound political, economic
trialized goods. But was Skärhol- rationalists and with practical spirit) and urban transformations towards
men Centrum a community centre This paper will offer an insight into and both cherish the values of the a neoliberal consumption society.
or a shopping centre? A national Marcel Breuer’s de Bijenkorf De- Modern Movement for community The main spatial characteristic of
newspaper article entitled “Demol- partment Store Complex, a work welfare, acknowledging at the same the snail buildings consists of the
ish Skärholmen!” appeared just two that belongs to the most creative pe- time the sovereignty of consumerism continuous spiral pedestrian ramp
days after Bertil’s speech, beginning riod of the architect, when he finally and market economy. Instead of get- that lifts the sidewalk (public space)
a lengthy debate. Some critics pillo- had the chance to turn the Bauhaus ting carried away by nostalgia and toward the block’s interior (private
ried the modernist concrete forms ideas into practice. Free from doc- old practices, they take the chance space) to generate a container for
and 4,000 parking spaces of this trines and styles, Breuer, with this to create anew their desired image, small commercial stores around a
“welfare state concentration camp”, project, reinvented the department showing their eagerness to experi- large central void that crosses verti-
while others argued against its na- store in its substance – as if it were ment on a tabula rasa, be it about a cally through the whole project. This
ked “consumerism”. the first one to be built in history – razed city centre, or a new shopping system introduced a new way of per-
With press like this, Million Program creating a modern background for philosophy. ceiving and inhabiting the city in Chile
areas like Skärholmen were increas- human activity in the new centre of by means of commerce and the in-
ingly stigmatized by the 1970s, and post-war Rotterdam. tensification of land use. From that
architects searched for ways to In our analysis we investigate S4.4 Chilean Snail central space (Bentham’s panopti-
revamp their urban environments. Breuer’s approach to the creation of Buildings: Architecture, con and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Solo-
Increasingly, they privileged shop- this specific building typology, primar- Typology, Shopping and mon R. Guggenheim museum) new
ping. By 1984, new glazed atrium ily through the study of his archive the City ways of collective life were developed
structures covered Skärholmen (original drawings, speeches and aimed at privacy and visual control,
Centrum’s old pedestrian streets, writings). In a broader context, by Mario Marchant aspects that fit perfectly with the
and private stores took precedence reflecting on the firm’s decision to Universidad de Chile, Chile dictatorship in which the buildings
over social services. As renovation abandon the remnants of Willem Du- emerged. CL.CSB are part of Chile’s
trumped demolition, the centrum’s dok’s 1930 de Bijenkorf, destroyed In the middle of 1970s, Chilean architectural and social heritage,
supposed architectural failures ul- by the Nazi Germany incendiary raids Commercial Snail Buildings (CL.CSB) they are highly significant but totally
timately required a radical change: in 1940, and to commission a new began to populate Chile’s main cities ignored by the discipline, and they
the welfare state’s premier public building at a different location, next creating a new architectural typolo- represent the last – and still stand-

40 41
ing – commercial spaces of urban enon intensified during the 1950s, Session 5: Fortified Palaces in Early
life before the contemporary logic of with the organization of a series of Modern Europe, 1400–1700
(sub)urban expansion represented exhibitions, some of them dedicated
by the mall. CL.CSB have a interest- to the promotion of contemporary
ing potential link with the work de- industrial design and architecture
veloped in post-war Europe during emanating from Europe, generat-
s4

s5
the 60’s by Claude Parent and Paul ing the opportunity for David Jones
Virilio (Architecture Principe) under to establish solid relationships with
the theoretical frame of the Oblique European institutions. This approach
Function as the Centre commercial to building community through the
Sens (Sens, France, 1968-1970) dissemination of culture at shopping
designed by Parent. centres had its precedent in pre- Session Chairs:
war Europe. For instance, in 1933 Pieter Martens, KU Leuven, Belgium
the famous London department Konrad Ottenheym, Universiteit Utrecht, Netherlands
S4.5 Building European store Fortnum & Mason hosted an Nuno Senos, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Taste in Broader exhibition of Alvar Aalto’s furniture
Communities: David Jones that launched the Finnish architect From the fifteenth century onwards the spread of firearms profoundly affect-
in Australia abroad, introducing Finnish design ed the medieval castle. Residential and defensive elements that were once
to the British public. Meanwhile in united in a single structure now evolved into separate architectural entities.
Silvia Micheli Australia, for the lack of an official The château fort gradually developed into a residential palace surrounded by
University of Queensland, Australia institution that supported and pro- a fortified perimeter. In addition, the shift from vertical to horizontal defence
moted good quality design, the David meant that the main trait of a stronghold was no longer its profile but its
From the beginning of the twentieth Jones department store took up this plan. As the plan became dictated by firing lines, angular shapes took the
century, the Australian department role, assuming the task to both im- place of round and square ones, and the overall geometry became regu-
store David Jones operated as a ve- prove and make more sophisticated larized. Efforts to reconcile the often contradictory demands of residence
hicle for community making at a na- the taste of the Australian populace. and defence inspired a wide variety of architectural designs across Europe,
tional level. It offered spatial central- This paper aims to demonstrate that many of which have received little scholarly attention.
ity, public focus and human density, the role of commercial shopping This session focuses on the building typology of the palazzo in fortezza in its
but also become a stage for cultural outlets for engendering community broadest sense. Besides fortified palaces that were planned as a whole, it
events. By the end of 1930s, the interaction in the post-war context will also consider instances where new fortifications were built around an
company chairman Charles Lloyd was not only a phenomenon occur- older palace or, vice versa, where a new residence was erected within a pre-
Jones ensured that every David ring in Western Europe. The Austra- existing citadel. The aim is to explore the conjunction of palatial residence
Jones outlet included venues for art, lian example of David Jones can be and military defence. Papers may discuss the architectural connection (or
used for the purpose of hosting both considered as a useful comparative lack thereof) between the palace and its fortifications. How was the building’s
Australian and foreign art exhibi- case study to frame the issue more defensive role combined with residential comforts and ceremonial require-
tions. On 1st August 1944 the David broadly, indicating how commercially ments? What happened to weak elements such as entrances, windows,
Jones Art Gallery in Sydney officially inspired structures with cultural am- forecourts and gardens? Did its decorative programme reflect its martial
opened on the seventh floor of the bitions become strong social attrac- component? Was the fortified perimeter truly functional or merely symbolic?
Elizabeth Street store. This phenom- tors at a national level. Did its military features answer to the demands of full-scale warfare or only
to limited security needs? Conversely, could a fortified palace really operate
as a fully-fledged princely residence, or were there limitations to the extent

42 43
of its court life? Relevant events such as an attack on a fortified palace or a S5.1 Fortified Palaces sions to modern fortifications were
courtly ceremony held within its confines may also be examined. Of particu- in Early Modern Sicily: used to legitimate social hierarchies.
lar interest are issues of cultural interchange, considering that fortification Models, Image Strategy, At the end of the seventeenth cen-
was an “international style”, whilst palatial architecture was firmly tied to Functions tury, for example, the Rome-trained
local and dynastic traditions. We welcome cases from the whole of Europe architect Giacomo Amato planned
(including its overseas colonies) and especially from less studied regions a magnificent palace for the Spac-
s5

s5
Emanuela Garofalo
such as Central and Eastern Europe. We explicitly seek analytical papers Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy caforno family with bastions and a
that enable transnational comparison. Fulvia Scaduto double boundary wall. This paper
The session fits within the framework of the ESF Research Networking Pro- Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy will present a sequence of examples
gramme “PALATIUM. Court Residences as Places of Exchange in Late Me- that are most representative of this
dieval and Early Modern Europe (1400-1700)” (www.courtresidences.eu). In early modern Sicily the extra-ur- architectural phenomenon. It will es-
ban fortified residence was a limited pecially focus on the models in use
but important architectural phenom- and how they change along the cen-
enon. Starting from the last decades turies; on the intertwining between
of the fifteenth century, previous res- residential and military needs in the
idential buildings, especially towers, conformation of inside and outside
were in some cases renewed by the spaces; and finally, on the relation
introduction of a surrounding forti- between image strategy and practi-
fied perimeter with bastions (e.g. cal function.
Donjon of Adrano; tower of Migaido,
or villa S. Marco near Bagheria).
Subsequently the genesis of new pal- S5.2 The “Castrum
aces with bastions, bulwarks, and Sanctae Crucis” in
pseudo-bulwarks is certainly linked to Cremona: from a Fortified
contemporary publications and spe- Castle to a Courtly
cialized treaties, but local conditions Residence
played an equally important role. The
position along the Mediterranean Jessica Gritti
frontier with the Islamic world and Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia, Italy
the presence of numerous military Valeria Fortunato
engineers created an environment La Sapienza-Università di Roma, Italy
particularly open to fortified build-
ings, providing at the same time a The Castle of Santa Croce in Cre-
wide range of experiences for con- mona was reconstructed by the
frontation and imitation. In this situa- ducal couple Francesco Sforza and
tion the symbolic meaning of fortified Bianca Maria Visconti from 1452
structures was particularly resonant and was transformed into a courtly
with aristocratic clients. The repre- residence, where they – and in par-
sentational aspect was evident also ticular the duchess and her sons
in buildings with a true defensive – usually spent some parts of the
purpose. Medieval idioms and allu- year. Cremona was the second

44 45
most important city of the state, tegic place, due to its central loca- features to the castle including open- Grand Prince Ivan III (1462–1505)
where Francesco Sforza and Bianca tion between Milan, Mantua, Bres- ings for firearms. On the other hand, to reveal it, first, as an intercultural
Maria celebrated their marriage. cia and Piacenza, as was the case they increased the available liveable complex, and second, as a palazzo in
The complete loss of the monument during the Dieta of the most impor- space as well the residential charac- fortezza whose distinctive features
(except for the remains of a round tant lords of the period, organized by ter of the castle through the addition enabled a harmonious conjunction
tower) seems to have discouraged Ludovico Sforza in 1483. of tiled roofs rising above the battle- of palatial residence and military de-
s5

s5
its study, so that the history of the ments and new (as well as novel) log- fence. The rise in status of the prin-
castle is little known. But thanks to gias. The interior of the building was cipality of Moscow during the period
a great number of documents in the S5.3 From Old to New: subdivided and much altered, main- required that a new diplomatic cer-
Archivio di Stato in Milan, this paper the Transformation of the taining a small distribution patio fol- emonial be elaborated, along with an
will trace the history of the recon- Castle of Porto de Mós lowed by the main courtyard around architecture that would mirror the
struction of the castle by the Sfor- which a series of new chambers is lineage, kinship and historic roots
zas, the lost identity of its designer Luís Gil organized. New features reflecting of the state and the sovereign, as
(hitherto believed to have been Bar- Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal increasingly sophisticated notions well as demonstrate the sovereign’s
tolomeo Gadio), and the organization of comfort were also added such as command of contemporary cosmo-
of its building site. Besides, a num- Articulated with the neighbouring vil- fireplaces, and large windows and politan knowledge. The grandiose
ber of drawings from the sixteenth lages of Ourém and Pombal, Porto loggias providing striking views over construction that ensued produced
to eighteenth centuries – some of de Mós played a strategic role in the surrounding landscape. In order a symphonic, wholly cohesive nar-
them unknown to scholars – will be the defence of the important cities to understand the resulting fortified rative, based on a harmony of ver-
used to reconstruct the form and of Leiria and Coimbra since medieval palace, one must take into account nacular tradition and of cutting edge
the functions of the various parts of times. In the thirteenth century, un- Afonso’s cosmopolitan life and his civic and military engineering innova-
the castle, both in the Sforza period der King Dinis, the castle acquired long voyages in Europe, especially tion brought over by invited Italian
and also during the sixteenth and its relatively regular shape with four in Italy. After the works due to him, architects, and in continuity with
seventeenth centuries. The Castle towers, which was the basis of sub- the palace of Porto de Mós reflected previous fortifications and urban
of Santa Croce seems to present sequent reforms, such as the four- the most advanced European innova- evolution. Alongside the new Grand
all the characteristics of a “fortified teenth-century addition of a fifth tow- tions in both military and residential Prince’s palace, and a new entire en-
palace”, because it was a medieval er, by King Fernando. The last major architecture of its time and could semble required for diplomatic pro-
castle which became a courtly resi- construction campaign that added not be rivalled by any of its other tocol modelled on the Italian palazzo
dence during the Quattrocento, with a palace to the castle took place in Portuguese counterparts. paradigm, the perimeter, fortified
a vast garden for hunting and a doc- the mid-years of the fifteenth century in a manner fully suited for all-out
umented studiolo for the duchess. and is due to Afonso, 4th Count of warfare, embraced the most sym-
In the sixteenth century, the origi- Ourém and putative heir to the duke S5.4 Symphony in Brick: bolic cathedrals, the residence of
nal square keep with angular towers of Braganza. While the exact date Moscow Kremlin at the the highest hierarch of the Church,
was inserted into a larger system of of Afonso’s campaign is not known, Time of Ivan III the treasuries of the State and of
fortifications. The castle has always most of the works must have taken the Church, with all the regalia and
been fundamental both for the Sfor- place after the count’s return to Por- Elena Kashina holy items, administrative buildings,
zas and, afterwards, for the French tugal from his second trip to Italy, University of York, UK a number of monasteries, and the
and Spanish governments, being at in 1452, since they included innova- homes of select nobility. Crucially,
the south-east boundaries of the tions of an experimental character This paper discusses the ensem- in keeping with Russian mediaeval
State (with the Venetian Republic). that originate there. On the one ble of the Moscow Kremlin which tradition, a fortified enclosed terri-
Also, it was often chosen as a stra- hand, they introduced new military emerged during the reign of the tory functioned as the administra-

46 47
tive, spiritual and social centre for sion of the Renaissance castle of the Session 6: Public Opinion, Censorship
the population of the adjacent areas Attems family in Heiligen Kreuz by and Architecture in the Eighteenth
and was meant to accommodate it Vincenzo Scamozzi). However, from
(provide shelter) in times of strife. a typological viewpoint, a more inter- Century
The resulting protected perimeter esting issue seems to be that of the
thus formed a civic fortress, which fortified villa. It developed gradually in
s5

s6
in its self-sustainability, capacity for this area and employed for the resi-
communication with the world be- dence the design of a comfortable
yond and ability to protect itself can Venetian palace with added corner
feasibly be compared to the Vatican. towers. In spite of the built-in loop-
holes, these did not enable any ef-
fective defence since in the majority Session Chairs:
S5.5 Seventeenth-century of cases they were only extensions Carlo Mambriani, Università di Parma, Italy
Fortified Villas in the to corner rooms. Together with the Susanna Pasquali, La Sapienza-Università di Roma, Italy
County of Gorizia with walls, which surrounded the resi-
Residences Modelled on dence as well as the festive court, Among the general transformations of the eighteenth century, there arose
the Type of a Venetian the gardens and the ancillary build- a new relationship between the press and architecture. For the first time, a
Palace ings, they provided a limited defence space was born for the emergence of public opinion regarding architectural
in minor armed conflicts in which no projects of varying scale and relevance. In those countries where the press
Helena Seražin heavy artillery was used. The towers was under direct censorship, public opinion found other outlets, such as
Umetnostnozgodovinski inštitut Franceta thus primarily performed a symbolic pamphlets and anonymous letters; in all cases, though, there was evidence
Steleta, Slovenia role and the fortification elements of a new and more critical response to changes in the built environment, re-
were subordinated to the residen- placing unrestrained praise. The aim of this session is to collect and discuss
After the second Venetian-Austrian tial function and to the needs of the published, and unpublished, examples of the interaction between architec-
war (1615–1617), the nobility of owners, as in the example of Villa ture and public opinion during the eighteenth century.
the County of Gorizia, one of the Colloredo at Dobrovo where one of Increasingly, the periodical press becomes a commercial enterprise, with
frontier lands of the Holy Roman the corner towers of the walls also direct competition between different journals and newspapers. How far was
Empire, began to modernize their served as a chapel. Residential villas architecture – as well as other transformations of the built environment –
uncomfortable castles, outdated as with corner towers were mainly built among the themes that formed part of this process?
to the military purpose, or to build on exposed, clearly visible, but eas- A periodical press also develops in nations where censorship is in place. In
new ones in the form of fortified yet ily accessible locations in the land- these conditions, how exactly was architectural criticism/debate affected?
comfortable countryside residences. scape, so that the important status And what do other sources tell us about positions that could not be ex-
Even though the Gorizia nobles were of their lords was conspicuous al- pressed in the official press?
subjects to the rulers of the Holy Ro- ready at a great distance. The own- Patronage and new building types led to major transformations in architec-
man Empire in terms of politics and ers mostly belonged to the nobility ture. For works commissioned by rulers, whether kings, princes or popes,
religion, they were strongly attached of a more recent origin coming from what room for criticism/opinion was there in the eighteenth-century press?
to the neighbouring Serenissima as the Italian lands and they yet had to What were the restrictions of censorship, either of the state, or self-im-
concerns architecture and art in secure their social rank among the posed? What role did official academies play in facilitating criticism? The
general (e.g. plans for the conver- Gorizia and Austrian aristocracy. Assembly Rooms in Great Britain, the seats of the Accademie scientifiche di
dilettanti in Italy, and theatres in every nation were commissioned by collec-
tive bodies, such as the Società dei cavalieri, or similar groups of patrons.

48 49
What kind of discussion developed through the projects for these buildings, S6.1 Distinguished ships between designer, users and
and how far was that discussion open in character, involving wider public Sociability or a Mockery the public. Even before the com-
opinion? of the Enlightenment: the petition there had been discussion
And finally, with the growth of cities, the design of open spaces and of urban- Building of Felix Meritis about the designer, and during the
scale projects, and the emergence of competitions, the European landscape process of judging the competition
changes. As new public buildings, city squares, bridges and port facilities entries, several members protested
s6

s6
Freek Schmidt
started to appear, how were contrasting opinions on these transformations Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, against the lack of transparency in
expressed? By what means, and where, did a public debate around these Netherlands the procedures. After the festive
objects develop? opening of the building, anonymous
“Among comparable foundations, pamphlets appeared, accusing the
the building of the society Felix Meri- building committee of corruption, ar-
tis can, even in the greatest and rogance and irresponsible behavior.
wealthiest cities of Europe, be called Thus, the ambitious competition was
unique in its kind”. Thus the building followed by ugly internal disputes be-
on the Keizersgracht is described tween the members. It became the
in Jan Wagenaar’s History of Am- subject of public mockery, unworthy
sterdam (1802). With its majestic of a cultural society that pursued
features it is the best known eigh- noble Enlightenment ideals. Building
teenth-century building in Amster- the new Felix Meritis became an ap-
dam. It was erected between 1787 ple of discord within the society that
and 1792 for the cultural society Fe- would eventually lead to its demise.
lix Meritis – Latin for “happy through
merit”, according to the designs of
the Amsterdam architect Jacob Ot- S6.2 “Fair Manly Candid
ten Husly, winner of the 1787 in- Criticism”: Architecture
ternational competition for the new and Libel in Eighteenth-
building, a rare phenomenon in the century Britain
eighteenth-century Dutch Republic.
Long forgotten archival documents Timothy Hyde
and contemporary pamphlets reveal Harvard University, USA
that the judging of the competition
and the building process were sur- In late eighteenth-century London,
rounded by differences of opinion one’s reputation was necessary to
among the members of the soci- uphold but very difficult to protect.
ety. Together with contemporary Newspapers, magazines, broad-
prints, these sources clarify much sheets, and pamphlets circulated
about the building, its architecture rapidly, overflowing with comment,
and what it should represent for opinion, and critique. One of the few
the society. They provide a nuanced defenses that could be wielded ef-
insight into eighteenth-century sys- fectively in this whirl of public opinion
tems of patronage and the relation- was the law of libel, which offered a

50 51
means of censoring the publication S6.3 Audible Martin, new home of the Académie among theater critics, composers,
of derogatory claims. Though today Disagreement: the Politics Royale de Musique, was accused by scientists, and architects over the
we regard aesthetic criticism – the of Acoustics in Late an anonymous critic in the Journal most aurally effective interior con-
public judgment of aesthetic objects Eighteenth-century Europe de musique of having an infelicitous figuration for performance spaces.
– as an obvious corollary to the pre- echo caused by box partitions in the That these debates took place not
sentation of these objects to the pub- galleries. This criticism made little in conventional architectural trea-
s6

s6
Joseph Clarke
lic realm, in the realm of press and Yale University, USA scientific sense but reflected the tises but in a more disparate array
publicity in eighteenth-century Britain writer’s desire for a more acousti- of print media illustrates the evolv-
it was not yet clear whether aesthet- This paper examines how architec- cally unified audience: “Tear down ing relationship between the sensory
ic criticism distinguished between tural discourse was influenced by a these partitions that turn the loge experience of architecture and the
objects and their authors. This paper neglected source: public judgments boxes into as many confessionals”, polity who debated its merits.
will reveal the facts of the case of Sir about the acoustics of Parisian the- he urged. Parallel debates ensued
John Soane, who despite what now aters as debated in journals, books,
seems his manifest professional suc- and pamphlets in the 1770s and
cess, more than once angrily sued 1780s. Performance halls’ transfor-
his critics for libel. Upon reading mation into urban monuments has
disparaging accounts of his architec- been traced in the work of Claude-
tural designs in London newspapers, Nicolas Ledoux and others, reveal-
Soane retaliated by arguing in court ing a project of rational social con-
that such public ridicule was dam- trol through techniques of visibility.
aging to his reputation and should Yet the growing size of theaters and
therefore be censored by the courts. the changing character of audiences
In all of Soane’s lawsuits, and in a was making aurality a more crucial
few other pivotal legal decisions that consideration, as French audiences
the paper examines, the judges dis- evinced a new interest in sensitivity
agreed, and thereby crafted a legal and relied more than ever on these
consensus that an aesthetic object halls’ interior forms to help them
such as architecture was not an em- pick up emotional nuances. Acous-
bodiment of its architect, and that a tics was not merely a technical chal-
critique of the building need not be a lenge calling for professional amelio-
critique of the man. With its histori- ration but a means of confronting a
cal interpretation of these events, basic social problem: how should a
the paper will argue that a new re- limited resource be distributed equi-
lationship between the press, public tably among members of a public sit-
opinion, and architecture was cali- uated unequally? Some struggled to
brated through the mediating sphere find words to describe sonic impres-
of law, as an entirely new conception sions, while others transferred their
of aesthetic criticism emerged in the more general distaste for a particu-
public realm as a precisely theorized lar building or performance onto the
legal exemption. aural environment. In 1770, for ex-
ample, the Théâtre de la Porte Saint-

52 53
Session 7: The Historiography
of the Present

s7
Session Chair:
Andrew Leach, Griffith University, Australia

In her concluding comments on the Second International Meeting of the


EAHN in Brussels, Mary McLeod noted a tendency among more recently
minted scholars and PhD students to be preoccupied (and perhaps prob-
lematically so) with the recent past. Evidenced either as the historiography
or critical appraisal of the architecture since the 1970s or as the study of
architectural history’s earlier moments and trajectories through attention to
their historians, this work actively addresses the patrimony of the present. It
further looks to the task of understanding those moments in the recent past
in which the form and structures of contemporary architectural thought,
practice, education and criticism were introduced or confirmed. What do
the tools and disciplinary perspectives of the architectural historian offer
this problem? Is this a proper subject for architectural history scholarship?
Can we reverse the implications habitually drawn from Tafuri’s maxim “non
c’è critica, solo storia” to argue that subjects of criticism can, indeed, be
subjects of history? That the passage of time is not the only means by which
to foster critical distance? When does it stop being too soon to start writing
architectural history?
This session invites speakers to reflect on the broader issues at stake in
this pull to the present: to historicize this development, to contextualize it
institutionally and intellectually. What is at stake in the perceived growth
of attention to the recent past? What is the nature of this work? What
objectives underpin its momentum? Does it speak to the history and fates
of architectural theory among the architectural humanities? Or the role of
cultural studies in positioning architectural matters in hitherto unconsidered
territories? And what are the implications of attending to the present and
the recent past rather than other historical moments? Is there an impact
upon resources, students and opportunities that can reshape architectural

55
history and undermine traditionally strong fields of historical study (antiqui- S7.1 Claiming the End to say that post-postmodernism’s
ties of various stripes, the medieval epoch, and so forth)? How does it affect of Postmodernism in time was up? Clearly distinguishing
architectural history’s geography, or the parallel pull to consider the global? Architecture stylistic questions and anthropologi-
Papers in this session will address these broad-ranging questions through cal issues, the paper will go on to
focused reflections on the current shape of architectural history as a field Valéry Didelon consider the possibility that the end
of study. Contributions may offer cross sections through a series of cases, of postmodernism was announced
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École Nationale Supérieure
through treatment of a defined moment (such as postmodernism, or de- d’Architecture Paris-Malaquais, France prematurely, outlining a number of
constructivism) or present examples symptomatic of broader problems or hypotheses with a view to historicis-
positions within the questions sketched out here. Papers will ultimately con- In recent years, ever greater num- ing contemporary architectural pro-
tribute to the broader historiography of ideas in architectural culture, and bers of researchers have been turn- duction.
contributions may also reflect on the role and valency of this disciplinary ing their attention to the subject
agenda on architectural history writ large. of postmodernism in architecture,
with most starting by stating when it S7.2 Architectural
expired. Indeed, it is when a cultural Discourse and the Rise
movement is definitively part of the of Cultural Studies
past that people most commonly
undertake to study it. Whereas the Antony Moulis
date of its emergence is regularly University of Queensland, Australia
put back to earlier and earlier mo-
ments in the history of architecture, None of the recently published an-
postmodernism in architecture is thologies of architectural theory,
commonly considered to have ended representing intellectual work in
– or died – in the mid-1990s, a peri- the field from the early 1990s to
od that corresponds to the most re- the present, refers to the rise of
cent past into which historians have cultural studies in the contempo-
commenced their investigations. rary discourse of architecture. Nor
From that time onwards, the field does the relationship between the
of contemporary architecture has history of architecture and the pro-
been declared open to theory and duction of cultural studies appear to
criticism. This paper will carefully have been addressed. Nonetheless
examine the conditions under which it is apparent that since the early
postmodernism’s death notice was 1990s, cultural studies – a field
given in architecture, noting fur- covering, amongst other subjects,
thermore how this notice differed politics, identity discourse, media,
between the architectural cultures gender and popular culture – has
of Europe and the United States. grown in scope and is now taken up
Which historians, critics and archi- broadly within academic discussions
tects conducted its autopsy? What of architecture. What can be made
arguments were developed, for ex- of this rise relative to the discipline
ample, in the columns of the Ameri- of architecture and for an under-
can journal Architecture in 2011 standing of theory and history as

56 57
agents of the discourse? In seeking S7.3 After Nature: of architectural-environmental tradi- field has indeed begun to change,
to debate the post-critical moment an Architectural History tions. At the same time, the issues concurrent with a general re-exam-
in architectural theory of the late of Environmental Culture embedded in these writings should ination of its epistemological and
1990s, Mark Jarzombek makes the not be dismissed for their ideologi- disciplinary boundaries. In this pa-
observation that the kind of diverse Daniel Barber cal commitments. The second part per, we argue that while practicing
intellectual work to which architec- of this paper will place these archi- the discipline of architectural history
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University of Pennsylvania, USA
ture has become subject since this tectural-environmental histories in within traditional timeframes and es-
time appears remote from the prac- One of the more prominent aspects a dynamic relationship with, rather tablished analytical tools is of utmost
tice of architecture. Though Jar- of recent architectural history in- than in opposition to, the range of importance, scholars should also
zombek’s remark is an aside, it rais- volves how the field has been con- interpretations of architecture’s so- embrace the research and criticism
es issues not yet properly faced that figured relative to the environment. cial, aesthetic, and technological fu- of more recent architecture. Tak-
concern the role of cultural studies Since the 1960s, a number of his- ture as it has been envisioned since ing our cue from scholars who have
within architecture’s disciplinary torians and critics have engaged the the 1970s. The aim is to outline a raised similar questions with regard
field. This paper will map the rise of field on these terms. An analysis of historiography that sees concern to art history, such as Preziosi and
cultural studies in relation to archi- these histories helps to simultane- over territorial management, social Camille in the 1980s and Rogoff,
tecture from its beginnings with the ously dispel and expand the rubrics change, and the outlines of the eco- more recently, we demonstrate that
1990 Princeton symposium Sexual- of “environment” and “sustainability” logical future as part of the architec- it is not only the past that inspires
ity and Space, organised by Beatriz as they are deployed in architectural tural historiography of the present, the present: the study of the past
Colomina (subsequently edited and discourse, and in particular to lead while also remaining attentive to as an object or subject of research
published in 1992) and her 1994 such concerns away from engage- the premise of the environment as is always influenced by the present,
book Privacy and Publicity: Modern ment with nature as a static object a new driver for social and political by its current discourses and ideolo-
Architecture as Mass Media, which of concern and towards a more di- change. gies. In other words, looking at what
constitute the incipient events set- verse and broad based attempt – at is built now, or has been built only
ting out the ground for cultural once aesthetic, technological and recently, is an important dimension
studies entry into the disciplinary social – for the use of design tactics S7.4 Looking Back, Looking of looking back. While underscoring
field of architecture. In retrospect, to intervene in the global ecological Now: Architecture’s the importance of researching the
Colomina’s claim to “displace Archi- system.  Historical narratives and Construction of History history of architecture contextually
tecture” through the frame of cul- critical analyses by Brenda and Rob- (also as a tool for understanding re-
tural studies was not simply about ert Vale, James Wines, Malcolm Inbal Ben-Asher Gitler cent architectural production), we in-
architecture as object, but can be Wells, Philip Drew and many others Sapir Academic College – Ben Gurion vestigate how historical research is
seen in architecture’s recent histori- developed not only in book form, but University of the Negev, Israel transformed by the present, by intel-
ography as a moment of disciplinary also through articles, special issues, Naomi Meiri-Dann lectual and academic “turns” as well
displacement, the effects of which and new journals. The first part of Tel Aviv University, Israel as by cultural developments. We will
are still being felt in its academic this paper will analyze how these show how recent architecture has
field today. projects harnessed historical evi- The debate concerning the temporal influenced the architectural canon
dence either with the intent of clari- boundaries of architectural history is as well as how it has shaped our
fying methodological or technical a pressing issue, the implications of perspective of architecture’s cultural
challenges in the present, or sought which reach beyond pure intellectual context in past eras. It positions the
to describe a longue durée history of discourse to raise questions that important role of the present in the
vernacular practices as a means to are educational, economic and insti- construction of history and the pro-
justify the contemporary significance tutional. The notion of history in our duction of new historical knowledge.

58 59
Including the present in teaching and suffering from “present shock”, this Session 8: Building by the Book? Theory
research is certainly a breech of dis- paper questions the agenda of archi- as Practice in Renaissance Architecture
ciplinary boundaries, but it has the tecture in the twenty-first century. If
capacity to maintain architectural the proliferation of media directs our
history’s academic relevance and its attention to a permanent, all-encom-
relevance to society and its evolving passing “now”, then how can archi-
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built environment. tecture, a field driven by the prom-
ise of alternate futures, find a new
mode of existence? This paper takes
S7.5 Radical Histories and up a number of failures and success-
Future Realities – NOW es of twentieth-century architectural
propositions, and questions how ar- Session Chairs:
Lara Schrijver chitecture might conceive of a future Sara Galletti, Duke University, USA
Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium that does justice both to imminent Francesco Benelli, Columbia University, USA
realities and possible ideals. In a
Over the course of the twentieth global state of “presentism”, if the The rise of theory is one of the distinguishing traits of Renaissance architec-
century, architecture was marked future is no longer to be envisioned, ture. Taking different formats – manuscript and printed, and ran-ging in gen-
by a series of radical visions in which then what might the future of archi- re from the instruction manual addressing the specific needs of the prac-
architecture played a prominent role tecture entail? And what will become titioner to the learned dissertation feeding the interests of the intellectual
in reconfiguring both society and of history and theory, in a non-narra- elite – architectural treatises flourished across fifteen- and sixteenth-century
individual consciousness. Architec- tive permanent present? Does this Europe, becoming the primary means for the dissemination of architectural
tural manifestoes marked a path beg the need for a more extended knowledge past and present. Furthermore, Renaissance treatises shaped
towards wholesale societal reform, or deeper understanding of history? generations of professionals, informed the choices of their patrons, defined
and their subsequent failure to re- Does it seek timeless critical reflec- the contours of the profession and established models for the organization
shape society heralded a period of tion that continues time and again to of field-specific information.
disbelief in a better future through hit the mark? While there is a risk Renaissance theoreticians were also practitioners. Their understanding of
architecture. Current culture seems in this permanent present – the im- the classical past was based as much on the reading of ancient texts as
increasingly focused on the pres- possibility of standing out, of teleo- it was on the excavation and surveying of the physical remains of Anti-
ent. Even the appeal to “tradition” logical satisfaction, and of narrative quity. Antiquity itself was both the object of their humanistic curiosities and
or to “history” in current societal threads that bring together long and a repository of ideas and models for their design practices. And writings
discourse is a mode of addressing various histories – might it not also provided broad historical narratives on architecture, its origins and its devel-
present maladies rather than a long suggest a new relation between the opments as well as recipes, technical solutions, and practical prescriptions.
historical narrative. Following Doug- practices of history and theory and This integrated approach, bringing together theory and practice, was the
las Rushkoff’s suggestion that soci- the bubbling cauldrons of the prac- very basis of the success of Renaissance architectural treatises and their
etal developments on the whole are tices they study? impact the cultural and built environment. Yet, scholarship typically analyses
Renaissance theory of architecture as a field of its own, independent from
practice. Such separation prevents, rather than promotes, our understand-
ing of how architectural knowledge was produced, disseminated and re-
ceived in the Renaissance.
This session seeks to bridge the current epistemological divide by focusing
on the connections between the theory and the practice of architecture in

60 61
fifteenth and sixteenth-century Europe. It welcomes papers dealing with the S8.1 “Restauramenti lations between Serlio’s theoretical
variety of ways in which the practice and theory of architecture informed e restitutioni di case”: and practical postulations and the
each other; with the ways in which theoretical texts were conceived, pro- Book VII on Architecture reconstruction and restoration that
duced, and illustrated to facilitate comprehension; and how architects and by Serlio and the began in Ferrara in the 1570s, both
humanists read, understood, or misunderstood theoretical texts. A case- Dissemination of the in the field of architectural heritage,
study approach is preferred. Classical Order and the field of basic building. The
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latter is a specific object of study
Alessandro Ippoliti for the author, who devotes an im-
Università di Ferrara, Italy portant part of Book VII to it. The
Veronica Balboni contribution will develop various top-
Università di Ferrara, Italy ics, in order: The city of Ferrara
before the earthquake of 1570: a
The years when “Liber Septimus” was typical medieval city; Exempla of
in circulation, written by Sebastiano modern architecture in Ferrara:
Serlio and posthumously published in the sixteenth century palaces of the
1575 in Vienna, correspond to the Herculean Addition; Serlio’s Regola
postseismic period of reconstruction and architectural language in Fer-
in Ferrara. Pirro Ligorio directly in- rara: churches and palaces at the
vestigates the damages caused by end of the sixteenth century; Serlio’s
the earthquake of 1570, describing Regola and construction language in
a city destroyed by collapsing, badly Ferrara: basic building at the end of
built, old medieval constructions, the sixteenth century; Conclusions:
weakly put together and with no sub- the importance of Serlio’s treaty in
stance. Sebastiano Serlio’s technical the reconstruction of Ferrara.
solutions and practical rules – illus-
trated in the Seventh Book with ex-
amples where the language of me- S8.2 “Libri tre nei quali
dieval architecture is updated with si scuopre in quanti modi
“modern” solutions – perhaps find si può edificare vn
in Ferrara one of their first cases of Monast.o sÿ la Chiesa”:
practical application, thanks to the Architectural Treatise of
presence of architects like Aleotti, a Capuchin Friar Antonio da
faithful connoisseur of Serlio’s writ- Pordenone
ings (as well as Vignola’s), and to
the treaty’s recognised value as an Tanja Martelanc
operational tool. It was a treaty that Umetnostnozgodovinski inštitut Franceta
“ha restituito l’Architettura, e fattala Steleta, Slovenia
facile ad ogniuno”, as Jacopo Strada
would later introduce it to readers The Order of Capuchins, which di-
in editio princeps. The aim of this verged from the Observant Francis-
contribution is to investigate the re- cans in 1528, strived to live more

62 63
strictly than their predecessors. tempts to raise a cloister; conse- as the necessary background for S8.4 An Invented Order:
Therefore, they also tried to recre- quently the constructed convents the theological subject. The asso- Francesco di Giorgio’s
ate the physical world of the first St. deviate insignificantly from the ideal ciation with the brother of the art- Architectural Treatise and
Francis’s followers which they en- proposed in the theory. The applica- ist, who acted as architect for the Quattrocento Practice
riched with modern knowledge. For tion of the treatise will be illustrated church in which the altarpiece came
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this reason, they elected four friars with the architecture of the former to hang, has been underexposed. Angeliki Pollali
per province – the so-called fabricieri Styrian Capuchin province where, Recent technical research revealed DEREE The American College of Greece,
– who were responsible for building according to the specific construc- a complex system of incised and Greece
and who assured that their convents tion and ground floor characteris- underdrawn construction lines, a
were constructed according to the tics, his work was probably known construction based on an in-depth Francesco di Giorgio Martini could
Capuchin constitutions. In several through copies. knowledge of perspectival theories. represent the epitome of the Renais-
cases, fabricieri were well educated Moreover, there are similarities be- sance artist/architect of fifteenth-
in architectural knowledge and wrote tween architectural annotations in century Italy, as he exemplifies all
interesting architectural treatises, S8.3 Foundations of Renaissance treatises and painterly the characteristics that traditionally
which were regularly used in prac- Renaissance Architecture construction and mathematical in- we associate with that period. An
tice. One of them, Antonio da Porde- and Treatises in Quinten sights. We therefore demonstrate “uomo universale”, he was trained
none (1560–1628), a Venetian Cap- Massys’ St-Anna a very decisive role for the archi- as a painter, but he also practiced
uchin, wrote in 1603 a very detailed Altarpiece tecture and we will try to identify sculpture and architecture. In ad-
architectural treatise, which he sup- the relationships between early six- dition, he engaged in the writing of
plemented several times in the first Jochen Ketels teenth-century built, theoretical and an architectural treatise, which sur-
quarter of the seventeenth century. Independent scholar, Belgium imaginary architecture. Although vives in a number of manuscripts
In this work, he united knowledge of Maximiliaan Martens the composition of the work is seen and successive stages of prepara-
the classical and Renaissance trea- Universiteit Gent, Belgium as an appropriate translation of a tion. Scholars have identified in the
tise writers such as Marco Vitruvio strict medieval religious motive, we evolution of the text Francesco’s
Pollione, Gaio Plinio Secondo, Sebas- The architectural settings in the will demonstrate that Massys trans- transformation from a practicing
tiano Serlio, Leon Battista Alberti, paintings by Quinten Massys have formed the iconographic program artist to a humanist. The architect’s
Andrea Palladio, Daniele Barbaro, not received the necessary scholarly according to innovative Renaissance longstanding interest in Vitruvius has
Giovanni Antonio Rusconi, Giovanni attention. Remarkably different from insights. We will show that Massys substantiated this conclusion. Fran-
Nicolò Doglioni etc. Da Pordenone those of his contemporaries, like the relied on mathematical treatises cesco included passages from De
applied and combined his expertise Antwerp mannerists, his architec- and managed to integrate them dis- Architectura in his treatise and also
with the tradition of building a Capu- ture presents an elegant mix of flam- cretely into a pictorial masterpiece. undertook a separate, almost inte-
chin convent, which developed dur- boyant Gothic and supposedly fanta- Therefore, this paper studies the ar- gral, translation of Vitruvius. Despite
ing the sixteenth century, and the sized Italianate decoration. However, chitectural sources for the built sys- Francesco’s Renaissance pedigree,
tradition of the region, in which the no one has been able to pinpoint with tem, the vocabulary used, and the his architecture, his theory and their
monastery was constructed. Based conviction the doubtless Italianate ar- underlying mathematics and Renais- interrelation remain understudied.
upon the exceptional insights of clas- chitecture or painted sources which sance principles through computer This is all the more surprising as
sical and Renaissance architectural he may have known and used for his animated 3D reconstructions and Francesco’s oeuvre could provide us
theory, da Pordenone’s treatise was famous St-Anne Altarpiece (Brus- mathematics. It highlights another with a representative case study of
easily put into practice in the follow- sels, Royal Museums). Moreover, facet of architectural production at Quattrocento architecture. Unlike
ing centuries. It leaded Capuchin’s the architecture has been restricted the beginning of the Renaissance. Alberti’s humanistic enterprise and
fabricieri step by step in their at- to the second plan, and considered Filarete’s utopian vision of architec-

