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Lecture notes

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External loads

• Surface force (N/m2)

concentrated force (N)

linear distributed load (N/m) (can be replaced by a resultant force)

• Body force (can be represented by a single concentrated force)

Linear distributed Loads, w

w = Force / unit length

= N/m

L

FR w( x)dx

0

location X of FR

L

x w( x)dx

X 0

FR

Unit: SI

Surface force and body force example

Wind on sign

Example 1: calculate the resultant force for the linear distributed force

and its location

w(x) = 0.8x4 - 2.5x3 - 2x2 + 3x + 1.5 (kN/m)

4

2

0

-2 0 1 2 3

w (kN/m)

-4

-6

-8

-10 Results:

-12

-14

4

2

Specially, what is the resultant force for uniformly 0

and linearly distributed loads? and location? -2 0 1 2 3

w (kN/m)

-4

-6

-8

-10 2.64 m

-12

-14

FR = -11.75 kN

Types of external supports and their resulting

reactions

y

(translation prevention results in a force; rotation prevention results in a

moment)

• Cables, rollers, smooth supports, and pins can’t resist moments!

Internal Loads (acting within the body)

Resultant force and moment : holding the body together.

• Determination: Method of sections

• Types: Normal force N, shear force V, torsional moment (or torque)

T and bending moment M. These resultants are normally placed at the

geometric center of the sectioned area when draw the FBD.

depends on the external loads

Sign convention for moments and torques

(in equilibrium equations)

Point your right thumb in the positive direction of the axis, (X, Y, or Z) that the

moment or torque tends to rotate the body around. If it rotates the body in

the same direction as pointed by your fingers, M or T is positive.

y x

Warning:

We’ll make an exception for the case of calculating stress in bending beams

and torsional shafts…….but don’t worry about this yet!

Procedure for determining internal loadings in a body

1 Draw the Free-Body Diagram (FBD) for the entire body and apply the

equilibrium equations to determine the reactions at all the support points.

2 Draw an imaginary section through the body at the point where the internal

loadings are to be determined.

3 Draw a FBD of one of the “cut” segments and indicate the unknown resultants

N, V, M, and T at the section. These resultants are normally placed at the

centroid of the sectioned area.

4 Establish the x,y,z coordinate axes with origin at the centroid and show the resultant components

acting along the axes. (not mandatory, but it is more convenient some time).

and T.

F F F M

x y z x M y Mz 0

F F M

x y o 0

Caution: If there exist distributed loading, keep this distributed loading exactly

where it is on the segment until after the section is made. Only after this step

this loading can be replaced by a single resultant force.

Example 2:

Given: The linkage ABC shown below supports a downward distributed load of w=1.25 kN/m

Find: The resultant internal loadings on the cross section through point D, and on the

inclined section with an inclined angle

Stress (1.3-1.5)

• Homogeneous (same physical and mechanical

properties throughout)

• Isotropic (same properties in all directions)

Stress: the intensity of internal ∆F force on a

specific area ∆A passing through a point

Generally, F

lim

A 0 A

Normal stress

Fz

z lim

A0 A

Shear stress

Fy Fx

zy lim zx lim

A0 A A0 A

The first subscript indicates the normal direction for the plane,

while the second one indicates the direction

Newtons

Unit : 2

Pascales ( Pa )

Seems complicated, but do NOT worry, m

we will only consider average stresses at the current stage!

Jean Claude Saint-Venant (08/23/1797-01/06/1886)

who contributed to early stress analysis and

developed the unsteady open channel flow

shallow water equations, also known as the

Saint-Venant equations that are a

fundamental set of equations used in modern

hydraulic engineering.

-Saint-Venant's Principle

/Biographies/Saint-Venant.html

loads becomes very small at sufficiently

large distances from load."

http://en.wikipedia.org

From Saint-Venant’s Principle:

the body will dissipate within regions that are

sufficiently removed from the location of load

The Concept of Average Stress

Stress

Load Bearing Area

Units of stress :

Newtons

2

Pascales (Pa)

m

1 MPa 106 Pa

1 GPa 10 Pa

9

Two Types of Stress

Normal Stress, Fapplied

when the applied force is to

the area

Ao

P

P

Ao

Freaction

Freaction

Sign Convention for normal stress

If tends to stretch the body it is referred to as a

tensile normal stress and it is given a positive sign.

compressive normal stress and it is given a negative sign.

Shear Stress,

when the applied force is to the area.

V Fapplied

Ao

Freaction

V Freaction

Ao

If the shear stress results from simple planar shear, the sign of is the same as

the direction of internal shear V. Otherwise, it will be explained later

Example 2:

Calculation of normal stress

Given: The bar shown below has a constant width of 35 mm and a thickness of 10

mm.

x

Find: The maximum average normal stress in the bar.

Solution:

Example 4: Calculation of shear stress

Given: The clevis shown below is subjected to an axial load of 12 kN. The clevis

pin, abc, is 10 mm in diameter.

10 mm diameter

c

Plane 1

12 kN

12 kN

b

applied forces

acting directly

on this piece

a

Solution:

Example 5: Calculation of combined stress

Given: The bar shown below has a square cross section of 30 mm x 30 mm.

An axial force of 1 kN is applied to the bar.

b

1 kN

55o

Find: The average normal and the average shear stress acting on the material

along section b-b.

Solution:

Plot the results:

F sin 2

F

sin 2

Ao 2 Ao

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

Stress (MPa)

0.2

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

-0.2

(Degrees)

-0.4

-0.6

normal stress

-0.8 shear stress

Brittle Ductile

Plastic Deformation of Metals During

Tensile Loading

Example 6:

the reactions at the supports A and B are vertical; the beam cross

sectional area s=1000 mm2

internal loadings on the cross section through point D; (3) the

average normal and shear stress on the same cross section.

Example 7:

Given: the bucket weight is 150 kg bucket. Each pin is at A and D is

subjected to double shear.

Find: (a) the average normal stress in the 6-mm diameter wire CF

and the 15-mm diameter short strut BD;

(b) the average shear stress developed in these pins.

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