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Step 1: Develop a TopicToggle Dropdown


o 1a. Select a Topic
o 1b. Develop Research Questions
o 1c. Identify Keywords
o 1d. Find Background Information
o 1e. Refine a Topic
 Step 2: Locate InformationToggle Dropdown
 Step 3: EvaluateToggle Dropdown
 Step 4: WriteToggle Dropdown
 Step 5: CiteToggle Dropdown
 Get Help!
Tip!

Choose a topic that interests you and will hold your attention. If you do, the research will be more enjoyable!

Topic Ideas
Can’t think of a topic to research?

 Scan your textbook.


 Peruse current magazines and newspapers.
 Browse encyclopedias.
 Look at the "hot topic" databases listed on this page.
 Discuss topics with your instructor, a librarian or a classmate.

The Peer Review Process

The Research Assignment - Define the Task


Before selecting a topic or starting your research, make sure you understand your assignment. Consider:

 Have you been assigned a topic or can you pick your own?
 How many pages/words do you need to write? How long is your presentation?
 Do you need to include specific types of sources (e.g. scholarly journal, book, etc.)?
 When is the assignment due? How much time do you have to research?
 Is currency of information important?

When in doubt, consult with your instructor.

Before you get started:

 Choose a topic that is interesting to you and relevant to your coursework.


 Give yourself as much time as possible to get the work done.
o This research calculator can help you plan your time.
 Save your work often so you don’t lose anything.
 Use organization tools (research logs or graphic organizers) to keep track of your work.
o Many of our databases also have the option of creating an account to save articles
and searches.

Step 1 – Formulate Your Question

 Your research may start as a general idea or a specific question, statement or thesis.
 Know what you want to focus on before you begin.

Step 2 – Get Background Information

 Read about your topic using websites or encyclopedias.


 It introduces you to the topic, helps you to focus on its key elements and can help you decide
to broaden or narrow your focus.
 These sources often include bibliographies that you can “piggyback” to find more sources on
your topic.

Step 3 – Focus and Refine Your Topic

 Think about how you want to explore the topic.


 Ask yourself:
o Is my research intended for a general group or class or is it more specialized?
o Can or should I limit my topic by time period or place?

Step 4 – Research Tools

 You need the right tool for the job. Using our research guides can help you find these
answers.
 Ask yourself:
o What types of materials do I need?
o How recent should my materials be?
o How long do I have to do my research?
o What subjects are covered by my topic?

Step 5 – Select Your Tool and Begin

 Use the library’s resources to find journal articles, eBooks and videos.
 Use our library catalog to find books or DVDs.
 If you are using websites, make sure they are quality resources – not just the first result!

Step 6 – Get Stuck, Get Help!

 Never fear, we are here to help you with your research questions!
 Stop by, call: 827-2434 or email: libraryhelp@trocaire.edu.

Step 7 – Gather Your Materials

 Are your best resources books, journals or websites?


 Does the Library have the book or article or will you have to borrow it
from ILL or AcademicSHARE?
o Remember that you have a deadline and that getting all of your materials may take
some time.

Step 8 – Evaluate Your Resources

 You may be overwhelmed by the amount of information you find.


 To find “good” resources for your paper, you must analyze and carefully select them.
o Journal articles have gone through peer-review before being published.
o Books are also edited before publication.
o Use the CRAAP test for website evaluation.

Step 9 – Stay organized

 Give yourself enough time to conduct your research, so you can understand your topic
enough to write effectively on it.
 Keep track of your research so you don’t have to scramble to find it later.
o Use our research log or graphic organizer to help you stay on track.
Step 10 – Write and Review Your Paper

 Make sure your paper is formatted correctly – APA, MLA or another style an instructor
requires.
 Check to make sure all of your sources have been cited and your research is properly listed
at the end of your paper.

Before you get started:

 Choose a topic that is interesting to you and relevant to your coursework.