64 65
ture, the treatise of Francesco di from Cortona was entrusted with the Session 9: Architecture and Conflict,
Giorgio appears to be closely related design and planning of the Order’s C. 300–C. 1600
to his Quattrocento practice. Some new city. Laparelli not only submitted
sporadic attempts have been made four plans which delineated the new
to correlate diagrams/plans found city in accordance with Renaissance
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in Francesco’s treatise to his build- urban planning but also wrote an ar-
ings. In this paper, I will focus on chitectural treatise which forms an
Francesco’s discussion of the col- integral part of the Codex Laparelli.
umns and his reception of antiquity. This paper will explore the relation-
In particular, I will argue that the en- ship between various theoretical
tablature, as discussed in Saluzzia- concepts and principles as expound-
nus 148, is not related to Vitruvius, ed by Laparelli and the physical evo-
but reflects Quattrocento practice, lution and development of Valletta,
as it can be seen in the buildings by as one of the finest Renaissance cit- Session Chair:
both Francesco di Giorgio and Al- ies in Europe during the second half Lex Bosman, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands
berti. Combining this “Quattrocento of the sixteenth century. Aspects of
entablature” with the Vitruvian col- military defense, city planning, ser- In conflict and war architecture is often damaged or destroyed, but many
umns, Francesco invents and pro- vice infrastructure and architectural situations of conflict have, on the other hand, also led to the creation of
poses a new order for Quattrocento principles will be considered in study- new buildings. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, when high-ranking
architecture. ing the dialectic between theoretical individuals or large groups of people had to be convinced of power, author-
issues emanating from Laparelli’s ity or friendship for instance, various strategies could be employed. Visibil-
treatise and the physical process ity was (and still is) of course an enormous advantage of buildings, leading
S8.5 “Donami tempo che of creating the city of Valletta. The those who held power to turn to architecture in instances where no other
ti do vita”: Francesco new “city of the Order” represents means were available to convince people of their authority. This pattern
Laparelli, Envisioning the an ideal case study of “theory as continued throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Power might
New “City of the Order”, practice” within the historical milieu of course be expressed, but not all rival parties would necessarily accept
Valletta of the sixteenth century. During his such expressions of superiority, and techniques of persuasion were called
brief but eventful stay on the island for. Architectural concepts and forms could be incorporated in the build-
Conrad Thake Laparelli created the physical frame- ing project to avoid alienating those to be won over, and to facilitate their
L-Università ta’ Malta, Malta work of the city conceived primarily allegiance in situations of changed personal and institutional relations. In
as a fortified military city that would many cases the inclusion of particular groups and individuals was closely
Valletta was conceived as a new for- be able to safeguard the Order of St connected to policies of exploiting, rather than erasing, their identities.
tified city for the knights of the Order John from impeding threats by the This session will explore the various architectural means employed by par-
of St John in Malta. In the aftermath Ottoman Turks. The convergence of ticipants in situations of conflict or rivalry during the Middle Ages and the
of the Great Siege in 1565 and the theoretical principles and physicality Renaissance. Cases may be at local or regional level, but may include
defeat of the Ottoman Turkish army, of the construction and building pro- architecture that was aimed at a larger audience, as in a national or
it became critical to build a new forti- cess will be one of the main themes international theatre of operations. We invite papers considering ques-
fied city on the Sceberras peninsula of the paper. tions of the following kinds: the aims of patrons with their architecture;
that separated the two natural har- how the element of time could be used to their advantage or would turn
bours. The eminent soldier and mili- against them; if the architectural choices made in such situations would
tary engineer Francesco Laparelli support either new or more traditional architectural features; whether or

66 67
not patrons favored specific architects for various projects to ensure that S9.1 The Chrysotriklinos described as the agonistic exchange
the intended message would be expressed in the right way. Both individual within the Great Palace of symbolic motifs between Rome
buildings and groups of buildings can be discussed in papers. In some of Constantinople as Site and the Sasanian court. Emulations
cases buildings may be the starting point in a paper, whereas other papers of Contestation Between of ceremonial, artistic motifs and, I
may investigate the position and ambitions of patrons. Byzantium and Sasanian will argue, centrally-planned palace
Iran
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reception halls, contributed to the as-
sertion of the monarch’s legitimacy of
Nigel Westbrook rule. This ascription of symbolic sig-
University of Western Australia, nificance to palatine building forms –
Australia octagonal and triconchal halls – would
later influence the architecture of the
The sixth-century Byzantine impe- Papal and Carolingian palaces. In this
rial hall known as the Chrysotrikli- paper, I will attempt an architectural
nos, or Golden Triclinium, from its reconstruction of the Chrysotriklinos
construction formed the heart of the and will discuss the symbolism of
Byzantine Great Palace in Constan- the forms and spaces, in relation to
tinople, and served a central role the rituals recorded as having taken
in the complex court ceremonial for place within and around the hall, in
investitures, festivals and, crucially, order to reveal how space appears to
embassies during a period when the have been “performed” in this com-
Eastern Roman Empire faced an ex- plex in the sixth to tenth centuries,
istential threat first from Sasanian through which the position of the em-
Persia, and later from the Islamic Ca- peror as world ruler was asserted.
liphate. From the references to the
Chrysotriklinos in Byzantine texts, no-
tably the tenth-century Book of Cere- S9.2 Building Identity
monies, it seems clear that the build- and Community in the
ing consisted of a domed, octagonal Post-Crusade Morea: the
central space, surrounded on each Architecture of Interaction
of its faces by vaulted side-halls. This in the Thirteenth-century
configuration has usually been associ- Peloponnesos
ated with central plan Roman palace
halls and Early Byzantine martyrium Heather E. Grossman
churches such as the sixth-century University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
octagonal church of Sergius and Bac-
chus in Constantinople. However I will A group of fourteen churches built
contend that its form may, plausibly, in the thirteenth-century Greek Pelo-
lie in the contestational emulation of ponnesos will be discussed in order
Sasanian domed palace halls which to explore the mechanisms of ar-
were known to Roman emissaries, in chitectural and cultural exchange
a similar process to what Canepa has between patrons, architects, ma-

68 69
sons and viewers of varying reli- the extant architectural remains of ritory, which Daniel Waley aptly de- S9.4 “Faciendo sette et
gious, ethnic and social status in a several larger monastic and smaller scribed as a “fragmented, haphazard sedicion”: Architecture
post-conquest society. Following the parochial churches found throughout collection of lordships and townships, and Conflict in Sixteenth-
1204-1205 CE defeat of the Byzan- the Frankish-controlled territory. Fi- having almost nothing in common century Verona
tine, Orthodox Greeks residing in the nally, this paper investigates and re- except [their] fragile subordination
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region, then known as the Morea, frames scholarly models of cultural to Siena”. The greatest security chal- Wouter Wagemakers
Latin Catholic knights of northwest- and artistic interaction that are used lenge remained the inherent disunity Universiteit van Amsterdam,
ern European (largely French-speak- to explain identity and community in among the inhabitants, whose loyal- Netherlands
ing) lands established the Principality post-war/conquest societies such ties often lay more with an influen-
of Achaïa, divided further into several as the thirteenth-century Morea, tial family or anti-government faction In the aftermath of the War of the
fiefdoms. Local Greek archons (land- offering a new reading of the an- than with the Republic. Moreover, League of Cambrai (1508-1517),
holders), were permitted some privi- cient Greek term methexis (meaning the threat of military incursions from the cityscape of Verona underwent a
leges, though tensions between the “communion” or “participation”) as a neighboring states never abated and, remarkable change. The war years
communities are recorded. Howev- replacement for terms such as “hy- indeed, became increasingly danger- had taken a heavy toll on the city,
er, the extant churches of the region bridity” or “influence”. ous in the course of the fourteenth killing thousands of inhabitants and
prompt a more nuanced reading of century. It was during this period of damaging large parts of the medi-
the relationships between these sup- social unrest and military insecurity eval structures, which made exten-
posedly opposed groups, particularly S9.3 Sienese Fortifications that the Sienese invented a new type sive restoration activities necessary
when examined over the one-hun- in the Age of the Guelph of military architecture. Derived from and at the same time created op-
dred year duration of the Principality Commune the façade of Siena’s new civic pal- portunities to experiment with archi-
in light of their functional, temporal ace, the Palazzo Pubblico, it adhered tecture. In the postwar period the
and topographic relationships. Previ- Max Grossman to a standardized architectural code Veronese elite were eager to adopt
ously these churches were divided University of Texas at El Paso, USA that projected the authority and pres- the latest fashions from papal Rome,
into “Western” and “Byzantine” cat- tige of the capital and, at the same hiring Michele Sanmicheli (1487/8-
egories reflective of the cultural The Republic of Siena, like all medieval time, obscured or even canceled 1559), who was trained in the en-
groups found in the Principality at the Italian communes, was engaged in a pre-existing architectural idioms. Its vironment of Bramante and the Da
moment of conquest, I treat them as perpetual struggle against enemies iconographic features were as impor- Sangallo family, as their architect of
an inclusive group, showing that ar- both within and beyond its borders. tant as its effectiveness against the choice. Historians have ascribed to
chitecture physically and figuratively Bounded by the city-states of Florence state’s enemies. In time, the walls Sanmicheli a fundamental role in the
built a shared identity for the com- and Arezzo to the north and east, the and gates of numerous communi- flourishing of the arts in Verona, but
munities of the Morea, finally fusing bishopric of Orvieto to the southeast, ties were updated in the new style, remain reticent about the reasons
into a singular Moreot building prac- the Aldobrandeschi fiefdom to the which was also “deployed” for new of his sudden success from the late
tice and society. I parse the negotia- south and west, and the lands of Volt- fortresses throughout the territory. 1520s onwards. In this paper his
tions and procedures involved in the erra to the northwest, the Sienese The new military architecture not buildings will be addressed from the
design and construction of Moreot state encompassed nearly three only demarcated the confines of the point of view of his patrons by linking
churches as well as shifting archi- hundred towns, villages, castles and state, but also promoted the myth his private commissions in Verona
tectural aesthetics that contributed monasteries. Yet at the dawn of the that its disparate inhabitants were to the power vacuum that ensued
to a fluid and changing architectural Trecento, after nearly two centuries peacefully united under the benevo- from the war, which resulted in re-
embodiment of group/cultural iden- of administration, diplomacy and mili- lent Republic. peated confrontations between two
tity. This is demonstrated through tary occupation, the commune failed rivaling clans. Why did these power
a close archaeological reading of to pacify and completely unite the ter- struggles prompt Sanmicheli’s pa-

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trons to build? And how did these port by the Gonzaga, Medici and Session 10: Ideological Equality: Women
buildings fit into their strategies to Malaspina dukedoms. In and around Architects in Socialist Europe
take control of the Veronese insti- the Dukedom of Parma the atmos-
tutions? Also, why did they prefer phere was one of suspicion; forging
Sanmicheli for their projects? Two new alliances became essential in

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case-studies, the city residences of order to restore and strengthen the


the Bevilacqua and Lavezzola fami- affected power of Farnese. Cosimo II
lies, will serve as illustrations of the de Medici’s passage through Parma
relationship between architecture was the great occasion to arrange a
and power, and show how closely marriage between Odoardo Farnese
connected architecture and conflict and Margherita de Medici. There
were in sixteenth-century Verona. were just a few months available to Session Chairs:
prepare “the most beautiful feast Mary Pepchinski, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Dresden, Germany
(*vision) ever seen in whole Europe” Mariann Simon, Budapesti Müszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem, Hungary
S9.5 Political Power to impress and gain the consent of
Through Architectural Cosimo II. The city was transformed Emerging in the 1970s, the feminist approach to architectural history in
Wonder into a huge theatre perspective, a the West and in the United States explored beginnings: from investigations
procession of wonder from outside of women who created spaces via exhibitions and who were influential as
Susanna Pisciella the city in the morning and culminat- patrons and architects around 1900, to a focus on women in the shadows
Istituto Universitario di Architettura di ing inside its very core in the even- of modernist masters or who laboured in adjunct positions throughout the
Venezia, Italy ing, on the stage of Teatro Farnese, twentieth century. As women architects slowly gained ground in the 1980s
with a wooden, light and suspended and 1990s, research turned to new themes focusing on gender, space, and
In 1617 there were rumours in the structure inside the bricks and mas- architecture.
Farnese Dukedom of Parma about sive first floor (L87m x W32m x In the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, however, the emergence
the passage of Cosimo II de Medici, H22m) of Palazzo Farnese della Pi- of the woman architect and a gendered approach to history followed a stark-
on the way along his pilgrimage to lotta. Realized by Aleotti on the mod- ly different trajectory. Before 1945, most architectural faculties limited the
San Carlo Borromeo’s tomb in Mi- el of the Palladian Olympic, it was number of women architecture students but, after World War II, women’s
lan. This became a valuable oppor- designed for the opening opera “In integration into the profession was quick and radical. Because the new
tunity for Ranuccio I Farnese to re- Defense of Beauty” meant to trans- socialist states desperately needed engineers and architects, restrictions
generate the innocence and serenity pose Parma and the Farnese fiction- were abolished and the number of female architecture students increased
of his dukedom which had been se- ally such that Discord is overcame extensively. The sudden integration of women into architecture served more
riously stained five years before by through Beauty. Everything was than a practical demand. Because the ideal Socialist Woman should seek
the torture and beheading he had ready but Cosimo II never arrived. self-fulfillment in work and social-political commitment, the influx of women
applied to seven of his feudal lords, This extraordinary project opened into architecture and engineering reinforced the prevailing political ideology.
believing there was a conspiracy onto the era of Baroque wonder. Abundant state commissions provided work for all who were willing, and, in
against him with the indirect sup- principle, the new generation of women architects entering the profession
in the 1950s and early 1960s were offered the same opportunities as their
male colleagues.
While the bulk of gender research in architectural history concentrates on
difference, this situation of conscious (forced) equality may help to explore
other aspects of the feminine. Therefore we hope to generate a new con-

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sideration of gender and architecture inspired by the situation in Socialist S10.1 Emancipation and sisted under Socialism. Neverthe-
Europe, and we seek papers that address this special situation. For ex- Professional Obstinacy: less, women architects in the GDR
ample, did state-promoted, ideological equality contradict everyday gender GDR Women Architects were active in many areas including
practices? How did it impact on the situation for women in architectural construction supervision, housing,
design offices? Did women play an adjunct role or did they supervise large Harald Engler historic preservation and education.
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commissions? Were they confined to the usual “feminine” fields, like resi- Leibniz Institut für Regionalentwicklung The database of all GDR architects
dential architecture, interior design, or monument preservation? How did und Strukturplanung, Germany at our institute will be used to ana-
the media treat them and their work? Did they embrace Socialist ideology, lyze and assess women’s participa-
did they attempt a more critical position, or did they exploit their position as Women architects experienced a tion in these fields.
women for other ends? complicated occupational trajec- Although many women architects
tory in the GDR. Due to the govern- from the GDR today deny the exis-
ment’s support, the number women tence of female networks, it is worth
architects grew steadily to roughly speculating: To what extent is it pos-
26% of all practitioners by 1989. sible to identify networking strate-
Yet it was difficult for women archi- gies among these women? There
tects to assume leading roles. Their are strong indications of efforts
presence on the board of the Asso- to help other women architects in
ciation of Architects of the GDR only the work place, especially if women
increased from 1.2% in the early six- were heads of collectives or chief ar-
ties to 8.7% in the late eighties. In chitects. Also: Did they exploit their
more than 40 years of GDR history position as women for other ends?
only three women ever became chief This paper explores such structural
architects of a large city. Neverthe- and institutional issues in addition to
less their apparent marginalization examining the work of several com-
should be considered from the per- pelling protagonists.
spective of these women. They cre-
ated specific, obstinate approaches
to reflect their particular contribu- S10.2 Women in Hungarian
tion to the dominant world of (male) Industrial Architecture
architects. Aside from typically femi-
nine areas such as interiors and Péter Haba
monument preservation, women ar- Moholy-Nagy Müvészeti Egyetem,
chitects claimed to adopt softer and Hungary
more feminine working methods to
complement the masculine, techno- Emerging after the 1956 Revolution,
logical, and rational language of ar- the reform-spirited Kádár system
chitecture. Their arguments echoed greatly accelerated the emancipa-
those of late nineteenth-century Ger- tion of Hungarian women. Beginning
man feminists, and illustrate how in 1960, the Kádár system replaced
ideas about gender and work, which the Rákosi dictatorship’s de-femi-
arose in a bourgeois context, per- nized “working woman” ideal with

74 75
new feminine roles. Substantially appreciation of women and highlight ation, economic difficulties, and the the period’s ambitious architectural
more women professionals, including emancipation’s progress. This paper persistence of the traditional family and urban planning projects. Work-
women engineers, appeared during explores the following questions: model forced women architects to ing in supporting roles, they rarely
Hungary’s second wave of “social- Did industrial architecture provide view practice as a means to make a developed independent professional
ist industrialization”. The authorities Hungarian women architects with living and not a creative undertaking. positions. This paper presents the
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also de-Stalinized the political sphere, excellent opportunities because poli- State-sponsored daycare relieved achievements of women architects
restructured the economy, and pro- ticians found it expedient to connect women of some parental duties, yet and demonstrates the relationship
moted modernization. These efforts IPARTERV’s performance with the they remained responsible for the between their professional activities
focused on modernizing households efficacy of the “Hungarian model” of family and the home. Official propa- and the Communist state’s socio-po-
and expanding industries for trade Socialism and new feminine ideals? ganda claimed that professional ca- litical methods.
with other Comecom countries. Did a personal or social commitment reers led to self-actualization, yet the
Changes regarding the situation of on the part of IPARTERV’s manage- difficulties of everyday life hindered
women working for the Industrial ment bring about an increase in this goal. Although half of the archi- S10.4 Emancipated but
Building Design Company (IPAR- women employees? What factors tecture students were women, few Still Accompanied: Slovak
TERV), one of Hungary’s largest typified the careers of women archi- remained in practice. Women Architects
state design offices, reflect these tects at IPARTERV? A spirit of creative freedom was
trends. Under the Rakosi’s dictator- confined to the state-owned studios, Henrieta Morav číková
ship, hardly any women designed in- which employed many women. Some Slovenská akadémia vied, Slovak
dustrial buildings. Yet after 1956, at S10.3 Women Architects also worked in construction admin- Republic
a time when IPARTERV’s profession- in the People’s Republic istration or education. Neverthe-
al prestige grew, their numbers in- of Poland less, Halina Skibniewska, Hanna Ad- Slovakia’s first architecture school
creased, often as leading architects amczewska-Wejchert, Małgorzata opened in 1946, and the first Slo-
of large projects. Structural innova- Piotr Marcinak Handzelewicz-Wacławek and Jadwi- vak women architects, three gradu-
tion and an optimistic investment Politechnika Poznańska, Poland ga Grabowska-Hawrylak emerged as ates of this school, began working
boom resulted in spectacular build- important designers, professors and in 1950. In the 1950s, state ideol-
ings that were utilized as backdrops Few Polish women architects at- award recipients who influenced Pol- ogy and the law guaranteed women
for the Kádár regime’s propaganda. tracted widespread recognition ish architecture after World War II, equal rights. However, problems
They also attracted international during the inter-war years. This although most started their careers resulting from the nation’s poor
attention. Due to IPARTERV’s pres- situation improved in the People’s before the war. For some, teaching economy and the hesitation of Slo-
tige, women employees had more Republic of Poland (PRL). Although provided professional independence vak women, who had emancipation
support than those in other state the pre-war feminist movement was and the opportunity to publish. Books forced upon them by state policy,
design offices. It is hardly a coinci- not revived, Communist authorities like Helena Syrkus’ Społeczne cele complicated women’s social status.
dence that the first female winner of needed qualified workers. They en- urbanizacji (The Social Objectives of Meanwhile, throughout the 1960s,
the Ybl Prize, Hungary’s most presti- couraged women to perform “male” Urbanization) or Bożena Maliszowa’s other processes, including Slovak
gious architectural award, was IPAR- jobs and increased educational op- Śródmieście. Wybrane zagadnienia emancipation, modernization and
TERV’s Olga Mináry, and that she portunities. Professional women planowania (The City Centre. Selected industrialization, combined with in-
represented Hungary at the 1967 soon became common. Whereas Urban Planning Problems) influenced creased building production, the
UIA Congress in Prague. However, women perceived the “new” profes- a generation. Meanwhile, numerous construction of national institutions,
Mináry’s success and that of women sions as a means to acquire status, anonymous women (educated mostly and the establishment of specialized
with similar careers reflect political achieve social emancipation, and be- after 1945) labored in the state- planning institutes accelerated wom-
efforts to demonstrate the system’s come independent, the political situ- owned studios and contributed to en’s entry into public life.

76 77
Although the building sector provided S10.5 Female Students as less likely to succeed profession- on professional as well as personal
opportunities for women architects, of Josef Plečnik Between ally and thus directed to him, since relationship between Plečnik and
their situation was far from easy. A Tradition and Modernism Plečnik’s work was not really appre- his female students. On the basis
woman on a building site could per- ciated at that time, or were they just of archival research and interviews
form a laborer’s tasks but she was Tina Potoˇcnik not enticed by ideological conformity with Plečnik’s female students who
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not expected to supervise construc- Raziskovalni inštitut za vizualno kulturo as some of their male colleagues are still alive the paper will deepen
tion. Women could move about only od 19. stoletja do sodobnosti, Slovenia were? Where did they find work our understanding of the position
when accompanied by a man, such after concluding their studies and of women architects in socialist
as a classmate, husband or supe- After World War II, in the changed on what kind of commissions? Fur- Europe.
rior officer. The situation in the state socio-political circumstances of the thermore, this paper will shed light
design offices was similar. Strict newly established socialist state of
professional discipline and the time- Yugoslavia, in contrast to the pre-
consuming nature of creative work war period, almost exclusively fe-
combined with familial responsibili- male students studied under the
ties placed enormous pressure on leading Slovene neo-classicist ar-
women architects. After a promis- chitect Jože Plečnik (1872–1957),
ing start, many left architecture and who at that time still taught at the
worked in supporting roles. In the Ljubljana Faculty of Architecture.
1960s, Viera Mecková (1933-) and The present paper focuses on those
Ol’ga Ondreičková (1935-) managed women architects who were pro-
to transcend these limitations. Both fessionally active when the crucial
were studio directors, designed im- period in Slovene twentieth-century
portant public buildings and received architecture began and reached its
awards. Mecková worked in a re- peak in the 1960s. Their profes-
gional centre that carried out state sional position and the role of their
commissions and conceptual proj- work in the formation of the new
ects similar to the work of Super- socialist country and the new soci-
studio. When she was 35 years old, ety will be discussed, with special
Ondreičková completed a structure regard to the following questions:
for the World Ski Championships in How did Plečnik’s female students
the High Tatras, which insured her navigate between his architectural
later success. This paper exam- views (influenced/inspired by tra-
ines these women, their positions, dition), foreign influences and the
the similarities and dissimilarities in needs and directions of a socialist
their approaches to architecture, state, such as solving the housing
and their careers. It considers the problem and building public facili-
situation of women architects in the ties? Why did they, in the time of the
former Czechoslovakia and focuses socialist regime, study and work un-
on the strategies that they employed der Plečnik, known for his interlacing
to gain recognition. of architecture and religion? Were
they because of their gender seen

78 79
Roundtable 1: Piedmontese Baroque
Architecture Studies Fifty Years on

RT1
Roundtable Chair:
Susan Klaiber, Independent scholar, Switzerland

The current decade marks the fiftieth anniversary of the great flowering of
studies on Piedmontese Baroque architecture during the 1960s. Proceed-
ing from pioneering works of the 1950s such as Rudolf Wittkower’s chapter
“Architecture in Piedmont” in his Art and Architecture in Italy 1600-1750
(1958), or Paolo Portoghesi’s series of articles and brief monograph on
Guarini (1956), international and local scholars like Henry Millon, Werner
Oechslin, Mario Passanti, and Nino Carboneri produced an impressive ar-
ray of publications on the period. Some of the milestones of this scholarly
output include the architecture section of the exhibition Mostra del Barocco
Piemontese (1963), Andreina Griseri’s Metamorfosi del Barocco (1967),
and Richard Pommer’s Eighteenth-Century Architecture in Piedmont (1967).
This scholarship culminated in major international conferences on Guarini
(1968) and Vittone (1970), as well as the initiation of the Corpus Juvar-
rianum in 1979.
This roundtable aims to commemorate the golden age of studies on Pied-
montese Baroque architecture through a critical assessment of the heri-
tage of the 1960s. Have Griseri’s and Pommer’s “challenging” (Wittkower)
concepts proven robust? Does a traditional geographic-stylistic designation
remain fruitful for investigating a region whose two major architects built
throughout Europe and whose ruling dynasty entered supraregional mar-
riage alliances? Do recent interdisciplinary methodologies – drawing from
fields like geography, sociology, or history of science – reframe the roles of
agents like civic authorities, construction workers, or military engineers?
Has new material evidence altered long-held assumptions?
Discussion positions may directly address historiography or methodology of
the 1960s, or present alternative approaches in the form of case studies or
new research projects that critically engage with this historic body of schol-

81
arship on Piedmontese Baroque architecture, urbanism, and landscape. At RT1.1 Architectural However, the novelty of the contem-
its previous conferences, the EAHN did not highlight the architecture of the Exchanges Between Rome porary urban and architectural plan-
host region in dedicated panels. Turin, however, arguably presents an ideal and Turin Before Guarini ning of Turin as a capital city was not
venue for an international roundtable with regional focus: then as now, Pied- ignored by Roman architects as can
mont is a major European crossroad for cultural influences from the Italian Marisa Tabarrini be seen in some unrealized projects
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peninsula, France and Spain, northern Europe, and the former Hapsburg La Sapienza-Università di Roma, Italy for the renewal of Rome. That Turin
empire. Piedmontese Baroque architecture continues to occupy both local could thus command the attention of
and international scholars, as demonstrated by the recent series of mono- The architectural advisors of Maria contemporaries tends to reinforce
graphic conferences in Turin on architects like Alfieri, Garove, and Juvarra Cristina of Bourbon, Regent of Savoy the theses of Andreina Griseri and
organized by the Bibliotheca Hertziana together with the Venaria Reale con- from 1637 to 1648, were Count of 1960s scholarship on Turin as a
sortium. Breaking out of these monographic constraints, this roundtable will Filippo San Martino d’Aglié, appoint- model city. The 1640s and 1650s in
provide an opportunity to reflect on where the field has been during the past ed “Gran Maestro delle Fabbriche” Turin coincide with a phase of transi-
half century, as well as where it might go in the next fifty years. in 1643, and her former brother in tion and experimentation before the
law, Prince Maurizio of Savoy. The arrival in 1666 of Guarino Guarini,
two men had been close since their who marked a turning point in Ba-
sejour in Rome when Maurizio was roque architecture in Piedmont.
still a cardinal and Filippo his gentle-
man of the chamber; they both had
grown up in the cultural and artis- RT1.2 Guarino Guarini: the
tic milieu of the city and shared the First “Baroque” Architect
same interests developed inside the
Accademia dei Desiosi. For them it Marion Riggs
was quite logical also to consider Independent scholar, Italy
ideas and suggestions of the archi-
tects whom they had known during In her contribution to the conference
their stay in Rome for the challeng- Guarino Guarini e l’internazionalità
ing architectural programmes being del barocco of 1968, Silvia Bordini
planned in Turin. In addition, between presented a historical overview of
the death of Carlo di Castellamonte the criticism of Guarini, claiming at
in 1630 and the professional matu- one point that remarks of eighteenth-
ration of his son Amedeo, the du- century writers “accomunano Guarini
cal engineers were attracted by the nella generale valutazione negative
monumental persuasiveness of the dell’arte barocca”. As Bordini rightly
works of their Roman counterparts. claims, this criticism of Guarini was
This focus on Rome was enhanced indeed part of a broader trend of
by the arrival in Turin of the Theatines censuring the work of architects
and the Minims with their first settle- whom we would now characterize
ments during the 1620s, and by the as “baroque”. But late-eighteenth-
promotion of the “dynastic cult” with century criticism of Guarini was
the resumption of works in the chap- also unique, and in significant ways
el of the Holy Shroud in the 1650s. not discussed by Bordini. Promi-

82 83
nent theorists – Jacques-François co took place in Turin. The confer- tural historian, an idea expressed fied configuration of the historical
Blondel, Francesco Milizia, Antoine ence papers published in 1970 in 1968 as well. Is this distinction urban center, after it merged into
Quatremère de Quincy, and others show the various ways in which the visible in the argumentative uses of the UNI standard. The author ex-
– made clear distinctions between presenters had found arguments Guarini’s treatise? And in which way amines the Baroque period in depth
Guarini’s failings and those of other in the text of Guarini’s treatise Ar- has the existence of the treatise in- (seventeenth–eighteenth centuries),
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architects, and particularly those of chitettura Civile, for instance to draw fluenced Guarini historiography? because it “gets to the roots of the
Borromini, the architect whom mod- philosophical and symbolical conclu- appearance and of the concrete
ern scholars most often consider sions from the comparative analysis planning more distant in time, all
the focus of eighteenth-century criti- of his drawings, or to deconstruct RT1.4 Idealism and the way to the prior operations of
cism. Quatremère de Quincy, in his Guarini’s supposed knowledge of Realism: Augusto Cavallari tracing out by Roman colonization
well-known definition of “baroque” as stereotomy by a close-reading of Murat […] and to the subsequent uses of
an architectural term, in fact singled Trattato IV. The way in which the theoretical principles and practical
out Guarini alone as “le maître du treatise was applied for the 1968 Elena Gianasso operating modes of the city’s archi-
baroque”. My discussion focuses on conference contributions echoes Politecnico di Torino, Italy tecture” in the nineteenth century.
what made Guarini’s architecture the influence of Sigfried Giedion in The paper highlights the method-
unique, and “baroque”, in the minds the historiography of Guarini. In his In the late 1960s, when Andreina ology of research undertaken by
of late-eighteenth-century critics. search for a theoretical foundation Griseri and Richard Pommer pub- scholars from the Politecnico di To-
Such a discussion seeks to reevalu- for modern architecture, Giedion lished their works on Piedmontese rino in the 1960s, likening it with
ate current perceptions of what the pointed at the work by the baroque Baroque architecture, Forma ur- the scholarly literature produced
term “baroque” meant when it was architects in general and by Guarini bana e architettura nella Torino during the same period on Pied-
introduced into architectural criti- in particular. After all, Guarini was barocca. Dalle premesse classiche montese Baroque architecture. The
cism and to recognize the criticism the author of an extensive theoreti- alle conclusioni neoclassiche (1968) comparison between these contem-
of Guarini as a distinctive and crucial cal text on architecture in the ba- was published in Turin, the outcome poraneous studies highlights Caval-
part of the formation of these early roque period. By doing so, Giedion of national research projects coor- lari Murat’s position, today perhaps
notions of “baroque” architecture. In promoted Guarini as an architect dinated by Augusto Cavallari Murat idealistic, regarding the concepts of
so doing, my discussion also calls for and scientist combined in one per- since 1962. An engineer who gra- “historic centre” and “monument”.
a reappraisal of the significance of son, connecting his artistic genius duated from the Politecnico di To- However, the historical research
Piedmontese architecture in the for- with his theoretical abilities, and his rino, then professor and director of method applied by Cavallari Murat
mation of the concept of “baroque” buildings with his text. It is interest- the Istituto di Architettura Tecnica and his survey technique still crop
architecture more generally. ing to evaluate the application of the at the same university, Cavallari up as an emblematic reference for
treatise in the conference contribu- Murat produced many publications “making history” today. Thus, Forma
tions of 1968 in order to question now included among the milestones Urbana, almost fifty years after its
RT1.3 The Multifaceted the handling of treatises in architec- of architectural history and restora- publication, remains relevant.
Uses of Guarini’s tural historiography in general. This tion. Forma urbana chose Turin, in
Architettura Civile in 1968 paper will present an analysis of the particular the space bounded by city
argumentative uses of Architettura walls considered the historic cen-
Martijn van Beek Civile in the 1968 conference pa- tre, as a case study to introduce
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands pers. The hypothesis that forms the and explore an approach to the built
basis of the analysis is Manfredo environment. The method presents
In 1968 the conference Guarino Tafuri’s distinction of the operative its results in a conjectural philologi-
Guarini e l’Internazionalità del Baroc- architect and the critical architec- cal survey, a tool to provide a uni-

84 85
RT1.5 A Regional Artistic RT1.6 An Enduring that creates a long tradition of ar- how this relationship was shaped in
Identity? Three Exhibitions Geography: Piedmontese chitecture, but now within the focus a new way during the 1960s against
in Comparison Architecture and Political of an individual form. At the same the background of the 1930s. After
Space time, the geographical frame re- the war, form and style were intellec-
Giuseppe Dardanello garding the city was altered by the tually brought into a kind of “service”
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Università degli Studi di Torino, Italy Cornelia Jöchner Cavallari Murat school into the pro- for the ruling dynasties, which has
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany ductive term of “territory”. Form was been an iconographic paradigm up
The Mostra del Barocco Piemontese now often brought into the order of to now. Instead of separating politi-
organized by Vittorio Viale in 1963 In his review of Albert Erich Brinck- typologies. cal history and architecture, today it
suggested the recognition of a strong mann’s Theatrum Novum Pede- My contribution will focus on the seems more productive to examine
architectural identity in the historical montii (1931), Giulio Carlo Argan relationship between architectural spaces which are built both by archi-
experience of Piedmont. The exhibi- (1932) considered the reasons why form and political space, exploring tecture as well as by politics.
tion inspired major initiatives of study architects like Guarini and Juvarra
that led an international contingent seemed to be interesting for Pied-
of art and architectural historians mont. This was in contrast to Brinck-
to wonder about the personality mann’s perspective on Piedmont as
and work of artists such as Guarino a certain area (“Boden”) which made
Guarini, Filippo Juvarra and Bernardo it possible to attract these artists
Vittone. Subsequent research shifted from outside. Instead of such an
the interest to urbanism and history idealistic model of Kunstlandschaft
of the city, while the exhibition Diana the young Argan wanted to establish
Trionfatrice. Arte di corte nel Piemon- critical-historical methods to iden-
te del Seicento (Turin 1989) recog- tify the characteristics of Piedmon-
nized the engine of the artistic devel- tese architecture. Postwar studies
opment in the dialectical relationship in architecture, particularly Rudolf
centre-periphery between the provin- Wittkower’s chapter “Architecture
cial areas and the capital of Savoy. in Piedmont” (1958) are based on
The exhibition I Trionfi del Barocco. this critique by integrating the “rapid
Architettura in Europa 1600-1750 political development” (Wittkower)
(Stupinigi 1999) intended to illustrate of Piedmont in the seventeenth and
the development of architectural eighteenth centuries. While Witt-
types in seventeenth and eighteenth- kower saw no tradition established
century Europe, and pointed out the between Juvarra’s architecture and
innovative role played by Piedmontese that of Guarini, Richard Pommer
architecture in the development of ex- (1967) arrived at opposite conclu-
emplary models. This discussion po- sions: for him, the connection of an
sition critically compares the results “open structure” as described by
obtained by these three exhibitions in Vittone at the end of the eighteenth
outlining the research issues that still century is visible already in Guarini’s
need to be addressed. S. Lorenzo, Turin. Here Piedmont
again becomes a “Kunstlandschaft”

86 87
Session 11: The Published Building in
Word and Image

S11
Session Chairs:
Anne Hultzsch, The Bartlett School of Architecture, UK
Catalina Mejia Moreno, Newcastle University, UK

What are the common grounds, or the points of divergence, between word
and image in the dissemination of architecture? The study of word-image
relations is one of the most innovative and cross-disciplinary fields to have
emerged in the humanities over the last decades. Following on from what
has been labelled the “visual turn” in the 1990s, it attracts scholars from
disciplines as diverse as art history, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, or
literature. This session aims to open up this field to architectural history by
exploring the effect of the coexistence of the graphic and the written in the
dissemination of architecture. We invite papers that challenge the relation-
ship between descriptions and illustrations of buildings in printed and publicly
disseminated media such as newspapers, journals, pamphlets, books, or
catalogues. While recent scholarship has increasingly turned to investigate
1960s and 1970s architectural journalism, we are particularly interested
in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. This period – which saw the
discovery of the daguerreotype, the eclipse of the engraving by the photo-
graph, as well as the rise of the architectural magazine – has been largely
overlooked by research on architectural publication.
We encourage papers on subjects within this time frame, but also welcome
work on word-image relations in other periods. Particularly welcome will be
papers that focus on a close analysis of specific publications, genres, or
published events, as well as detailed analyses of particular aspects such
as captions, layout, content, use of colour and literary devices. Questions
discussed could include, but are not limited to: what roles do words and
images, and the relationship between both, play in the dissemination of
architecture? What does the image illustrate, what does the text describe?
What is the effect of treating word as image, or image as text? How are

