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Transport Refrigeration System

TABLE OF TABLES
Table 1 Conductance of building material and construction for thickness indicated ......................... 26
Table 2 Film or surface conductance for air film and air spaces ........................................................ 27
Table 3 Thermal conductivity (k) of insulating material .................................................................... 27
Table 4 Total equivalent temperature differential for calculating heat gain through sunlit and other
shaded roofs .......................................................................................................................... 28
Table 5 Total equivalent temperature differential for calculating heat gain through sunlit and shaded
walls ...................................................................................................................................... 29
Table 6 Rate of heat production for different types of food ............................................................... 30
Table 7 Moisture loss various products ............................................................................................. 31

TABLE OF FIGURE

Figure 1 Transport truck ........................................................................................................................ 4


Figure 2 Used of transport refrigeration in cold chain ............................................................................ 4
Figure 3 Vapour Compression Cycle ...................................................................................................... 6
Figure 4 PV And TS Diagram For Vapour Compression System .......................................................... 6
Figure 5 Sensible Cooling ..................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 6 Sensible heating ...................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 7 Location of evaporator............................................................................................................ 22
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Transport Refrigeration System

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3
2. THEORY ........................................................................................................................................ 5
3. LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................................. 14
4. CALCULATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 16
5. SELECTION OF COMPONENTS ............................................................................................... 20
6. CONCLUSIONS........................................................................................................................... 23
7. REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 24
Appendices............................................................................................................................................ 26
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Transport Refrigeration System

1. INTRODUCTION
Air conditioning is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an
occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants. There are various types of the air
conditioning system summer air conditioning, winter air conditioning, central air conditioning but
one of the type is transportation air conditioning system the transport type AC concern with the
conditioning of the air of system during travelling of system .The concept came in 1880 after 20
years of invention of refrigeration and air conditioning. Transport refrigeration is one of the most
challenging refrigeration applications, and therefore transport refrigeration systems require
components capable of addressing a range of critical parameters. Transport refrigeration is
essential in today’s society to preserve and protect food, pharmaceuticals and medical supplies
for people worldwide. It includes transport of refrigerated products with reefer ships, intermodal
refrigerated containers, refrigerated railcars and road transport including trailers, diesel trucks and
small trucks. While the use of transport refrigeration is fairly mature in developed countries, it
remains at the early stages of use in many developing countries and is a necessary part of a
solution to the problem of high food spoilage rates. Spoilage rates of 25% and higher are found in
a number of developing countries and improvement is not anticipated without introduction of a
strong ―cold chain‖ of commercial and transport refrigeration of products from the ―farm to the
table.‖
The need of the transport refrigeration is
a. Since transportation is one of the need of human being therefore to feel comfort it is
used
b. To maintain quality the product
c. To maintain the condition of product at point of sale
d. It is important cold chain between manufacturer and consumer

1.1 Advantages & Disadvantages

The following advantages in the system:-


a. Products suitable for use with all common refrigerants, including natural refrigerants
b. Superior temperature control
c. High energy efficiency
d. Reliable solutions, low operation and maintenance costs
e. Stainless steel components for higher performance, durability, and reliability
f. Compact, lightweight components
g. Self-powered air conditioning system
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Transport Refrigeration System

The following disadvantages in the system:-


a. The system involves more initial investment of cost as well as space for components
b. Fluctuating load coming on the system therefore require stabilization
c. It consumes more energy which reduces the efficiency of the engine in automobile

1.2 Applications

 Vehicular AC like buses, cars, trucks


 Pharmaceutical Industries
 Marine applications
 Candy, beverages, meat, poultry, fish,
 Bakery and dairy products, fruits and vegetables

Figure 1 Transport truck

Figure 2 Used of transport refrigeration in cold chain


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Transport Refrigeration System