 Give yourself as much time as possible to get the work done.
o This research calculator can help you plan your time.
 Save your work often so you don’t lose anything.
 Use organization tools (research logs or graphic organizers) to keep track of your work.
o Many of our databases also have the option of creating an account to save articles
and searches.

Step 1 – Formulate Your Question

 Your research may start as a general idea or a specific question, statement or thesis.
 Know what you want to focus on before you begin.

Step 2 – Get Background Information

 Read about your topic using websites or encyclopedias.


 It introduces you to the topic, helps you to focus on its key elements and can help you decide
to broaden or narrow your focus.
 These sources often include bibliographies that you can “piggyback” to find more sources on
your topic.

Step 3 – Focus and Refine Your Topic

 Think about how you want to explore the topic.


 Ask yourself:
o Is my research intended for a general group or class or is it more specialized?
o Can or should I limit my topic by time period or place?

Step 4 – Research Tools

 You need the right tool for the job. Using our research guides can help you find these
answers.
 Ask yourself:
o What types of materials do I need?
o How recent should my materials be?
o How long do I have to do my research?
o What subjects are covered by my topic?

Step 5 – Select Your Tool and Begin

 Use the library’s resources to find journal articles, eBooks and videos.
 Use our library catalog to find books or DVDs.
 If you are using websites, make sure they are quality resources – not just the first result!

Step 6 – Get Stuck, Get Help!

 Never fear, we are here to help you with your research questions!
 Stop by, call: 827-2434 or email: libraryhelp@trocaire.edu.

Step 7 – Gather Your Materials

 Are your best resources books, journals or websites?


 Does the Library have the book or article or will you have to borrow it
from ILL or AcademicSHARE?
o Remember that you have a deadline and that getting all of your materials may take
some time.

Step 8 – Evaluate Your Resources

 You may be overwhelmed by the amount of information you find.


 To find “good” resources for your paper, you must analyze and carefully select them.
o Journal articles have gone through peer-review before being published.
o Books are also edited before publication.
o Use the CRAAP test for website evaluation.

Step 9 – Stay organized

 Give yourself enough time to conduct your research, so you can understand your topic
enough to write effectively on it.
 Keep track of your research so you don’t have to scramble to find it later.
o Use our research log or graphic organizer to help you stay on track.

Step 10 – Write and Review Your Paper

 Make sure your paper is formatted correctly – APA, MLA or another style an instructor
requires.
 Check to make sure all of your sources have been cited and your research is properly listed
at the end of your paper.

Formatting
StyleMLA
8th
Guide &
-
https://www.smore.com/qswvy-writing-a-research-paper

MLA Paper Formatting


IMPORTANT: Set up your paper before you begin typing it!

 8.5x 11 in. paper


 1 in. margins all around
 12 pt. font (use a simple legible font – Times New Roman, Arial)
 The entire paper is to be double spaced.
 Indent the first line of a paragraph (use Tab key).
 All pages are numbered with your last name preceding it
 Or check out our template at our Citation Help page.
In-Text Citations
 If you use something word for word, you must cite your quotation.
 The quotation must be in quotes, followed by the citation.
 Quotations longer than four lines should be set off in block text.
 If you paraphrase an author’s work (write it in your own words), you must cite your source.
 All in-text citations are contained in parentheses.
 Print sources (books, journals, magazines) use author and page number. eBooks and
articles from databases can also be cited this way if the page number is available.
 The author’s name can appear in the paraphrase with the page number in parenthesis at
the end or all can be cited at the end of the paraphrase.
 The first 3 authors must be listed by their last names. For citations with more than 3
authors, list the first author, then et al.
 A page within a website is cited by author and web page title in quotations.
 Videos must have the time included for in-text citation.
 See Purdue OWL’s MLA Guide for additional in-text citation information.
Books, eBooks, Journal Articles (online or print)

“Direct quote from author” (author page number).

“To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (Collins 11).
“The freedom to do what you love does not happen for many people” (Edwards, Tabb, and
Mix 72).