89
hierarchies between text and graphics expressed, also in terms of content? S11.1 Catalogues tion of descriptions and illustrations
What is the effect of new reproductive and illustrative technologies on the and Cablegrams of monuments as they appeared in
style of writing? How does a new medium, such as photography, change museum inventories and sales cata-
the form and content of the text? By probing the visual and the written at Mari Lending logues, focusing on visual and taxo-
the same time, the session intends to expand current methods of archi- Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo, nomical aspects of this understudied
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tectural historiography. In the face of an ever-growing corpus of published Norway chapter of the publication and circu-
representations of architecture, we see an urgency to explore the historical lation of architecture. I will especially
implications and the development of the relationship between word, image, A genre that has received little look into the Hall of Architecture
and building. scholarly attention within architec- at the Carnegie Museum in Pitts-
tural print culture is the catalogues burgh; set up in a remarkable tempo
that in the last part of the nineteenth through a hectic correspondence of
century offered monuments casted cablegrams between major muse-
in plaster from prominent museums ums and innumerable formatori all
and private formatore firms all over over Europe. Inaugurated in 1907,
Europe and the US. Constantly updat- at the very moment plaster casts
ed and wildly circulated these sales were about to fall out of vogue, the
catalogues designated the backbone Carnegie collection was almost ex-
of the grand cast collections span- clusively reflecting the stock of mon-
ning from Moscow to Chicago, and uments available through catalogues
the prolific, and eventually Trans- in a decreasing market of casts,
Atlantic market of casts. Parallel to thus mirroring in interesting ways
the emergence of photography but the catalogue as a depot of architec-
far less studied, plaster casts be- tural representation.
came a principal architectural mass
medium in the nineteenth century,
and were highly influential in the dis- S11.2 Illustrated
semination of architecture at world Picturesquely and
fairs and in museums, represent- Architecturally in
ing a constant renegotiation of the Photography – William
canon through replicas. Full-scale Stillman and the Acropolis
architectural plaster casts might in Word and Image
be understood as object-images in
themselves. However, their pres- Dervla MacManus
entation in text and photography in University College Dublin, Ireland
sales catalogues, some of them ex- Hugh Campbell
tremely beautiful and in subtle ways University College Dublin, Ireland
disseminating contemporary schol-
arship on antiquities, designates a In 1870, the American William J.
peculiar configuration of word, im- Stillman – diplomat, journalist, painter
age, and building. and photographer – published an al-
This paper looks into the constella- bum of autotypes entitled The Acrop-

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olis of Athens: Illustrated Picturesque- stable, reliable viewpoint offered by the architecture of that city changed Giedion proclaims Walter Gropius’
ly and Architecturally in Photography. words and the visceral, mutable view rapidly at that time, as did, also at a seminal Fagus Factory of 1911 as
For a newcomer to the medium, Still- presented by images. Thus, although fast pace, the word-image relations a “spontaneous” and “unexpected”
man’s images were remarkable for Stillman was primarily renowned for in the journal. departure from Peter Behrens’ AEG
their poise and clarity. But where the his vivid writing, in The Acropolis of The obvious effect of the shift to the Turbine Hall of a few years earlier.
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photographs were “clear and lively”, Athens, he resorted to images to photograph was that buildings for- Nevertheless, Gropius’ revolutionary
to borrow John Szarkowski’s phrase, communicate experience, while the merly published as (falsely) isolated use of walls – no longer load bear-
the brief text which accompanied words stuck close to the facts. objects were subsequently shown ing but rather “mere screens” – had
each was, by comparison, laborious as buildings in a concrete and re- been rendered neutral by the proj-
and lifeless. Facing each other across alistic physical context. Yet, I argue ect’s documentation shortly after its
each double-spread, text and image S11.3 Lost for Words: that this change led to a major shift completion. In Giedion’s view, these
seemed to speak in completely dif- How the Architectural in the word-image relation: first, due images shot by Edmund Lill prior to
ferent registers, in a manner which Image Became a Public to the realistic and (usually) not ma- World War I rendered the project
presaged many subsequent uses Spectacle on Its Own nipulated and non-selective nature “barely recognizable”, and in the con-
of similar material, most famously of the photograph, captions had to text of the 1950’s, these representa-
in Vers Une Architecture. Part of a Patrick Leitner clarify what needed to be looked at; tions of the building had outlived both
larger project into the depiction of École Nationale Supérieure more importantly, due to the power their descriptive and connotative use
architectural experience during this d’Architecture Paris-La Villette, France of the photograph, the text (an arti- value. New images were needed to
period, this paper will explore the re- cle or a caption) shifted from being argue Gideon’s point more effectively,
lationship between word and image Although entirely neglected in the the main element illustrated by an namely that the factory was “one of
in Stillman’s publication in terms of historiography of architecture, the image to merely being an enhanc- the building types in which glass and
intentions, in terms of contemporary world of the illustrated journals of ing element. My paper will demon- steel are married together”.
ideas on depicting architecture and general interest represents a rich strate what it means when buildings This paper examines Gropius’ post-
in terms of the modes of publication source for the study of the dissemi- in L’Illustration are increasingly seen war editorial collaborations with
which followed. Stillman was deeply nation and knowledge of architecture in context, shown in large panoramic Giedion through the lens of the Fa-
involved in contemporary discussions in the public realm. Most of all, study- images, turning architecture into a gus project. The dissemination of
of artistic depiction and its relation- ing these journals is crucial for an public spectacle. This would entirely this building in words and images il-
ship to the truth of experience. In his analysis of relations between word renew the relation between word and lustrates the degree to which their
critique of Ruskin’s essay on Turner’s and image regarding the published image, when it is no longer the text editorial re-framing shaped the build-
Slave Ship, Stillman contended that building. This is even more true in but the image that speaks for itself. ing’s historical legacy. Photographs
Ruskin, in pressing his claims for the the time period from around 1900 of and texts about the building from
painting’s objective validity, “left out of to WWI when photographic images the period after its completion will
all consideration the subjective trans- increasingly replaced drawings as S11.4 In Wort und Bild: be analyzed alongside Albert Renger
formation of natural truth which is the graphic descriptions of buildings in Sigfried Giedion, Walter Patzsch’s later Neue Sachlichkeit
basis of art”. For Stillman, the vivid the printed media. Gropius and the Fagus-Werk images, which, I argue, more ef-
rendering of the experience of the In this paper I propose to take a close fectively reinforced Giedion’s rhetori-
world depended, ultimately, on artistic look at the way the French weekly- Jasmine Benyamin cal claims, and those of most sub-
subjectivity. Conceding the power of illustrated journal L’Illustration used University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA sequent scholarship on the project.
Ruskin’s “word picture” (as he terms text and image in this period for the By reading these early and later ci-
it), he was nonetheless uneasy with publication of New York buildings. It is In Walter Gropius: Work and Team- tations of the Fagus factory in tan-
what he saw as its conflation of the a particularly good case in point since work, Swiss art historian Sigfried dem, the influence of post-Bauhaus

92 93
attitudes toward photographic media cal layout, characterized by columns, Session 12: On Foot: Architecture
in re-visioning the arguments sur-
rounding Wilhelmine architectural
symmetry, etc. They tended to per-
petuate the relationship of word and
and Movement
production becomes evident. Finally, I image as established by periodicals in
argue that Gropius, Giedion and sub- the 1880s. Moreover, in the 1920s
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sequent historians transformed the L’Architecte, L’Architecture vivante
Fagus project into a canon of modern and Quadrante systematically used
architecture in spite of its heteroge- separate plates for drawings and
neous provenance, and because of photographs, increasing effects of
its singular rendering in modernist separation of the image of the build-
discourse, whereby all previous anxi- ing from its description. However,
eties of an emergent style were ef- unexpected effects of this “physical” Session Chairs:
fectively suppressed. distance gave rise to some semantic Christie Anderson, University of Toronto, Canada
collisions, visual metaphors or ellipsis David Karmon, College of the Holy Cross Worcester, USA
as in Quadrante. This paper will anal-
S11.5 Distance, yse such semantic collisions. Walking is key to the acquisition of spatial knowledge. It is the most funda-
Juxtapositions and On the contrary, some magazines like mental means by which we make sense of architecture and space, and it is
Semantic Collisions of Text Das neue Frankfurt or Casabella inte- embedded in the practice of historians who only feel secure in their under-
and Image in Architectural grated the use of New Typography, of standing of a structure once they have visited it in person, poking their heads
Periodicals of the 1920s functional typography (for which they through doorways, sensing the narrowness of corridors with their bodies,
and 1930s showed a constant interest) without and negotiating physical shifts in elevation as they ascend or descend from
being a “laboratory” for avant-garde one level to another. But while the measuring of space with the body may be
Hélène Jannière experiment. Yet they hosted some rendered concrete in traditional dimensions – labeling distances the length
Université Rennes 2, France innovative associations of words and of arms and feet – the act of walking remains so taken for granted that its
fragments of images, sometimes in- consequences often seem invisible. As Francesco Careri observes, however,
This paper deals with “spatial” rela- cluded in a geometric grid. In Casa- walking represents a transformative practice and, for anthropologist Tim In-
tionships of words and image – as bella this led in some sequences of gold, circumambulation offers a way of knowing. This most pedestrian mode
proximity or separation of texts and articles (“Città 32”) to the quasi dis- of transport is in fact capable of bringing about radical shifts in meaning
photographs, photographs and cap- appearing of the text, unless captions affecting not only the occupant but even the space itself (as in Alfred Kazin’s
tions – in some professional architec- or single words, associated with pho- experience of New York). Martin Heidegger lamented “the loss of nearness”
ture magazines from the mid-1920s tographs – views of shops of Milano – in modern culture where, he suggested, the triumph of modern technology
to the 1930s. constructing metaphors of the “mod- in overcoming great distances had also rendered human experience more
In this period, professional magazines ern life” of the metropolis. uniform or generic, and where increased accessibility and familiarity tended
offered a wide range of visual forms In both these cases, this paper will to impoverish the most intimate lived human experiences. And yet perhaps
and strategies. Despite typographic analyse semantic associations gen- within the most basic mode of human locomotion lies the seeds of transfor-
experiments of the avant-gardes in erated by these juxtapositions, colli- mation and renewal. Through walking we come into contact with the object,
the 1920s, most architectural mag- sions or effects of distance between engaging both the distant and proximal senses. Through walking we begin to
azines (not only doctrinally “tradition- word and image. It will thus con- recover a sensual experience too casually glossed over in the conventional
al”, but also modernist ones as the tribute to study interactions of pho- academic study of architecture as a static object projected onto a pixellated
Italian rationalist Quadrante) contin- tographs and words in the physical screen. We measure buildings by paces and construct narratives as we
ued to be structured by rather classi- space of the magazine. negotiate the natural and human world.

94 95
This session seeks to investigate the implications of such observations. In S12.1 Porticoes and address. Besides this, it will also ex-
what ways does the act of walking open up the traditional history of archi- Privation: Walking to Meet plore earlier architectural responses
tecture and urban spaces to new kinds of interpretation? How does walking the Virgin to the latter stages of pilgrimage in
challenge the dominant praxis and modes of understanding that currently an attempt to identify how this par-
dominate architectural history? How does walking provide a means to inter- Paul Davies ticular architectural form emerged
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rogate and even redefine the experience and understanding of buildings and University of Reading, UK and developed.
spaces? Topics might include historically specific questions surrounding me-
dieval pilgrimage or the modern drifter in the city. We also welcome broader Late Medieval and Renaissance pil-
topics on human locomotion, space and the built world. grimage, whether to distant lands S12.2 Defining the
or local shrines, necessarily involved Boundaries of London:
movement and this movement often Perambulation and the
demanded some sort of privation. City in the Long Eighteenth
Those who normally rode finished Century
the journey on foot, those who nor-
mally walked went barefoot or even Elizabeth McKellar
on their knees. This latter part of the Open University, UK
journey, the final stages of pilgrim-
age, were – from the sixteenth cen- This paper will explore how London
tury on – often given architectural was defined by the new interest in
expression in the form of porticoes walking in the long eighteenth cen-
that reached out from the shrine tury. As Michel de Certeau famously
to greet the pilgrim and announce wrote, central to understanding the
that their journey was about to be “practices of everyday life” which cre-
fulfilled. Among the most celebrated ate the urban milieu was the act of
examples are the porticoes of the walking. However, such a notion can
Madonna di Monte Berico near Vi- be traced back beyond the modern
cenza and the Madonna di San Luca flâneur to the eighteenth century
in Bologna. These porticoes were a when perambulation was also seen
non-essential part of the shrine and as an important mode in the com-
would have been very expensive to prehension and experience of the
construct. So why were they built city. In the writing on eighteenth-
at all? Why did the patrons feel it century culture a great deal of at-
necessary to build them? How did tention has been given to London’s
pilgrims experience them? How did coffee houses, assembly rooms and
they enhance the devotional aspects the open areas of the inner city,
of the journey? And what exactly was such as squares, as the quintessen-
the relationship between the built ar- tial Habermasian spaces of sociabil-
chitecture of the portico and the ad- ity and forgers of the public sphere.
ditional privations that the pilgrims But little attention has been paid to
were undergoing. These are some the equally important outer London
of the questions that this paper will suburban playgrounds. This talk will

96 97
focus on the periphery of the capi- The high imperial period of second armatures and other architectural be fruitfully read as an embodiment
tal to consider how the outer Lon- century CE saw enthusiastic Roman elements, Romans developed visual, of their inhabitants’ gardening task-
don landscapes were understood by additions and renovations of earlier aural and haptic sequencing within scapes. If so, they are structured ac-
contemporaries through the act of existing Asklepieia of Asia Minor and the grounds of the sanctuaries to al- cording to lines Unwin himself drew
strolling in their green spaces. The Greece, during which they became low a form of locotherapy. Through across English fields. Describing the
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paper will draw from a large body of ubiquitous, manifesting themselves the analysis of archaeological, liter- emergence of these lines from his
urban literature such as the anony- forcefully in the landscape through ary and architectural evidence, my imagination Unwin emphasised the
mous guidebook, A Sunday Ramble; their architecture. This emphasis on paper aims to achieve a phenomeno- role of walking in his design process:
Or, Modern Sabbath-Day Journey; In the curation of healing spaces is not logical understanding of the kinetic it was as he “tramped” the site that
and about the Cities of London and surprising since in Roman culture, body and its employment in Roman they appeared. In his use of “tramp-
Westminster (1774-1780) which of- the body occupied a privileged con- healing practices. ing” Unwin identified a very particular
fered a guide to “the various interest- dition whereby its visible manifesta- mode of perambulation, identical to
ing scenes … of this Metropolis and tions were considered as signs of that ascribed by Ingold to the wayfar-
its Environs”. Visual evidence in the character and identity. Furthermore, S12.4 Raymond Unwin er. His survival depending on height-
form of topographical prints will also the numerous textual and material Tramping the Taskscape ened perceptions and an ability to
be used to establish the significance references to movement and healing tune movements to suit emerging
of this new leisure activity in contrib- in second-century medical literature Brian Ward situations, Ingold’s wayfarer engag-
uting to the character and culture of indicate a link between body kinetic Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland es with a taskscape like a craftsman
the outskirts and its architecture as and architecture. Accordingly, this forming “a line that advances from
a distinct metropolitan zone spatially intrinsic link not only heightened in In an 1897 lecture Raymond Unwin the tip”. This description of walking
and metaphorically. This was a land- a healing environment but was also imagined the rich relational thought as a craft establishes a contiguity
scape created by movement and its instrumentalized purposefully as a processes of a man at home making between Unwin, the tramp laying out
accessibility from the centre, by a va- curing mechanism in Roman heal- a shoe for a friend: concentrating a garden suburb, and the shoemak-
riety of means of transport, among ing spaces. Therefore, these sanc- intensely on the work to hand and ers and gardeners later working be-
which pedestrianism can be seen to tuaries of healing were considered striving for comfort and durability, tween the resultant lines. This paper
be of crucial importance. to be of utmost importance in their the man simultaneously thought of situates Unwin’s deployment of the
task of orchestrating and regulat- “the foot the shoe has to fit, of the word “tramp” within contemporane-
  ing citizens’ bodies and thus the life [his friend] leads” and the cir- ous usage to explore these overlaps
S12.3 Walking Through spaces through which they moved. cumstances in which the shoe would and to posit his landscapes as the
the Pain: Healing and In my paper, I offer an experiential be worn. In the same essay that unitary result of various walking and
Ambulation at Pergamon reading of the healing sanctuary of Tim Ingold coined the phrase “task- craft taskscapes, all foregrounding
Asklepieion Pergamon. I argue with the aid of scape” to examine such intermesh- what Ingold calls “the cutting edge of
this fairly well preserved site, that ings of craftsman, environment and the life process itself”.
Ece Okay the healing sanctuaries of Asklepios social relations, he also defined land-
University of California Los Angeles, USA located mainly in the countryside scape as “the taskscape in its em-
away from cities, not only mim- bodied form: a pattern of activities
Due to their curative function and icked the kinetic vocabulary of the ‘collapsed’ into an array of features”.
their proximal relationship with pa- Romanized cities they were linked For both Ingold and Unwin gardening
tients’ bodies, perhaps the sanctu- to but also employed this kinetic is an activity of the same order as
aries most sensitive to the moving lexis to create spaces for movement craft. By extension landscapes such
body in Antiquity were the Asklepieia. therapy. Through orchestration of as Hampstead Garden Suburb can

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Session 13: European Architecture
and the Tropics

s13
Session Chair:
Jiat-Hwee Chang, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Europeans have a long history of social, cultural and economic contacts


and exchanges with the people of the Tropics. Although this history can be
traced to an earlier time, it intensified in the past few centuries, with exten-
sive formal and informal colonization of tropical territories by Europeans.
The circulation and translation of architectural knowledge and practices
between Europe and the Tropics is an inextricable part of this long and rich
history.
By choosing the Tropics over other geographic categories, this session
foregrounds the environmental and climatic dimensions of this history of
exchange. This session will focus on how European architectural knowledge
and practices were “acclimatized” to the ecologies, heat and humidity of the
Tropics. However, tropicalization entailed more than just environmental and
climatic adaptations. Scholars in various interdisciplinary fields, particularly
environmental and medical history, have shown that the tropicalization of
European knowledge and practices involved social, cultural and political
transformations too. David Arnold developed the concept of tropicality to
suggest that tropical nature – of which climate is an important component
– could be understood along the lines of Saidian Orientalism as an environ-
mental “other”, deeply entwined with social, cultural, political, racial and
gender alterities in contrast to the normality of the temperate zone. Tropi-
cality is, however, not a monolithic category. Not only have the construc-
tions of the Tropics varied with the changing social, cultural and political
conditions of European colonization in the past few decades, they have also
changed based on the shifting medical, environmental and other scientific
paradigms of understanding the Tropics. How this climatic “other” has been
addressed architecturally by various actors at different historical moments
has likewise been characterized by multifarious approaches.

101
This session invites papers that examine in a situated manner how European S13.1 The Afro-Brazilian was considered to be Lagos’s Brazil-
architecture has been tropicalized in any historical period at any tropical Portuguese Style in Lagos ian Quarter. 
site. Tropicalization is of course not a one-way diffusionist process. Just as
this session explores European architecture in the Tropics, the very notion Ola Uduku
of European architecture is neither immune to outside influence nor neces- The University of Edinburgh, UK S13.2 Tectonics of
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s13
sarily produced solely by Europeans. This session also, therefore, invites Paranoia: the Tropical
papers that explore how European architecture outside the Tropics was This paper seeks to re-evaluate the Matshed System Within
transformed by tropicalization and how European architecture might have categorisation of “Brazilian” style ar- the First Fabrication of
been a hybrid entity coproduced by non-Europeans. chitecture on Lagos Island. For long Hong Kong
the notion of the Brazilian style, Agu-
da houses on the island has allowed Christopher Cowell
for an exotic reading of the built Columbia University, USA
form, allegedly transmitted to Lagos
through the labour and construction Emerging at the very beginning of
skills of mainly Yoruba repatriated subtropical Hong Kong’s colonial de-
African slaves from Brazil and else- velopment in 1841 was a building
where in South America. Whilst the system known as the “matshed”.
original owners of these buildings Seeming to arise from indigenous
would have had contact with Brazil, southern Chinese construction, yet
the essential styling can be traced akin to rural Indian construction tech-
back to Portugal, and indeed is seen nologies, this bamboo-framed, palm-
in earlier traditional architecture in leaf-roofed, and woven-cane-walled
locations such as Benin (Nigeria) entity had started life as an endlessly
and parts of coastal West Africa, adaptable construction kit suited to
which had centuries earlier had con- the pragmatic needs of both the An-
tact with Portuguese traders. The glo-Indian military and Anglo-Chinese
paper seeks to question the labelling commerce. Rapidly deployable, it
of the Afro Brazilian style on these transformed into almost every build-
buildings in Lagos, with no refer- ing typology conceivable: from the
ence to earlier Portuguese-Europe- storage of troops (the barracks), to
an influences on their styling. What the storage of cotton (the godown);
does this tell us about the embod- and from the place of mammon (the
ied identity of the built form and its market bazaar), to the place of wor-
presentation within a richer African ship (the colonial “mat church”). How-
mediated cultural discourse related ever, following the Hong Kong Fever
to past remembered and forgotten of 1843, more solidly constructed
histories? I will be relying on the use buildings were demanded as being
of textual histories of Lagos, as well both safer and morally respectable.
as existing records of buildings in The matshed, therefore, began to
areas such as Campos Square in acquire a dubious character. It had
Central Lagos, the epicentre of what become the prototype of paranoia:

102 103
as if a progenitor of disease, crimi- common to the eighteenth century, est in theories of racial segregation city planning also had a significant
nality and conflagration. In addition, with biological propositions – an ap- and eugenics in addition to preventa- impact on the health of its visitors
the existence of the matshed had proach advanced in the nineteenth tive medicine and hygiene (Anderson and occupants. It is this kinship that
become an anachronism: the dated century by Victorian theorists of 2002), the paper suggests these tropical architecture and tropical
component of a founding mythology. race – aided Britain’s territorial in- writings offer an alternative “Ratio- medicine share that I want to investi-
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The physical state that urban Hong terests in tropical India (Harrison nale” for the tropical architecture of gate. Moving beyond the mere sepa-
Kong had been in a mere three years 1999). Breaking the association be- twentieth-century Australia revealing ration of local and European dwell-
before was now viewed through the tween racial distinctiveness and cli- a logic which extends beyond the ings, what other tangible attempts
collective memory of European resi- mate and identifying difference and instrumental concerns of comfort were made to improve sanitation,
dents with some incredulity. And yet, superiority with biological attributes and amelioration to consider more hygiene and health? The annual pub-
the matshed stubbornly endured. effectively negated questions relat- broadly theories of race, culture, lic health and sanitation reports for
This paper will trace the environmen- ing to the viability of white settle- politics and place. all the major cities and provinces of
tal politics of this early transforma- ment within the world’s tropical re- India provide an acute picture of the
tion and how it fed into a founding gions. Parallel strategies, as Evans correlation between disease, sanita-
narrative utilizable on both sides of (2007) and Anderson (2002) have S13.4 Health, Hygiene tion and city infrastructure. Is there
a community unsure of the island’s argued, were also evident within ear- and Sanitation in Colonial any connection with the outbreak
permanent viability as a British pos- ly twentieth-century Australia. Here India of disease, perceptions of filth and
session. Sitting chronologically be- a “series of influential scientific and attempts to prevent such an occur-
tween two significant architectural medical writers boosted a vision of Iain Jackson rence? In addition to the citywide
theoretical models, respectively, of virile whites defeating the sickness Liverpool University, UK governmental approach what of the
neoclassicism and tectonic romanti- and neurasthenia in the tropics”. domestic arrangement and small-
cism: Marc-Antoine Laugier’s primi- Previously positioned as a “hot bed Using guidebooks, pamphlets and scale adjustments to residences?
tive hut (Essai sur l’Architecture, of disease”, tropical Australia now government reports this paper will What practical tips and advice were
1753) and Gottfried Semper’s Carib- became the “staging ground” for a investigate British notions of health, dispensed to those about to embark
bean hut (Der Stil, 1860-63), it will “higher type” of white Australian – a sanitation and hygiene in India with to India from Britain and how were
also examine the wider discourse of distinctive “tropical type […] a new respect to city infrastructure and British notions of domesticity tem-
contemporary debates and thoughts race, bred of sun and soil” (Evans housing, focusing on the late nine- pered to suit the Indian conditions?
between Europeans and their colonial 2007: 173-175). The aim of this teenth and early twentieth centuries. Again, within publications devoted
counterparts in the tropics. paper is to consider the strategies Nearly all colonial planning, housing to health a chapter is frequently in-
developed in the first half of the and large infrastructure projects cluded on “the house”. It is through
twentieth century that permitted the were concerned, if not obsessed, these two extremes of scale that this
S13.3 Architecture of acclimatisation of the white man and with providing “clean” and “healthy” paper hopes to contribute to the his-
Sun and Soil. European his architecture to tropical Austra- solutions for their European resi- toricizing of the tropical architecture
Architecture in Tropical lia. A particular focus will be the cor- dents. Of course, notions of cleanli- canon and to explore the connection
Australia relation between an emerging dis- ness are far from fixed or absolute. between health and architecture in
course on a tropical architecture in Whilst scientists and the medical the tropics.
Deborah van der Plaat northern Australia and the writings profession looked for cures to the
University of Queensland, Australia of Anton Breinl, Rapheal Cilento and many diseases and ailments that af-
Jack Elkington, directors of the Aus- flicted the European populations in
Substituting climatic theories of tralian Institute of Tropical Medicine. the Tropics, running in parallel was a
difference, a conception that was Demonstrating the Institute’s inter- belief that the built fabric and wider

104 105
S13.5 Climate, Disaster, ture” consistently directed a profes- Session 14: How It All Began: Primitivism
Shelter: Architecture, sional architectural gaze upon issues
and the Legitimacy of Architecture
Humanitarianism, and the of hygiene and biopolitics in the glob-
Problem of the Tropics al South, providing urgent claims for in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth
a discipline flirting with postmodern- Centuries
s13

s14
Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi ism. These constructions will be ex-
New York University, USA amined in three episodes, beginning
in the 1990s with an international
This paper presents a little-studied workshop convened by the United
history of exchange between archi- Nations High Commissioner for Ref-
tectural practice and humanitar- ugees to study cold climate architec-
ian intervention, predicated upon a ture, moving to research endeavors Session Chairs:
technology and rhetoric around cli- by academic, private sector, and Maarten Delbeke, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
mate formulated between actors in United Nations actors in the 1970s Linda Bleijenberg, Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands
Europe and the tropical zones in the in tropical sites, and finally, studying Sigrid de Jong, Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands
second half of the twentieth century. delays, perversions, and other de- Respondent:
Materially, humanitarian activity dur- scendant practices and discourses Caroline van Eck, Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands
ing and after the Cold War left a vast in twenty-first- century camps for
global footprint, with planned spaces “climate refugees”. Drawing evi- By the turn of the eighteenth century, architects and writers questioned
and designed artifacts responding to dence from archival and oral history many of the foundations of Renaissance design theory and its later develop-
tropical environments at local levels. research in Geneva, Nairobi, Oxford, ments: the role of Roman antiquity as the primary provider of architectural
Rhetorically, an abstracted notion and along the border of Somalia, references; the authority of Vitruvius’ De architectura and its many edi-
of climate masked international de- this paper traces events, genealo- tions, translations and re-workings; and also some of the very concepts
velopment agendas inherent in this gies and a wide network of figures that shaped this design theory, such as the idea that architecture emerged
activity, embedding them within an through hard and soft architectural as the imitation of primitive forms of building. Challenging these authorities
architectural discourse around en- exchange. It examines the configura- was not merely a matter of rejecting or reinterpreting the design principles
vironmental disaster in the tropics tion of a space around the empirical espoused by Vitruvius or retrieved from ancient monuments. It also entailed
that contributed to broad anxieties of and conceptual problem of tropical redefining the foundations of architecture as a culturally and socially embed-
the period. Culturally, congregations climate as translated through the ded artistic discipline. After all, traditional models – and primitive origins in
from the early 1950s to the present European problem of humanitarian particular – explained how architecture was enmeshed with the very fabric
in the legacy of “tropical architec- intervention. of society. If these authorities were challenged, new arguments had to be
found explaining how architecture found its place at the centre of human
culture.
In this session, we will examine one particular strain of arguments that ad-
dressed this problem: new ideas about the origins of architecture. In par-
ticular, we are interested in how the increasingly vivid debates about primitiv-
ism – the idea that any human action, institution or custom is at its purest
at the moment of inception – informed new ways of thinking about archi-
tecture, its origins, and its role in society and culture. Hitherto primitivism
has been considered mainly in relation to Modernism, but it emerged in the
early eighteenth century as a mode of thought about the origins, meaning

106 107
and legitimacy of society and cultural practices. As such, it offers a unique S14.1 On the Colonial tree trunks and branches) or Cham-
perspective on the still current problem of how to endow architectural forms Origins of Architecture: bers’s “primitive buildings” (which
with cultural meaning. By advocating a return to first origins, primitivism Building the “Maison drew from the Vitruvian narrative of
offers an alternative to history as the storehouse of architectural form and rustique” in Cayenne, the creation of shelter): that is, the
meaning. We invite papers that address the role of the quest for origins in French Guiana structures described in J.-A. Brule-
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general, and ideas on primitivism in particular, in architectural thought and tout de Préfontaine’s La Maison rus-
practice in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. We welcome case stud- Erika Naginski tique, à l’usage des habitans de la
ies about texts, buildings or oeuvres that open up wider intellectual, social Harvard University, USA partie de la France équinoxiale, con-
and institutional contexts. We are particularly interested in how questions Eldra D. Walker nue sous le nom de Cayenne (1763).
about origins and primitivism introduced new ideas into architectural dis- Harvard University, USA The book details the establishment
course – such as the religious and symbolical, rather than the practical and of plantations in the colony of French
tectonic origins of architecture – and configured the relation of architecture The “State of Nature”, which Guiana based on a slave economy,
with other artistic and scientific disciplines, such as archaeology and differ- emerged as a central tenet in the the use of local materials, and the
ent kinds of historiography, natural history, linguistics and ethnology. Finally, social philosophies of the seven- labor of indigenous populations. The
we are curious to see how the preoccupation with primitivism translated into teenth and eighteenth centuries term “maison rustique” traditionally
building practice. contemplating the pre-civilizational designated farm buildings and agri-
struggle for existence, was marked cultural compounds (from Estienne
by conflicting views: against the and Liebaut’s L’agriculture et maison
“solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and rustique (1586) to Liger’s Oecono-
short” life of natural man described mie générale de la campagne, ou
in Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651) nouvelle maison rustique (1700), for
stood the “noble savage” evoked instance). Yet our example, which ee-
in Dryden’s Conquest of Granada rily rehearses natural man’s search
(1672). How this intellectual legacy for shelter and civilization, stages
influenced those who enlisted, after another genealogy of architectural
1750, naturalized discourses to origins – one that is bound to race,
explain the origins of architecture colonialism, and Enlightenment ac-
is hardly straightforward, for archi- counts of the civilizational process. 
tects and connoisseurs alike tended
to embrace the “soft” primitivism es-
poused by Shaftesbury, Rousseau, S14.2 Out of the Earth:
and eighteenth-century sentimen- Prehistoric Origins and
talism more generally. Indeed, the Gothic Ambitions in
presumption of humanity’s innate Primitive Monuments
benevolence helped to shape Enlight-
enment discourses on architecture’s Jennifer Ferng
origins in habitation. The University of Sydney, Australia
We set another kind of proposal
against canonical examples such Discoveries of megalithic structures
as Laugier’s “rustic hut” (which dis- – Stonehenge, Avebury, Mane Braz,
covered architecture’s first model in and Skara Brae among others –

108 109
were closely linked to the discipline times. Specifically, English castles culture, disregarding completely the It is precisely this intricacy of myth,
of architecture since the inception and residences such as Ashby, Bodi- forest paradigm. More precisely, metaphor and history encapsulated
of the eighteenth century. In fact, am, Penrhyn, and Wardour heralded according to him, modern architec- within Viel de Saint-Maux’s discourse
the reformulation of their mythologi- vestiges of prehistoric ideals, liter- ture must have been rooted in the that my paper deals with.
cal origins became one of the untold ary utopias, and Gothic sensibilities megalithic assemblies which, fur-
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narratives that connected universal towards archaeological monuments. thermore, were religiously connoted
forms to these monuments, which In recalling Arnaldo Momigliano’s ca- through the medium of mysterious S14.4 Primitivism’s
emerged from the dark worlds of veat that the primitive and the civi- inscriptions. Return: Theories of
primeval inhabitants and nature. lized were no longer distinguishable, Taking the letters as a starting point, Ornament and Their Debt
Eighteenth-century debates over prehistoric structures, in this vein, I attempt to trace the extent to which to Eighteenth-century
historical authenticity gave way to were infused with non-linear histo- they are imbued with the evolutional Antiquarianism
more complex arguments about the ries based not on the sublime recep- theories of the eighteenth century,
semantic meaning of stone found tion of such archaeological sites but as well as with various philosophical Ralph Ghoche
in archaeological sites replicated grounded instead in primal connec- and literary sources. Among them, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA
in civic and residential architecture tions to the earth. the monumental 9 volume encyclo-
across Europe. Figurative forms in pedia published by Antoine Court de Theories of ornament of the nine-
the guise of megaliths embodied hu- Gébelin (Monde primitif [...], 1773- teenth century abound with primitiv-
man actions in their purest appear- S14.3 Viel de Saint-Maux 1782), appears to have configured ist arguments on the origins of the
ance. These tectonic structures and the Symbolism of the very image of the primitive world arts. One can think of the attention
represented fundamental symbols Primitive Architecture as described by Viel de Saint-Maux. Owen Jones granted tattoos of “sav-
of architectural endurance but also Furthermore, the complicated rela- age” tribes, or the notion, popular
induced intellectual curiosity through Cosmin C. Ungureanu tions between ancient and modern well into the twentieth century, that
their enigmatic carvings. This paper Universitatea de Arhitecturǎ s˛ i architecture, reflected in the fanta- ornamental production originated
treats megalithic structures as dia- Urbanism “Ion Mincu” – Colegiul Noua sized geographical descriptions, as in a primal instinct for adornment.
chronic objects whose origins were Europǎ Institut de studii avansate, well as the supposedly symbolic con- The primitivist outlook can equally
deeply rooted in religious and sym- Romania tent of rituals and agrarian practic- be found in materialist theories of
bolic narratives that were translat- es, can only be adequately grasped ornament advanced by German Re-
ed into the construction of English One of the sources usually disre- if pursued in relation either with the alists, and in the vitalist approaches
buildings. Ruins became modern garded by the scholarship on eight- more notorious books of Giambat- to ornament promoted by French
constructions that exploited ancient eenth century architecture is a vol- tista Vico and Jean-Jacques Rous- neo-gothic architects. In my contri-
myths to prove their relevance in the ume of seven letters published in seau, or with lesser known voyage bution to the session “How it All Be-
eighteenth century. Culture came 1787 by an obscure architect, Viel accounts such as that of Richard gan, Primitivism and the Legitimacy
not in the shape of architecture but de Saint-Maux, under the ambitious Pococke (A description of the East of Architecture in the Eighteenth and
in the form of these primitive monu- title Lettres sur l’Architecture des […], 1743-1745). Nineteenth Centuries”, I explore the
ments, which stood for eternal arti- Anciens, et celle des Modernes, Extravagant and obscure as they re- work of ornamentalists in the nine-
fice and nature. Eighteenth-century dans lesquelles se trouve dévelopé mained, the conjectures advanced by teenth century and discuss their
architects and connoisseurs trans- le génie symbolique qui présida aux Viel de Saint-Maux are worth being debt to antiquarian and philological
lated these ancient attributes into Monuments de l’Antiquité. The au- read as an attempt to revive the the- research on the origins of the arts.
hybridized aesthetic expressions thor of these letters speculated on oretical discourse – even if virulently I demonstrate that nineteenth-cen-
displaced from ruins and antiquar- the grounding of (classical) archi- contesting the Vitruvian tradition – by tury debates on the origins of orna-
ian monuments devoted to ancient tecture onto an essentially tectonic resorting to allegory and symbolism. ment that pitted mimetic and mate-

110 111
rialist interpretations against beliefs recognized as a focal point because seum in Oxford or Semper’s muse- opment. My paper will deal less with
in an internal artistic volition were it forced people to think about the ums in Vienna. architecture itself but emphasize the
themselves rehearsed in the eigh- origins and progress of civilization. My paper will deal critically with the influences of anthropological schol-
teenth-century challenges to neo- While natural history collections ex- impact of nineteenth-century an- arly debate at the time, their no-
classical ideals. These challenges, plored nature’s development since thropological discourse, how it was tions of origin and primitive society
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which were leveled by such notable the beginning of the century, the translated into River’s and Semper’s on collections and their architectural
authors as the abbé Pluche, the Great Exhibition assembled objects museum concepts and how these spaces.
baron d’Hancarville, Antoine Court of human production from all over concepts represent ideas of devel-
de Gébelin, Jean-Louis Viel de Saint- the world for the first time on a large
Maux and later, by Friedrich Creuzer scale. Products of so-called “primi-
and Joseph-Daniel Guigniaut, were tive” cultures were exhibited and jux-
chiefly aimed at the idea, popular- taposed under the same roof with
ized by Marc-Antoine Laugier, that more “developed” cultures. History,
the origins of architecture lay in art, and, hence, the development of
the mimicry of natural models and civilization became physically acces-
rested on the inclination towards sible through material objects from
self-preservation and shelter. In con- around the world. Consequently,
trast, antiquarians put forth a vision several ideas on anthropological col-
of artistic origins that would be piv- lections emerged, two of which I will
otal for the subsequent generations discuss in my paper: the Pitt Rivers
of architects and ornamentalists, Museum and Gottfried Semper’s
steeped as it was in a wholly primal concept of a historico-cultural collec-
set of cultic beliefs, base instincts, tion.
nature worship and sacrifice. For Semper, the Great Exhibition rep-
resented an “incomplete entirety” of
men’s artistic activity and, inspired
S14.5 Cultural by what he saw, he developed a con-
Transformations and cept for an ideal collection in order
Their Analysis in Art and to compare the development of art
Science: Anthropological throughout cultures. Similarly Rivers
and Curatorial Concepts arranged the objects in his collection
Stimulated by the Great according to formal similarities and
Exhibition of 1851 functional affinities. But while Rivers
tends to a more evolutionist view on
Claudio Leoni history, Semper’s historical concept
The Bartlett School of Architecture, is circular or spiral-shaped in which
United Kingdom – ETH Zürich, the primitive indicates decay but still
Switzerland shows signs of former cultural rich-
ness. In different ways, both ideas
In the history of anthropology, the culminated finally in architectural
Great Exhibition of 1851 has been spaces, such as the Pitt Rivers Mu-