2. THEORY
Vapor-compression refrigeration, in which the refrigerant undergoes phase changes, is
one of the many refrigeration cycles and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning
of buildings and automobiles. It is also used in domestic and commercial refrigerators, large-
scale warehouses for chilled or frozen storage of foods and meats, refrigerated trucks and
railroad cars, and a host of other commercial and industrial services. Oil refineries,
petrochemical and chemical processing plants, and natural gas processing plants are among
the many types of industrial plants that often utilize large vapor-compression refrigeration
systems.
2.1. Working of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
Figure shows the basic components of a vapour compression refrigeration system. As
shown in the figure the basic system consists of an evaporator, compressor, condenser and an
expansion valve. The refrigeration effect is obtained in the cold region as heat is extracted by
the vaporization of refrigerant in the evaporator. The refrigerant vapour from the evaporator
is compressed in the compressor to a high pressure at which its saturation temperature is
greater than the ambient or any other heat sink. Hence when the high pressure, high
temperature refrigerant flows through the condenser, condensation of the vapour into liquid
takes place by heat rejection to the heat sink. To complete the cycle, the high pressure liquid
is made to flow through an expansion valve. In the expansion valve the pressure
and temperature of the refrigerant decrease. This low pressure and low temperature
refrigerant vapour evaporates in the evaporator taking heat from the cold region. It should be
observed that the system operates on a closed cycle. The system requires input in the form
of mechanical work. It extracts heat from a cold space and rejects heat to a high
temperature heat sink.
A refrigeration system can also be used as a heat pump, in which the useful output is
the high temperature heat rejected at the condenser. Alternatively, a refrigeration system
can be used for providing cooling in summer and heating in winter. Such systems have been
built and are available now.
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Transport Refrigeration System

Figure 3 Vapour Compression Cycle

2.2. Vapor Compression Thermodynamic Cycle

Figure 4 PV And TS Diagram For Vapour Compression System

Most of the modern refrigerators work on this cycle, in Its simplest form there are four
fundamental operations required to complete one cycle.
(a) Compression
(b) Condensation
(c) Expansion
(d) Vaporization
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Transport Refrigeration System

2.2.1 Compression
The low pressure Vapour in dry state is drawn from the evaporator during the Suction
stroke of the compressor. During compression Stroke the pressure and temperature increase
until vapour temperature is greater than the temperature of condenser cooling medium (air or
water) at point 1 in the diagram, the circulating refrigerant enters the compressor as a
saturated vapour. From point 1to point 2, the vapour is isentropically compressed (i.e.,
compressed at constant entropy) and exits the compressor as a superheated vapour.
2.2.2 Condensation
When the high pressure refrigerant vapour enters the condenser heat flows from condenser to
cooling medium thus allowing the vaporized refrigerant to return to liquid State. From point
2 to point 3, the vapour travels through part of the condenser which removes the superheat by
cooling the vapour. Between point 3 and point 4, the vapour travels through the remainder of
the condenser and is condensed into a saturated liquid. The condensation process occurs at
essentially constant pressure.
2.2.3 Expansion
After condenser the liquid refrigerant is stored in the liquid receiver until needed. From the
receiver it passes through an expansion valve where the pressure is reduced sufficiently to
allow the vaporization of liquid at a low temperature of about -10°C. Between points 4 and 5,
the saturated liquid refrigerant passes through the expansion valve and undergoes an abrupt
decrease of pressure. That process results in the adiabatic flash evaporation and auto-
refrigeration of a portion of the liquid (typically, less than half of the liquid flashes).
2.2.4 Vaporisation
The low pressure refrigerant vapour after expansion in the expansion valve enters the
evaporator or refrigerated space where a considerable amount of heat IS absorbed by it and
refrigeration is furnished. Between points 5 and 1, the cold and partially vaporized refrigerant
travels through the coil or tubes in the evaporator where it is totally vaporized by the warm
air (from the space being refrigerated) that a fan circulates across the coil or tubes in the
evaporator. The resulting refrigerant vapour returns to the compressor inlet at point 1 to
complete the thermodynamic cycle.
2.3. Main parts of compression system
1. Evaporator
Its function is to provide a heat transfer surface through which heat can pass
from the refrigerated space into the vaporizing refrigerant. This is generally a Fin &
Tube (Hair-Pin type) heat exchanger, similar to Air-Cooled Condensers.
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Transport Refrigeration System