**For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.

"Remix culture is not a new phenomenon" (Anderson et al. 44).

***************************************************************************

If paraphrasing with the author’s name, end with (page number).

Collins states that New York is a paradise for those living there (11).

Edwards, Tabb and Mix believed that the freedom to do what you love is not common for
most people (72).

**For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.

Anderson et al. do not find remix culture to be a new development (44).


Webpages (section of a website)

“Direct quote from author” (author, "Web Page Title"). If no author is available, end with
(“Web Page Title”).

“Some may say that all suburbs are the same. That person would be a liar” (Avery, “It’s Not
Just a Subdivision”).

“Change is something that happens whether we wish it to or not” (James, Alexander, &
Taylor, “Change Agents and Daydreams”).

**For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.

“Always check your citations and your sources before accepting something as fact” (Ortiz et
al, “Know Your Truths”).

****************************************************************************

If paraphrasing with the author’s name, end with (“Web Page Title”).

Avery states that people who believe all suburbs are the same are liars (“It’s Not Just a
Subdivision”).

James, Alexander, & Taylor believed changes happen regardless of what we wish (“Change
Agents and Daydreams”).

**For citations with 4 or more authors, use et al. after the first author.

Ortiz et al. preached fact checking through sources and citations (“Know Your Truths”).
Videos

“Direct quote from video” (“Title of Video” 00:00:00-00).

“Pigeons are founders of the green movement. They are the original locavores and
recyclers” (“Pigeons” 00:03:15-19).
***************************************************************************

If paraphrasing, end with (“Title of Video” 00:00:00-00).

Pigeons are among the first locavores and recyclers in the green movement (“Pigeons”
00:03:15-04:12).
Works Cited Page
 Works Cited is placed on the top of the page and centered.
 Like the rest of your paper this is double spaced.
 The header with your last name and page number also appears on this page.
 The new MLA 8th edition has removed the requirement for format in citations.
 The new MLA 8th edition now has the date information was accessed online as optional.
 The new MLA 8th edition requires all online materials include a complete URL. This
includes journal articles found in library databases. http or https is not included in the
citation.
 List all of your citations alphabetically.
 The second and subsequent lines of each citation are indented (hanging indent).
 Titles of journals, books and websites are italicized and each word is capitalized except for
articles (the, an, and).
 Titles of web pages or articles are placed in quotations. Same rules for capitalization as
above.
 See Purdue OWL’s MLA Guide for additional works cited citation information.
Works Cited: Core Elements

MLA citation format for the 8th edition is now based on core elements comprising basic
information normally found in a work. This is the order of the nine (9) core elements, but not
all may be used to complete a given citation.

1. Author (creator, translator or editor of a work)


2. Title of Source (book or eBook (whole), book or eBook chapter, essay or story, journal or
magazine article, webpage or title of a video)
3. Title of Container (journal, website, book or eBook (collections), magazine, newspaper,)
4. Other Contributors (editors or translators (if different than author), illustrators, narrators,
performers for television shows or movies)
5. Version (edition number, expanded, unabridged or authorized editions)
6. Number (volume, issue)
7. Publisher (book or eBook publisher, blog or website network, film distributor)
8. Publication Date (day month year - month is abbreviated, year may be only date available)
9. Location (page numbers (p. (one) or pp.(multiple pages), doi number or complete URL
without http for online resources)

Date of access is optional for citations of online resources (database articles, websites,
videos). Check with your instructor to see what is required.

Please consult the MLA Handbook, 8th edition or Purdue OWL’s MLA section for more
information regarding changes for citations.
Books:

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title with Proper Capitals. Publishing Company,
Year.

Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale. Anchor Books, 1998.

MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of
America, 2009.

Posamentier, Alfred, and Bernd Thaller. Numbers. Prometheus Books, 2015.

**3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.

Deery, Ruth, et al. Sociology for Midwives. Polity Press, 2015.


eBooks:

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title with Proper Capitals. Publishing Company,
Year. Database (if applicable). Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).