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Session 15: Missing Histories: Artistic
Dislocations of Architecture in Socialist
Regimes

s15
Session Chairs:
Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss, Columbia University, USA
Carmen Popescu, Université Paris-Sorbonne, France

In both heavy and less rigid socialist regimes, architectural discourses were
often the object of orchestrated tight control. Much design and comment
on architectural thinking and production at the time followed a narrative that
was approved – if not scripted – by the bureaucrats of ideology. However, in
order to avoid control over architectural language in socialist regimes, the
practice of architecture frequently found a new voice through semantics
that veered away from the usual course of the discipline. A parallel approach
that specifically addressed politics employed the appropriation of artistic me-
diums. Art confronted unwritten rules in architectural discourse in a differ-
ent way, filling in the blanks with meaningful interpretations. Various forms
of visual arts – from videos, photography and performances, to fictionalized
narratives used in movies and novels – allowed an introspection of crucial
architectural issues which would have been difficult otherwise. Even works
which were considered at the time to be purely a reflection of propagandistic
rhetoric (Shostakovich’s Cheriomushky, for example) raised questions about
the limitations of the role that architecture could assume in socialist society.
Resituated in a different semantic realm by the artistic gaze, architectural
discourse was not only distorted but also dislocated. This process of decon-
struction revealed architectural problems, allowing them to step into the
public domain. Art, therefore, not only questioned the nature and role of ar-
chitecture in those times, and the constraints shaping it, but also provided
a space of (perhaps limited) freedom for debate.
We invite papers on art forms that challenged issues in architecture un-
der socialist regimes. We intend to extend the traditional limits of Eastern
European regimes and include countries like China and Cuba. We propose,
at the same time, to extend the chronological frame and go beyond the

115
fundamental moment of 1989, requesting papers that explore how the S15.1 Scene(s) for New takes anti-fascist Yugoslav memori-
remains of socialist ideas of architecture are reciprocated by contemporary Heritage? als as starting points for its work in
art practices engaged in recent history. How have art works, created before order to analyze how their legacy is
and after 1989 by both architects and artists, shaped a critical discourse Dubravka Sekulić being interpreted, and whether this
on the architecture of the socialist regimes? What means were employed ETH Zürich, Switzerland new reading can open a new way of
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in this critical process? understanding memorial production
“Scene for New Heritage” is the title during the time of Yugoslavia, and
of a video trilogy by David Maljković, a way out of the current revisionist
Croatian artist in whose work practices that have seen many of
scenes from Yugoslav modernism those monuments destroyed, ne-
are featured prominently. The tril- glected or even reshaped.
ogy dislocates the famous partisan
monument “Petrova Gora”, the un-
finished anti-fascist memorial com- S15.2 Radical Space for
plex authored by Vojin Bakić, into the Radical Time: Intersections
future, as a place for new discovery of Architecture and
for the future generations in the Performance Art in
22nd century. Similarly, Aleksandra Estonia, 1986-1994
Domanovic’s “Monument to Revo-
lution” re-locates the anti-fascist Ingrid Ruudi
monument of Ivan Sabolic Bubanj to Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Estonia
the new setting of Morocco, as part
of a work commissioned for the 4th The proposed talk will focus on the
Marrakesh Biennale. These are just possibility of radical space in the in-
two examples of the many artists’ tersection of architecture and per-
projects that appeared in recent formance art, and the search for
years that take the visual heritage analytical tools to tackle the critical
of Yugoslav socialism as a starting architecture and art practices of
point for artistic work. Anti-fascist 1986 – 1994, the “transition” period
memorials from the period especial- that does not readily fit into existing
ly became a continuous inspiration interpretative models of either late
for artists, either as photographic socialist or democratic-neoliberalist
objects, or as ready-mades. Addi- reindependent state(s). The case is
tionally, the new word, spomenik, illustrated by Group T – the first in-
meaning monument in Serbian and tentionally interdisciplinary group in
Croatian, was introduced in the in- Estonia intitated by architects Raoul
terpretation and text in English, as a Kurvitz and Urmas Muru in the mid-
certain linguistic ready-made. In the 1980s, inviting artists, poets, musi-
paper “Scene(s) for New Heritage?” cians and a philosopher to collabo-
I will look more closely into how the rate on artistic production ranging
contemporary artistic practice today from conceptual architecture to neo-

116 117
expressionist paintings, performanc- S15.3 Commemoration, Party insisted on its revolutionary nian artist Ion Grigorescu who, dur-
es, and music events. The group’s Appropriation, and legacy, while dissident intelligentsia ing the 1970s, produced a series of
creative inspiration was drawn from Resistance: a Shifting challenged the ideological discourse photographs and videos that offered
sources as diverse as Bataille, Ni- Discourse on Political through re-appropriating the political a radically different sense of spatial
etzsche and freshly arrived post- Architecture in Socialist space. Their conceptual works acti- experience under socialism. The
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structuralist theories on the one China vated possibilities for critical reflec- photographic work “Casa noastrǎ”,
hand, and relations to the local al- tion upon the conventions and proto- for instance, in which Grigorescu
ternative music scene on the other. Yan Geng cols inherent to the construction of portrays himself as a naked, satyr-
The semi-violent mystical-ritualistic University of Connecticut, USA China’s socialist life. Focusing on the like figure, investigated the new,
performances – the events among interaction between architectural standardized apartment interior
Group T’s activities that attracted This paper explores the construc- practice and visual representation, through troubled forms of privacy
the most public interest – have usu- tion of political discourse and its this paper underlines the hybridity and voyeurism. 
ally been interpreted as turning one’s subsequent deconstruction in social- of old and new architectural narra- These two artistic approaches to
back to social issues in the turbulent ist China, through the practice of tives as well as the shifting process the new built environment of social-
times. However, regarding these architecture as well as the different from formulating the revolutionary ism seem to occupy extreme ends of
in interaction with their conceptual forms of visual arts that centered on discourse to resisting its dominance aesthetic practice: in the first case,
architecture and manifestoes, their architectural discourse. Appropriat- in the public domain. the conventional traces of the hand
artistic production reveals itself as ing the previous imperial capital, on the canvas, but used to convey
utterly socially aware but displaying Mao Zedong and the Party leaders exteriors made out of bare, factory-
an idiosyncratically critical position. engineered the reconstruction of S15.2 “Our House”: produced panels; in the second,
Group T’s impulse to go against the Beijing’s urban space into a revolu- the Socialist Block of Flats cool observation and mechanical
(physical) body is parallel with their tionary centre. Tiananmen, the gate as Artistic Subject-Matter recordings, but deployed on an inte-
going against the social body, as of the imperial city from the Qing rior covered in intimate bric-a-brac.
personified by architecture, essen- Dynasty (1644-1911), became a Juliana Maxim The works also appear to enact the
tially a productive and thus control- sacred monument to commemorate University of San Diego, USA poles of official and dissident art:
ling agent. This anarchism-informed the birth of the Communist China. on one hand, enthusiastic and of-
position does not comply with late In front of the gate, an open space Two distinct groups of artworks pro- ten large-scale representations of
socialism’s performative gestures was expanded to emulate its rival, duced in Romania in the late 1960s an official architectural culture, dis-
as described by Alexei Yurchak, nor Red Square, and to recreate China and 1970s took as explicit subject seminated through publications and
do they share the national romanti- spatially. While celebrating the mak- matter Bucharest’s changing urban exhibitions to a large audience; on
cist sentiment of the 1990s. Group ing of a new political centre, propa- landscape. A first, large family of the other hand, blurred and difficult
T’s efforts at creating an alternative gandistic art reformulated the ar- paintings aimed to represent in a fa- images that corroded architecture’s
space reveal the antagonisms of the chitectural narrative in visual forms, vorable light the increasingly present cheerful modernism, viewed only by
period between two social forma- addressing politics at the expense modernist mass housing block, and a handful of trusted friends.
tions, at the same time questioning of distorting the actual site. After scores of established painters (such In pitting Grigorescu’s little-known
architecture itself. Mao’s death in 1976, the monu- as Marius Bunescu, Dumitru Ghiǎ, work against state-sanctioned arti-
mental architectural construction Gheorghe Spiridon) contributed to facts, my intent is to open a terrain
that was intended as a triumphant it, punctually or repeatedly; against in which the conventional dualities
statement of the Communist re- this pictorial approach, which turned of artistic practice under a social-
gime became a combat zone in the socialist Bucharest into a Barbizon ist regime can be tactically weighed
political life of the Reform era: the of sorts, I pose the work of Roma- against each other, on each side

118 119
of the fulcrum that architecture – and how is each side of the encoun- Open Session 1: On the Way to Early
and more specifically the modernist ter transformed? What tensions Modern: Issues of Memory, Identity and
block of flats – provided. A series of (or dislocations) arise when state-
questions emerge: what happens mandated architecture becomes Practice
when serially designed, industrially the purview of subjective, personal
s15

OS1
produced, colorless and texture-less artistic expression? How imperme-
buildings intersect with the pictur- able (and ultimately, how useful) is
esque needs of figurative represen- the art historical distinction between
tation, such as socialist realist paint- official and subversive art?
ing and documentary photography,

Open Session Chair:


Valérie Nègre, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture Paris-La Villette, France

120 121
OS1.1 Quadrature and generating a particular form, the theory of proportions. By basing his of it were largely diffused. Therefore,
Drawing in Early Modern architect would tend towards the dissertation on this subject, he satis- a theory once indissolubly linked to
Architecture smallest number. Furthermore, the fied the need to simplify and reduce practice was often misunderstood
rotation of the square efficiently any structure into a clear-cut one, and reduced to a mere set of rules
Lydia M. Soo generates an ever increasing and and turning it into a more consistent for builders, thus losing the very es-
OS1

OS1
University of Michigan, USA diminishing series of proportionally system. sence of its original meaning.
related parts, enabling the architect However, there is no evidence that
Late fifteenth century treatises (e.g. to simultaneously design from the he was an expert in mathematics.
Roriczer, 1486; Francesco di Gior- outside in as well as the inside out. Ackerman suggests that it is possi- OS1.3 Moralizing Money
gio, 1489-1492) demonstrate the Quadrature, along with the rotation ble that he used ready-made tables Through Space in Early
use of the rotation of the square or of the triangle, provided architects while writing the treatise. By doing Modernity
“quadrature” in design. (This term, with a simple yet powerful tool for so, he turned theory into practice.
along with ad quadratum, is also ap- generating centralized plans based Palladio discussed the theory of pro- Lauren Jacobi
plied to the use of a square or grid). on the circle, square, octagon, and portions with Silvio Belli, a mathema- Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Recent scholars have revealed the hexagon, as can be demonstrated tician, engineer and member of the USA
probable use of this design method in Villa Rotonda, Sant’Ivo, and San Accademia Olimpica. His writings,
in specific buildings, some dating Lorenzo in Turin. The method, how- particularly Della Proportione, et Late medieval and Renaissance cul-
from late antiquity, by overlaying ro- ever, was not implemented blindly. Proportionalità (1573), were cru- tural attitudes towards money were
tated squares onto plans. What has Rather, the architect envisioned cial for Palladio as they provided the deeply shaped by the Christian sin
not been given much attention is the spatial volumes, including complex mathematical bases for his system. of usury. Contemporaneous bank-
step-by-step drawing process that domes, and then used quadrature Both Palladio and Belli transformed ers faced a serious issue: how to
quadrature involves, beginning with to interrogate them and make them the body of knowledge transmitted pacify questions about the legitimacy
the tracing of a line and circle us- real. by Archimedes, Euclid and Vitru- of their work while still exercising
ing pencil, rule, and compass. How vius into a rational framework upon their trade, often making copious
did the architect use these draw- which Architecture could be based returns. This talk addresses how
ing tools, the only ones available, to OS1.2 Andrea Palladio (S. Montecchio, 1573). usury impacted the built cityscape,
rotate the square as well as draw and Silvio Belli’s Theory of The purpose of this research is to arguing that ideological contentions
other geometries as the basis for Proportions analyze Belli’s influence on Palladio’s concerning the morality of money
plans and, most importantly, three- theories and their practical applica- are witnessed in the bank building
dimensional spaces? Maria Cristina Loi tions, as well as some key-examples itself. The paper examines how, in
Using the same instruments, this Politecnico di Milano, Italy in order to discuss the strong im- the wake of Italy’s full-blown mon-
paper revisits some plans where pact of the method introduced in the etization, the bank building became
scholars have found quadrature: the James Ackerman observed that the Quattro Libri, and eventually of Pal- critical to the reputation of banks­ ,
Teatro Marittimo, Francesco di Gior- influence of the Quattro Libri lies ladianism. local and international alike, argu-
gio’s San Bernardino degli Zoccolanti mainly in its structure and concise- Palladio’s influence was enormous, ably because of issues concerning
as well as Bramante’s St. Peter’s ness, through which Andrea Pal- especially in the Anglo-Saxon world, usury. Through analyzing the spatio-
and Tempietto. When speculating ladio was able to lay out a system not only for his own works, but also structural form of late medieval and
on the “moves” used to generate a based on exact and universal laws, for the large number of models of early modern Italian banks, the pa-
plan, it quickly becomes clear that described by images and text. Antiquity clearly described and “de- per insists that spatial strategies, as
economy was a desideratum: faced A crucial element in Palladio’s codified” in his treatise. In the course well as how the body of the banker
with the different possible steps for thought  was the value given to the of time, however, modified versions was managed within the bank, were

122 123
mechanisms actively used to pacify revolves around the foundation of Open Session 2: Layers of Meanings:
usury and bolster the generation of a new image of the city where not Architectural Narratives and Imageries
profit. only churches or cathedrals evolved
from former mosques, but late-
gothic castles also effaced Muslim
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OS2
OS1.3 Staging War kasbahs in order to transmit a new
in Maghreb: Architecture message. The festive look given by
as a Weapon by the 1500s several flags hoisted along recent
fortified bastions reaffirms the politi-
Jorge Correia cal emphasis on the Christian claim
Universidade do Minho – Centro de beyond the Mediterranean upon the
História de Além-Mar, Portugal transition from Late Medieval to Ear- Open Session Chair:
ly Modern times. Cânâ Bilsel, Mersin Üniversitesi, Mimarlık Fakültesi, Turkey
The kingdom of Portugal held coastal This was the apparatus staged in
positions in North Africa from 1415 Azemmour where declarations of
to 1769. These enclaves resulted war came as architectural state-
mainly from appropriations of for- ments and ornament. This paper
mer Muslim cities which occurred wishes to further elaborate on ques-
until the early 1500s. Not only did tions such as image, appearance
the arrival of a new power and faith and performance applied to honor-
imply a re-evaluation of the built ur- ific keep towers in Tangier’s lower
ban space, but also it represented castle, over Asilah’s main sea gate
an on-going laboratory for military or in Safi’s sea castle. For that pur-
architecture, for testing new tech- pose, recent field studies and re-
niques that were incorporating more search will be used to comment on
and more gunpowder artillery. or illustrate the argument through
Beyond technological, urban and iconography, as well as up-to-date
military innovations, the Portuguese site surveys. Altogether, they help
presence was affirmed through a recreate virtual battles taken five
symbolic image that would often centuries ago through a rhetoric
surpass the political occupation it- scenography of the physical occupa-
self. It was during the turning of tion and answer how Early Modern
the fifteenth to sixteenth centuries technical advancements were being
that architecture played a signifi- compromised by retro medieval im-
cant rhetorical role. The key issue agery.

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OS2.1 The Plan as eidos: to external or metaphorical refer- libraries. Photography’s impact on ment constructed a case for renew-
Bramante’s Half-Drawing ences. From Bramante to Durand the debates and policies of urban re- al, using photographs as their star
and Durand’s marche the plan reveals its diagrammatic newal, however, is not accurately re- witness. 
and typological nature. This allows flected in academic research. What
Alejandra Celedon Forster the plan to escalate from the scale we can observe instead is a split
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OS2
Architectural Association School of of architecture to that of the city. between photography, architecture OS2.3 Content, Form
Architecture, UK These ways of discussing the plan and urban renewal, caused by the and Class Nature of
enable us to frame its potential in classification of photographs into a Architecture
This paper discusses the role that mediating the world of architectural photographic archive, disconnected in 1950s-China
the plan has played in the forma- objects and the larger scale of the from its original conditions of pro-
tion of an architectural discourse city and the territory. This narrative duction. In this presentation I want Ying Wang
on the modern city, a discourse that not only constructs certain archaeol- to demonstrate that photography did KU Leuven, Belgium
has enabled a particular articulation ogy of the plan, but also questions play a fundamental role in renewal, Kai Wang
between the individual and the col- the relationship between drawing by exposing how a discourse around Tongji University, China
lective. By confronting Bramante’s and particular modes of thinking and renewal was developed and how it
plan for St Peters Basilica (1503) production of the discipline. earned public support or refusal. A retrospect of the history of archi-
with Durand’s Method of Composi- As a proof of the role of photogra- tecture in twentieth-century China in-
tion summarized in his Marche plate phy in this revitalization process, dicates that the 1950s, in between
(1802) a modern conceptualisation OS2.2 “What do I will present the photographic col- the two peaks of 1930s and 1980s,
of the plan unfolds, which can be ex- Pictures Really Want”? lection of the Women’s Council. is a significant transition in the his-
plained through the philosophical no- Photography, Blight and How the Women’s Council created torical process. Nevertheless, in
tion of eidos. Beyond the plan’s role Renewal in Chicago a discourse around photographs will most historical narratives, the rela-
as “representation” these drawings be discussed through the works of tion between political ideology and
set a function as “communication”, Wesley Aelbrecht the neglected Chicago photographer architecture during that period has
and furthermore, as “organisation”. The Bartlett School of Architecture, UK Mildred Mead. Mead volunteered been over-simplified. Moreover,
A descriptive (ekphrastic) and dia- for the Women’s Council from 1947 since the drastic change of ideology
grammatic nature is behind the Bra- Between 1954 and 1962, the until 1960. This exposition will fol- in the 1980s, most of the discus-
mante’s half-plan drawing, what Du- Women’s Council for City Renewal of low the three layers of investigation sion on architecture in the 1950s
rand systematized under his method Chicago presented the slide program proposed by W.J.T. Mitchell –image, has been buried in oblivion.
of composition. The plan gradually This is My City in schools, churches object and medium– to answer the A typical example is the Anthology
becomes the site for abstraction and various community centres. The vital question “what was this collec- of the Journal of Architecture (Chi-
where the essential (and typical) slide show consisting out of sixty- tion of pictures meant for?”. Mitchell nese): 1954-2003 (2004), in which
form of an idea ought to emerge. eight slides with matching commen- states that visual culture is not only the articles most influenced and
The Greek term eidos meant “idea”, tary projected what kind of a city Chi- about the relation between visual dominated by politics of the 1950s-
“form” and also “type”. As eidos cago was and how the activities of and textual images, but also about 1960s were omitted intentionally,
the plan exposes as a metonymic citizen groups contributed to better the material support on which the and instead, the articles that look
process that makes visible the es- housing. If the Women’s Council did images appear. It’s this assemblage more “academic” were selected.
sential and fundamental organizing not utilize these photographs in slide of visual, textual, material and sym- Such a situation also happened in
principles of its form, which emerge shows, they published them in books bolic elements that will be discussed some scholars’ individual antholo-
from the operations undertaken and governmental publications or here to show how the media, city- gies. While reshaping the form of
within the plan itself, as opposed hung them on exhibition panels in wide organizations and local govern- history and reconstructing a new

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genealogy of Chinese modern ar- articles concentrating on the impor- Session 16: “Bread & Butter and
chitecture, this kind of selectivity tant topics of controversies in the Architecture”: Accommodating the
has wiped out the architectural dis- Journal of Architecture in 1955-
course in 1950s and caused confu- 1959. Through close reading of Everyday
sion about the intention of articles of these articles in the historical con-
OS2

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the 1980s, as well as their certain text, the paper attempts to open
characteristics. Furthermore, the new perspectives of discussions
absence of critical description on under three topics, content/form,
the development of the discipline of class nature of architecture, and
architecture in the 1950s and the beyond that, the general discursive
analysis of its effect might have a mode. It argues that though unno-
hidden impact on contemporary ar- ticed, the architectural discourse of Session Chairs:
chitectural discourses. the 1950s is still having an impact Ricardo Agarez, The Bartlett School of Architecture
This paper selects three groups of on contemporary discourses. Nelson Mota, TU Delft, Netherlands

This session takes its title and theme from a 1942 article by English ar-
chitectural historian John Summerson, who called on practicing architects
to face “the real-life adventures which are looming ahead” instead of trying
“to fly level with the poet-innovator Le Corbusier”. To render architecture
“effective in English life”, Summerson argued, would be the role of quali-
fied teams of “salaried architects” working for local and central authorities
or commercial undertakings. Their “departmental architecture” would be
responsible for lifting the average quality of everyday building practice for
the benefit of all, while providing a profession constantly seeking to secure
its place in society with “those three essential things for any born architect
– bread, butter, and the opportunity to build”. Coincidentally, the following
year saw the publication of Ayn Rand’s novel The Fountainhead, whose
architect protagonist epitomised the “prime mover”, the individualistic cre-
ative hero who singlehandedly conquered his place in history. Seemingly
following Rand’s drive, the canon of western contemporary architecture
has overlooked Summerson’s everyday “salaried” architecture, however
dominant it may have turned out to be in our built environment, praising
instead the solo designer and his groundbreaking work. It seems to have
been in “departmental architecture” that the social role of the architect –
both in terms of social hierarchies and contribution to social betterment
– was primarily tested and consolidated in the aftermath of World War I.
Yet the work of county, city and ministerial architects, and heads of depart-
ment in welfare commissions, guilds and cooperatives is seldom discussed
as such. The specific character of this work as the product of institutional
initiatives and agents, as the outcome of negotiation between individual
and collective agendas, remains little explored, even when celebrating the

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few public designed projects that are part of the canon. S16.1 Humdrum Tasks of Rather than a history of coincidence
What is, then, the specificity of this “Bread & Butter” architecture? What the Salaried-Man: Edwin – whereby designs by “new empiri-
is its place in architectural history studies, and how should we approach it? Williams, an LCC Architect cists” fortuitously arrive at the same
What does it tell us about the dissemination and hampering of architectural at War time and to the same party as a
trends, or the architectural culture within institutions and agencies? Is it radically modernised construction in-
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relevant in today’s context of swift downplaying of institutional agency in the Nick Beech dustry, a centrally planned economy,
spatial accommodation of everyday needs? Are we prepared to bypass the Oxford Brookes University, UK and a London full of holes to fill – this
still prevalent notion of the architect-artist, the prime mover, and look at the paper suggests that certain develop-
circumstances of those who played their part in inconspicuous offices and Working at the London County Coun- ments in modern architecture can
unexciting departments? We welcome papers that address these and other cil Architect’s Department through be considered as contingent upon
questions prompted by the theme, focusing on the period after World War the 1930s to 1950s, known (if at practices of the demolition industry.
I, when many public initiatives were put in place, until the late 1960s, when all) as a member of the design team Discussing the various techniques
established hierarchies were challenged and the architect’s place in society for the Royal Festival Hall, Edwin and technologies Williams integrat-
again changed. Williams is usually presented as a ed into his training programme this
regressive figure, his design work paper contributes to a wider discus-
marked by his beaux-arts training. sion on how the history of modern
With no evidence of any significant architecture might be rethought.
contribution to formal or spatial de- By concentrating on the “organisa-
velopments of architecture in the tion” and “progress” of production
post-war period – in drawings, plans that architects engaged with during
or diagrams – Williams’s story is the Second World War and after,
firmly confined to the hidden “back- new configurations of continuity and
room” of architectural history. Using change emerge in which the “hum-
archival evidence and histories of drum tasks” of “salaried-men” ap-
the construction industry, this pa- pear crucial.
per sets out Williams’s role in the
organisation of rescue and recovery
services in London during the Sec- S16.2 Third Text: Albert
ond World War. The paper argues Kahn and the Architecture
that, through his development of of Bureaucracy
training schools and curricula for
Rescue Service personnel, Williams Claire Zimmerman
played a key role in the formation of University of Michigan, USA
a skilled, mechanised, modern de-
molition industry. Operating complex In 1947, Henry Russell Hitchcock
emergency projects under extreme published The Architecture of Bu-
conditions, the same contractors reaucracy and the Architecture of
and building operatives trained in Genius, in which he elaborated two
Williams’s programme were later very different paradigms of post-war
responsible for the clearance of architecture. Frank Lloyd Wright ex-
bomb damaged sites and slums. emplified the architecture of genius,

130 131
Albert Kahn that of bureaucracy. Albert Kahn in terms of scale, serial- such an extent that the original para- S16.4 Layers of Invisibility:
Just four years after Nikolaus Pevs- ity, space, and archival analysis, and digm of the British Garden Suburb Portuguese State
ner instructed readers that inhabit- narrates a third text for the history ideology was barely recognisable. Furniture Design
able construction could be divided of twentieth-century architecture, in The provision of these new but truly 1933-1974
into bicycle sheds (vernacular build- which architecture offers a differ- vernacular neighbourhoods was the
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ing) and cathedrals (Architecture), ent story of modernization through charge of Ireland’s local authorities, João Paulo Martins
Hitchcock inserted a new category construction. It is part of an ongo- namely Dublin Corporation. Expedi- Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
that defined something more than ing Kahn project at the University of ence, from economic necessity and Sofia Diniz
mere building, but less than Ar- Michigan. slum-clearance priority, drove this Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal
chitecture, and Kahn was its chief mid-century building production,
representative. This new category amounting to repetitive form and to The intricate role of architects in
was further linked to quality as dis- S16.3 Architect, Planner a sameness of landscape. But be- designing furniture to equip national
tinct from artistic value in building. and Bishop: the Shapers of hind these vernacular and so-called monuments and public buildings in
Kahn’s buildings are good buildings; Dublin, 1940-1960 ordinary developments was a com- Portugal during the twentieth cen-
they are not, however, “architectural plex web of design decisions, plan- tury remains insufficiently studied.
art”. Hitchcock thus addressed a Ellen Rowley ning preferences and moral impera- The so-called Estado Novo regime
recent difficulty: progressive mod- Trinity College Dublin, Ireland tives. Taking the genesis of one vast (1926-1974), which corresponds
ern architects often accused of north Dublin neighbourhood, Ra- largely to Salazar’s dictatorship, pro-
failure on qualitative grounds when From the 1930s through the heny/Coolock, as a case study, this moted the concentration of a large
deploying new techniques might not 1960s, Dublin’s development oc- paper sets unseen archive material amount of official design and con-
produce “good buildings” in terms curred at its periphery: wheels of from the local Catholic Bishopric and struction activities in the Ministry
of construction, despite ground- narrow roadways, punctuated by Dublin Corporation, alongside criti- of Public Works. Department archi-
breaking aesthetic or experiential green spaces, provided the low- cal thinking around post-war subur- tects were called in to intervene at
work. But by creating a distinction density frameworks for terraced bia generally and Irish Catholicism. all scales – regional planning, urban
between two kinds of “good build- residential boxes surmounted by Startling hand-drawn maps by local design, architecture and furniture –
ing”, each was preserved from the pitched roofs and fronted by pocket priests reveal how the Archbishop of within an unusually challenging scope
other, eliminating a point of confu- gardens. Vast structures of ecclesi- Dublin (John Charles McQuaid, from of diversity and flexibility that gave
sion and a loophole that had often astic authority, the Catholic (deter- 1940-1971) influenced Dublin’s shape to the country’s constructed
been exploited to denigrate the new minedly revivalist) church building planning processes and controlled landscape and sought to reflect the
and untried for political or ideological and the suite of Catholic (tentatively the architectural flavour of swathes state itself.
reasons. Hitchcock was not alone in modernist) schools, were presented of developing parishes. Moving from However, the furniture designed to
his opinions of Kahn’s work: George as support structures for the mass the collective environment of the outfit the state’s representative build-
Nelson, Frederick Towndrow, Carl housing, thereby completing the im- neighbourhood’s suburban estates ings across the entire gamut of its
Condit, and others repeated similar age and experience of Dublin’s new to the individual project of an expres- functional types has been underesti-
ideas. The Architecture of Bureau- mid-twentieth-century suburbs. This sionist concrete church, this paper mated by contemporary critics, and
cracy, then, was a new category set was the frenzied making of Dub- seeks to unpick the variously silent largely forgotten by historiography.
between two existing modes of build- lin’s middle landscape – an ordinary and active roles of the architect, the There are many factors supporting
ing. Kahn provoked this splitting and world into which most Dubliners planning office, the patron and the this multilayered invisibility. This pro-
insertion; but its consequences are were born. It provided an a priori user in the making of the more re- duction was the outcome of institu-
still to be reckoned. This paper con- environment by colonising the city’s cent and everyday built environment tional offices within a conservative
siders the phenomenal production of rural edges at great speed, and to that is Irish suburbia. and repressive state. It underwent

132 133
the stigma of regime architecture has long been unaccounted for in Ludwig Mies van der Rohe or Peter tion of the norm into architectural
and became confined to the circuit of favor of avant-garde creation – an Behrens were active protagonists history: I propose the necessity of
official propaganda. The design of fur- omission that recently moved into in the norm production of the DIN. reevaluating the prevalent reading of
niture was (under)valued as subsid- the focus of historical research. The At the same time, DIN officials such the norm as a limiting corset of the
iary by the authors themselves, and architecture of the German Institute as Karl Sander designed the parts avant-garde towards an understand-
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the historiographies of architecture for Norm (DIN), founded in 1917, that would form much of the Neue ing of the norm as active agent in
and industrial design have done little presents a unique case for such Architektur of the time. With this pa- form-making.
to change this understanding. Even in rewriting of the history of the disci- per I want to argue for a re-integra-
the cases where those department pline. Rather than producing repre-
architects did develop a career as in- sentative buildings, the DIN designed
dependent authors, they scarcely es- architecture through norms. When
caped anonymity to become noticed. the DIN 476 defined the paper for-
Part of a wider, on-going, multidisci- mat A4 in 1922 as national norm,
plinary research project, our exhaus- the DIN re-shaped architectural pro-
tive survey of this production and its duction from the inside out. Where
critical analysis have enabled us to the paper format was normed, the
recognize standard modus operandi, normed-size binder followed. The fil-
varying strategies of state represen- ing cabinet for the folder was nor-
tation with different functional, aes- med, and, lastly, the building that
thetic and ideological orientations housed the normed furniture. This
– from the more conservative and system of norming the part, rather
conventional to the attempt to follow than the whole, defined the very
the latest international trends – as architecture of this institution: the
well as its impact on the furniture best solution was to be found, pre-
manufacturing industry of the coun- scribed, and disseminated. By de-
try. Our paper seeks to unveil some termining the window in 1919, the
of these actors’ unseen contribution, norm-makers of the DIN formatted
with its noteworthiness and short- the view of the world for the inhabit-
comings, and to enrich what is often ant; by formatting the door handle,
a black-and-white narrative. the point of physical contact between
user and architecture was shaped
and normalized. Rather than treat-
S16.5 Bureaucratic Avant- ing such norms as mere regulations
Garde: Norm-Making as on a sheet of paper, I want to ar-
Architectural Production gue that the systematic norm-effort
in early twentieth-century Germany
Anna-Maria Meister needs to be considered not opposed
Princeton University, USA to, but as integral to contempora-
neous architectural production. In
The production (and dissemination) constant interdependent exchange,
of architecture through institutions figures such as Walter Gropius,

134 135
Session 17: Lost (and Found) in
Translation: the Many Faces of Brutalism

s17
Session Chair:
Réjean Legault, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada

Ever since the publication of Reyner Banham’s famous 1955 essay The
New Brutalism, the idea that a modern building could display a “brutalist”
expression has flourished internationally. Notwithstanding the many possible
origins of this design approach – the usual suspect being Le Corbusier’s
béton brut at Marseille’s Unité d’habitation – it was Banham who launched
this memorable phrase. During the following decades, words like brutalist
and brutalism have been freely employed by critics and historians alike to de-
scribe diverse architectural works realized between the mid1950s and the
mid1970s. From his British standpoint, Banham wrote as a propagandist
assisting the birth of an architectural movement. Yet by the early 1970s,
American historians – among others – were struggling to qualify buildings
that had often received a lukewarm reception, not least because of the
negative connotation associated with adjectives like brutal and brutality.
From Banham’s “New Brutalism” to the historian’s brutalism, something
was unquestionably lost in translation. However, as in all translations, some-
thing new was also created. It is this process of transference that forms
the focus of this session. For if Brutalism has been widely accepted as the
key notion to characterize a certain genre of work produced during the
post-war period, the way this idea – and this expression – have penetrated
into most national architectural cultures is still in need of closer examina-
tion. Though Banham himself touched upon the international dissemination
of Brutalism in his 1966 survey, this issue has not yet been thoroughly
investigated. When and how did the notion of Brutalism enter (or reenter)
French architectural culture? When and how did it enter other countries
in continental Europe, the Middle East, South America, Australia? Was the
original Brutalist impetus acculturated within specific national or regional
building traditions? What are we to make of the substantial differences in

137
terms of planning, spatiality, and materiality between works that have been S17.1 When Communism tion in 1985, they established a sym-
confidently enshrined as Brutalist, like Vittoriano Vigano’s Istituto Marchiondi Meets Brutalism: biotic relationship with communist
in Italy (1954-58) and Paul Rudolph’s Art & Architecture Building in the The AUA’s Critique of elected officials who welcomed new
United States (1959-63)? Production cultural practices and architectural
I seek papers that explore the penetration, adaptation, acculturation or experimentation. Working predomi-
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reconceptualization of Brutalism within various national contexts. Contribu- Vanessa Grossman nantly in the outskirts of Paris, the
tions may address this topic from a broad perspective or through the study Princeton University, USA housing schemes and social facili-
of specific buildings, architects, writers or publications. While the session ties they collectively conceived were
aims to concentrate on the investigation of particular national situations, In his 1966 book The New Brutalism: soaked with the societal universe of
papers that study the translation from one context to another are also Ethic or Aesthetic? Reyner Banham working-class towns and partisan in-
welcome. famously articulated previous ideas tellectual impregnations: the textures
and tied the rise of “New Brutalism” of nineteenth-century brick-factories
in England with communism, but as and cinderblocks combined through
a reaction against it. New Brutalism Brechtian techniques of montage.
was for him a counter “attitude and Much like Le Corbusier’s ethos in
program” that certain architects de- Marseille’s Unité, the AUA promoted
ployed to the “pre-Khrushchev Anglo- “high quality architecture for pro-
Zhdanov line” fostered by British offi- grams that were poor in means (by
cials, a revival that The Architectural contamination [we] impoverished
Review dignified as New Humanism. wealthier programs)” according to
Nevertheless, if the native-tenets of Paul Chemetov. Despite their pioneer
British “New Brutalism” moved away critique of mass production, they
from the picturesque and from com- pursued the “re-humanization” of bé-
munism altogether, that was not the ton brut and prefabrication methods
case for their counterparts on the when both started to be condemned
other side of the English Channel. in France. AUA’s search for a worker-
This paper examines the self-pro- ist aesthetics allied with technological
claimed “néobrutaliste” attitude of rationality had strong implications in
Atelier d’Urbanisme et d’Architecture the architectural form.
(AUA) from a different context,
wherein French communist-affiliated
architects and fellow travellers were S17.2 Gravitas and
stigmatized vis-à-vis the country’s ma- Optimism: the Paradox of
jor architectural commissions. The Brutalism in Skopje
AUA was founded in the bourgeoning
Trente Glorieuses as a forerunner in- Mirjana Lozanovska
terdisciplinary cooperative gathering Deakin University, Australia
architects, engineers, sociologists,
urban planners and decorators. Not Brutalism came to Skopje after the
all of AUA’s members were commu- 1963 earthquake via a hybrid set of
nists, but from 1960 to its dissolu- trajectories. The atmosphere was

138 139
characterised by a paradox between at Yale University. His architectural due partly to Australia’s geographic S17.4 African Ethic,
the tragedy of the disaster and the imagination was stirred by the men- isolation and longstanding Common- Brutalist Aesthetic: Vieira
international political optimism pro- toring of Paul Rudolph and Serge wealth ties, partly to the postwar ar- da Costa in Huambo
moted by the United Nations (UN) Chermayeff. Two buildings realized rival of British and European émigré
and Yugoslavia’s leading role in the by Konstantinovski after his return – architects already steeped in mod- Ana Tostões
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Non Aligned Movement (NAM). the Skopje Archive Building (1966) ernist critique, partly to Boyd’s re- Universidade Técnica de Lisboa,
Kenzo Tange’s winning master plan and the Goce Delcev Student Dormi- flections on Brutalism in his buildings Portugal
for Skopje resulted in a reinvention tory (1969) – have been influential and writings, especially Kenzo Tange Margarida Quintã
of the city manifested in prominent and have stood the test of time. (1962) and New Directions in Japa- Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal –
structures including the Telecom- What were Konstantinovski’s archi- nese Architecture (1968), and part- École Polytechnique Fédérale de
munications Building (1972-1981) tectural inspirations and fantasies? ly due to long-standing professional Lausanne, Switzerland
by Janko Konstantinov; the campus While marginalised in the architec- traditions of working in England and
of Ss. Cyril and Methodius Univer- tural debates, these two buildings the Americas, made especially influ- In 1970, Vieira da Costa designed
sity (1974) by Marko Mušić; the challenge the historian to be more ential by shared experiences gained a Veterinary Academic Hospital in
National Hydraulic Institute (1972) cautious about their location within by cohorts of young Australian ar- Huambo, a city located on the An-
by Krsto Todorovski; and the Bank existing narratives. chitects working in specific architec- golan central plateau. The building
Complex (1970) by R. Lalovik and tural offices and their subsequent was commissioned by the Portu-
O. Papeš. Massive, raw structures return. The London office of Cham- guese government, which, at that
have produced a monumental and S17.3 Bringing it All Home: berlin Powell & Bon in London and time, still ruled the Angolan territo-
enduring presence and have inspired Australia’s Embrace of the Toronto office of expatriate Aus- ry. A decade earlier, the year 1960
Skopje’s title as “brutalist capital of Brutalism, 1955-1975 tralian architect John Andrews, for marked the independence of 17
the world”. example, were key loci for immersion African countries and the beginning
Gravitas is associated with the Philip Goad in particular aspects of an emergent of rebellion towards independence
weight and seriousness of destruc- The University of Melbourne, Australia Brutalism. The translation of these in Angola. The Portuguese dictator-
tion, and in this paper, the reference experiences to Australia was compli- ship’s ultimate effort to maintain its
of the paradox between gravitas and In July 1967, Australian architect cated by changed circumstances “at power over the colony was control
optimism is to Japanese Metabo- and critic Robin Boyd wrote in The home”: a concomitant embrace of by military force and the fostering of
lism. For Tange and Kisho Kuroka- Architectural Review of “The Sad the indigenous Australian landscape; inland development in several fields.
wa, the devastated post-war condi- End of New Brutalism”. It was, si- the dramatic expansion of existing Paradoxically, the architecture de-
tion was integral to their philosophy multaneously, a cutting critique and universities and the creation of new veloped in the country escaped the
that robust structures provided the resounding endorsement of Reyner ones; and a government sponsored repressive control of the regime
“vital force of the masses” that a city Banham’s The New Brutalism: Ethic program of monumental public build- and expressed the changing values
needed to reinvent itself. In order to or Aesthetic? (1966). By the mid- ings in Canberra, the nation’s capi- of Angolan society. The beginning of
develop a complex historical trajec- 1970s, Australia might have boast- tal, that would see that city become, a new historical path could be de-
tory of brutalist architecture, the ed that it had answered both parts by the late 1970s, a showpiece of tected in African architecture from
paper will look in particular to the of Banham’s question in the affirma- Brutalist architecture, but of a dis- 1945, as pointed out by the Ger-
work of Georgi Konstantinovski. Yu- tive. But the emergence in Australia tinctly Antipodean strain. man art historian Udo Kultermann
goslavia had established internation- in the late 1950s of what came to (1963, 1969, 2000). His writings
al student exchange programmes be known as Brutalism in architec- on Post-War African Architecture
and the young Konstantinovski was ture was complex and across a vast focused on the search for a new
accepted in the Master programme continent, regionally split. This was ethic in African architecture, whose