2. Suction Line
It carries the low pressure vapour from the evaporator to suction in let of the
compressor.
3. Compressor
The function of the compressor is to draw refrigerant vapour from the
evaporator and to raise It temperature and pressure to such a print to that it may be
easily condensed with normally available condensing media. It also maintains a
continuous flow of refrigerant through system.
Compression Ratio = Absolute Discharge Pressure / Absolute Suction Pressure
4. Mass flow rate
The Capacity of a Compressor is determined by its Mass Flow rate (Lb/Min)
and not by Volume Flow(CFM). The most common compressors used in chillers
are reciprocating, rotary screw, centrifugal, and scroll compressors. Each application
prefers one or another due to size, noise, efficiency and pressure issues.
5. Discharge Line
It conveys the high pressure and high temperature refrigerant from the
compressor to the condenser.
6. Condenser
The function of the condenser is to provide a heat transfer surface through
which heat passes from the refrigerant to the condensing medium which is either
water or air.
7. Liquid Receiver
It acts as, a reservoir which stores the liquid refrigerant coming from the
condenser and supplies it to the evaporator according to the requirement.
8. Liquid Line
It carries the liquid refrigerant from the receiver and conveys it to the expansion
valve.
9. Expansion valve
Function of This valve is to supply a proper amount of refrigerant to the
evaporator after reducing its pressure considerably so that the refrigerant may take
sufficient amount of heat from the refrigerating space during evaporation. The
Metering Device converts the High Pressure and High Temperature Liquid from
Condenser to Low Pressure and Low Temperature Liquid-Vapour mixture, which will
be fed to the Evaporator.
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Transport Refrigeration System

2.4. Psychometric Processes


In the domestic and industrial air conditioning applications some psychometric
processes have to be performed on the air to change the psychometric properties of air so as
to obtain certain values of temperature and humidity of air within the enclosed space. Some
of the common psychometric processes carried out on air are: sensible heating and cooling of
air, humidification and dehumidification of air, mixing of various streams of air, or there may
be combinations of the various processes.
2.4.1 Sensible Cooling of the Air
Cooling of the air is one of the most common psychrometric processes in the air
conditioning systems. The basic function of the air-conditioners is to cool the air absorbed
from the room or the atmosphere, which is at higher temperatures. The sensible cooling of air
is the process in which only the sensible heat of the air is removed so as to reduce its
temperature, and there is no change in the moisture content (kg/kg of dry air) of the air.
During sensible cooling process the dry bulb (DB) temperature and wet bulb (WB)
temperature of the air reduces, while the latent heat of the air, and the dew point (DP)
temperature of the air remains constant. There is overall reduction in the enthalpy of the air.In
general the sensible cooling process is carried out by passing the air over the coil. In the
unitary air conditioners these coils are cooled by the refrigerant passing through them and are
called also called evaporator coils. In central air conditioners these coils are cooled by the
chilled water, which is chilled by its passage through the evaporator of the large air
conditioning system. In certain cases the coil is also cooled by the some gas passing inside
the sensible cooling process is represented by a straight horizontal line on the psychometric
chart. The line starts from the initial DB temperature of the air and ends at the final DB
temperature of the air extending towards the left side from high temperature to the low
temperature (see the figure below). The sensible cooling line is also the constant DP
temperature line since the moisture content of the air remains constant. The initial and final
points on the psychometric chart give all the properties of the air.
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Transport Refrigeration System