140 141
aim was to encompass the original 1975, with works employing diverse Sweden (1956-1963), and Eladio toward radical technological and ra-
link between ancient tradition and construction materials (brick, con- Dieste’s Church of Christ Worker at tional inventiveness. In this they may
innovation. Kultermann’s vision goes crete, steel), responding to varied Atlantida, Uruguay (1952-1959), perhaps stand as conceptual coun-
beyond the buildings’ adaptability to situations (from the domestic to considering their specificities and terpoints to one of Le Corbusier’s
climate and envisions a wider cultur- the monumental), benefiting from differences as a means of uncover- masterpieces, the Notre-Dame-du-
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al scope to the foundation of a new different technologies, appearing ing some of their conceptual prox- Haut Chapel at Ronchamp, France
African modernity. Reyner Banham’s across many geographical con- imities. While geographically far (1950-1955).
“The New Brutalism” (1955), The texts, and exhibiting peculiar local apart, they share a similar attitude
New Brutalism: ethic or aesthetic? traits. It is extremely complicated
(1966) and The Architecture of the to pinpoint its precise definition, but
Well Tempered Environment (1969) there is definitely a pervading mood
will guide the presentation in order that connects the so-called brutal-
to frame the author’s view in the ist buildings: a certain fondness for
evolving character of Modern Move- exploring the plastic expression of
ment’s formalism. Vieira da Costa’s structural solutions and materials,
brutal building in wild central Angola which has often been interpreted
embodies the changing nature of as a desire to express a “moral and
Modern African architecture. By de- material truth”. However, the sheer
scribing the spatial and tectonic na- complexity of the aesthetic and ma-
ture of the Huambo Academic Vet- terial operations involved in the ar-
erinary Hospital, this paper tries to chitectural design of its best exam-
identify the overlaps between Brutal- ples far exceeds this simple ethical
ism and Africanism in da Costa’s de- premise, and deserves a more care-
sign. It argues that Brutalist expres- ful examination.
sion embodies a developing Angolan Although Brutalism evokes rough ex-
modernity, as a process of returning posed concrete, since very early on
to African fundamentals. the term has been applied to brick
structures, either of homogeneous
fabric or interspersed with concrete,
S17.5 Hard Cases: steel, or wood frames. This paper
Bricks and Bruts from will reconsider the contributions of
North and South several architects and critics on the
subject of “brick brutalism”, ranging
Ruth Verde Zein from Le Corbusier’s Maisons Jaoul
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, (1951-55) to Banham’s discus-
Brazil sion of brick brutalism “hard cases”
(1966) and those by other recent
A polemical term with fuzzy bor- authors. It will then proceed into
ders, Brutalism has been employed a close reading of two exemplary
to describe a wide variety of build- early “brick brut” cases: Sigurd Lew-
ings designed between 1945 and erentz’s Markuskirk at Stockholm,

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Session 18: Socialist Postmodernism
Architecture and Society
under Late Socialism

s18
Session Chair:
Vladimir Kulić, Florida Atlantic University, USA

If postmodernism is, as Fredric Jameson famously claimed, indeed “the cul-


tural logic of late capitalism”, what do we make of the fact that in the 1970s
and 1980s similar phenomena also flourished throughout Eastern Europe?
Does it mean that late capitalism and late socialism shared some as yet un-
acknowledged commonality? Or that “socialist postmodernism” was merely
a western import? Was it a cultural signal of the imminent collapse of
socialism? Or was socialist postmodernism an entirely different beast from
its capitalist counterpart, thus opening up the possibility of “other postmod-
ernisms”, similar to the existence of “other modernisms” that architectural
history started acknowledging around the turn of the millennium?
While art historians have long engaged with postmodernism in socialist
states, architectural historians have only just started such inquiry. This
session questions the definition of architectural postmodernism from the
perspective of the (former) socialist world. It invites case studies of build-
ings, paper projects, and theoretical positions that will cast new light on
how we label postmodern architecture, namely the practical and discursive
critiques of modernism and modern rationality; the return of historicism,
rhetoric, and representation; reliance on surface effects, fragmentation,
and pastiche; linguistic and theoretical turns; populist orientation, and so
on. The session ultimately aims to problematize the relationship between
architecture and socialist societies in the two decades before the collapse
of the Berlin Wall. Was architectural postmodernism necessarily a cultural
form of political dissidence under state socialism? How was such subversion
possible, if most architectural commissions were socially/state controlled?
If postmodernism was imported from the West, how did such transfer oc-
cur and how were the western models appropriated and transformed? Did
the legacy of Socialist Realism somehow affect the emergence of socialist

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postmodernism? Finally, is postmodernism even possible without postmo- S18.1 A Dialectic of haps most importantly, how could
dernity? Does its existence indicate that, after all, there was a form of Negation: Modernism and Soviet architects define their rela-
socialist postmodernity, even though it is often assumed that the former Postmodernism in the tionship to the capitalist West when
socialist states failed to transform into postmodern flexible post Fordist USSR they recognized that they shared a
economies and new epistemological regimes? Or was it just a statement of crucial set of concerns with their
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intent rather than an expression of the existing social conditions, something Richard Anderson “bourgeois” colleagues? Riabushin
akin to what Marshall Berman called “modernism of underdevelopment?” The University of Edinburgh, UK offered one response with his “dia-
Starting from the premise that the socialist world was not a homogeneous lectic of negation”, for this dialectic
entity, this session aims to acknowledge the historical and cultural specifici- In 1986 the critic and historian turned on the negation of bourgeois
ties which existed. Especially welcome are the proposals that posit alterna- Aleksandr Riabushin characterized ideology as well as the negation of
tive genealogies of architectural postmodernism, thus questioning the en- Soviet architecture’s relationship to mechanistic functionalism. This pa-
trenched canons established in the West. functionalism as a “dialectic of ne- per introduces the problems raised
gation”. For Riabushin this dialectic by the concept of postmodernism
was animated by a desire to reinvig- for Soviet architectural theory. It dis-
orate Soviet architecture after the cusses the translation of Jencks’s
widespread industrialization of build- The Language of Post-Modern Archi-
ing production during the 1950s tecture into Russian in 1985 as well
and ‘60s. While the modernization as several theoretical and practical
of the building industry was an emi- case studies.
nent success in the provision of living
space, it produced, in Riabushin’s
words, an “emotional hunger” for an S18.2 When Tomorrow
“expressive language” of architec- Was Cancelled: Critique of
ture. Riabushin and other Soviet crit- Modernism in the 1970s
ics recognized that this desire for a
communicative architecture marked Daria Bocharnikova
a significant vector of convergence Saint Petersburg State University,
between the architectural cultures Russia
of the Soviet Union and the capital- Andres Kurg
ist world. But this potential conver- Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, Estonia
gence of cultural norms posed a se-
ries of ideological questions to Soviet Several accounts of cultural his-
architectural theory: How were the tory have viewed the decade of the
shared interests of Western and so- 1970s in the Soviet Union as a re-
cialist architects in history, context, action to the idealistic 1960s: the
and expression to be understood? Prague Spring events had crushed
How might the concept of “postmod- the techno-utopian hopes for a re-
ernism”, as defined in the context formed socialist society and the en-
of capitalist architectural culture, ergy driving the social changes was
relate to Soviet architectural design redirected to the private realm. In
of the 1970s and early 1980s? Per- a similar way, in the architecture

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profession the 1970s have been forces of postmodernization, echoed S18.4 Neither Style, nor preted as a bridge between contra-
seen as dominated by a critique of in the Soviet Union foremost on the Subversion: Postmodern dicting systems. The complex nature
mass housing and mass produc- cultural and everyday level. Architecture in Poland of Polish postmodernism also must
tion, yet it was also a period of an be understood by taking into account
active search for alternatives, that Lidia Klein the strong architectural traditions of
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at the same time did not abandon S18.3 The Friedrichstadt Duke University, USA national Romantic Regionalism, as
modernist rationality. This included Palace Alicja Gzowska well as the legacies of Socialist Re-
not only an exploration of emerg- Uniwersytet Warszawski, Poland alism. Those autochthonous factors
ing new technologies and their use, Florian Urban modeled the selective character of
but questioning the so-far preva- Glasgow School of Art, UK Contrary to the predominant view Polish postmodernity, contributing to
lent models of interaction between of Polish postmodernism as a revo- the hybridity of the results.
design and society. It could be pro- The revue theatre Friedrichstadt Pal- lutionary change concurrent with Our aim is to explain how the social
posed then that popular notions in ace in East Berlin, which was built political transformations of 1989, and political circumstances of late
the architectural discourse of the 1981-1984 according to a design we argue that it was an evolution- socialist Poland led to the adapta-
decade – socialization (obshchenie), by Manfred Prasser, epitomizes ary process operating within late tion, filtration, appropriation and
environment, social plan – became some of the fundamental contradic- socialism. The implementation of a process similar to creolization of
ways to imagine not only differently tions within the “first socialist state postmodernism in architecture and contemporary foreign ideas. This pa-
organized surroundings but also a on German soil”. The building was urbanism was a slow absorption per is based on research and inter-
differently, more democratically, or- one of the East German rulers’ most of selected forms and ideas often views we conducted with architects
ganised society. This paper traces conspicuous concessions to the vani- integrating contradictory notions in 2013 for a book on Polish post-
the shifts from the utopian language ties of Marxian superstructure and a and technologies (e.g. historicizing modernism released in December
of the 1960s to a more situated well-received attempt to add a touch elements deployed in the mass-pro- 2013.
and historically conscious approach of color to their notoriously dull and duced panel housing).
of the 1970s on the example of a grey capital city. The Friedrichstadt Polish postmodernism during the
group of architects working in Mos- Palace not only hosted popular TV 1970’s and 80’s was a fragment- S18.5 Sources of
cow Architecture Institute and as- shows such as Ein Kessel Buntes (A ed and dispersed set of ideas and Postmodern Architecture
sociated with the NER group: Ilya Pot Full of Colors) that aimed at dis- practices that were negotiated and in Late Socialist Belgrade
Lezhava, Alexei Gutnov, Zoya Khari- tracting from the monotonous East appropriated by diverse groups (ar-
tonova, as well as Mikhail Belov. In German everyday life, but also its chitects, the church and communist Ljiljana Blagojević
particular, we seek to examine an gaudy design with abundant histor- propagandists), rather than a coher- Univerzitet u Beogradu, Serbia
entry by Belov, Lezhava and others, ic references marked a break with ent body of theory and practice. The
to the UIA competition in 1978, a the functionalist aesthetic of earlier notion of postmodernism, vague and The paper explores the emergence
“Town Hall” project, finally disallowed public buildings. The Friedrichstadt elusive itself, in Polish context be- of architectural postmodernism in
to participate by the Soviet Archi- Palace exemplifies an East German come further complicated by politi- Belgrade (Serbia) and its sources,
tects’ Union. We argue that the en- version of post-modernism. Emulat- cal conditions. The attempts to apply that is to say, the web of different
gagement of this circle of architects ing Western European and Ameri- Venturi, Jencks or Krier’s ideas were socio-political, artistic and intellectu-
with the existing Soviet city was still can entertainment architecture, the not always an expression of disap- al tributaries to the new architectur-
motivated by socialist values and a socialist leaders intended to boost pointment in the realities of Polish al outlook. The focus on sources ter-
desire to extend its framework, yet the GDR’s image in the West and socialism or a longing for the ideal- minologically and methodologically
in many ways it also represented respond to their own citizens’ desire ized capitalist West. In some cases, relates to the classic formulation of
a reaction to the globally emerging for pop culture and consumerism. postmodern concepts were inter- Nikolaus Pevsner’s book The Sources

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of Modern Architecture and Design Venturi and Charles Jencks, and ex- Roundtable 2: The Third Life of Cities:
from 1968. If, according to Pevs-
ner, printing and clocking-in or, rath-
hibitions and events in Belgrade gal-
leries, such as Group of architects
Rediscovering the Post-Industrial
er, mass communication and mass ME Č show at the Student Cultural City Centre
production sourced the aesthetic Centre (1980), and a series of col-
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RT2
production he wrote about, which lective exhibitions held at Salon of
were the streams that bespoke a the Museum of Contemporary Art,
river and the basin beyond modern namely “Solar Architecture” (1980),
architecture and design, that we “Earth Architecture” (1981) and
want to explore in this particular “Water Architecture” (1983). The
conference session on postmodern- paper asks how at that time of eco-
ism in late socialism? I will examine nomic stagnation and socio-political Roundtable Chairs:
several timelines which I argue to be disillusionment, uncertainty about Davide Cutolo, Independent scholar, Germany
indicative of profound changes that the future and imminent crisis of Sergio Pace, Politecnico di Torino, Italy
effected the emergence of postmod- the socialist system as a whole, the
ernism in Belgrade architecture: architectural discourse of postmod- For many western cities the end of the industrial era brought about a sig-
socio-economic, discursive and aes- ernism emerged and detached itself nificant rediscovery of the centre. This phenomenon is most pronounced in
thetic. The paper will focus specifi- from realities of economy, construc- those cities which experienced pre-industrial growth, such as small and mid-
cally on the architectural discourse tion, technology and production, and size capital cities, centres of an ancien regime society. Turin epitomizes this
which culminated in 1980s with a transferred into domain of arts and three-step evolution: pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial. From the
series of translations of key texts by culture. late sixteenth century Turin was the capital of a small European state and its
Christian Norberg-Schulz, Robert baroque city centre was an artistic expression of political power and cultural
traditions. The climax of this pre-industrial life came in the mid-nineteenth
century, when the history of the city and that of the emerging Italian nation
became intertwined and the city centre gained importance as the setting for
the Risorgimento (Italian Unification). Turin remained the capital city of Italy
for only four years, from 1861 to 1865.
The second life of the historic centre of Turin was characterized by a decline
in status, signalled by the departure of crucial urban activities and functions.
At the end of the nineteenth century new settlements around the old centre
became production hubs, mixing workers’ dwellings and workshops. Never-
theless, it was not until the 1900s that industrial production took off on a
large scale, shifting the urban balance over the course of the next century.
The third life of the city centre of Turin began very slowly at the end of
the 1970s, in parallel with the industrial crisis. The last thirty years have
seen a search for alternative urban identities and changes in the emphasis
given to particular periods of the city’s development. Public redevelopment
programs have focused on the Roman and medieval core; through a broad
policy of “big events” the municipality has tried to recover the old baroque
center, with its growing tourist appeal. The idea of the city centre itself has
changed, as the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the Unification

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(2011) have underlined, by focusing not only on the old town, but also on the Rt2.1 When Turin Lost Its right to use the city’s space. These
surrounding industrial areas, with their empty factories ripe for reinvention. Myths protests have made clear that a
This round table aims to explore the relationships, shared issues and main radical reconsideration of the public
differences between the case of Turin and other cities. Which actors have Cristina Accornero policies concerning the use of the ur-
led the rediscovery of the centre? What qualities of the city centre have Società Italiana per l’Organizzazione ban space is urgently needed.
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been prioritized: Historic value? Tourist appeal? Real estate potential? How Internazionale, Sezione Piemonte-Valle
has the social and demographic structure changed? How does architecture d’Aosta, Italy
and urban planning react to these issues? What is the role played by indus- Rt2.2 The Case of Paris
trial heritage in this process? This presentation aims at question-
ing the image of the “city (centre)- Joseph Heathcott
museum” as a factor of tourist at- The New School – New York, USA
tractiveness. In Turin the public and
political use of the local artistic and Despite its stature as a great capital
architectural heritage, as material- city, Paris entered a period of sig-
ized in those city’s spaces that are nificant decline in the 1970s. This
specifically connected to the history decline was the result of a conver-
of the Savoy dynasty, shows a dis- gence of factors, including eco-
torted interpretation of the local his- nomic recession, population loss,
tory often accompanied by the ten- and capital flight. Indeed, since the
dency to forget the city’s industrial early 1960s the Prefect of the Seine
and social past. The absence, in this and his planning staff had explicitly
city, of a museum of industry and pursued a policy of decentralization
technology dedicated to the culture and metropolitan expansion in order
of labour (and to its conservation) to spread out the city’s dense popu-
well epitomizes this paradox. lace. By the late 1970s, however,
Between the 1990s and the first the negative consequences of such
decade of the 21st century, a num- a policy were becoming evident as
ber of urban renovation projects manufacturers decamped for new
were promoted whose main aim industrial parks and old neighbour-
was to neglect the history of the hoods grew gaptoothed from the
territory and erase the memory of loss of families to peri-urban new
labour, especially when the latter towns.
corresponded to a specific space in With the resurrection of the may-
the city. Often this act of voluntary oralty of Paris (abolished during the
amnesia happened in the name of Second Empire) and the election of
purely speculative economic inter- Jacques Chirac in 1976, renewed
ests. attention to the urban core resulted
Criticisms and protests have recent- in a burgeoning campaign for his-
ly arisen among different sectors of toric preservation, particularly in the
the civic society claiming that every- wake of the demolition of Les Halles.
one should be free to exercise the But it was the election of François

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Mitterrand to the presidency that RT2.3 Prague: Buildings, - The conflict between the efforts to ture and events. This paper’s aim is
would ultimately lead to the larg- Spaces and People in Its protect the historic values of Prague to show how this process escaped
est transformations of Paris since Rediscovered Centre city centre (that is listed as a site of the local authorities’ control, espe-
the time of Haussmann. Paris plan- cultural heritage of UNESCO) on one cially when these were strangled by
ners and architects were soon busy Petr Kratochvíl side and the pressure for its mod- debts and financial cuts from the
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on Mitterrand’s Grands Projets, an Akademie vĕd české Republiky, Czech ernisation on the other. central government. In accordance
ensemble of eight major works that Republic - The changing character of public with an ultra-liberal ideology, local
included the Pyramid at the Louvre, spaces in the city centre of Prague, authorities left a free hand to private
the Opera-Bastille, and the massive Prague has become a post-industri- which is a visible manifestation of initiative in exchange for “building
Parc de la Villette. While scattered, al city only recently. Though its po- deeper social changes. Dealing with rights”, which were often used to
most of these projects, and indeed sition as the capital of the country the first theme the paper will anal- heal the financial crisis. Owners and
the redevelopment energies of the was always connected with a broad yse the opposing arguments of pres- entrepreneurs guided the prepara-
state, were concentrated in the East spectrum of activities, the share of ervationists and architects and will tion of plans and zoning variations
of Paris in an effort to redress the people employed in industry was be- also interpret some realized works designed to maximize rents, largely
long historic imbalance of public in- fore 1989 relatively high and – be- that successfully harmonize creativ- forfeited by private capitalists. The
vestment. side that – the role of the working ity and respect for the historical result was the creation of high-
The large-scale transformation of class was emphasized for political context. Public spaces will be then density residential and commercial
Paris in the 1980s and 1990s was reasons. After the fall of communist surveyed as the stage of city life with districts, not sufficiently connected
as much about the rise of new forms regime the situation has changed its new orientation. to the urban context and poorly
of politics and new economic imper- rapidly: many factories have been equipped. To the contrary, the cen-
atives than it was about the search closed leaving large industrial areas tral urban areas reached a further
for urban authenticity or sense of abandoned. More than 80% of em- RT2.4 Turin to Naples increase in values also as a conse-
history. Still, these latter factors ployees work now in services. The Stopping in Milan: Urban quence of the choice to redirect the
drove the politics and economics of historic core of Prague has become Transformations Between old industrial uses towards scientific
Paris in crucial ways, particularly as an attractive destination of interna- Heritage and Theme Parks innovation and cultural heritage,
the city came increasingly to rely on tional tourism and has accommodat- with the risk of creating amusement
tourism as a source of exogenous ed to its needs. This development, Guido Montanari parks. The result was contradictory:
capital, and as Parisians confronted which took place in similar Western Politecnico di Torino, Italy new processes of gentrification were
the range of temporalities and his- cities over the decades, was accom- accompanied by regeneration of ur-
tories embedded in (and lost from) plished in Prague over several years In the last decades, the crisis of ban centres (Milan and Turin), pro-
their urban fabric. Amid the massive and moreover it was accompanied Fordism and the relocation of large jects of transformations of industrial
dislocations and transformations un- by a deep reorientation from a cen- manufacturing sectors have caused areas which neglected the historical
derway since the 1970s, the efforts trally controlled to a free market radical transformations in the major memory of the place (Turin) and dif-
to define a post-industrial Paris is not economy. Italian urban centres. Turin, Milan ficult processes of re-appropriation
so much a return to some timeless No wonder that this hectic trans- and Naples are among the most sig- of public degraded areas (Naples).
principles of urbanism, but rather a formation has had a strong impact nificant examples of this transforma- Starting with a comparative analysis
projection of new urban imaginaries on the role and character of the city tion, characterized by two distinct of three apparently unrelated cases,
in an increasingly globalized world. centre – both positive and problem- phenomena: the reuse of large areas this paper aims to draw an initial as-
atic. From the point of view of archi- left over by the manufacturing indus- sessment of the outcomes of these
tectural history, two interconnected try and – in parallel – the rediscovery transformations considering as the
issues are important. of historic centres as places of cul- main standard of evaluation the no-

154 155
tion of urban quality seen in social as on the port-city of Genoa from the People no longer have to import di Torino, is in the city’s thriving
well as environmental terms. commercial/industrial era, through goods from their homeland or region markets. Porta Palazzo and smaller
the recession of the 1970’s and because they now grow these foods markets attract the attention of dele-
1980’s to the recent development of within Turin’s city limits. Prior to gates and dignitaries looking for keys
RT2.5 Rediscovering a as a post-industrial maritime and any design exercise or at least at the to modern food security and urban
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Port-city: Genoa’s New liveable centre, the paper will exam- very start of it, though, a thorough revitalization. Equally, its citizens look
Waterfront ine other examples, both urban and consideration of historical Turin’s to urban agriculture for employment
architectural in scale, located in Italy means of agricultural production and a deeper connection with their
Luca Orlandi and in other Mediterranean port- must take place. Can Torinites redis- daily food and the city around them.
İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Turkey cities. cover and reinterpret the layers of A design for a new, culturally rich
the city’s rich history while unearth- and multi-layered Turin, illuminated
As part of the session on the redis- ing the districts of former and future by its past and promising of a bright
covery of the post-industrial city cen- RT2.6 A Return to Growth food security? future, must begin with research
tre, the aim of this paper is to offer The heart of Turin’s future, as de- into Turin’s industrial heritage as a
an outline of the recent renovation Ted Sandstra scribed in a document by the Città stage for feeding its people.
projects of old Genoa’s harbour and Independent scholar, Canada
waterfront.
These interventions and changes, Despite its strong system of food
promoted by public and private en- markets, Turin relies on its rural
terprises in the last twenty years, surroundings, peri-urban area, and
can be seen as examples of suc- global exchange for production and
cessful goals in the urban regenera- delivery of its food supply. Can a
tion of a harbour-city along the coast renovation of Turin’s food supply sys-
of the Mediterranean. Genoa is one tem strengthen its redefinition of its
of the Italian cities whose centre is centre while at the same time reduc-
exactly coincident with the harbour ing its dependence on fossil fuels in
itself and the life around it, concen- its food system? If a shift towards
trated mostly in the historic centre, the centre took place in which the
and within this frame this paper’s in- abandoned factories became hubs
tent is to highlight how the Genoese of food production, might Turin’s
citizens have re-appropriated and re- historical strength as a capital of
identified the city’s historic values as labour, productivity and innovation
well as its touristic potential. More- resurface? There are historical re-
over the study-cases that will be pre- alities to consider and address: the
sented will clarify how this transfor- industrial heritage leaves a toxic leg-
mation resulted into a re-launch of acy and the existing means of pro-
the waterfront as a suitable area for duction, largely globalised, are en-
commercial purposes as well as for trenched and its managers reticent
entertainment, tourism, real estate to see it replaced.
and cultural events. Imagine a Turin fed from within its
After a brief introduction focussing urban and peri-urban boundaries.

156 157
Session 19: Architects, Craftsmen and
Interior Ornament, 1400–1800

S19
Session Chairs:
Christine Casey, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Conor Lucey, University of Pennsylvania, USA – Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Is the study of interior ornament an integral part of architectural history?


To date, the literature on architectural history has largely neglected the
relationship between spatial form and interior ornament, resulting in the
development of a sub-genre focused on interior design and decoration.
Given the scale of ornament in early modern architecture across Europe,
this separation of the building from its decoration militates against a holistic
understanding of architecture and divides the Vitruvian triad that lay at the
centre of architectural education and practice: firmitas, utilitas and venus-
tas. For example, in the large literature on Palladianism there has been
little and discrete coverage of the interior. Perhaps the multifaceted and
complex nature of interiors, mediated as they were by patron, architect and
craftsman, complicates overarching historical narratives? But this separa-
tion of architecture from ornament does not reflect the real experience of
buildings. Is it time to reunite these realms? Given the rehabilitation of craft
in contemporary discourse, might interior ornament reclaim its place in ar-
chitectural history? Appropriately, pioneering research on Filippo Juvarra’s
work in Turin provides an exemplar for broader study of the relationship
between architects and craftsmen in early modern Europe.
This session aims to explore the evidence for communication and creative
collaboration between architects and craftsmen, including plasterers, carv-
ers and painters. While detailed written instructions are relatively rare,
a range of other materials – such as drawings, models and building ac-
counts – illuminates the process. To what extent were architects equipped
to design ornament, and to what extent did they rely on craftsmen for
ornamental design? Papers are invited that consider these issues in broad
or specific terms.

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S19.1 Architecture Before of the maestri and their swapping Eastern part of Central Europe, for eighteenth-century Baroque interi-
the Architects: Building of workmen via the records of pay- example, in historical Styria and ors in this region.
St Theodore’s Chapel of ment and the ordering of materials. the North Western part of Croatia.
St Mark’s Basilica in From these sources it is clear that The churches constructed by J.G.
Venice, 1486-1493 the same master sculpted the main Stengg’s building workshop from S19.3 Architects of the
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portal and the interior frames, that Graz, and those in the North West- Islamic Work and Phrasing
Maria Bergamo the same proto directed the yard ern part of Croatia which were in- Concepts in Geometry
Istituto Universitario di Architettura di and carved the floral frieze, and that fluenced by it, often share identical
Venezia, Italy the same painter frescoed both the motifs among stuccowork, the deco- Hooman Koliji
façade and the interior decorations. ration of altars, and architectural University of Maryland, USA
The boundary separating a build- It is also clear that craftsmen moved forms. A 1730s motif of rhomboi- Mohammad Gharipour
ing’s interior from its exterior corre- from one building yard to another, dal mesh with rosettes, for exam- Morgan State University, USA
sponds to the historical separation along the coast of the Adriatic Sea, ple, can be found simultaneously in
– theoretical, ideological – between fostering technical experimentation stucco decorations on the vault of The advent of Islam was a turning
architecture and ornament, the and artistic innovation. This paper the church in Pokupsko and as orna- point in the development of art and
fine and applied arts, and between explores how architectural projects ments on the capitals of churches architecture in the Middle East. The
the architect and the craftsman. in this period relied on an intricate at Styria (at Rogatec, for example, emphasis on text rather than figure
But this is far from the reality of nexus of collaborations. or on the façade of the Barmherzi- encouraged by the new religion gave
the situation: in fact, the building gen-Brüder church in Graz), while a rise to an innovative use of scripts
yard and workshop were sites for type of irregular window frame, the in religious buildings that gradually
the exchange of ideas concerning S19.2 Decoration in so-called “Casula-Fenster”, can be established calligraphy as an artis-
the making of architecture, and Religious Architecture of found in the aforementioned church- tic speciality. The calligraphy in the
places where the inventive skills of the Eighteenth Century in es and, at the same time, as a paint- interior and exterior of mosques
the artist merged with the technical the South Eastern Part of ing frame on the altars designed by and mausoleums functioned as an
expertise of the craftsman. In Ven- Central Europe Stengg himself (at the monastery aesthetic and decorative element to
ice in the fifteenth century, the Re- church in Rhein, and in Pokupsko). enhance phenomenal properties and
naissance idea of architecture was Dubravka Botica These examples of corresponding spiritual qualities of the building by
not yet clearly defined, nor was the Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Croatia motifs in architecture and ornament citing religious quotations and poet-
professional role of the architect: emphasize the need for more ho- ry. It also served as an instructive de-
in fact, recent studies indicate that When researching the religious ar- listic research. Such an approach vice to convey secular information re-
important names such as Lombardo chitecture of the Baroque era it is highlights how these churches were garding the building’s patronage and
or Codussi were more akin to the essential to consider each building the result of a type of organization other details of construction. Along
stonemason than to an intellectual as a Gesamtkunstwerk and to in- within the building workshops of the with light and colour, calligraphy con-
figure like Alberti. One site exempli- clude research into technique, ma- period in which decorators were em- tributed to a holistic understanding
fies this interaction: the building yard terials and decoration. Architects ployed as co-workers. This impor- of architecture in micro and macro
for the construction of a little-known often designed ornaments, J.L. von tant aspect of Baroque architectural scales. Spatial qualities of calligraphy
chapel dedicated to St Theodore, Hildebrandt being the most promi- design has been neglected by tra- were associated with the message
located in a corner of St Mark’s nent example. There are several ditional art-historical studies of the that it carried and its interaction with
Basilica (adjacent to the Sacristy). examples of the interweaving of ar- Central European area. This paper the spectator. Using different types
The entire building process (from chitectural design and interior orna- addresses this position by offering of scripts while changing the size,
1486 to 1492) charts the changing ment in the buildings of the South a new examination of some of key density, and direction of the lettering

160 161
on surfaces enabled architects and in interior decoration thanks to its tural conception of space and form, ed by scholars, will be considered
artists to stress centrality, verticality, chromatic and ornamental values sometimes collaborating with other through individual case studies with
or horizontality within spaces, and as much as its quality as a precious decorators (painters or plasterers) a focus on the collaboration between
consequently to divide the interior material. Following the example of able to reproduce the same aes- the Lombard craftsmen and the ar-
into areas with different spatial quali- Filippo Juvarra, architects explored thetic qualities of marble at a lower chitects of the Savoy court active in
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s19
ties. The level of abstraction, mate- and exploited these potentialities in cost. This topic, relatively neglect- eighteenth-century Piedmont.
riality, and light determined the vis- interior design, while patrons both
ibility and legibility of the text and also appreciated and demanded these
affected the interaction between us- materials. Widely employed in royal
ers and buildings. Such sophisticat- residences (such as the Galleria
ed use of calligraphy reflected close Beaumont by Benedetto Alfieri in
collaborations between artists and Turin), marble decoration achieved
architects to design a cohesive and its highest expression in ecclesiasti-
unified spatial sequence and experi- cal interiors, in the form of floors,
ence. Investigating the complexities balustrades and altars. This kind
of patronage through historical nar- of decoration was either realized
ratives, this paper will explore spatial under the direction of an architect
qualities of calligraphy in two seven- who provided the design and precise
teenth-century mosques in Isfahan, instructions, or was independently
Iran, in order to explain the dynam- executed by a workshop of stone-
ics of collaboration among artists, masons (marmorari) by presenting
craftsmen, and architects. It will also to patrons their own models, and
explain how calligraphy served as a choosing and furnishing the marbles
tool to control and enhance vantage to be used. The meeting between
points, orchestrate sequence of pau- these two work systems, that gave
sal moments and circulation paths, rise to very different products relat-
and to foster social interactions. ed to experiences, territories and lo-
cal histories, is the focus of this pa-
per: did architects and “marmorari”
S19.4 Architects, influence each other? A comparison
Craftsmen and Marble between the representational tech-
Decoration in Eighteenth niques used by Lombard craftsmen
Century Piedmont and by the Studio regio of architec-
ture reveals how workmen, design-
Roberto Caterino ers and patrons communicated their
Independent scholar, Italy design ideas. While Lombard stone-
Elena Di Majo masons carried on the workshop
Independent scholar, Italy tradition, focusing on the decorative
effect of marble polychromy, Juvar-
In eighteenth-century Piedmont, rian school architects tried to exploit
marble played an important role this quality according to an architec-

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Session 20: Architecture, Art, and
Design in Italian Modernism: Strategies
of Synthesis 1925-1960

s20
Session Chair:
Daniel Sherer, Columbia University, USA

Whether one is considering Gio Ponti’s insertion of a miniature architectural


scene on a Richard Ginori vase in the early 1920s, Fausto Melotti’s impos-
ing ceramic caryatids for the luxury liner Conte Grande designed by Ponti in
1949, or Lucio Fontana’s construction of total “spatialist” environments –
such as the one presented in the Milanese gallery Il Naviglio in 1949 featuring
a large sculpture suspended from the ceiling illuminated by black light – it is
clear that Italian architecture was inextricably associated with a dense net-
work of interactions with art and design in the inter-war and post-war periods.
The session will examine this phenomenon as a “red thread” running through
Italian architectural culture and as a fertile terrain of exchange with wider
currents of international modernism.
As far as the post-war period is concerned, the integration of craft traditions
with industrial production recalls the social and economic premises of the
argument Tafuri put forward in the article “Design and Technological Utopia”
(1972), regarding Italy’s disjunctive transition from an agrarian society to
an industrialized one. The session will examine the links between distinct
stylistic codes in light of Tafuri’s hypothesis. Although these links operate
in multiple ways, they become most effective at the level of the articulation
of strategies relating architecture to the other arts, while bestowing on it
the status of primus inter pares. From this viewpoint the history of Italian
modern architecture becomes a history of the ways that companion arts
enter into its orbit and become part of its spatial, formal and material logic.
The session will explore different modes of synthesis associated with a wide
spectrum of architect/designers and artists who contributed to architectur-
al and design ensembles. By pursuing their own paths, these protagonists
ensured the specificity of the Italian contribution to European Modernism.
Far from reflecting any unified set of artistic choices or rigid theoretical

165
assumptions, the Italian experiments with aesthetic synthesis describe a S20.1 “Fantasia degli vironmental and social dimensions.
field of competing valorizations. These experiments will be situated histori- Italiani” as Participatory Considering some largely forgotten
cally and critically by examining the various strategies – formal, structural, Utopia: Costantino Nivola’s projects, such as the garden of the
symbolic, and spatial – through which the intra-aesthetic dialogue was con- Way to the Synthesis of artist’s house in Springs, designed
tinually reinvented. Finally, the session will explore the possibility that this the Arts with Bernard Rudofsky (1949-50),
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dialogue paved the way for theses of architecture’s relative autonomy formu- and the unrealized project for his
lated from the late 1960s to the early 1980s by Rossi and Tafuri, insofar Giuliana Altea hometown in Sardinia, Orani (1953),
as architecture’s links to the other arts could dialectically reveal the limits Università degli Studi di Sassari, Italy the paper analyzes Nivola’s utopian
of its disciplinary foundations and its role within the wider aesthetic sphere. tendency to the aestheticization of
The work of the sculptor, Costan- the built environment. This approach
tino Nivola (1911-1988) reflects – which might remind a contempo-
the twofold nature of the 1950s rary observer of the recent trend of
Italian approach to the relationship relational and participation art – co-
between art and architecture in existed with a more traditional, mod-
which the interest for applied deco- ernist vision influenced by the artist’s
ration coexisted with the search for mentor and friend, Le Corbusier. The
environmental expansion. Gio Ponti two perspectives seem to overlap in
referred to both attitudes as equally the 1958 exhibition organized in the
acceptable manifestations of the streets of Orani with the involvement
“fantasia degli Italiani”, a somewhat of the residents and, in a more in-
innate capacity for creative freedom direct way, in Nivola’s collaboration
which he associated with the deco- with Eero Saarinen in the Morse
rative projects of Piero Fornasetti and Stiles colleges at Yale University
as well as with Fontana’s spatialist (1959-1962).
experiments. Nivola’s work – seen
by Ponti as another example of this
disposition – encompasses the two S20.2 The Enchanted
aspects of the “Italians’ fantasy”. Rooms of Carlo Mollino:
Best known nowadays for his partici- Confrontations with Art
pation in the BBPR project of the Ol- in a Company Town
ivetti showroom in New York (1954), (1930-1960)
a widely acclaimed case of integra-
tion of architecture, art and design, Michela Comba
Nivola came to international recog- Politecnico di Torino, Italy 
nition in the 1950s as a “sculptor
for architecture”; but at the same Carlo Mollino supported the cause
time he developed a more original of “the unity of the arts” (Per una
version of the synthesis of the arts, critica dell’architettura, 1946), a
one that, looking beyond the col- fact that shows how close his posi-
laboration of architecture, painting tion was to Gio Ponti, despite his in-
and sculpture, centered on the en- dividuality as an architect.