Figure 5 Sensible Cooling

2.4.2 Sensible Heating of the Air


Sensible heating process is opposite to sensible cooling process. In sensible heating
process the temperature of air is increased without changing its moisture content. During this
process the sensible heat, DB and WB temperature of the air increases while latent of air, and
the DP point temperature of the air remains constant. Sensible heating of the air is important
when the air conditioner is used as the heat pump to heat the air. In the heat pump the air is
heated by passing it over the condenser coil or the heating coil that carry the high temperature
refrigerant. In some cases the heating of air is also done to suit different industrial and
comfort air-conditioning applications where large air conditioning systems are used. In
general the sensible heating process is carried out by passing the air over the heating coil.
This coil may be heated by passing the refrigerant, the hot water, the steam or by electric
resistance heating coil. The hot water and steam are used for the industrial applications. Like
the sensible cooling, the sensible heating process is also represented by a straight horizontal
line on the psychometric chart. The line starts from the initial DB temperature of air and ends
at the final temperature extending towards the right (see the figure). The sensible heating line
is also the constant DP temperature line.
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Transport Refrigeration System

Figure 6 Sensible heating

2.5. Cooling load


The heating and cooling load of air conditioning is a heat that changes temperature and
humidity in the room being air-conditioned, other than produced by an air-conditioning
system. It occurs in the form of an external heat invading the room or an internal heat
produced in the room. The heat from the air-conditioner absorbs this heating and cooling
load, thereby maintaining the temperature and humidity of the air in the room at a required
level.
2.5.1 Cooling load calculations objectives

(a) Provide information for equipment selection, system sizing and system design.
(b) b) Provide data for evaluating the optimum possibilities for load reduction.
(c) c) Permit analysis of partial loads as required for system design, operation and
control.

2.5.2 Terminology

Commonly used terms relative to heat transmission and load calculations defined in
accordance with ASHRAE Standard 12-75, Refrigeration Terms and Definitions.
(a) Space – is either a volume or a site without a partition or a partitioned room or group
of rooms.
(b) Room – is an enclosed or partitioned space that is usually treated as single load.

(c) Zone – is a space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/or cooling
requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be maintained
throughout by a single controlling device.
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Transport Refrigeration System

(d) British thermal unit (Btu) - is the approximate heat required to raise 1 lb. of water 1
deg Fahrenheit, from 590 F to 600 F. Air conditioners are rated by the number of
British Thermal Units (Btu) of heat they can remove per hour. 1 ton=12,000 BTU/hr.
(e) 12,000 BTU/hr =3,516 Watts
(f) Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD) – an equivalent temperature
difference used for calculating the instantaneous external cooling load across a wall or
roof.
(g) Sensible Heat Gain – is the energy added to the space by conduction, convection
and/or radiation.
(h) Latent Heat Gain – is the energy added to the space when moisture is added to the
space by means of vapor emitted by the occupants, generated by a process or through
air infiltration from outside or adjacent areas.
(i) Radiant Heat Gain – the rate at which heat absorbed is by the surfaces enclosing the
space and the objects within the space.
(j) Space Heat Gain – is the rate at which heat enters into and/or is generated within the
conditioned space during a given time interval.
(k) Space Cooling Load – is the rate at which energy must be removed from a space to
maintain a constant space air temperature.
(l) Space Heat Extraction Rate - the rate at which heat is removed from the conditioned
space and is equal to the space cooling load if the room temperature remains constant.

(m)Dry Bulb Temperature – is the temperature of air indicated by a regular


thermometer.
(n) Wet Bulb Temperature– is the temperature measured by a thermometer that has a
bulb wrapped in wet cloth.
(o) Dew point Temperature – is the temperature to which air must be cooled in order to
reach saturation or at which the condensation of water vapor in a space begins for a
given state of humidity and pressure.
(p) Relative humidity - describes how far the air is from saturation. It is a useful term for
expressing the amount of water vapor when discussing the amount and rate of
evaporation.
(q) Thermal Transmittance or Heat Transfer Coefficient (U-factor) – is the rate of
heat flow through a unit area of building envelope material or assembly, including its
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Transport Refrigeration System

boundary films, per unit of temperature difference between the inside and outside air.
The U-factor is expressed in Btu/ (hr 0 F ft2).
(r) Thermal Resistance (R) – is the reciprocal of a heat transfer coefficient and is
expressed in (hr 0 F ft2 )/Btu.
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Transport Refrigeration System

3. LITERATURE REVIEW
S.A. Tassou et al [1] in their research paper have reviewed the food transport
refrigeration and recent developments and application of alternative technologies to reduce
energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. They have concluded that today are based
on the vapour compression refrigeration cycle driven by auxiliary diesel engines. The COP of
transport refrigeration systems is quite low. The air cycle technology is quite promising for
food transport applications. Main disadvantages at present are the low COP compared to that
of the vapour compression system.
Spence et al [2] reported on the design, construction and testing of an air cycle
demonstrator plant for refrigerated road transport. The project objectives were to
accommodate the air cycle system within the physical envelope of an existing R404A vapour
compression refrigeration trailer unit. They have concluded that though experimental air-
cycle consumed more fuel than vapour compression system, with development work it is
possible to realise much better efficiency.
Spence et al [3] have analysed the performance of feasible air cycle
refrigeration system and compared their model with original equivalent vapour cycle
refrigeration unit. They found that the power requirement of the optimised air-cycle unit was
7% greater than the equivalent vapour-cycle unit at full-load operation. However, at part-load
operation the air-cycle unit was estimated to absorb 35% less power than the vapour-cycle
unit. The analysis demonstrated that the air-cycle system could potentially match the overall
fuel consumption of the vapour-cycle transport refrigeration unit, while delivering the benefit
of a completely refrigerant free system.
Liu Shengjuna et al [4] have performed the thermodynamic analysis of the
actual air cycle refrigeration. The results show that, the factors on the performance of the
actual cycle include the pressure ratio, the isentropic efficiencies of the rotors, working
temperature and etc.; there is an optimal pressure ratio for the actual cycle; the refrigerator
can be used for air conditioning near the optimal pressure ratio. Those factors are important
for engineering design.
Zhenying Zhang et al [5] have investigated the air cycle refrigeration system
used in Chinese train air conditioning engineering. They concluded that to increase the COP,
higher efficiencies of compressors, expanders and heat exchangers are expected. Also air
cycle refrigeration system can reduce the use of CFC refrigerants in China and other
countries.
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Transport Refrigeration System

S James et al [6] have thoroughly examined various aspects of food


transportation system and their types. They have studied about transportation of different
food items such as fruits, vegetables, meat etc. In bulk transportation of such items the
resulting temperature rise is small and the vehicle’s refrigeration system rapidly returns the
product to the required temperature.
Bhatti M.S. et al [7] have studied air as refrigerant in air conditioning system.
They have studied history of air conditioning and its impact on environment. They conclude
that COP of the air refrigeration system is a strong function of the compressor and expander
efficiencies. COP of the air refrigeration system is also a fairly strong function of the heat
exchanger effectiveness.
Xiaoxin Wang et al [8] in their research paper discussed a possible
substitution of an air-cycle system for a conventional vapour compression system for
transport applications. A train compartment equipped with this air-cycle system has been
investigated. The results show that the system is suitable for transport vessels, such as trains
and ships, especially for the purpose of cooling in summer because re-using the condensed
water can improve the performance of the system significantly.
H. Kruse et al [9] in their historic research paper have discussed two
different concepts. First concept consists of a motor-compressor-expander-unit data using
turbo machines. Characteristic of the machines are used to simulate the full and part load
behaviour of this concept within an air cycle unit are for use in transport refrigeration. The
second concept consists of a pressure wave machine. Measurement results schemes shown
and difficulties in obtaining serious efficiency data are discussed.
Gerald Cavalier [10] has published a research paper focusing on the
economic, environmental, and social impact of refrigerated transport and the technical
challenges facing refrigerated transport equipment designers, manufacturers, users, or experts
to make the sector sustainable.
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Transport Refrigeration System