166 167
Painters Italo Cremona, Mino Mac- tion with this group of independent practices of the interior. Italian dis- S20.4 The “Synthesis of
cari, Piero Martina, Carol Rama, artists. These works were character- course distinctly encapsulated an in- the Arts” as a Critical
sculptors Carmelina Piccolis and ized by a search for heterogeneous terest in the material elements that Tool and a Necessity for
Umberto Mastroianni, the art his- symbolism with which Mollino tried to construct an environment and paved Modern Architecture.
torian Aldo Bertini, the critics Al- avoid abstraction and “purism”. the way for its regard as an artistic
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bino Galvano, Ramon Gomez de la In this context photography contrib- medium. This material emphasis ad- Luca Molinari
Serna, and Ludovico Ragghianti ac- uted to the role of aesthetic medita- ditionally transformed the interior Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli,
companied the architect Mollino in tion and sublimation insofar as Mol- from a unified and enclosed realm Italy
the elaboration of his own aesthetic lino used the camera to investigate into an ordered arrangement of el-
dimension from the 1930’s through and create spaces from the 1930’s ements that moved beyond stable In a letter written in the mid Forties
the 1940’s and 1950’s. on (e.g., Miller House). boundaries. In fact, the discourse Ernesto Nathan Rogers, member
In my paper I show that in Turin, a Mollino used photography especially of arredamento not only concerned of the BBPR and former director of
city of Taylorism and of the advent in his dialogue with the aforemen- the arrangement of elements within Domus, declared that “every good,
of mass consumption, some of the tioned artists. This dialogue was a room, but also the movement of modern architecture should be done
above-mentioned artists (Cremona, almost Neoplatonic in its linkage of goods and meanings throughout in strong collaboration with the work
Martina and Mastroianni) partici- the idea to the senses and was of the territory, as curated interior en- of a modern artist”.
pated in the creation of a new con- paramount importance for his artis- sembles were key in the circulation In the period between 1944 and
cept of  collaborative work with the tic trajectory. of architecture both in the media and 1949. the reflections on the “syn-
architect. All of them represented the market. thesis of the arts” played a relevant
the position of Mollino very well as The tension between the constitution role in the theoretical experiences of
compared to the universe of indus- S20.3 The Logics of of the interior as an artistic medium Rogers mainly expressed by Domus,
trial production, and all contributed arredamento: Art and and its transformed effects when which he directed between 1945
to the creation of the concept of Civilization 1928-1936 submitted to modern forms of circu- and 1947, and by his relationship
ambientazione discussed by the ar- laltion, was of particular concern to with Sigfried Giedion and Max Bill.
chitect in the essay Dalla funzionalità Ignacio González Galán the writings of Edoardo Persico and My paper will be focusing on this
all’utopia nell’ambientazione (1949) Princeton University, USA Gio Ponti in the early 1930s. While defined historical phase trying to
and visible throughout his archi- the former regarded the interior as consider the discussion around the
tecture. Ambientazione is a kind of The discourse of arredamento con- “a work of art” [l’arredamento come “synthesis of the arts”, on one side,
environment in which architecture, stituted a privileged realm for artis- opera d’arte], Ponti maintained that as an ambiguous consequence of
art and design flow together, and tic synthesis in the central decades it was “not only a problem of art” but the critique of the architecture fonc-
is marked by a set of highly specific of the twentieth-century in Italy. more so “a question of civilization”, tionnelle, and, on the other, as a
aesthetic qualities (e.g. transfigu- Such was the nature of the concept, [un problema di civiltà]. It is the ten- relevant field of discussion between
ration and artistic synesthesia) ad- which refers both to the piece of fur- sion underlying this dual repurposing designers and artists in post-war Eu-
dressed by Mollino in the texts pub- niture and the ensemble of elements of the interior that concerns this pa- rope.
lished between 1947 and 1949.  furnishing a livable space – an archi- per. I will explore how it was precisely I will concentrate on the role of Er-
In my intervention I will analyze hous- tectural interior. as an artistic medium that the archi- nesto Rogers who played a signifi-
es, décor and monuments, and a The emphasis on arredamento was tectural interior was introduced to cant cultural and political position in
project for the exhibition of the artists different both from the association different circulatory processes and this historical phase as member of
Spazzapan and Mastroianni at the between interior and interiority of the partook in the regulation of social the Council of CIAM and as the di-
gallery “La Bussola” of Turin in 1948 German tradition and the insistence relations to which Ponti referred as rector of one of the most influential
– works originating in the collabora- on social control of French modern “civilization”. architectural magazines.

168 169
I will consider four main situations his long and varied activity he is in Session 21: The Architecture of State
related to the discussion around the constant pursuit of a blend among Bureaucracy: Reassessing
“synthesis of the arts” and its influ- the different creative spheres: from
ence on the design process: decoration of ceramics to furniture the Built Production of (Colonial)
- the collaboration and discussion and everyday objects’ design; from Governments
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s21
with Giedion, and its consequences conception of residential homes to
in CIAM’s Congresses of Bridgwater skyscrapers and large-scale build-
and Bergamo; ings construction; from exhibitions
- the cultural definition of Domus. La to the design of sets and costumes.
casa dell’uomo, between 1945 and But it is not just in his design activ-
1947; ity that he pursues the synthesis of
- the relationship with Max Bill be- the arts. The research of the pos- Session Chairs:
tween 1943 and 1949 around the sible relationship between architec- Johan Lagae, Universiteit Gent, Belgium
role of art concrète, through exhibi- ture, painting, furniture and applied Rika Devos, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
tions held in Zurich, Buenos Aires arts, cinema, literature, music and
(Nuevas Realidades, 1948), Milan, theatre, is the core of Stile maga- The cultural, material and spatial turns in political historiography have
and the related conferences and es- zine, which he created and directed brought about a cross-fertilization between political and architectural his-
says of Rogers; between 1941 and 1947. Amplify- tory in the last two decades. The spaces in which politics take place and
- the relationship between Lucio Fon- ing the action and the original spirit the political implications of architecture have become a focus of interest
tana, Saul Steinberg and the BBPR. of Domus, the magazine is intended both for political and architectural historians. However, this encounter has
to show the high level of the Italian strengthened the tendency to view politics primarily as a representational
“stile”, by which he meant not a spe- activity, rather than an act of governance. Hence, historians have privileged
S20.5 Gio Ponti’s Stile cific form, but the result of a com- the study of what Walter Bagehot, when writing on the English constitution
mon expression, of a collective feel- in 1873, called the “dignified parts” of the state – the Houses of Parliament,
Cecilia Rostagni ing and taste. museums, embassies, and national world’s fair pavilions. Buildings which
Politecnico di Milano, Italy  Stile is therefore a central episode, house the “efficient parts” of the state – the ministries, the public adminis-
although little studied, within Ponti’s trations, and so on – have hitherto remained largely neglected in academic
Gio Ponti’s work is of particular inter- reflection and work. At the same research.
est when analyzing the relationships time, it highlights the liveliness of In this session, we are interested in investigating this second, more mun-
with the visual arts that character- the Italian artistic and architectural dane built production of the state, aligning us with the argument of Henry
izes the Italian architectural pano- debate of the 1940s, on which his- Russell Hitchcock’s 1947 article that the “architecture of bureaucracy” is
rama in the years before and after toriography has rarely focused. worthy of (scholarly) attention as much as is the “architecture of genius’. In
World War II. Architect, painter and The paper aims to reconstruct, particular, we want to address the norms and forms that have influenced
designer himself, as well as an or- through the published writings and such governmental buildings as well as the actors involved in their design
ganizer and promoter of Italian taste the unpublished documents, the and construction. We invite papers that tackle questions via a case-study-
abroad, since the early days of his synthetic strategies put in place by based discussion. For example, how was the organization of the state (cen-
career, Ponti aims to overcome the Ponti in Stile, in the light of the Italian tralized vs. decentralized) reflected in its built apparatus? How does the
traditional boundaries between dif- debate of the time, as well as of his (urban) site, the scale, the architectural language and the interior spatial
ferent artistic disciplines. During project activities. distribution of state buildings illustrate the ways in which the state medi-
ated its position vis-à-vis the citizen? To what extent did government develop
particular building types, and what do these tell us about the desire of the

170 171
state to improve its efficiency? Was their design underscored with notions S21.1 SOM, 1939-1946: houses and various buildings, such
of Taylorism? What constituted the technocratic building apparatus of the from “Engineered Dwelling” as churches, schools, hospitals
state? What were the networks of power and knowledge implied in official to the Manhattan Project and shopping malls. Mastery of ad-
bodies like Public Work Departments that constituted what Peter Scriver vanced technology in prefabrication
has referred to in the British colonial context as the “scaffolding of empire’? Hyun-Tae Jung and experience with numerous build-
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Papers should be interpretative rather than descriptive in nature, and can Lehigh University, USA ing types enabled the firm to provide
present case studies within the time frame 1918-1970. We do not set limi- fast-track economical construction
tations in terms of geographical scope but request that when the focus is This paper concentrates on the or- and to efficiently manage their labor
on the architecture of state bureaucracy in colonial territories, the authors ganizational influence of the military force. The expansion and later inter-
also draw comparison with the situation “at home’. on the architectural practice of the national triumph of SOM could not
U.S. during World War II. The firm have been imagined without the col-
of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) laboration with the military.
grew from a small design office into This paper consists of three main
a large-scale corporate architec- components: the John B. Pierce
ture-engineering firm by adopting Foundation’s research on prefabri-
wartime government projects, par- cation and the use of space in the
ticularly the town of Oak Ridge, Ten- domestic environment, SOM’s activi-
nessee (1943–1946), where the ties at Oak Ridge, and the firm’s or-
atomic bomb was developed. ganizational transformation through
Central to this transition was SOM’s interactions with the Pierce Founda-
work with the John B. Pierce Foun- tion and the military.
dation, which specialized in psycho-
logical and physiological research in
the domestic environment as well S21.2 Unmonumental
as in the advancement and realiza- Buildings, Monumental
tion of the prefabricated house, the Scale: Santiago Civic
“engineered dwelling”. SOM and the District
Pierce Foundation began to collabo-
rate in 1939 and continued to ex- Daniel Opazo
plore large-scale, highly rationalized Universidad de Chile, Chile
construction in two major commis-
sions: the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Undoubtedly, the urban space that
Company (1941–1942) and the best represents state power in Santi-
Manhattan Project (1943–1946). ago and the country as a whole is the
Working with the John B. Pierce so-called Civic District, which includes
Foundation, SOM learned, theoreti- the seat of executive power, the Pa-
cally and practically, how to stan- lacio de la Moneda, and the buildings
dardize and systemize a building. of ministries and main public agen-
At Oak Ridge, the firm progressed cies. Its creation – at the beginning
further, designing and supervising of the 1930s – coincides with the
the construction of thousands of nascent process of Chilean modern-

172 173
ization, which would last until 1973. S21.3 Architecture’s of Governmental agencies coincided come increasingly subordinate to in-
This process cannot be understood Red Tape: Governmental with the reorganization of Swed- tergovernmental organizations such
without the construction of what we Building in Sweden ish public architecture. In the late as IMF, EU or WTO. Embodying a po-
will call here transcendental space, 1964-1972 1960s both public administration litical culture based on compromise
namely the representational space and architecture sought to find more and bureaucracy, the headquarters
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that through architecture depicts Erik Sigge flexible structures that could accom- of these organizations rarely pos-
the idea of the nation as an imagined Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, modate other political and architec- sess significant representational
community (Anderson 1983) led by Sweden tural ideologies than the predominant qualities. However, one might also
the state towards progress. In this modernist views, and make adminis- consider them as “machines for solv-
context, public space has a formative This paper focuses on the work of tration and production more efficient. ing international conflicts” (H. Stier-
role and is designed to highlight the the Swedish National Board of Pub- Catchwords such as “adaptability”, lin). Such instrumental perspective
position of La Moneda as the symbol lic Building (KBS) during the 1960s, “changeability” and “performance” sheds another light on these strong-
of (presidential) power. and aims at elucidating the relation became, besides flexibility, the guid- holds of globalization, highlighting
However, it is interesting to note that between the agency’s bureaucratic ing concepts of both architecture their qualities on the operational
this transcendental space and the structure and its construction of and public administration, whose plane. To this effect, this paper looks
centrality of La Moneda as monu- new buildings. A particular focus is activities became organized as “proj- into the headquarters of a promi-
ment are only achieved by means of placed on KBS’s construction of the ects” within “networks”. Simultane- nent example of such an organiza-
building massive anonymous build- Garnisonen office building in Stock- ously, centralization gave way to de- tion, namely the NATO. After London
ings around the palace, in order to holm. The building functioned as a centralization and KBS and various and Paris, NATO moved to Brus-
house the administrative apparatus case study for KBS in its attempt to other Swedish Governmental agen- sels in 1967. This relocation pat-
of the state. From the early versions rationalize construction and develop cies were given more autonomy. Yet, tern not only reflects fluctuations in
of the Civic District plan on, functional new working procedures and build- central control increased through the the international power balance but
purposes as “better administrative ing systems, and as such it mani- Government’s new focus of evaluating also reveals a permanent process
control and coordination” were given fests KBS’s ideas at the time. My results and assessing performance. of introspection within NATO itself.
priority, even over “urban embellish- interest is not primarily in architec- This general development forms the The decision to transform the new
ment”. In line with what Karl Brünner, ture as representation of politics or background to the study’s analysis of facility – a temporary structure in at-
the Viennese planner, wanted to em- ideology, but rather how aesthetics the Garnisonen in which I argue that tendance of a permanent building on
phasize – “a magnificent scale” –, the of ideology determine the form of its architectural form is contingent a more prestigious location – into a
final project develops as a series of architecture and bureaucracy. The on public administration. standing headquarters in 1972 is a
concrete buildings regular in height, study traces how the division of la- clear instance of this. Initially dubbed
with undecorated facades and no bor and specializations of tasks (pub- Little Siberia by reason of its remote
distinctive features other than their lic administration) affect the division S21.4 Provisional location and austere aspect, inter-
identity as a building complex. Never- of space and the making of buildings Permanence. The NATO nal memos from the NATO archives
theless, it is precisely this condition (architecture). Headquarters in Brussels show a growing appreciation for the
of mass and its scale which allows The combined interest in architec- provisional site. The extreme rapid-
the project to succeed in its main ture and public administration is also Sven Sterken ity of construction and moving was
goal: to constitute the “void” – that historical, firstly because architec- KU Leuven – LUCA Faculteit Kunsten, almost mythologized while the prem-
is to say, public space – as a celebra- ture’s crisis in the late 1960s was Belgium ises’ utilitarian aspect conveniently
tory place to the power of the state, contemporaneous with the crisis of supported NATO’s “no-frills” self-
a grey scene for the palace to stand public policy and public administra- In the course of the twentieth cen- image. Its non-hierarchical lay-out
out. tion, and secondly, the reorganization tury, national governments have be- further seemed to suggest equal-

174 175
ity and harmonious collaboration exemplary of a grey functionalist bru- Session 22: Southern Crossings: Iberia
whereas the self-contained nature talism for para-state institutions. The and Latin America in Architectural
of the building and its off-centre lo- paper will argue that this building was
cation reinforced the organization’s part of a series of headquarters of Translation
extra-territorial character. Thus, as the colonizing institutions, erected in
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s22
we will argue, apart from economi- Tel-Aviv between 1952-1968, which
cal and pragmatic reasons, the de- marked the contradictory impact of
cision to upgrade the provisional state power in the Israeli contested
structure might also have derived metropolis. Through this case study
from the growing insight that it not the paper will explore two inter-relat-
only embodied but also fostered val- ed aspects of Israeli para-state insti-
ues of crucial importance in facing tutions. First, I will analyze the build- Session Chairs:
the challenges of the Cold War. ing’s technocratic greyness as a new Marta Caldeira, Yale University, USA
urban vernacular that was promoted Maria González Pendás, Columbia University, USA
by para-state institutions to oppose
S21.5 Para-State and further legitimize Israeli’s native Architects, buildings, and ideas about the built environment have intensely
“Greyness” and the colonial fantasy of rural frontier archi- constructed the various historic routes linking the Iberian Peninsula and
Frontier Headquarters in tectures. Latin America during the twentieth century, routes that remain peripheral
Tel-Aviv Second, I will explore how the Israeli to an architectural history field still dictated by a northwestern discourse.
architectural discourse from the ear- Since Cuban independence in 1898, the southern transatlantic throughway
Martin Hershenzon ly 1960’s, in particular Ram Karmi has been a prime stage of postcolonialism and a persistent geopolitical and
University of Pennsylvania, USA and Aba Elhanani’s writings on bru- cultural force. The final severing of colonial bonds between Iberia and the
talism, framed this institutional ar- American continent gave way to a mirror effect in the ongoing redefinition
This paper will analyze the headquar- chitecture in terms of Israeli native of Spain and Portugal on the one hand, and of the various Latin American
ters of the Jewish Agency for Israel imaginary. The brutalist non-polished states on the other. From diplomatic efforts and ideological allegiances,
(JAI), built in 1956 in Tel-Aviv’s newly building skin was interpreted as evoc- to institutional initiatives and economic investments, the consolidation of
formed civic center by architects ative of a material “immediacy” and the southern transatlantic axis invariably comprised an architectural front.
Arieh Sharon and Benjamin Idelson. equated with a Jewish assimilation Through its various iterations, these crossings represented resistance to an
The JAI was a major para-state in- of Palestinian labor and native root- imperialist pastand the possibility of an alternative model of progress, while
stitution responsible for the direction edness. The paper will question the maintaining privileged connections between the Iberian and Latin countries.
and integration of Jewish colonization way this naturalizing discourse legiti- This panel invites papers that examine the ways in which architecture, urban
in Palestine and Israel from the late mized state institutional architecture planning, and their related disciplines have inscribed and symbolized this
1920’s onwards. More particularly, despite its technocratic urban ratio- bi-directional route, how architecture travelled through it, and how architec-
the institution played a major role in nale. Moreover the JAI Tel-Aviv head- tural knowledge emerged from these southern exchanges. Emphasis will be
shaping the Israeli regional coloniza- quarters will enable the study of the placed on the complex dynamics through which architects engaged with the
tion discourse predicated on decen- manners in which para-state institu- social, economic, and geographical dissonances implied in these transfers,
tralization and idealized frontier ter- tional architecture shaped the scales whilst claiming cultural accord on the basis of language, religion, and his-
ritories. As architectural historian and vernacular expressions of Israeli tory. Papers may address the construction of Latin Luso crossed imaginar-
Zvi Efrat has argued, from the mid colonization and forged the post-inde- ies through exhibitions, histories, buildings, or journals – whether promoted
1950’s, this elongated five-story build- pendence discourse on urbanization, by state agencies, cultural institutions, private enterprise, or individuals, and
ing in non-polished concrete became productivization and locality. whether designed by political exiles, economic émigrés or cultural jet-set-

176 177
ters. We look for scholarship that emphasizes both the poetic and the politi- S22.1 Southern Readings. ance is no longer necessarily tied to
cal dimensions of these crossings, addressing stylistic, technological, and Lúcio Costa on Modern backward historicism or historical
theoretical developments positioned within post-colonial tensions, such as: Architecture backwardness, no longer deemed in-
Hispanism, Lusophony, and their counter-ideologies; processes of syncre- compatible with the unity of style or
tism, mestizajes, exile, and migration; or challenging prevailing narratives Carlos Eduardo Comas language, but postulated as prereq-
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s22
of modernism and modernization. Spain and Portugal are as marginal to Universidade Federal do Rio Grande uisite for a richer environment and
Europe as Latin America is to America, at least in terms of historiography. do Sul, Brazil society. Costa’s texts are about the
This session seeks to understand these architectural southern crossings need for renewing the academy as
as leading to paradigms and discourses of modern and postmodern culture Costa’s Razões da nova arquitetura much as reappraising and reclaiming
substantially different from, but also structural to, those launched from the (1934) and Universidade do Brazil of the Portuguese heritage in Brazil,
globalizing north. (1937) deserve as much attention overcoming the limitations of the
as Hitchcock and Johnson’s The In- International Style as much as ori-
ternational Style (1932). They look enting the development of Brazilian
to Europe with American eyes overtly modern architecture. Written for a
interested in the poetics of modern Portuguese-speaking audience, their
architecture. The North Americans arguments appeal to a specific his-
emphasize its German-Dutch roots tory and geography but are far from
and uniformity. The academically- localist. Opting for both-and instead
trained Brazilian stresses its Medi- of either-or, post-modern avant la
terranean spirit and formal diver- lettre, they challenge received wis-
sity. Resulting from change brought dom and open up new horizons for
about by the machine, modern ar- understanding modern architecture.
chitecture is for him a comprehen-
sive proposition where Gothic-Orien-
tal drama and Greek-Latin serenity S22.2 Avant-garde
meet and complete each other. It Crossings Between Italy,
is the heir to the Classical tradition Argentina and Spain:
defended by the academy, classical from Gropius and Argan
implying forms of the Greek-Roman to Nueva Visión and Arte
world including Portugal and her Normativo
colonies, or forms that simply en-
dured. In Eléments et Théorie de Paula Barreiro López
l’Architecture (1904), young Costa’s Université de Genève, Switzerland
bedside book, Julien Guadet con-
siders tolerance a hallmark of the In 1957 Nueva Visión published the
academy at the turn of the century. first Spanish translation of Giulio
In Casa Grande e Senzala (1933), Carlo Argan´s book Walter Gropius
Costa’s friend Gilberto Freyre con- e la Bauhaus, which became a ref-
siders tolerance a hallmark of the erence for architects, artists and
Portuguese world in its heyday, the art critics on both sides of the At-
Age of Discovery. Accordingly, toler- lantic. Apart from being a study of

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Gropius’ work, the text propagated architects and art critics within their “shells”. He was able to raise them who arrived in Mexico, fleeing the
the convictions of the Italian profes- distinctive socio-political context. It thanks to his structural logic and his Fascist repression of General Fran-
sor and militant critic. It advocated will be explained how Nueva Vision mastery of geometry and construc- co and the horror of France during
the integration of the arts and ar- functioned as a device for the con- tive capacity, joined with the skillful the German occupation under Hitler.
chitecture, the collectivisation of the figuration of an alternative route of hands of Mexican workers. Thus, Emili Blanch studied at the Barcelo-
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artistic production and above all the modernism between Italy, Argentina he shook up the sphere of world ar- na School of Architecture and played
transformative role of the arts within and Spain as well as a tool for dis- chitecture with a constructive tech- an active role in the renewal of archi-
social praxis and was understood as seminating the outlined theoretical nology of European descent that tecture and the approach to avant-
a statement for the recuperation of corpus. achieved an unheard of development garde European trends in Catalonia
the humanist and social ambitions in Mexican soil. during the 1930s. The proclama-
of the historical avant-garde. After Candela was neither the first nor the tion of the Spanish Republic and the
the first publishing of the text (1951 S22.3 Shells Across only one to build this type of struc- Catalan Republic in April 1931 ush-
in Italy) Argan’s ideas had found in Continents ture. However, he opened new paths ered in new policies to provide digni-
Argentina within the circle of Tomás to this specialty by using the hyper- fied housing for the working classes,
Maldonado a fertile ground rever- Juan Ignacio del Cueto Ruiz-Funes bolic paraboloid profusely and with modern urban planning in designing
berating in the contributions of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de exceptional skill. He profited from the city, the building of public ameni-
journal Nueva Visión. When Walter México, Mexico the structural and expressive ad- ties, and the protection of cultural
Gropius y el Bauhaus was then pub- vantages of this geometrical form to heritage. The military uprising led
lished by the journal’s editing house, Mexican architecture surprised the their full extent to create works that by General Franco in July 1936 and
it responded to the modernist, in- world in the 1950s with incred- made an impression on architecture the Fascist victory over Catalonia in
ternationalist and Marxist interests ibly light-weight reinforced concrete worldwide in the second half of the January 1939 towards the conclu-
that guided this group of artists, roofings with an amazing esthetic twentieth century. sion of the Spanish Civil War marked
designers and architects. Argan’s quality, built by architect Félix Can- This paper presents the life journey the end of all dreams of renewal as
text became also in Spain – above all dela. When he was a student at the and the professional legacy of this well as the start of the nightmare of
within the circle of Arte Normativo Madrid Architecture School (1929- structural design genius, and it ana- repression for the supporters of the
– a reference work connecting Span- 1935), Candela became acquainted lyzes his contributions and influence Republic. Fleeing reprisals and re-
ish artistic dissidence with the ideas with concrete laminated structures, on world architecture. taliations, half a million Republicans
of the Weimar avant-garde. Along state-of-the art-technology from the crossed over the border into France.
with the thoughts of Maldonado and period in Europe between the wars. The demographic, social, and eco-
Max Bill – introduced via Nueva Vi- He was impressed by the works of S22.4 Emili Blanch Roig nomic consequences of this exodus
sion, too – Argan´s book was fun- engineers such as Eugene Freyssi- and Modern Architecture: were compounded by losses of cul-
damental for the development of an net in France, Franz Dischinger and Catalonia and Mexico tural significance, as many of the
avant-garde that was conceived as Ulrich Finsterwalder in Germany, exiles were writers, philosophers,
an integrative part of a contempo- Robert Maillart in Switzerland or Gemma Domènech Casadevall teachers, artists, and architects.
rary architectural production with Eduardo Torroja in Spain, among Instituto Catalán de Investigación en The talent lost to Catalonia and the
a social and anti-Francoist politi- others. Patrimonio Cultural, Spain rest of Spain would make major
cal mission. This paper will analyse Candela brought this seed to Mex- contributions to the countries that
the impact of Argan´s thought on ico where he founded a company On 22 May 1942, the architect Emili hosted the refugees. During this pe-
the southern transatlantic axis and named Cubiertas Ala. From there, Blanch Roig disembarked at the port riod, some fifty architects left Spain.
assess how his ideas were trans- he designed and built many such of Veracruz. He was just one of over Many had been part of the architec-
formed and appropriated by artists, type structures, popularly known as twenty thousand Spanish refugees tural renewal group and would later

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introduce the new trends to their Aires, looking for opportunities to Session 23: Histories and Theories of
host countries. In this paper, we will practice away from war-torn Europe. Anarchist Urbanism
analyse the professional career of This presentation examines Bonet’s
Emili Blanch Roig (1897-1996) and return to Spain in the context of the
his role in the introduction of mod- failure of his Barrio Sur urban de-
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ern architecture in Mexico. velopment project in Buenos Aires
(1956), commissioned by the short-
lived de facto government of Pedro
S22.5 Antonio Bonet’s Aramburu – who led the military coup
Return to Spain that deposed populist president Juan
Perón. I argue Barrio Sur’s failure
Ana María León was turned into success in provid- Session Chair:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ing the perfect narrative for Bonet’s Nader Vossoughian, New York Institute of Technology, USA
USA return to Spain in the context of the
“Spanish Miracle” and the liberaliza- Anarchist thought has had a profound impact on discussions about the city
Catalan architect Antonio Bonet left tion of the Spanish economy in the and city planning since the Enlightenment. Still, the influence of anarchism
Spain for Paris and then Buenos late period of Franco dictatorship. on the history of urbanism has not been sufficiently documented to date,
and the aim of this panel is to rectify this gap in the literature. First and fore-
most, what do we mean by anarchism and what are some of the different
ways in which it has shaped the face of urban planning and design? More
specifically, how have anarchist thinkers influenced debates about decentral-
ized planning since the nineteenth century? In what ways might the study of
anarchism enrich our understanding of democratic or participatory planning
more generally? Case studies that explore the links between urbanism and
anarchism in journals (such as Architectural Design) and books (e.g. News
from Nowhere) are most welcome. Explorations of the influence of anarchist
thought on the ideas of seminal urban thinkers (Ebenezer Howard, Lewis
Mumford, Patrick Geddes, Bruno Taut, Le Corbusier, Otto Neurath, Frank
Lloyd Wright, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Fred Turner, Jane Jacobs, Hakim Bey,
Rem Koolhaas, et. al.) will be appreciated as well.
Collectively, our goal is to use this session as an opportunity for rethink-
ing the historiography of urban planning and design from the ninteenth to
twenty-first century. We also want to use it as a vehicle through which to
reframe contemporary discussions about the informal city.

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S23.1 The Legacy of the Through a critical review of primary numerous engagements into empiri- S23.3 City of Individual
Anti-urban Ideology in sources, ranging from Taut’s per- cal research studies on urbanization Sovereigns: Josiah
Bruno Taut’s Architectural sonal diary to his articles published of post-war France, all of which were Warren’s Geometric Utopia
Practice in Ankara in Turkey, and a new reading of his commissioned by state cultural and
(1936-1938) projects, this study seeks to illus- planning institutions. This genealogy Irene Cheng
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trate how the legacy of this anti- seems to contradict the anarchist California College of the Arts, USA
Giorgio Gasco urban ideology surfaced once again character of Lefebvre’s theory, which
Bilkent Üniversitesi, Turkey to mark Taut’s visionary practice in included his condemnation of the In 1873, Josiah Warren, often de-
Ankara. The very idea of the city as state, his commitment to general- scribed as the United States’ first
Bruno Taut was appointed Head of a system of symbolic public buildings ized self-management, and his belief anarchist, published a book entitled
the Architectural State Cabinet of able to bind the individual and the in the primacy of struggle. However, Practical Applications of the Elemen-
the Turkish Ministry of Education for community in a transcendental uni- rather than seeing Lefebvre’s theory tary Principles of “True Civilization”.
the design of Higher Education build- ty, in particular will be re-examined as recuperated by the reforming Printed in the twilight of a long ca-
ings in the period between 1936 to point out how the attempt to give capitalist state, I suggest discussing reer in radical reform that included
and 1938. Mainly realized in Anka- architectural form to Kropotkin’s it as responding to the processes of the founding of several utopian com-
ra, these projects were intended to anarchism was still central in Taut’s institutionalization and normalization munities in Ohio and New York, War-
play a strategic role in shaping the discourse. of critique within the emerging mode ren’s book ended with a list of “Points
urban fabric of the new capital of the of governability of Western societies Suggested for Consideration in Lay-
Republic. This study focuses on the moving beyond Fordism. Vers une ar- ing Out of Towns”, accompanied by
urban and visionary aspect of Taut’s S23.2 Henri Lefebvre’s chitecture de la jouissance is a case a pair of plan drawings depicting a
professional practice in Ankara in an Vers une architecture in point: written in the framework of hexagonally gridded city and a six-sid-
attempt to establish a connection de la jouissance (1973): a commissioned research on tourist ed city section. Warren’s geometric
with the set of anti-urban ideas he Architectural Imagination urbanism in late Franco’s Spain, the utopia presented a radically atom-
professed in the early years of his After May 1968 manuscript offered for Lefebvre a ized vision of society: houses would
political activism in Germany. possibility to speculate about the po- be located on two-to-three-acre plots,
The study thus will explore how Taut Łukasz Stanek tential of architectural imagination. close enough to neighbors to glean
formulated a clear prospect for the University of Manchester, UK In this manuscript, spaces of tour- the benefits of density, yet sufficiently
urban development of Ankara, which ism are addressed both as products isolated so that no individual’s actions
echoes the traits of his former ur- Vers une architecture de la jouis- of advanced capitalism and sites of would impinge on his or her fellow
ban utopian proposals as outlined in sance (Toward an Architecture of its reproduction, and as its “other”; citizens. At the same time, the plan
The City Crown (1919) and The Dis- Enjoyment, 1973) is a book manu- that is, these spaces offered a con- manifested an equalitarianism con-
solution of the Cities (1920). These script by the French Marxist phi- centrated vision of both the dangers sistent with Warren’s theories about
works display the deep impact ex- losopher and sociologist Henri Lefe- of ultimate alienation and the possi- economic justice – ideas that moti-
erted on his anti-urban discourse by bvre (1901-1991). The manuscript bilities to transgress it. In my talk I vated his founding of several “time
the ideas of radical and anarchist needs to be seen as an important will read Lefebvre’s manuscript in the stores” based on the circulation of
authors. The utopian tracts devel- step within Lefebvre’s theorizing of manner he was reading his favorite “labor notes” in place of cash.
oped by Taut in particular originated space as socially produced and pro- authors – starting from the histori- My paper explores Warren’s “anar-
from the spiritual aesthetic and the ductive, formulated between 1968 cal context and moving beyond it – in chist” city plan, putting it in the con-
social-pacifism of Paul Scheerbart, (The Right to the City) and 1974 (The order to speculate about Lefebvre’s text his larger reform philosophy as
and from the cosmic communism Production of Space). These publica- project of architectural imagination well as several other mid-nineteenth-
professed by Pjotr Kropotkin. tions were prepared by Lefebvre’s as negative, political, and materialist.  century geometric utopias. Warren’s

184 185
plan individualized land tenure and articulating a political territory exte- S23.5 “Housing Before urban housing “contributed to plan-
devoted far less space to public and rior to the state. Under revolution- Street”: Geddes’ 1925 ning theory the idea that men and
shared amenities than contemporary ary conditions, I argue, architecture Plan for Tel Aviv and its women could make their own cities”
communitarian socialist schemes. participates in the radical negotiation Anarchist Disruption of the (Hall, 2002). A perfect match with
Yet by reading Warren’s urban pro- of the political through the delinea- Dichotomy between Top- Tel Aviv founders’ ideas of the city as
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posals within the larger context of tion and contestation of territory and Down Planners-Ideologues accumulation of future-citizens as a
his thought, especially his theories of subjectivities. In these instances the and Bottom-Up Urban vehicle for self-government (Weiss,
language and representation, we can site at which architecture negotiates Citizens 1956), Geddes’ 1925 plan for Tel
also interpret the plans as gesturing the real is precisely exterior to archi- Aviv, based on detailed survey of the
toward another form of polity – one tecture’s proper representation. The Yael Allweil town as housing estate, accepted
premised on the possibility of clear radical occupation of Paris by the Technion, Israel Tel Aviv’s use of housing as building
and unmediated representation. I ar- Commune upset relations between block to produce a “Housing before
gue that Warren’s use of geometric architectural function and represen- A founding member of the city plan- Street” urban planning. Geddes’ Tel
images was motivated by a function- tation – the construction of the bar- ning movement, Sir Patrick Geddes Aviv plan poses alternative to ac-
alist theory of representation that re- ricades employed an assembly of dis- was largely marginal to the move- cepted models of modern planning:
garded certain kinds of diagrammatic similar parts by which objects were ment for his anarchistic challenge of technocratic-capitalist Haussman-
images as capable of cutting through stripped of their proper function as the very idea that new cities form ism, aesthetic City Beautiful, Corbu-
the obfuscation of words and politics they disincorporated Haussmann’s “of thin air” due to the powerful ac- sian “radiant cities”, or utopian Gar-
in nineteenth-century America. urban agglomeration into a molar tions of statesmen, capitalists and den City. At the same time, contrary
organization of urban defense. While planners (Hall, 2002; Rubin, 2009). to the phenomenon of makeshift
these practices are unenvisionable Geddes self-distinguished from con- housing predating formal settlement
S23.4 Architectural by classical representation, I pro- ceptions of modern planning, insist- and creating the city de-facto, as in
Avatars of the pose that they nevertheless manifest ing that “urban planning cannot be the auto-constructed peripheries of
Revolutionary City discreetly in architecture, speak- made from above using general prin- Cairo, Brasilia or Calcutta (Holston,
ing against the academic style as it ciples [...] studied in one place and 2008), Tel Aviv’s formation via hous-
Peter Minosh sought to restore and legitimate the imitated elsewhere. City planning is ing was the result of a conscious,
Columbia University, USA state. Architecture’s anarchic capac- the development of a local way of anarchist, planning process where
ity subjects the nation-state to the life, regional character, civic spirit, Geddes fully realized his ideas: not
This paper examines transformations perpetual re-signification of its aes- unique personality […] based on its merely challenging top-down mecha-
in French architecture in the wake thetic production. This is legible in the own foundations” (Geddes, 1915). nisms, but disrupting the very di-
of the Paris Commune. I argue that architecture and planning of the Ex- Geddes’ urban vision was affected chotomous perspective of modern
the anarchic conditions of the revolu- position Universelle of 1878, meant by issues of housing in the indus- urbanism as a clash between top-
tionary render an anarchic capacity to showcase Paris’ recovery from the trial city, yet compared with other down planners-ideologues and bot-
of architecture legible. Specifically, I Commune for an international audi- theories of urban planning, Geddes’ tom-up urban citizens.
maintain that the dissolution of Sec- ence. In examining the 1878 exhibi- “city of sweat equity” approach to
ond Empire institutions and space tion I show that in addition to the rele-
relations practiced by the Commune gitimation of the state’s control of the
foretell a dissolution of Beaux-Arts urban, the architecture and planning
classicism in the subsequent decade, of the exhibition puts on display ten-
with architecture serving to continue sions and contradictions of the past
of the project of the Commune by decade.