4. CALCULATIONS
4.1 Cooling Load Calculation Methods
1. The total equivalent temperature differential method with time averaging (TETD/TA)
2. The transfer function method (TFM)
3. The cooling load temperature differential method (CLTD)
4. The heat balance (HB) method
5. The radiant time series (RTS) method
4.2 The cooling load temperature differential method (CLTD)
The CLTD/CLF/SCL method uses predetermined set of data to expedite and simplify the
process of cooling/heating load approximation. The data is divided into many different
sections based on many different variables. These variables include, building material of the
envelope, thicknesses of the building materials, day of the year, time of day, orientation of
the surface (e.g. wall or roof, 90 degrees or 180), and wall face orientation.

Q= heat gain, usually heat gain per unit time

A= surface area

U= Overall heat transfer coefficient

CLTD= cooling load temperature difference

SCL= solar cooling load factor

CLF= cooling load factor

SC= shading coefficient

Heat gain through walls, doors, roofs, and windows

Q = U×A×CLTD

Q = U×A× (T2-T1)

Where U= over all heat transfer BTU\HR

A=Area

T1=Outdoor temperature

T2=Indoor temperature

Gains due to people, equipment

Q = Q×CLF
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Transport Refrigeration System

Solar heat gains through windows and glazed surfaces

Q = A×SC×SCL

4.3 Problem statement


Design a VCC transport refrigeration system used for foods and beverages having following
data:
a. Cabin dimensions: (1.75×1.75×2.24)m3
b. Cabin temperature without cooling = 450C

4.4 Objectives of project work


1. Cooling load estimation
2. Calculation of grand total heat gain
3. Based on cooling load requirement of transport refrigeration, selection of
components from standard catalogues
4. Study of prerequisite concepts of psychometric, components of VCC
4.5 Cooling load estimation
4.5.1 Sensible heat gain through building structure by conduction

It is calculated from eq. given by,

From table 2, Metal lath and plaster (12.5mm thickness) (fi )= 24.96W.m2K

Q =U×A× (T2-T1)

From table 3, still air heat flowing horizontal (vertical surface) (ka) = 8.3 W/m2k
Wind 24 kmph (vertical) (f0) =34 W/m2k
From table 4, asbestos packed (kasbestos )=2.812 W/m2k
1
U
1 1 t 1
  
Fo Fi kasbestos K air
1
U  5.0282W / m 2 k
1 1 0.025 1
  
34 8.3 2.812 24.96

Q  UA(T2  T1 )

Q  5.082  2(1.75  2.24  2.24  1.75  1.75  1.75)(318  273)  5257.8watts

This sensible heat gain through building structure.

4.5.2 Solar heat gain through outside walls


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Transport Refrigeration System

For roofs, from table 5, light construction maximum equivalent temperature is 180C

For walls, from table 6, North latitude wall facing,

At 12 D L
NE 14 10
E 32 16
SE 28 18
S 22 12
Avg. 24 14
Q  UAte

Q  5.082  2(1.75  2.24  1.75  2.24  1.75  1.75)(18  24)  4654.14Watts

This is solar heat gain through outside walls

4.5.3 Solar heat gain due to infiltration


From table 9, Rooms with no windows or outside doors= 0.5-0.75Ac
L  W  H  Ac 3
Amount of infiltered air through windows and walls= m / min
60
1.75  1.75  2.24  0.625
=  0.071458m 3 / min
60
Q  1.2  0.07148 0.718 (318  273)  2.76kW