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Open Session 3: Strategies and Politics of
Architecture and Urbanism After Wwii

OS3
Open Session Chair:
Adrian Forty, The Bartlett School of Architecture, UK

189
OS3.1 From Visual tending back to the early twentieth protagonists, their way of working, OS3.3 Process Above All:
Planning to Outrage: century and beyond with such no- their building tasks and conceptual Shadrach Woods’ Non-
Townscape and the Art of table examples as Clough Williams approaches are introduced. The School of Villefranche
Environment Ellis, Arthur Trystan Edwards and second part of the paper deals with
William Morris earlier still. Underly- the limited availability of primary and Federica Doglio
OS3

OS3
Mathew Aitchison ing the AR’s Townscape project, was secondary sources from which the Politecnico di Torino, Italy
University of Queensland, Australia what Gordon Cullen termed “the art work of these architects can be re-
of environment”, which rather than constructed, as their records are Used in the context of architecture
After the Second World War, many excluding the miscellany thrown up not usually found in archives, and and urbanism, the term “anarchism”
in Britain felt that an army of dili- by modernisation, tried to artfully in- their lives and careers are today often proves ambiguous and overly-
gent architects and planners might corporate it within the remit of those largely invisible. In the third part, the abstract. Focusing on the design
still wipe out what the bombs had charged with designing the built envi- architect Hans Engels is introduced process of Shadrach Woods, this
initially missed. Post-war recon- ronment – the “visual planner”. as a typical case study. Engels start- paper intends to ground the term
struction, urban expansion and the This paper seeks to illustrate how ed his practice shortly after the war concretely in the history of twenti-
ongoing modernisation of the Brit- Townscape anticipated many as- in the city of Essen and subsequently eth-century architecture and theory.
ain’s towns, cities and countryside, pects of the environmentalist cri- built up a large body of work through- In 2000, former Team X member
all contributed to a growing sense of tique that later became part of the out Western Germany, focusing on Giancarlo De Carlo noted that the
discontentment with what would only mainstream of architectural and ur- administrative buildings and parking anarchist thought of two late nine-
later become known as “the built en- ban design culture in the 1960s and garages. Although he had a great teenth-century polymaths, Patrick
vironment”. Ian Nairn’s popular cam- 70s. impact on the appearance of many Geddes and Piotr Kropotkin, had
paigns “Outrage” (1955) and “Coun- cities and was well known while alive, significantly influenced his own work.
ter-Attack” (1956) are among the he has been forgotten today, as he He also pondered whether Team X,
most well-known examples lamenting OS3.2 Germany’s “Grey left no written accounts and only a a diffuse assortment of architects
the resultant blight, visual pollution, Architecture” and its single printed inventory of his work. organized into a horizontal hierar-
sprawl, visual decay and degradation Forgotten Protagonists The paper concludes with a call for chy, could be considered anarchist.
of Britain’s town and country in the an increased effort to document He asserted that “in Team X many
decade since the war’s end. Benedikt Boucsein these architects’ output: Because positions and many attitudes were
Nairn’s work was part of the broad- ETH Zürich, Switzerland this inconspicuous form of archi- similar to the anarchist movement”,
er Townscape campaign run out of tecture forms large parts of West and that some members of Team X
the leading magazine of the day, the The reconstruction of Germany’s cit- Germany’s cities and was central for viewed the means as more impor-
Architectural Review (AR). Although ies from 1945 to the mid-1960s the new identity of these cities after tant than the ends. In particular, he
Townscape was first launched in was the biggest collective building the war, and because an increasing explained, Shadrach Woods and the
name in 1949, it had a long series of effort in twentieth-century Europe. number of these buildings needs to Smithsons favored design process
precursors at the magazine. Known It is one of the findings of the au- be repaired or replaced, attention to over formal results.
variously through the 1940s as “Vi- thor’s PhD study on the everyday the everyday post-war architecture Using this measure of process ver-
sual Planning” and “Sharawaggi”, the architecture of this period – its Grey of western Germany represents sus formal result as a starting point,
AR had been highlighting the effects Architecture – that it was mainly the an immensely important task for my paper explores the relationship
of unchecked urban development achievement of inconspicuous ar- the coming decades, as the limited between anarchism and Team X,
and creeping modernisation since chitectural practices and municipal sources for its understanding are particularly in the work and ideas of
the late 1920s. Indeed, this line of departments largely forgotten today. fast disappearing. Shadrach Woods. In 1966 Woods
critique was not new in Britain, ex- In the first part of the paper, these proposed a radical experiment that

190 191
he termed “non-school” that was The emergence of a new morphol- the river Sava after World War II. greb in 1962. Preliminary archival
centered on the abolition of de- ogy, the parish complex, more than In the immediate post-war period research shows that the majority of
grees and traditional academic cur- just a place of worship, acquired sig- in Croatia, one of the six Yugoslav strategic decisions about the con-
ricula, replacing these antiquated nificance and importance in the city, Republics, the socialist regime had struction of infrastructure south of
requirements with a new system and provided a new centre for the strong control over artistic produc- the river Sava, which enabled the
OS3

OS3
that integrated education with the suburbs tion and Socialist Realism was im- construction of the new modernist
urban community and expanded its Despite the presence of govern- posed upon architecture as the offi- city a decade later, were taken by lo-
access to people of all ages. Many ment policy (laws n.2522/52 and cial poetics. However, acting against cal authorities in the late 1940s and
of his ideas were in part inspired by n.168/62) to ensure economic official policy, Croatian architects the early 1950s; at the same time,
his encounter with artists from the contribution by the Italian State to constructed Novi Zagreb as a mod- in the late 1940s, there is evidence
Fluxus movement, with whom he col- the construction of new parish build- ernist city. of resistance by Croatian architects
laborated at the Non-School of Ville- ings, poor choices of location, and Although the circumstances of Novi towards the imposition of Socialist
franche in 1966, and again later at the need for emergency solutions, Zagreb’s conception are as yet ob- Realism, resulting in official acquies-
the Triennale in Milan in 1968. As I often with prefabricated construc- scure, the argument made here is cence in the modernist paradigm of
link Woods’ theories to the Team X tion, had a negative impact on their that it came into existence as a re- the “functional city” as a model for
and to the Fluxus thought, I suggest architectural value. The over-rapid sult of both political and formal resis- the construction of the new social-
that we might call the non-school ap- application of liturgical reform (re- tance. In contrast to existing studies ist reality. Thus, the actions of Croa-
proach a “school without walls for sulting in the impoverishment and that view Novi Zagreb as a group tian architects in going against the
architects and artists”. secularization of places of worship) of independent settlements across aesthetic doctrines of the state may
contributed to these problems. the river, the hypothesis here is that be considered as evidence of archi-
Through the case of Turin, I will at- there was a project for a modern- tecture’s capacity to develop autono-
OS3.4 Sacred Buildings in tempt to define a model that can ist city from the very beginning, long mously when restrictions are put in
Italy after World War II: serve as a guide to understand how before the first Plan for South Za- place by authoritarian powers.
the Case of Turin the church’s needs were – or were
not – reconciled with the city’s, so as
Carla Zito to weave together urban life, archi-
Independent scholar, Italy tecture and the liturgy.

In the forty years after World War


II in Italy about 1200 churches de- OS3.5 Architecture
stroyed during the war were recon- Resisting Political Regime:
structed, and many new places of the Case of Novi Zagreb
worship were built in the new sub-
urbs. Dubravka Vranic
Traditionally, churches defined the Independent scholar, Croatia
identities of cities, but many of the
new places of worship built in these This paper examines the extent to
years seem completely devoid of any which architecture can resist politi-
architectural character, although cal authority, using the case study of
they were considered a success Novi Zagreb, a major city area built
from the pastoral point of view. along the modernist lines south of

192 193
Session 24: The Medium is the Message:
the Role of Exhibitions and Periodicals
in Critically Shaping Postmodern
Architecture

s24
Session Chairs:
Véronique Patteeuw, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture Lille, France
Léa-Catherine Szacka, École Nationale Superieure d’Architecture Paris-La Villette
– Centre Pompidou, France

As recent scholarship has pointed out “the history of the architectural me-
dia is much more than a footnote to the history of architecture” (Colomina
1988). Ever since the late eighteenth century, architectural exhibitions and
periodicals have played an essential role in the dissemination of architectural
culture. Emphasizing the work of certain architects and belittling that of
others, they introduced movements and constructed new tendencies while
theoretically and critically shaping urban and architectural discourse. While
a number of scholars have recently reconsidered the role of these media
in the modern era, their significance for the postmodern decades has only
recently opened up as an important field of research.
Relying heavily on the circulation of images and on so-called “paper archi-
tecture”, postmodernism has always been intertwined with the media. In
their critique of the Modern Movement and exploration of a new spatial and
visual culture, architectural exhibitions and periodicals played an essential
role as sites of production. The examples are telling: from the 1976 Idea
as Model exhibition, the 1978 Roma Interrotta project and the 1980 Stra-
da Novissima, to periodicals such as Architecture Mouvement Continuité,
Controspazio and Oppositions. As hypothetical spaces these media contrib-
uted to the development of new architectural approaches, providing an al-
ternative to the built project. As discursive platforms they enhanced cultural
transfers, transatlantic or paneuropean encounters. As critical practices
they extended the role of the architect beyond its traditional boundaries,
functioning as vehicles for research based design. In short, exhibitions and
periodicals acted as critical projects that shaped postmodern architecture
and urban design.

195
In this session we will bring together presentations that focus specifically S24.1 Charles Moore’s This paper reads Moore’s three
on the role of postmodern architectural exhibitions and periodicals as sites Perspecta: Essays and Perspecta essays in conjunction
of critical production. We are particularly interested in papers that discuss Postmodern Eclecticism with Jean-François Lyotard’s The
thematically or through case studies one or more of the following questions. Postmodern Condition, specifically
What was the role of the postmodern media in proposing a new spatial and Patricia A. Morton his notion of the postmodern as
S24

S24
visual culture? To what extent are these projects a response to the end of University of California Riverside, USA “that which denies itself the solace
the “grand narrative”? How did the exhibition design or the editorial appa- of good forms, the consensus of a
ratus enable an unorthodox approach to the built project? What was the In the 1960s, Perspecta, the journal taste which would make it possible
influence of paper projects as they were elaborated for these media? And of the Yale School of Architecture, to share collectively the nostalgia
how did exhibitions and periodicals function as laboratories for alternative was a crucial venue for promulgat- for the unattainable”. According to
architectural practice? ing nascent postmodern ideologies. Moore, Disneyland and California
Student-run and the antithesis of freeways could provide models for
commercial media, Perspecta pub- public space and “a kind of rocket-
lished excerpts from Robert Ven- ing monumentality”. Anticipating
turi’s Complexity and Contradiction Lyotard’s assertion that “eclecticism
and essays by Charles Moore, Philip is the degree zero of contemporary
Johnson, James Stirling, Vincent culture” Moore developed an archi-
Scully and others that proved semi- tecture where “there is everything
nal to the emergence of postmodern instead of nothing […] a kind of im-
architecture. In this period, Charles mediate involvement […] with the
Moore wrote three essays for Per- vitality and the vulgarity of real com-
specta that formed a prolegomena merce [that] quivers at a pitch of ex-
to postmodern eclecticism, with citement which presages […] an ar-
documentation of potential pop cul- chitecture for an electric present”.
ture inspirations and manifestos for
a new architecture based on com-
mercial, historical, and high culture S24.2 Between Language
referents. Beginning with “Hadrian’s and Form: Exhibitions by
Villa” in Perspecta 6 (1960), con- Reima Pietilä, 1961-74
tinuing with the famous “You Have to
Pay for the Public Life” in Perspecta Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen
9-10 (1965), and concluding in Per- Yale University, USA
specta 11 with “Plus It In Ramses
And See If It Lights Up, Because We My paper will discuss series of ex-
Aren’t To Keep It Unless It Works” hibitions and related publications by
(1967), Moore laid out a program the Finnish architect Reima Pietilä
for an architecture and urbanism (1922-1992): who can be credited
that abandoned the pretense of a for introducing postmodernism, al-
grand narrative in favor of an archi- most single-handedly into Finnish
tecture and urbanism of juxtaposed architecture culture through his
fragments and fantasy. buildings, teaching activity, editorial

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work, theoretical writings and exhi- museum catalogs, to elaborate the remain curiously under-researched. the long time direction of Peter
bitions. His could be considered a theoretical ideas behind the shows. They illustrate the struggle of Aus- Eisenman entered centre stage as
unique kind of national postmodern- tria’s post-war generation of archi- a new kind of educational and cul-
ism, which distinguished itself from tects for new definitions in archi- tural facility, competing with both the
the contemporaneous international S24.3 Bau Magazine and tecture beyond function. It was an museum and academia. As a collec-
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S24
trends by focusing on the relation- the Architecture of Media experimental platform from the be- tive actor, the IAUS can be argued
ship between architecture and land- ginning; fusing intellectually challeng- to have had a huge impact on archi-
scape, the synergy between verbal Eva Branscome ing content and international exhibi- tectural education and debate. This
and visual communication, and the The Bartlett School of Architecture, UK tion reviews with art, advertisement paper critically discusses the inter-
uniqueness of Finnish nature, cul- and sex. The format was a testing est and strategies of the IAUS, un-
ture and language. “Read (if you know where to find a ground for new ideas. It was simulta- derstood both as a highly networked
I will trace the origins of his unique copy) that slim, sophisticated Vien- neously overloaded with fun and criti- group and as individual fellows, since
brand of postmodernism through nese magazine Bau edited by Hans cism. Its disjuncture of content and it was able to establish itself as an
four of his exhibitions, namely “Mor- Hollein, Oswald Oberhuber and Gus- form can be considered a unique fu- authority for the consecration and
phology-Urbanism” (1960), “The tav Peichl, and you will enter a world sion between architectural establish- diffusion of new architectural knowl-
Zone” (1968), and “Space Garden” of architectural fun, fantasy and wit. ment and radical counterculture. My edge. Objects are, in spite of or rath-
(1971), and “Notion Image Idea” Nothing is rigid, nothing is fixed in paper will argue that if Post modern- er due to their ephemeral nature,
(1974), which took place in Helsinki their vision of what constitutes ar- ism was about bringing communica- the public programs, both the eve-
respectively at an art gallery, the Mu- chitecture or arouses architectural tion back to architecture, then Bau ning lectures and the exhibitions pro-
seum of Finnish Architecture, and at interest”. Bau magazine surprises magazine must be understood as a gram, since these were the formats
his home-office. I will show how his with its professional A4 format Postmodern phenomenon by adopt- that generated a new economy of
later interest in semiotics and vari- complete with product placement ing the media of conventional archi- attention and fostered the commodi-
ous symbolic systems, which he ex- in stark contrast to the avant-garde tectural communication and promot- fication of architectural models and
plored in the exhibitions Space Gar- content. Unlike Archigram or other ing subversive content. drawings, exploiting the synergy ef-
den and Notion-Image-Idea, evolved little magazines from the 1960s- fects of all other projects, programs
out of his early interest in morphol- 70s, this was not a handmade pro- and products. Not only did the IAUS
ogy he explored in his first exhibition duction. Bau looked like a conven- S24.4 Entertaining the produce and disseminate a narrative
Morphology-Urbanism, as well as on tional specialist publication. Bau was Masses: IAUS’s Economy about a postmodern approach to ar-
the pages of the magazine Le Carré hybrid – it looked like one thing but of Cultural Production chitecture, be it the self-legitimizing
Bleu, of which he was a founding was doing something else. Bau de- opposition of styles, i.e. the “Whites”
editor. The exhibition Zone from oc- veloped out of the publication of the Kim Förster and the “Greys”, or the circularity of
cupied an in-between position in this Zentralvereinigung der Architekten ETH Zürich, Switzerland the debate on autonomy. Due to the
transition: in it Pietilä put forward an Österreichs – the Austrian profes- artistic credo of creativity, the IAUS
idea of a “zone” between language sional representation for architects. In the 1970s, when postmodern- as an epistemic and cultural space
and form, between verbal and visual It is not out of place to imagine the ism as a discursive formation and not only shaped an intellectual habit
communication. impact of the RIBA or AIA journal a cultural phenomenon took shape based flexibility and performance but
The paper pays particular attention changing their conservative content and started to affect architectural also new modes of production and
to the chosen exhibition display tech- like that of the new Bau. thought and practice in both Europe circulation that came to be seen
niques and use of periodicals like Le The twenty-four issues of Bau that and the United States, the New York as immaterial labor. Eventually, the
Carré Bleu and The Finnish Architec- exploded onto the scene of architec- based Institute for Architecture and Institute as functional elite not only
tural Review, en lieu of gallery and tural publications from 1965-1970 Urban Studies (1967-1985) under launched many careers, but also,

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according to the cultural logic of collected and archived by the institu- Roundtable 3: Revolutionizing Familiar
postmodernism, coined a celebrity tion, emphasized original drawings, Terrain: the Cutting Edge of Research in
culture and the current star system plans, and models as opposed to
in architecture. photographs and reproductions. I Classical Architecture and Town-Planning
will also discuss Klotz’s use of slide
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photography to document postmod-
S24.5 Image, Medium, ern architecture, which began dur-
Artifact: Heinrich Klotz ing his travels to the U.S. in the
and Postmodernism 1960s. These color slides reflect
Klotz’s interest in representing archi-
Daniela Fabricius tecture in a subjective, contextual,
Princeton University, USA and “unmonumental” way, and were Roundtable Chairs:
key to developing his narrative of Daniel Millette, University of British Columbia, Canada
This paper will look at the represen- postmodernism. I will look at these Samantha L. Martin-McAuliffe, University College Dublin, Ireland
tation of postmodern architecture images – which were used as pri-
through media forms in the work vate archive, didactic lecture mate- During the past decade, while a significant amount of literature has been
of the curator and historian Hein- rial, and published illustrations – and generated regarding new readings of classical monuments and ancient
rich Klotz (1935-1999). I will focus their relationship to Klotz’s emphasis town plans, much less attention has been paid to disseminating and shar-
on two aspects of Klotz’s framing on material artifacts in the exhibi- ing advances in research methods and new techniques for documenting
of postmodernism. The first is the tion, as a way to discuss the rela- classical architecture and urbanism. The objective of this roundtable is to
ideological and curatorial construc- tionship between the auratic object begin a collaborative discussion on the way architectural historians have
tion of the 1984 exhibition, “Die Re- and the reproduced image in Klotz’s harnessed pioneering strategies in the field, laboratory or within library and
vision der Moderne. Postmoderne work. How did these materials serve archival contexts. This roundtable invites panelists who situate innovative
Architektur 1960-1980”, organized as evidence for Klotz’s narrative of techniques and cutting edge practices at the core of their architectural re-
by Heinrich Klotz at the Deutsches postmodernism? How can Klotz’s search. For example, studies that address the application of remote sensing
Architekturmuseum (designed by contextual and material concept of in the development of excavation strategies would be especially welcome.
Oswald Mathias Ungers). “Revision medium be understood in relation to Likewise, digital modeling, mapping and virtual reality (VR) have the capacity
der Moderne” was the first major postmodern architecture, and more to revolutionize the way we represent and visualize ancient architecture, but
exhibition on postmodernism in Ger- generally, within postmodern discus- how can we successfully deploy these tools as pedagogical aids? An equally
many, and one of the first anywhere sions around reproduction, simula- significant topic for discussion is how traditional archival material has, over
to historicize postmodernism. This tion, and the loss of origins? the past decade, been morphed into “new” sets of data that can reveal in-
exhibition, based largely on artifacts formation otherwise invisible to researchers in ancient architectural history.

200 201
RT3.1 Residency Patterns predict a residential pattern of trans- these techniques for archaeologi- that rather than suffering a vulgar
and Urban Stability: a urban social distribution of both rich cal fieldwork as well as highlighting transformation into a barracks for
Theory and Strategy for throughout the city and poor rather some of the broader interpretations gladiators, the Quadriporticus in-
Republican Rome than a concentration of the disad- of the development and function of stead played an increasingly central
vantaged. Comparative studies of the Quadriporticus gleaned over the role in the civic life of Pre-and Roman
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Lisa Marie Mignone neighborhood culture and criminol- last four years. The first technology Pompeii.
Brown University, USA ogy in pre-modern and developing explored are portable spectrometers
communities reinforce my hypoth- used to analyze different mortars, in-
Republican Rome was the first city esis of social integration throughout cluding a comparison of the process RT3.3 Reconstructing
to house, feed, and sustain a popula- Rome’s cityscape. In accepting the and results of using an inexpensive Rhythm: Digital Modeling
tion of one million people, and it did theory that urban form serves as an “Do it Yourself” device versus our use and Rendering as Tools
so without a municipal police force. imprint of cultural practices and at of precision instrumentation in col- for Evaluating the Play of
My work explores the extent to which the same time defines social behav- laboration with the Oxford University Light and Shadow on the
we may reconstruct socially defined ior, I conclude that residential trans- Rock Lab. Our interest was to see Parthenon
settlement patterns within the city urban heterogeneity at Rome may if a 40 USD device could reveal suf-
of Rome during the Republic (C6-C1 have contributed to the stability and ficient distinction among mortars to Paul Christesen
BCE). Comparative studies in early relative security of urban life within help refine our interpretations made Dartmouth College, USA
modern and contemporary urban the caput mundi up until the final through visual analysis. A second Aurora Mc Clain
planning show that spatial control of decades of the Republic. analysis was made using the Na- University of Texas at Austin, USA
urban sub-cultures has allowed for tional Endowment for the Humanities
the segregation of conflicting com- (NEH) funded DM web-resource to Imagine a building with a footprint
munities and thereby defined their RT3.2 The Pompeii compare, annotate, and link archival of 70 x 31m, a maximum height
interaction. Yet this social balkaniza- Quadriporticus Project images, allowing our team to stand in of 14m, and a design that includes
tion alone cannot prevent violence in 2013: New Technologies the same place where a photograph, two stretches of blank, windowless,
the city. The maintenance of “urban and New Implications drawing, or painting was made and monochrome masonry walls, each
tolerance” requires a metropolitan compare its content to what could measuring 59m x 10m. The build-
police system to reinforce those well- Eric Poehler be seen today as well as the obser- ing you have just envisioned is the
defined urban spatial boundaries. University of Massachusetts Amherst, vations in our database. The purpose Parthenon. Most analyses of the vi-
How, then, are we to explain the USA of these digital techniques is to ad- sual impact of the Parthenon have
relative urban concord that marked vance our understanding of the de- focused on factors such as siting,
life at the caput mundi throughout The Pompeii Quadriporticus Project velopment of the Quadriporticus and scale, the rhythm of the colonnade,
most of the Republic? While con- (PQP) recently completed its fourth to determine how its presence and and the sculptural program. The
sidering the urban design programs and final campaign of architectural changing form altered the landscape aesthetic significance of the exterior
not operative in the megalopolis, study of one of Pompeii’s largest of Pompeii. Therefore, this paper walls has received little attention be-
I draw from indications for urban monumental buildings, the so-called also briefly discusses the 250-year cause large portions of the building
planning, archaeological and ancient Gladiator Barracks. To complete history of the building’s evolution, its have been lost, and along with them
documentary evidence for the city’s our work, the PQP deployed a suite connections to and disconnections effects that were immediately visible
residential patterns, and historical of cutting edge digital technologies, from the urban infrastructure, and when the building was intact.  This
data on the social complexion of several applied for the first time in the architectural design underlying paper argues that judicious applica-
Rome’s vici in the last century of the an archaeological context. In this its original conception and construc- tion of computer modeling can lead
Republic. These sources converge to paper, we focus on the results of tion. In the end, our research reveals to important, new insights on the vi-

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sual impact of one of the most stud- RT3.4 The Urban over time. The field of urban studies creating place-based learning envi-
ied buildings in the world.  Our pre- Development of Late in the Hellenistic period is currently ronments for the study of antiquity.
sentation will focus on a collection Hellenistic Delos dominated by two major trends. On The revolutionary potential of com-
of images derived from a model of the one hand, research has concen- puter modeling is clear. However,
the Parthenon created using means Mantha Zarmakoupi trated on aspects of town planning, while the visual arts in general have
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RT3
common in current architectural National Hellenic Research Foundation, characteristic urban architecture incorporated digital media works as
practice: Revit, a parametric build- Greece and physical infrastructure. On the mainstream, issues arose during
ing information modeling system, other, work has tackled cities’ organ- the “Rome AD 320” project that
and Kerkythea, a rendering engine This presentation outlines the meth- isation, economy and political admin- questioned the accuracy of the 3D
designed to produce photo-realistic odology of my project on the urban istration, including the crucial role of translation process within architec-
images of digital models. These pro- development of late Hellenistic De- benefaction. My project aims to re- ture. In art historical terms, the cult
grams allow accurate simulations of los, which is funded by the Marie late urban form to economic devel- of authenticity is essential to safe-
the movement of the sun, and are Curie Intra-European Fellowship opments and in doing so contribute guarding the image. To what degree
frequently used to examine lighting Scheme. The project focuses on the to the field of urban studies in the should the reproduction of archi-
effects in architecture. Applied to residential neighbourhoods of late Hellenistic world. In addition, it aims tecture in 3D models accord with
the Parthenon, these programs re- Hellenistic Delos to address the ties to contribute to the development of this debate? For example, should
veal that the play of light and shadow between economic change and ur- computer applications for the study attempts be made to maintain a de-
on those two long, blank walls was ban growth. By analysing the urban of ancient urbanism in that it uses gree of the aura of colour over the
a dramatic feature of the original development of the island in relation digital modeling and virtual reality as temptation to blur texture, in order
structure. The significance of this to economic activities, public admin- a means to advance its research ob- establish a more complete digital re-
aspect of the design is reflected in istration and private initiatives, the jectives. production? Furthermore, given that
the fact that, whereas much of its project examines these neighbour- digital media is increasingly preva-
entablature and pediments were hoods as microcosms of the broader lent in formal educational settings,
elaborately decorated and painted, developments that Delos underwent RT3.5 Classical other questions arise as to how to
the columns and walls were made during the Hellenistic period – when Architecture, Town incorporate interactive learning that
entirely of Pentelic marble embel- the island became a commercial Planning and Digital uses different modes of behaviour
lished only with subtle mouldings. base connecting the eastern and Mapping of Cities: Rome while monitoring and safeguard-
The exterior walls of the Parthe- western Mediterranean. The urban AD 320 ing academic standards. In other
non thus provided a blank canvas form of Delos, as of any other city, words, the educational content
on which the movement of the sun did not result merely from a single Lynda Mulvin must not only be factually accurate
created shifting displays of light and planning initiative but from consecu- University College Dublin, Ireland but also highly compelling so as not
shadow that were given shape and tive decisions and actions of both to soften the impact of the interac-
rhythm by the exterior colonnade. private and public sectors. However, This contribution discusses ongoing tive application. The “Rome AD 320”
this obvious fact often gets lost in research for “Rome AD 320”, an project includes an informational,
the specialized analyses of ancient online three-dimensional model of historical narrative that enlivens the
cities. To address this shortcom- Rome. Specifically, it uses this proj- digital model and considers the mo-
ing, my project develops a 3D model ect as a context for examining wider tive of the visitor/beholder experi-
of the city of Delos presenting the pedagogical issues: the question of ence. This approach helps shape
built environment and systematis- authenticity in the digital reproduc- the development of 3D modeling as
ing as well as analysing the multi- tion of buildings and monuments; an educational medium. In order to
layered processes of urban growth and the role of interactive media in establish the best pedagogical prac-

204 205
tices for the digital sphere, objectiv- lar, 3-D modeling highlights incon- PhD Roundtables
ity is necessary in the way in which gruities in elevation that are elided
images are looked at differently and in traditional plan and even perspec-
are conflated in the virtual space. tive drawings. Digital modeling has
also allowed us to resolve issues
RT3

that have long been debated, such


RT3.6 Digital Modeling in as the visibility of the Winged Vic-
the Sanctuary of the Great tory monument. We have chosen to
Gods on Samothrace work within a modeling (Lightwave)
rather than a gaming platform in
Bonna D. Wescoat order to explore the precise path of
Emory University, USA the initiate through a series of vid- Architectural History in Italian PhD Programs:
eos. Having produced a high reso- Themes and Methods
In antiquity, the fame of Samothrace lution digital surface model (DSM)
emanated from its cult of the Great focused on the architectural environ- PhD dissertations constitute an important source, continually renewed, of
Gods, whose rites of initiation, the ment of the sanctuary, our current stimuli and methodological challenges. However, the fragmentation of re-
mysteria, promised protection at efforts are centered on expanding search centres and the sporadic occasions of exchange, do not allow the
sea and the opportunity for moral our knowledge of the existing terrain dissemination of some of the most interesting research experiences, and
improvement. The secret rites were by producing a high-resolution digital doctoral theses are likely to become a repertoire of local, monographic
never divulged, but their power to terrain model (DTM) using both to- and barely comparative case studies. The Third EAHN International Meeting
transform is well attested by the in- tal station and geographic position- aims to encourage an open exchange between the studies conducted within
novative architecture that sheltered ing system (GPS). The terrain model the Italian doctoral programs and the main research topics addressed and
the rituals. A dozen extraordinary seeks to capture the current condi- discussed by the International scholarly community. For this reason, the Ex-
monuments are each distinct within tion of the site to serve as the basis ecutive Committee, in accordance with the Scientific Committee of the Con-
the history of Greek architecture for a geomorphic predictive analysis ference, promoted two roundtables exclusively devoted to the presentation
and each deftly positioned within the tracing the ancient landscape his- of PhD studies and dissertations recently conducted within PhD programs
terrain to heighten the experience tory of the sanctuary. based in Italy (cycles XXIV-XXVII). The focus of these roundtables and the
of the initiate. Earthquake, erosion, debate will be mainly methodological.
and spoliation, however, have ob-
scured the intensively orchestrated
design of the Sanctuary, and two-di-
mensional media do not adequately
communicate the unusually complex
terrain of the temenos. We there-
fore have mined the innovative po-
tential of three-dimensional digital
modeling to document, analyze, and
communicate the complex spatial
relationships that bind place, archi-
tecture, and ritual in this famous
yet elusive mystery cult. In particu-

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PhD Roundtable 1: Architectural History
in Italian Doctoral Programs: Issues of
Theory and Criticism

PhDRT1
roundtable Chairs:
Maristella Casciato, Centre Canadien d’Architecture, Canada
Mary McLeod, Columbia University, USA

208 209
PhDRT1.1 Meyer Federal Assembly in Berne by H. W. as a nationalist monument. The epi- PhDRT1.2 A Relational
and Paulsson on Auer. After becoming editor of the sode sparked several thoughts that Issue: Towards an
Monumentality: the magazine Das Werk (1930), Meyer Paulsson expressed in Majgreven International Debate on
PhDRT1

PhDRT1
Beginning of a Debate, continued to investigate the possibil- magazine (1911) or in his book Den Habitat
1911-1940 ity of coexistence between modern Nya Arkitektur (The New Architec-
architecture and traditional styles. ture, 1916). On all occasions he al- Giovanni Comoglio
Giacomo Leone Beccaria The problem of a new monumentality ways described monumentality as an Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Politecnico di Torino, Italy became the focus of this research. undesirable quality in architecture, a
In his editorials Meyer formed a solid formal tool often subservient to politi- The development and diffusion of
The aim of my dissertation, de- basis for solving the problem in the cal purposes. the concept of habitat within the
fended in June 2013, was the re- North-European theorical advances Unlike Paulsson, Meyer investigat- post-war Congrès Internationaux
construction of the discourse on on the subject. In particular, Meyer ed the social rather than possible d’Architecture Moderne can be in-
monumentality during the first half came into contact with the “New architectural implications of monu- terpreted as a relational issue, as
of the twentieth century. The re- Empiricism”, a position followed by mentality. In his article “Monumental the paper aims to posit.
search was introduced by an analy- architects Asplund and Lewerentz Architecture?” (1937) Meyer recog- The notion of habitat after the Sec-
sis of the partially known European and theorized by Gregor Paulsson. nized the possibility and the need for ond World War had a cross influ-
origins of the debate, carried out by Art historian, academic and theoreti- reconciling monumental character, ence through different contexts of
the Swiss architect Peter Meyer and cal multidisciplinary scholar, Pauls- required for an expressive archi- reflection and practice, as well as
the Swedish historian Gregor Pauls- son (1890-1977) was undoubtedly tecture, with modernism. Examples through different subjects which
son, who started the discussion be- one of the most representative and such as the Zurich Congress Cen- were highly debated during those
fore its trans-oceanic migration. The interesting intellectuals to animate tre by M.E. Haefeli, W. Moser and years. Tracing back the path of for-
influence of these two authors on a number of local and international R. Steiger or the German and Rus- mulation and gradual definition of
the more commonly recognized ini- debates. His confidence in modern sian pavilions at the Paris Exposition this concept, a path which intended
tiators of the debate (Giedion, Sert, progress in the fields of art, archi- (1937) represented the examples to lead to practical realizations, can
Mumford) is clear, indicating a Euro- tecture and science merged with a from which Meyer distanced himself. generate original outcomes. First of
pean root of the issue and moving its firm belief in the political and social However, the real field test for Mey- all, it enables to focus on different
beginning back twenty years. value of aesthetics. The discussion er’s thought was the Switzerland In- critical points of view concerning all
This paper explores the modalities about monumentality that permeated ternational Exhibition (1939). Meyer the research paths involved in the
whereby Meyer acknowledged, be- Western architectural culture there- spoke positively about the outcomes definition of habitat. Moreover, it al-
fore his compatriot Giedion, the fore proved the ideal setting in which of such an occasion, thus defining lows the exploration of a process of
need for a new monumentality, while to express his ideas. In 1911, still a a concrete example of his concept modification through new means.
Paulsson articulated a case against student, he undertook an educational of monumentality. Meyer returned This process, which peaks in intensi-
modern monumentality. Peter Mey- four-month trip through Germany again to the theme in “Diskussion ty and critical complexity during this
er (1894-1984), an influential archi- and Italy. He remained two months über Monumentalität”, an article period, is the process of redefinition
tect and theorist, expressed a clear in Rome, precisely at the time of the published in Das Werk (1940). of the architect in his role and in his
critique of the “false” monumentality celebration of the fiftieth anniversary The paper ends by showing the in- relationship with both a social and
produced by modernity in his essay of the Unification of Italy. During this fluence that Meyer and Paulsson professional mission.
Moderne Architektur und Tradition period, an episode marked him par- exerted on the later protagonists of CIAM congresses in particular were
(1927). He confessed a prefer- ticularly. Paulsson took part in the the North American debate on the among the very first moments in a
ence for the English country house inauguration of the Monument to Vic- monumentality. longer process. They should not be
to monumental works such as the torio Emanuel, a building later defined considered as the only starting point

210 211
for a debate concerning habitat: they texts or markets, and they often ex- ing papers, publications and corre- tion with the theory of historic cen-
have been one of the most relevant ploited CIAM’s relational framework spondence, establishing transversal tre;
forums where this debate developed; to hit these targets with higher ef- links among recent research works - legislative development and its con-
PhDRT1

PhDRT1
and through this forum the debate fectiveness and authority (e.g. Sert, focused on specific themes within nection with the cultural debate;
spread though different international Can Our Cities Survive?, from 1939 the subject (Mumford, 2000, 2009; - outcomes within urban planning
arenas of discussion. Through reflec- to 1942). This situation was in fact Avermaete 2003, Risselada-Heuvel, practices.
tions and actions carried out at the the frame for the external rela- 2005), as well as specific actors To retrace the debate around urban
CIAMs some research bridges were tions of CIAM during those years. and institutions (Avermaete, 2003; landscape, the main sources are
built which linked think-tanks, groups Exchanges with United Nations de- Schoskes, 2006; Tolic, 2011). the professional periodicals, specifi-
of power, and institutions thus trans- partments and early European insti- cally Urbanisme, Monuments Histo-
lating reflections into practices and tutions at the time of the 1953 Aix- riques, La Vie Urbaine, L’architecture
policies. If main protagonists such en-Provence Meeting in particular, PhDRT1.3 The Urban d’Aujourd’hui, Urbanistica, Metron,
as Le Corbusier still kept their cen- were linked to proposals or requests Landscape as L’architettura cronache e storia, and
tral positions during the 1950s, it of technical consulting about issues Cultural Heritage. The Casabella.
is necessary however to shift the fo- concerning mass dwelling and their Contemporary Debate in The key points emerging from the
cus to actors like Jaqueline Tyrwhitt, translation into practices. France and Italy debate are analyzed through addi-
Josep Lluís Sert or Sigfried Giedion, The debate on habitat was therefore tional sources such as conference
who took over the role of junctions capable of linking different paths Elena Greco proceedings, publications, newspa-
between different tendencies – and which are only apparently separate. Politecnico di Torino, Italy – Université per articles, etc.
related groups – which had risen In the same way, it stood out as one Rennes 2, France The results are compared to the leg-
within CIAMs during the after-war of the main playgrounds where ar- islative documents aiming to deduce
period. These figures represented chitects and institutions, in those The aim of my research is to high- which aspects of the cultural debate
a reference for both the founders years, could face transformations in light the concept of urban landscape have triggered preservation and ur-
of the Congrès and those subjects their strategies of both legitimization within the debate centered on urban ban renewal practices.
who were establishing new roles for and operational intervention. heritage as it evolved in the second From the analysis of the Italian and
themselves within American or gen- This statement – and the related half of the twentieth century. Indeed, French periodicals it emerges that
erally extra-European contexts, as process – was in fact the subject of this is the period of origin and devel- the debate on urban landscape
well as for those new generations a wider research work, which set its opment of this concept, which has showed some analogies, and that in
who later merged into Team X. methodological focus on the possibil- recently reappeared in the interna- both cases the common denomina-
All the dynamics mentioned gath- ity of exploring the gradual definition tional debate (Historic Urban Land- tor was to be found in the concept
ered and shaped themselves in of the concept of habitat through scape Recommendation, UNESCO of townscape, developed in Great
some way around the habitat issue the persistence of some characters, 2011). Italy and France played a key Britain the late 1940s and heralded
which arose within the CIAM de- and the modification and migration role in relation to the debate, espe- by The Architectural Review. More
bate, and its gradual and conflict- of relational networks: from CIAM cially because of their ancient tradi- than focusing on urban design, Ital-
ing definition. It has not been just a to American reflections carried out tion of public heritage protection. ian and French planners faced the
theoretical issue. Although post-war at the Harvard Graduate School of The analysis is therefore carried out problem of transformation and pres-
Congresses were the scene of a Architecture to Delos Conferences through a comparison between the ervation of historical cities.
constant ideological clash, it is a fact up to Doxiadis’ Ekistics, and with two countries, and covers the follow- The debate was particularly intense
that in this period, as in the previous constant feedbacks and interests ing areas: in Italy, where at the end of the
years, many members and groups expressed by the UN. This work - genealogy of the urban landscape 1950s the expression “historic cen-
were attempting to enter new con- carries out a joint analysis of work- concept, its variations, and its rela- tre” was coined. The first important

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data emerging from the research is During the second half of the twen- tion undertaken by historian Nils Swedishness. There they built open-
that the concept of historic centre tieth century their townscapes have Månsson and ethnographer Artur air studios that served as model and
was originated from the debate on deeply changed as a result of signifi- Hazelius, which paved the way for spur to national romantic architects
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PhDRT1
urban landscape, and not vice-versa. cant urban planning decisions. the Svenska Slöjdföreningen (Swed- like Lars Israel Wahlman, Carl Wes-
Nevertheless, as proven by the leg- The planning process of the two ish Society of Industrial and Crafts tam and Ragnar Östberg. Hence,
islative documents, the notion of his- cities will be investigated through design) founded in 1845. the architects offered appropriate
toric centre predominated over that different sources: town plans and The title of the booklet captured the precedents for Swedish housing and
of urban landscape, the latter being architectural projects, debate and two fundamental themes of the fin interior design, first to peasants and
much more complex to define from resolutions of local authorities, de siècle architectural debate: con- then to the nascent bourgeoisie.
a theoretical and practical point of newspaper articles, photographs, struction (byggnad) and interior de- Equally the intellectual and ante lit-
view. This fact reveals the substan- etc. sign (inredning), encompassing the teram feminist Ellen Key powerfully
tial weakness of the Italian legislative The goal is to evaluate if urban land- enduring dilemma of their relation influenced the generation of younger
action which, together with the eco- scape can be used as an operational summed up in ett hem. To a certain architects among whom Östberg
nomic interests involved by the re- instrument of analysis and preserva- extend one can compare Laugier’s was a leading exponent through her
newal practices, contributed to the tion in the urban planning process. primitive hut with Östberg’s search writings on Scandinavian domestic
supremacy of the historic centre no- My doctoral thesis is based on a for the essence of the tiny wooden aesthetics and family education.
tion. Indeed, the latter achieved tan- supervising agreement between the homes, but both aimed to design the It is also worth noting that National
gible results in conservation prac- Politecnico of Turin and the Univer- human space par excellence: a do- Romanticism was partly in debt to
tices, while the concept of urban sité Rennes 2. mestic vernacular shelter. the theories of the British Arts &
landscape is still being theorized, at During the last quarter of the nine- Crafts Movement whereby, accord-
least at an international level. teenth century nationalistic feelings ing to its champions William Morris
From the research it emerges that PhDRT1.4 “A Home”: had progressively spread in Scandina- and John Ruskin, artistic innovation
in Italy the cultural debate was more Östberg’s Search for the vian countries and in Germany, stress- had to be based on nature, not on
earnest than in France, but the Total Artwork ing the desire for nationhood due to machines. Östberg firmly stated that
legislative framework regarding ur- not yet defined boundaries of these all visual arts should work together
ban preservation was substantially Chiara Monterumisi nations. Then, philosopher-literati closely, creating a balanced interplay
weaker. Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy and artist-architects focused on the of popular culture and craftsman-
The final part of this work will be search for their own origins through ship.
dedicated to verifying if the theoreti- This paper aims to be a voyage of a vernacular idiom, conveying moral, Inspired by Larsson’s homonymous
cal construction of urban landscape discovery about how the Swedish spiritual and national values. Ett hem (1899), a collection of wa-
has been considered in the planning architect Ragnar Östberg (1866- In their imaginary, Sweden meant tercolours depicting traditional interi-
process and in the urban heritage 1945) turned the intuitions ex- simultaneously both the vast native ors and domestic life, Östberg drew
preservation practices against the pressed in his 15-pages pamphlet land and the intimate home. attention on the traditional peasant’s
intense urban transformations that entitled Ett hem. Dess byggnad och Housing design embodied that sense wooden house (allmogehems). He
occurred in the contemporary de- inredning (A Home. Its Construction of identity, encompassing national, also described all the fundamental
cades. and Interior Design) which came out regional and local concerns. features for domestic design and
Two case studies, Turin and Lyon, in 1905, into projects of domestic Some visual artists, such as the proposed some simple homemade
are selected to evaluate the proce- architecture. Ett hem encapsulates painters Anders Zorn and Carl Lars- houses for the lower classes. As he
dures and results. These cities have the Nordic devotion to craftsman- son emphasized the notion of the said, “any home is none other than
been chosen because they are both ship, inscribed in the early studies ideal home, and celebrated the re- a clear expression of its occupants
medium size post-industrial cities. of Swedish folklore and rural tradi- gion of Dalecarlia as a symbol of true needs”. The analytic study of the

214 215
allmogehems was also a source of the research proposes an analysis number progression. These were number theory a provocative answer
inspiration to Östberg’s projects for of the role of proportions in the oeu- extremely useful to exercise the eye to the crisis that has characterized
the bourgeoisie bostad (villa), built in vre of Dutch architect and Benedic- in perceiving proportioned forms the theory of proportions in the
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the wild outskirts of Stockholm. tine monk Dom Hans van der Laan and to understand the interaction twentieth century. Indeed, Van der
As an expression of Swedish vernac- (1904-1991). between morphological and dimen- Laan had the ability to shift the focus
ular identity ett hem embodied the Van der Laan devoted his entire life sional features of forms and the hu- from the abundantly discussed har-
stimulating cross-disciplinary debate to the search for the essence of hu- man brain structure. monic properties of proportions to
at the dawn of the twentieth century manistic architecture. With his plas- Van der Laan applied his plastic num- its cognitive features. He seemed to
which was captured by the writings tic number system and his experi- ber system in a few buildings where foresee the later interest between
of Key, Larsson and Östberg, pub- ments on perception, he explored the experience of ordered disposition art, phenomenology and neurosci-
lished in the series entitled Student- human attitude to discern surround- and articulation of intelligible forms ence and to move from the ancient
föreningen Verdandi (Verdandi’s ing forms and classify them through were called up to build spaces for notion of proportions to a reinter-
Student Booklets), a progressive their dimensions. He demonstrated bodies and minds. In my dissertation pretation at the same time modern
platform for intellectual exchanges how nature, which because of the in- I carried out a careful analysis of the and primitive. Van der Laan encour-
founded in 1888. finiteness of its dimensions could not proportional ratios in Van der Laan’s aged reflections on the importance
Until now this booklet has been ac- be completely understood by the hu- most well known design, the St. Ben- of intelligibility for the production of
cessible to only-Swedish readership; man mind, could be shaped by man edict Abbey in Vaals (1956-1986). artifacts and offered new lenses
it is my aim to include an English and become intelligible through the Based on Van der Laan’s fifteen les- through which to look at propor-
translation in the documentary sec- application of proportional ratios. sons collected in his book entitled tion in architecture. As output of my
tion of my doctoral thesis. According to plastic number theory, Architectonic Space (1977), the re- work I have been able to move from
human beings could draw from the search has identified three main prin- Van der Laan’s theory of proportions
surrounding visible world a set of in- ciples, traceable in both the theory to its values, roles and laws for con-
PhDRT1.5 Order and telligible ratios and sizes appropriate and practice of the plastic number temporary debate and practice.
Proportion: Dom Hans to their mind and apply them in the system. Firstly, the repetition of few
van der Laan and the construction of architecture. In this proportioned forms according to
Expressiveness of the way architecture could fulfil what their morphological similarity, result- PhDRT1.6 The Use of the
Architectonic Space Van der Laan considered its highest ing from the additional properties of Convenzioni Urbanistiche
goal, i.e. to serve human intellectual the plastic number system, favoured in the Historic Centre of
Tiziana Proietti needs. Therefore proportions were the intelligibility of architecture and Milan: Negotiation and
La Sapienza-Università di Roma, Italy not external tools or final checking its experience. Secondly, the regular- Planning Instruments after
devices in design practice, but stood ity of simple geometric forms gave WWII
My doctoral research deals with the for the essence of architecture, evidence to the geometry and di-
history of proportions in twentieth- making unlimited nature comprehen- mensional properties of the object by Nicole De Togni
century architecture and aims at sible to the limited perceptual skills not obstructing its intelligibility. And Politecnico di Torino, Italy
introducing how proportioned ele- of humans. finally, the mutual proximity between
ments favoured the legibility of ar- During his long-life research Van architectural elements controlled by This research addresses the topic
chitectural forms by interacting with der Laan built three plastic number proportions shaped architectonic of the relevance of planning negotia-
human perceptive attitudes. Dis- devices, which he named the aba- spaces that were morphologically tions in the reconstruction of Italian
tancing itself from the symbolic, aes- cus, the triangle of forms, and the perceptible and intelligible. cities in the second post-war period,
thetic, and ethical values attributed morphoteek, or the sets of regular To conclude, the research has rec- focusing on Milan and its historic
to proportions over the centuries, geometric volumes built on plastic ognized in Van der Laan’s plastic centre.

216 217
As economic capital of the country a model of prompt negotiation, nei- most relevant for the elaboration of tion with other planning instruments,
and first major city to approve a Gen- ther included nor described in other a significant roster of data and re- evolution of legislation, typologies,
eral Plan according to the National planning instruments. Grounded in lated questions. and variety of actors. Completed
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Planning Law of 1942, Milan was some specific tools and their lan- Records are aggregated according with information from other sourc-
expected to prove the potential of guages, and relying on specific ac- to interpretative categories belong- es, as publications, building permits
the new planning instrument in deal- tors, the convenzioni allowed differ- ing to urban history’s issues. These and professional archives, each
ing with war damages and modern ent scales to be assessed from that categories are defined for their sig- case study analyzes specific aspects
institutions. Supported by the archi- of the architectural objects to that of nificance in relation to urban fabric, of urban development and offers a
tectural élite, the plan was perceived city planning. This process prompt- building processes, actors involved, new point of view on professional
as a testing ground for new political ed the idea of an urban development disciplinary debate, and socio-politi- practice. Furthermore, the study
visions, practices and models of ar- based on the negotiation of public cal aspects. Single case studies are of the convenzioni allows an under-
chitecture and town planning in a and private interests and needs. examined according to key concepts standing how this multifaceted tool
moment of great urbanization and My research aims at introducing a emerging from the database, such played an active role in the negotia-
redefinition of the discipline. The critical perspective on post-war con- as negotiation and intervention mod- tion process redefining planning in-
General Plan of 1953 was actually venzioni through a quantitative and els, connection and level of integra- struments.
controversial. Its critics consolidated qualitative analysis regarding the ur-
the idea of a failed reconstruction, ban fabric of Milan historic centre in
arguing that the convenzioni were the early 1950s. The city’s core was
quite often the main vehicle of real the object of intense building efforts
estate speculation and disruption of by economic interests. This was
planning policies. happening within a national debate
The expression convenzioni urba- fostering the symbolic meanings of
nistiche identifies agreements based architectural stratifications in the
on private contracts between public historic centres. As a matter of fact
administrations and private own- the study of the Milanese case of-
ers or developers, defining building fers the opportunity to elaborate an
rights and duties through a negotia- interpretative revision of the results
tion based more on economic and obtained through the use of the con-
political power than on fixed rules. venzioni, questioning their validity in
It is my aim to look at them as main expansion areas and framing the pe-
sources to explore urban design at- culiarities of their use in the historic
titudes in contrast with a canonical centre.
approach, which merely delegates The almost complete record of the
the study of the planning processes convenzioni regarding the historic
to the analysis of the General Plan. centre of Milan can be built thanks
While the General Plan, completed to original archival research and
with the procedures of observations through the comparison of the gen-
and reception, showed an approach eral cartography. The convenzioni
to urban design based on political were published and collected for ad-
and disciplinary institutions, the in- ministrative purposes and included
troduction of the convenzioni implied a large variety of documents, the

218 219
PhD Roundtable 2: Architectural History
in Italian Doctoral Programs: Histories
of Buildings, Architects and Practices

PhDRT2
roundtable Chair:
Mari Hvattum, Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo, Norway

221
PhDRT2.1 Ahmedabad. Wright and Walter Gropius wel- the country. Thanks to their wide of social sciences (Lefebvre, 1967
Workshop of Modern comed talented young Indian archi- national and international network, and 1974). This has resulted in an
Architecture: The National tects into their schools or studios, Gautam and Gira Sarabhai were key unfortunate separation of academic
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Institute of Design they themselves never went to the figures in the cultural development of approaches: one focusing on find-
sub-continent. Their American and Ahmedabad, and the creation of NID ing the link between the theories of
Elisa Alessandrini European colleagues, however, such is one of the most significant exam- the architectural community and the
Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy as Richard Neutra, Charles and Ray ples of intellectual exchange between projects, while the other taking the
Eames, Buckminster Fuller, Enrico East and West. The study illustrates already transformed urban space as
The subject of this research is the Peressutti, Harry Weese, and Frei how the fertile friendships between a starting point for political and so-
National Institute of Design (known Otto, had a direct dialogue with the Indian and Western architects, but cial analysis.
as NID) designed by Gautam Sarab- emerging generation of Indian archi- also traditions from the past, are re- This paper explores the gap be-
hai and his sister Gira in the city of tects through their presence on site flected in the NID project. tween these two methodological ap-
Ahmedabad, India. This project has in India. The architecture designed This thesis is based on archival re- proaches, both influential in France
been selected because it highlights by Achyut Kanvinde, Gautam and search in a number of archives in during the 1970s and 1980s. It
the two faces of post-colonial India; Gira Sarabhai, Balkrishna Doshi and India, Europe and North America. does so by applying an interpreta-
a nation that sought to amalgamate Charles Correa, just to name a few tive framework which goes beyond
modern institutions with traditions Indian architects of that new genera- both the typo-morphological and the
from the past. tion, are a clear evidence of these PhDRT2.2 Transformations socio-cultural framework. The main
Designed in 1961-1964 and built in contacts. of Public Space in Paris. aim of the research is to establish
1966-1968, NID is one of the most The National Institute of Design From Infrastructure to the relationship between the cultural
convincing examples of this synthe- found its seat in Ahmedabad, a city Forme Urbaine references of designers and the pro-
sis. favoured by young Indian architects cesses through which urban spaces
The decades 1940-1960 are the and a centre of decolonization. The Daniele Campobenebetto are converted, and, what is more,
time frame of this study, correspond- thesis examines some aspects of Politecnico di Torino, Italy – Université to explore the urban imaginaries
ing to a period of great intellectual post-colonial Indian architecture Paris Est, France created by this relationship.
upheaval in India following independ- and its outcomes, in particular in Between 1974 and 1989, the
ence from British rule. In these Ahmedabad, which must be consid- Between the 1970s and the 1980s, Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme (here-
years, the first generation of Indian ered a real laboratory of Indian mo- the city of Paris faced a period of after APUR), a hybrid entity with
postcolonial architects created build- dernity. NID is a national institution extensive urban transformation and, various roles during this period, had
ings of considerable importance and of great importance which, like its at the same time, a change in the an essential part in translating the
had close contact with Western designers Gautam Sarabhai (1917- strategies of this transformation in aforementioned shift into operative
modern masters. NID is part of this 1995) and Gira Sarabhai (1923), comparison with the heroic Trente terms, liaising with institutions that
chronological framework. has never been the subject of re- Glorieuses. The analyses of these had the power to transform large
The wider survey is restricted to search and rarely mentioned in his- architectural and urban changes areas of the French capital.
educational buildings constructed by tory books of post-colonial India. and the works that inspired them, Two case studies allow us to analyze
Indian architects in Ahmedabad, and With this study, the author aims are often based on a typological or these changes and the role played
highlights the influence of masters to restore NID’s value and reputa- morphological perspective (Bou- by the APUR: the transformations of
such as Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn, tion and give voice to its designers, don et al., 1977; Panerai, 1999). the Halles Centrales of Paris, start-
and other Western professionals investigating the central role of the Moreover, in France, the study of de- ing in 1974, and the Secteur de la
who participated in this climate of Sarabhais in the modernization of cision-making processes and urban Villette projects, especially those
cultural exchange. While Frank Lloyd Ahmedabad and more generally of transformation falls within the scope for Place Stalingrad (Bernard Huet,

222 223
1985-1989) and Parc de la Villette explored, allowing us to analyze the pragmatic and ideological. Since modern Swiss school, as a cultural
during the first competition organ- complex role of Bernard Huet and modern architects were convinced and architectural form, emerged
ized by APUR (1976-1982). other protagonists in this period on that the new architecture needed a from a complex interaction of tech-
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These two cases are intertwined. On the basis of a hitherto unknown ma- new human being, they assigned to nical concerns, educational theory,
one hand, they illustrate a cultural terial. Moreover, the public nature school buildings an important forma- and the larger social forces of the
point of view; on the other hand, they of the sources and the international tive role. Moreover, the paradigm period. The research is organised
give an account of institutional and scope of the urban debates in this promoted by the Neues Bauen – according to three distinct but inter-
political processes, showing a trans- period allow cross-national compari- light, air, sun – was very close to the related paths of investigation. First-
formation that occurred throughout son with other European cases. hygienist principles of the nineteenth ly, I study the relationship between
the whole city. Finally, they cross the century and to the new educational school building and urban context;
trajectory of some of the most em- theories of the 1920s. Swiss mod- the evolution of the typology with re-
blematic figures in French architec- PhDRT2.3 Architecture ern architects realised that the spect to both technical and educa-
ture at this time. One of them was that Teaches. Swiss School school building was a forceful me- tional concerns; and the migration
Bernard Huet, a teacher, theorist, Buildings during the 1950s dium to spread the culture and the of ideas. Schools are strongly relat-
critic and urban designer who played and 1960s form of modern architecture. ed to the evolution of urban theories
a major role in the definition of a new Two deeply rooted beliefs, both and the debate on school building
cultural paradigm. The central role Marco Di Nallo ingraining parts of Helvetian self- was linked to debates on the territo-
of APUR and the influences of Huet’s Politecnico di Torino, Italy – Accademia awareness, are at the basis of the ry and its development, its economic
Architecture Urbaine in the two case di Architettura di Mendrisio, Switzerland importance given to school build- growth and its demographic curve.
studies are analyzed by comparing ings. On the one hand it is often The second path examines how ar-
the archives of the architects in- The research examines the develop- stressed that Switzerland is a land chitects, educators, and administra-
volved in the urban projects (Bernard ment of Swiss school buildings dur- of educationalists, starting with tors created and disseminated an
Huet, Henry Bernard, Emile Aillaud, ing the 1950s and 1960s, including Rousseau and Pestalozzi, right down image of school bound to modern
Louis Arretche) as well as the minis- their architectural, pedagogical and to the leading Swiss figures in mod- architectural forms and progres-
terial and presidential archives. Oral social implications. ern pedagogy, such as Adolphe Fer- sive methods of teaching, combined
sources, already explored in the case The work focuses on buildings of rière, cofounder of the Bureau Inter- with a persistently romantic notion
of Bernard Huet (Pommier, 2010), compulsory education. Educational national d’Education in 1925. On the of childhood.
are restricted to a control role. theories have, indeed, had a major other hand it is seen as self-evident The close relationships with other
The research shows a change in the impact on educational architecture, that the mission of education is to countries have always played an
process of transformation of public particularly buildings for primary train the moral being even more essential role in Swiss culture. The
space in Paris. The practices shifted and secondary schools. Following than to instruct. “The moral man dissertation therefore applies in-
from projects which were generated the great baby boom of the postwar is the main goal of education” and ternational comparison, looking
through vivid debate (strongly linked period, school buildings acted as a “Aesthetic education is a necessary into the network of exchanges that
to contemporary French social sci- stimulant for Swiss modern archi- premise to moral education” Alfred Swiss architects secured with the
ence, for example in the first phase tecture, especially thanks to compe- Roth wrote in the last part of his rest of the world, in particular with
of Les Halles case), to a later stand- titions which gave young architects trilingual book The New School, first the so called “creative periphery” –
ardization of urban projects and ur- the opportunity to develop and test published in 1950. Such a mission Denmark, Sweden and Finland – as
ban imaginaire. new proposals. was to be entrusted to schools, and well as with the United States and
The relationship between the cultur- The great attention which modern the school building would be its most England in which the most progres-
al milieu and the political intervention architects dedicated to school build- tangible sign. sive ideas on education and school
processes in Paris is still quite un- ings and educational issues was both The dissertation explores how the buildings were being developed.

224 225
The archival research has been con- closed in 1563 (Manconi, 2010, constructive features and a compar- they might be understood as local
ducted primarily at the gta Archiv of 250-253). ative analysis of the church with re- interpretations of new Renaissance
the ETH Zurich, looking into the main The particular focus of the thesis is spect to other monuments from the systems developing in mainland Ita-
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protagonists of the Swiss debate on on the star-shaped rib vaulting of the same time. The digital reconstruc- ly and the Aragonese land (Ibáñez,
modern school buildings, such as church; a complex work which radi- tion has been based on metric data, 2008).
Werner M. Moser and Alfred Roth. cally transformed the temple, previ- collected using image-based 3D
The literature studies provide an ac- ously covered with a wooden roof modelling methods (Remondino-El
curate survey of period journals on built over a diaphragmatic arch sys- Hakim, 2006), and materials found PhDRT2.5 Layers
education and architecture, paying tem. San Domenico suffered com- in the Municipal archive of Cagliari of Narration: the
particular attention to the many spe- plete destruction during the World as well as in the Soprintendenza of Architecture of Piero
cial issues dedicated to the subject War II and was rebuilt. The destruc- Cagliari and Oristano’s archives. Bottoni in Ferrara
of schools in this period. tion, together with the shortage of A very important part of the study
available documentation of its build- concerns the reconstruction of the Matteo Cassani Simonetti
ing history, has prevented a proper relationship between the monastery Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy
PhDRT2.4 Star-Shaped Rib interpretation of the church and its of San Domenico and the Dominican
Vaulting in the Church of architecture. Because of this lack of order. In particular, the research The task of studying the relation-
San Domenico, Cagliari documentation, the research has has focused on the Dominican re- ships between an architect and a
been based primarily on indirect ar- form movement in the province of specific city or cultural context, dis-
Federico Maria Giammusso chival sources, such as the Acts of Aragon (Esponera, 1999). Further- cerning the different contributions
Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy – the provincial and general chapters more, the thesis investigates the to the architectural work made by
Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain of the Order, the Dominican and Ec- relationship between the spiritual each, can be complex. A fruitful ap-
clesiastical chronicles and the Liber reform and the material renovation proach is offered, however, by what
This research is focused on the I of the General archive of Preachers of the monasteries. The history of Vittorio Savi has called layers of nar-
monastery of San Domenico in Cagli- in Rome. Some direct sources from San Domenico well illustrates the ration (Savi 1984, VII). As historio-
ari and its renovation carried out the late sixteenth century were pro- dynamics that characterized the graphic and critical devices, these
in the second half of Cinquecento. vided by local archives (Archdiocese spread and evolution of the Mediter- layers allow for the observation of
Founded in the settlement of Villano- and Municipal in Cagliari) and by the ranean Gothic in Sardinia, from the the relationship between author and
va on the east slope of the Castle of archive of the Crown of Aragon (Bar- introduction of churches with unique context from multiple viewpoints and
Cagliari during the second half of the celona). nave and chapels opened between via a spectrum of resources (histori-
thirteenth century, the monastery A key tool in this study has been buttresses of diaphragm arches, to cal records, graphic or photographic
of San Domenico reached its maxi- the design of a 3D reconstruction the introduction of star-shaped ribs analysis, critical readings), leading
mum expansion in the late 1560s of the building, making it possible to vaulting of the naves. to a more in-depth understanding of
as a consequence of the Dominican analyse the church as it would have The final goal of the work has been their interaction.
reform movement. appeared before its destruction. to demonstrate that the appearance The career of the modernist archi-
These large-scale reforms were due Virtual reconstruction techniques of star-shaped ribs in the late Sar- tect Piero Bottoni (1903-1973)
to multiple factors: economic de- (Marsiglia, 2013), combining his- dinian Cinquecento religious archi- in Ferrara covers a wide range of
velopment, administrative reforms torical research tools and digital rep- tecture does not represent a delay building types and commissions: pri-
(including the diocesan reorganiza- resentation technologies, have been or isolation of Sardinian architectur- vate homes, town planning projects,
tion), medieval orders reforms and employed to understand the building al culture. Perhaps these episodes public buildings, all located in the city
general religious reforms relating to process. This has allowed an inter- should not be classifiable as “late centre. After his native Milan, Fer-
the defunct Council of Trent which pretation of architectural details and Gothic” architecture at all. Instead, rara is the city that hosts the great-

226 227
est number of Bottoni-designed own archive and those of Zevi and reconstruct the history of a subject architecture of the 1920s was an
projects. Bottoni’s works share not Samonà. The research begun as a that has proved fundamental to the efficient way to establish a new and
only the same geographical loca- monograph on Bottoni’s work in Fer- understanding of both Bottoni’s ca- more democratic image of the Fed-
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tion, but also a series of common rara, but developed into a broader reer and the relationships between eral Republic. The new GFR sought
characteristics. They all explore the history of the city’s architectural con- earlier and modern architecture in further legitimisation by proclaiming
relationship between modern archi- text, dotted by the contributions of the 1950s and 1960s. itself the heir of the glorious Weimar
tecture and the old pre-existing city its many protagonists. It thus identi- Republic.
and reflect a unitary vision of archi- fies aspects drawn from both local The Neues Bauen – the German
tecture and restoration, evident in and national architectural debate. In PhDRT2.6 The Wilhelm modern architecture of the 1920s –
Bottoni’s work already in the early addition to the research carried out Lehmbruck Museum. seemed to be the only plausible way
1930s. Narrating this story has on primary and secondary sources it Paradigm of Modern in which the GFR could present itself
meant examining Ferrara’s cultural also became necessary – in order to Architecture in Postwar to the world. The reality of the coun-
context and its key players during understand the nature of Bottoni’s Germany try was more complex, however, re-
the 1950s and 1960s expansion. work and its true relationship with vealing the “double face” of the state
Bottoni’s role in developing the city pre-existing buildings – to survey his Benedetta Stoppioni after 1945. The tabula rasa created
was pivotal: he completed eighteen projects using modern 3-D photo Università degli Studi di Bologna, Italy by the war was soon populated by
city projects, thanks to the close ties surveys. Such surveys provide us – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, dichotomies such as memory/obliv-
he had established with some of the with 3-D models from photographs, Germany ion, tradition/modernity, continu-
city’s most influential figures. even buildings predating Bottoni’s ity/discontinuity with the Nazi past.
An understanding of Ferrara history work. This allows for the immediate The subject of my PhD research is These dichotomies are reflected in
during this period has also required comparison of the different charac- the Wilhelm Lehmbruck Museum in the history and the architecture of
the study of the roles played by oth- teristics before and after the archi- Duisburg, a construction designed the Duisburg Museum. It consists
er contemporary figures, such as tect’s work as well as comparison and built between 1957 and 1964 of two buildings characterized by a
Bruno Zevi, Roberto Pane, Giuseppe between the design and the actual by the architect Manfred Lehmbruck rather different architectural lan-
Samonà, Giovanni Michelucci and construction. (1913-1992). The building exhibits guage. The wing housing the works
Giorgio Piccinato. The city enjoyed a To sum up, the research into Bot- the works of Manfred’s father, the of Lehmbruck is three-dimensional
period in which key protagonists of toni’s architecture in Ferrara con- renowned sculptor Wilhelm Lehm- and introverted. The large glass par-
architectural and urban culture dis- sists of different chapters: Bottoni’s bruck (1881-1919). It is one of the allelepiped volume which hosts tem-
cussed the city’s past, present and work before coming to Ferrara; the first museums built in the German porary exhibitions, on the contrary,
future and were able to influence its architectural context in Ferrara dur- Federal Republic (GFR) after WWII. is an open and transparent space
development and transformations. ing 1950s and 1960s; the political- The “myth” of Wilhelm Lehmbruck, with a clear reference to the Neues
This reconstruction, focussing on personal links between the architect as cultural symbol of the city of Bauen.
what historiography intuitively la- and the clients; an analysis of Bot- Duisburg, was constructed over the The double face of the Lehmbruck
belled the Scuola di Ferrara, exam- toni’s works as regards the local and course of several years in order to Museum is an example of the split
ines some twenty archives belong- national architectural debate; a de- enrich the meagre cultural heritage between the two different approach-
ing to cultural associations, political tailed chronological description, the of this industrial town. This myth was es of West German architecture in
parties (Italia Nostra, Partito Comu- redesigns and surveys, and lists of further boosted after WWII, when the post-war period. One prevailed
nista Italiano), the Italian public ad- archival documents that constitute GFR re-evaluated their stance to- on the idea that debris should not be
ministration and the private archives the body of the research. By com- wards modern art, previously labelled forgotten: fed on it, and built upon
of Bottoni’s clients and local per- bining different layers of interpre- “degenerate” by national-socialists. ruins, as in the case of St. Anne’s
sonalities plus, of course, Bottoni’s tation, the research has sought to To create links to modern art and Church in Düren (Rudolf Schwarz,

228 229
1951-1956). The other approach PhDRT2.7 “Magnificentia”, Detailed examination of sixteenth These include Basile’s travels, which
advocated an architecture made of Devotion and Civic Piety in and seventeenth-century unpublished are particularly interesting, because
light and glass for the GFR, such the Renaissance Venetian manuscript sources is critical to the of the proximity they reveal between
PhDRT2

PhDRT2
as for instance the German Pavilion Republic research, as these sources shed architecture and place. Only by en-
at the Brussels World’s Fair (Egon light on the contemporaneous negoti- tering a space, walking around,
Eiermann and Sep Ruf, 1958). It Emanuela Vai ation of local political and religious im- watching the changing shadows as
was the architecture of a Germany Politecnico di Torino, Italy – University of peratives. In fact, these analyses car- the sun turns, catching the colour
that wanted to appear terse and St Andrews, UK ried out on church records and other of materials in their context, watch-
transparent, seeing in the economic sources contribute to build a more ing people moving, can one have an
miracle an instrument of redemption Through an interdisciplinary ap- complete picture of the processes of active, sincere and direct experience
from a shameful past which had to proach, my paper seeks to under- construction and patronage that in- of the complex world of an architec-
be silenced and forgotten. stand sacred space in relation to vested the church interiors with their tural work, Basile implies. 
The Lehmbruck Museum is an ar- its functions, forms and spatiali- particular significances. We know what Basile saw from con-
chitecture representing both mem- ties, as well as within the context By employing and interpreting hith- temporary books and magazines
ory and oblivion at the same time, of a series of events and situa- erto unexamined sources from the reporting on the places he visited,
a characteristic which makes it tions that take place in it, such as Angelo Maj Library in Bergamo it is however only through further re-
paradigmatic for understanding the ceremonies and performances. possible to understand the history search can we understand how he
particular development of West Ger- Specifically, I examine the ways in of the sacred space of the Basilica perceived these places and the sig-
man architecture after 1945. which liturgical and musical require- as a local but significant case in the nificance they had in his work. Basile
This study is based on an investiga- ments influence church interiors. Renaissance Venetian Republic, and went to places that we might call
tion into several German archives, The paper addresses these issues acknowledge the extent to which the “strategic” for European architec-
enabling me to reconstruct and by means of a case study situated life of the confraternity influenced and tural history of his time – a scene
indeed redraw the history of the on the extreme western boundaries jointly shaped architecture, art and in which he was deeply involved. My
Lehmbruck Museum and its various of the Venetian mainland empire, music. research focuses on Basile’s exten-
project phases. the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggio- sive contact with scholars, artists
In addition to this quite traditional re in Bergamo. This case will be ex- and scientists in the places he vis-
methodological approach, my work plored by investigating the intercon- PhDRT2.8 From the South. ited. Wherever he went, he system-
draws on sociological and anthro- nections between the church and Ernesto Basile’s Routes atically documented the architecture
pological studies, allowing me to the Confraternity of the Misericordia and Destinations and the spaces he visited and the
scrutinize the cultural roots of the Maggiore, proprietor of the Basilica, people he met. 
architecture of the Duisburg muse- as well as other larger regional pro- Eleonora Marrone Through the study of the Ernesto Ba-
um and, more generally, of German cesses (Black, 1989, 224; Carl- Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy sile’s archive, it has been possible to
museum architecture in the post- smith, 2010, 78-79). The Basilica map the movements, destinations,
war period. was highly prestigious in the six- Why should we continue to study appointments and impressions,
My thesis wants to show how Ger- teenth century. Its prominent repu- the Italian architect Ernesto Basile which Basile accurately recorded in
man museums built in this period tation was based on a succession of (Palermo 1857–1932) today? Given his notebooks and personal agendas.
were instruments for reconstruct- remarkable church composers, mu- the amount of recent research, we Except for a few gaps, the Basile’s
ing German identity, reflecting an at- sicians, artists and architects (Ba- might be tempted to believe that archive is one of the best maintained
tempt to combine memory and obliv- roncini, 1998, 19-51; Towne, everything has been told. However, contemporary architectural archives
ion as two powerful and irreducible 1988, 471-509, Morelli, 2006, there are several important issues in Europe.  Basile wrote extensively
instances of “Germany, Year Zero”. 217). worthy of further investigations. about his travels and discussed their

230 231
context and significance. The docu- and other European cities relating to Index of Authors
ments range from reports on the Basile’s foreign travels between the
World Exhibition in Paris in 1878, years 1876 and 1900 were other
PhDRT2

to stories of Ortensio Lando, the useful tools. The study has covered
sixteenth-century Italian humanist the whole range of Basile’s travel and
and traveler, who moved “from the professional activities from 1876
far Sicily to the edge of the Alps”. to 1932, starting from the year of
In my research, particular attention his first documented study tour to
has been given to Basile’s journey Paris, in the company of his father,
in 1888 to Rio de Janeiro, during the architect, Giovan Battista Filippo
which the architect designed the Basile (Palermo 1825–1891). The
New Avenida de Libertaçao in the research involves the history of ar- A B. Boucsein p. 190
Brazilian capital. Due to changes in chitecture, the odeporic literature, C. Accornero p. 153 E. Branscome p. 198
the political regime of Brazil, Basile’s in the first instance, as well as sev- W. Aelbrecht p. 126 F. Bucci p. 11
work was interrupted. To study this eral other disciplines. I compare R. Agarez p. 129
project, therefore, involves extensive Basile’s journeys with the travels of M. Aitchison p. 190 C
analyses of maps of Rio de Janeiro other contemporary architects and E. Alessandrini p. 222 M. Caldeira p. 177
and the urban history of the city. discuss them in the context of the Y. Allweil p. 187 H. Campbell p. 91
Historical maps of Barcelona, Paris Grand Tour tradition. G. Altea p. 167 D. Campobenedetto p. 223
K. Amygdalou p. 27 M. Casciato p. 209
C. Anderson p. 95 C. Casey p. 159
R. Anderson p. 147 M. Cassani Simonetti p. 227
T. Avermaete p. 37 R. Caterino p. 163
A. Ceen p. 13
B A. Celedon Forster p. 126
V. Balboni p. 63 J.H. Chang p. 101
D. Barber p. 58 I. Cheng p. 185
P. Barreiro López p. 179 P. Christesen p. 203
J. Basciano p. 26 J. Clarke p. 52
G.L. Beccaria p. 210 E. Cobb p. 18
N. Beech p. 131 C.E. Comas p. 179
I. Ben-Asher Gitler p. 59 M. Comba p. 167
F. Benelli p. 61 G. Comoglio p. 211
J. Benyamin p. 93 J. Correia p. 124
M. Bergamo p. 161 C. Cowell p. 103
C. Bilsel p. 125 K. Cupers p. 39
L. Blagojević p. 149 D. Cutolo p. 151
L. Bleijenberg p. 107
D. Bocharnikova p. 147 D
L. Bosman p. 67 G. Dardanello p. 86
D. Botica p. 161 P. Davies p. 97

232 233
index of authors

index of authors
S. de Jong p. 107 H C. Leoni p. 112 V. Nègre p. 121
M. Delbeke p. 107 P. Haba p. 75 M.C. Loi p. 122
J.I. del Cueto Ruiz-Funes p. 180 J. Heathcott p. 153 M. Lozanovska p. 139 O
N. De Togni p. 217 E.C. Heine p. 17 C. Lucey p. 159 E. Okay p. 98
R. Devos p. 171 M. Hershenzon p. 176 D. Opazo p. 173
V. Didelon p. 57 A. Hultzsch p. 89 M L. Orlandi p. 156
E. Di Majo p. 163 M. Hvattum p. 221 J. Mack p. 39 K. Ottenheym p. 43
M. Di Nallo p. 224 T. Hyde p. 51 D. MacManus p. 91
S. Diniz p. 133 C. Mambriani p. 49 P
F. Doglio p. 191 I C. Maniaque-Benton p. 31 S. Pace p. 151
G. Domènech Casadevall p. 181 A. Ignjatovic p. 23 M. Marchant p. 41 S. Pasquali p. 49
A. Ippoliti p. 63 P. Marcinak p. 76 V. Patteeuw p. 195
E E. Marrone p. 231 E.L. Pelkonen p. 197
H. Engler p. 75 J T. Martelanc p. 63 M. Pepchinski p. 73
I. Jackson p. 105 M. Martens p. 64 S. Pisciella p. 72
F L. Jacobi p. 123 P. Martens p. 43 E. Poehler p. 202
D. Fabricius p. 200 H. Jannière p. 94 S.L. Martin-McAuliffe p. 201 A. Pollali p. 65
J. Ferng p. 109 C. Jöchner p. 86 J.P. Martins p. 133 C. Popescu p. 115
K. Förster p. 199 S. Jovanovic Weiss p. 115 J. Maxim p. 119 T. Potočnik p. 78
V. Fortunato p. 45 H.T. Jung p. 173 C.K. May p. 32 R. Proctor p. 25
A. Forty p. 189 A. Mc Clain p. 203 T. Proietti p. 216
K E. McKellar p. 97 P. Pyla p. 29
G D. Karmon p. 95 M. McLeod p. 209
S. Galletti p. 61 E. Kashina p. 47 N. Meiri-Dann p. 59 Q
E. Garofalo p. 45 J. Ketels p. 64 A.M. Meister p. 134 A. Quantrill p. 34
G. Gasco p. 184 A. Khorakiwala p. 31 C. Mejia Moreno p. 89 M. Quintã p. 141
Y. Geng p. 118 S. Klaiber p. 81 S. Micheli p. 42
M. Gharipour p. 162 L. Klein p. 149 L.M. Mignone p. 202 R
R. Ghoche p. 111 H. Koliji p. 162 D. Millette p. 201 M.B. Rabens p. 25
F.M. Giammusso p. 226 R. Kozlovsky p. 20 P. Minosh p. 186 C. Rauhut p. 17
E. Gianasso p. 85 P. Kratochvíl p. 154 L. Molinari p. 169 I. Requena Ruiz p. 33
L. Gil p. 46 V. Kulić p. 145 G. Montanari p. 155 M. Riggs p. 83
P. Goad p. 140 A. Kurg p. 147 C. Monterumisi p. 214 F. Rosenberg p. 18
I. González Galán p. 168 H. Moravčíková p. 77 M. Rosso p. 16
M. González Pendás p. 177 L P.A. Morton p. 197 C. Rostagni p. 170
J. Gosseye p. 37 J. Lagae p. 171 N. Mota p. 129 E. Rowley p. 132
E. Greco p. 213 A. Leach p. 55 A. Moulis p. 57 I. Ruudi p. 117
J. Gritti p. 45 R. Legault p. 137 L. Mulvin p. 205
H.E. Grossman p. 69 P. Leitner p. 92 S
M. Grossman p. 70 M. Lending p. 91 N T. Sandstra p. 156
V. Grossman p. 139 A.M. León p. 182 E. Naginski p. 109 F. Scaduto p. 45

234 235
index of authors

F. Schmidt p. 51 C.C. Ungureanu p. 110


L. Schrijver p. 60 F. Urban p. 148
D. Sekulić p. 117
N. Senos p. 43 V
H. Seražin p. 48 E. Vai p. 230
D. Sherer p. 165 M. van Beek p. 84
A.I. Siddiqi p. 106 D. van der Plaat p. 104
E. Sigge p. 174 C. van Eck p. 107
M. Simon p. 73 R. Verde Zein p. 142
D. Siret p. 33 M. Vidal p. 19
L.M. Soo p. 122 N. Vossoughian p. 183
S. Sterken p. 175 D. Vranic p. 192
Ł. Stanek p. 184
E. Steiner p. 13 W
S. Sterken p. 175 W. Wagemakers p. 71
B. Stoppioni p. 229 E.D. Walker p. 109
L.C. Szacka p. 195 K. Wang p. 127
Y. Wang p. 127
T B. Ward p. 99
M. Tabarrini p. 83 B.D. Wescoat p. 206
C. Thake p. 66 N. Westbrook p. 69
J. Tice p. 13
A. Tostões p. 141 Z
E. Tsilika p. 40 M. Zarmakoupi p. 204
C. Zimmerman p. 131
U C. Zito p. 192
O. Uduku p. 103

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