4.5.4 Heat gain from products- e.g. apples, beets, carrots, cherries, etc.
From table 7, temperature in 0C=00C

Capacity heat evolved =690-1045kJ

From table 8, Humidity 90%,

Period for loss= 6-8 months

Loss of moisture=3-4%

Apple – Freezing point = -20C

% water =84

Cp above freezing = 3.60 KJ/kg 0 C

Cp below freezing = 1.88 KJ/kg0C

Hfg= 280 kJ/kg

Chilling load above freezing


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Transport Refrigeration System

mC pm (T1  T2 )
Qch 
tch

ρ = 0.240 g/cm3 …..for apple

tch=60minutes,

240  (1.75  2.24  1.75)  3.60  (45  2)


Qch   70.79kW
60  60

4.5.5 Room Sensible heat gain factor


RSH= 5.25+4.65+2.76=12.66kW

RLH=70.79kW

RSH 12.66
RSHF    0.151
RSH  RLH 12.66  70.79

4.5.6 Grand Total heat Load


GTH=RSH+RLH=12.66+7.07=83.45kW=23.84TR
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Transport Refrigeration System

5. SELECTION OF COMPONENTS
5.1 Refrigerant selection
The Following table summarises the selection criteria for different refrigerants for
refrigeration system. Final application of refrigerant should be compatible with the
application and components selected.
Table 1 Refrigerant selection

5.2 Selection of compressor


Fixing the evaporator and condensing temperature as -100C and 450C and temperature
of refrigerant after compression is assume to be 600C. During the design of the
thermodynamic cycle (what we are doing now) is important to use the maximum value to
avoid under sizing of the compressor, but further important technical considerations have
to be done in the next steps to avoid too low condensing temperature and, consequently,
evaporating temperature.

Enthalpy in kJ/kg Entropy in kJ/kg k


Sat. Temp. 0C Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
-15 29.78 237.97 0.1211 0.9295
45 115.76 270.99 0.4164 0.9023
Specific heat of vapour refrigerant is 0.996 kJ/kg
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Transport Refrigeration System

At 450C, hf3=115.76kJ/kg

At -150C, h1=237.97 kJ/kg

Mass flow rate = = = 2.38 kg/sec

Density of R134a at -15 0C is 1344 kg/m3


Based on mass flow rate and cooling load capacity, compressors can be selected
from standard refrigeration catalogues. Some of selection criteria for compressors are as
follows:
i. The principle selection criteria is the capacity of the compressor must match the
capacity of the evaporator(s) (system) under the nominated operating conditions
ii. Insufficient flow rates at lower compressor speeds will result in dramatically reduced
capacity of the system, and result is possible risk of damage to the compressor.
iii. Low side pressure analysis should not be used in isolation as a method of determining
compressor size/capacity due to the variables of pressure drop/TX flow rates etc.
iv. Dual evaporator systems will require a compressor with adequate capacity to cater for
both evaporators at nominated compressor speeds.
v. Power consumption graphs are used to ascertain drive motor capacity/input power
requirements.
Selected compresses are semi hermetic reciprocating compressors by Fras cold
reciprocating compressors (Q7-33.1Y.VS). Compressor used with two stage with water
intercooling.

5.3 Selection of evaporator, condenser and expansion valve


Some of standard practices for selection of evaporators i.e. chillers.
i. For cooling loads below 100–125 tons, the initial capital and recurring maintenance costs
for a water-cooled system are rarely justified and the chiller(s) shall be air cooled.
ii. Above 200 tons capacity systems and with the use of rotary compressor chillers, the
water-cooled condensing option becomes justifiable. Note that the centrifugal chillers are
always water cooled due to lower compression ratio.
iii. Between 100 and 200 tons peak cooling load, it becomes a matter of the owner’s ability
to deal with the maintenance requirements of a cooling tower system and the capital funds
available.
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Transport Refrigeration System

From above points we have selected the air cooled chillers From manufacturer’s
catalogue Daikin 100AV3.

Figure 7 Location of evaporator

Selection of condensers will also be from Daikin manufacturer’s catalogues model no.
LMDMD-AW1 350
As our application requires accurate control over temperature. Expansion valve types
selected is thermostatic expansion valve of Danfoss TCAE (-600C—250C).
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Transport Refrigeration System

6. CONCLUSIONS
As food transport is very important in today’s world in food and beverages industry
to make a transport of different food products from on place to other. Some of the food
products require large control over temperature while transport to prevent wastage of
product. Thus transport refrigeration system is used to maintain the temperature of food
products.
Our refrigeration system consists of R134a refrigerant having capacity of 23.84TR.
Selection of compressor is done from manufacturer’s catalogue based on its mass flow rate
of refrigerant and its temperature and pressure requirement. Similarly condenser and
evaporators are selected from Daikin’s manufacturer’s catalogue. Thermostatic expansion
valve is selected for capillary action.
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Transport Refrigeration System

7. REFERENCES
[1] S. A. Tassou, ―Food Transport refrigeration system‖, Brunel University Centre for Energy
and Built Environment Research School of Engineering and Design

[2] S.W.T. Spence, W.J. Doran, D.W. Artt, ―Design, construction and testing of an air-cycle
refrigeration system for road transport‖, Int J Refrigeration 27/5 (2004) 503–510.

[3] Stephen W.T. Spence, W. John Doranb, David W. Artta, G. McCullough, ―Performance
analysis of a feasible air-cycle refrigeration system for road transport‖, International Journal
of Refrigeration 28 (2005) 381–388

[4] Liu Shengjuna, Zhang Zhenyinga, Tian Lilic, ―Thermodynamic analysis of the actual air
cycle refrigeration system‖, Systems Engineering Procedia 1 (2011) 112–116

[5] Zhenying Zhanga, Shengjun Liua, Lili Tianc, ―Thermodynamic analysis of air cycle
refrigeration system for Chinese train air conditioning‖, Systems Engineering Procedia 1
(2011) 16–22

[6] S. James and C. James, ―Refrigeration, storage and transport of chilled foods‖, Food
Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), UK

[7] Bhatti M.S., ―Open Air Cycle Air Conditioning System for Motor Vehicles‖ International
Congress and Exposition Detroit, Michigan February 23-26,1998

[8] Xiaoxin Wang, Xiugan Yuan, ―Reuse of condensed water to improve the performance of
an air-cycle refrigeration system for transport applications‖, Applied Energy. Volume 84,
Issue 9, September 2007, Pages 874-881

[9] Engelking S., Kruse H., ―Development of air cycle technology for transport
refrigeration‖, FW-Research Centre for Refrigeration, Dorotheenstr. 1, 30419 Hannover

[10] Gerald Cavalier, ―Sustainability in food transportation‖, Reference module in food


science, 2016

[11] Lesson 35 Cooling and Heating Load Calculations - Estimation Of Required


Cooling/Heating Capacity

[12] Khurmi R. S., Gupta J. K., 2016, Refrigeration and air conditioning, Fifth edition, New
Delhi, S Chand Publication pp 597-616
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[13] Arora C. P., 2017, Refrigeration and air conditioning, Third edition, New Delhi, Mc
Graw Hill Publication
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Transport Refrigeration System

APPENDICES
Table 2 Conductance of building material and construction for thickness indicated
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Transport Refrigeration System

Table 3 Film or surface conductance for air film and air spaces

Table 4 Thermal conductivity (k) of insulating material


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Transport Refrigeration System

Table 5 Total equivalent temperature differential for calculating heat gain through sunlit and
other shaded roofs
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Transport Refrigeration System

Table 6 Total equivalent temperature differential for calculating heat gain through sunlit and
shaded walls
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Transport Refrigeration System

Table 7 Rate of heat production for different types of food


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Transport Refrigeration System

Table 8 Moisture loss various products