Boulton, Christopher. Encyclopaedia of Brewing. Wiley, 2013. Ebook Library.


ny3r.eblib.com.ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1204057. Accessed
31 Aug. 2016.
Raynor, Maureen, and Carole England. Psychology for Midwives. McGraw-Hill Education,
2010. EBSCOhost.
ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db
=nlebk&AN=466413&site=ehost-live. Accessed 31 Aug. 2016.

**3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.

Drake, Richard, et al. Gray's Anatomy for Students. 3rd ed., Churchill Livingstone,
2015. EBSCOhost.
ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db
=nlebk&AN=1160429&site=ehost-live. Accessed 31 Aug. 2016.
Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (database/online):

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Journal
Title, volume, issue, Date, pages (if available). Database (if applicable). Complete URL
without http. Date of access (optional).

Lund, James R. "Best Practices from a Library Cat." The Bottom Line, vol. 24, no. 1, 2011,
pp. 49-50. ProQuest.
ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/868912395?accou
ntid=25948. Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.

Heuberger, Roschelle, and Joseph Wakshlag. "Characteristics of Aging Pets and their
Owners: Dogs v. Cats." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, 2011, pp. 150-
153. ProQuest.
ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/899267592?accou
ntid=25948. Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.

**3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.

Salmon, Jo, et al. "Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical
Activity." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 81, no. 3, 2010, pp. 264-
71. ProQuest. ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/751
606452?accountid=25948. Accessed 29 Aug. 2016.
Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (print):

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Journal
Title, volume, issue, Date, pages.

Lund, James R. "Best Practices from a Library Cat." The Bottom Line, vol. 24, no.1, 2011,
pp. 49-50.

Heuberger, Roschelle, and Joseph Wakshlag. "Characteristics of Aging Pets and their
Owners: Dogs v. Cats." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 106, 2011, pp. 150-153.

**3 or more authors is cited as main author followed by et al.

Salmon, Jo, et al. "Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical
Activity." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 81, no. 3, 2010, pp. 264-71.
Webpages (section of a website or blog):
Last Name, First Name (if available). “Title of Webpage.” Title of Website. Publisher of
Website (if different than website title), Date created or last updated. Complete URL without
http. Date of access (optional).

Mayo Clinic Staff. “Chickenpox.” Mayo Clinic. 16 Feb. 2016. www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-


conditions/chickenpox/home/ovc-20191271. Accessed 12 Apr. 2016.

Dvorsky, George. “We Finally Know Why Birds Are So Freakishly Smart.” Gizmodo. Gawker
Media, 13 Jun. 2016. gizmodo.com/we-finally-know-why-birds-are-so-freakishly-smart-
1781889157. Accessed 18 Oct. 2016.
Streaming Video (library video database, YouTube or NetFlix):

Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. “Title of Video with Proper Capitals.” Title of
Database, Website or Service. Publisher of Content, Date created. Secondary Content
Provider (if applicable), Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).

“The Circulation System.” Films on Demand. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2009.
ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=2403
75&xtid=39509. Accessed 23 Feb. 2016.

Lil BUB. "BUB Jumps off the Couch." YouTube. 4 Apr.


2015. www.youtube.com/watch?v=0pW-p-wb8U4.

**Format varies for television shows or miniseries.

“Silence in the Library.” Doctor Who, season 4, episode 9, BBC, 31 May 2008. Amazon
Prime Video, www.amazon.com/dp/B01AYO8JWW?autoplay=1&t=1.
DVDs, Television or Movies:

**Note: Film or Television is used in place of DVD only if what is being cited is currently
playing in theaters or on television. Dir. is the director of the film or episode. Perf. is the
main stars of the film or show.

Title of Movie. Directed or Created by Name, performance by Name, Production Studio,


Year Released.

Blue Valentine. Directed by Derek Cianfrance, performance by Ryan Gosling and Michelle
Williams, Weinstein Company, 2010.
PowerPoint, Presentation or Lecture Notes (online):

Author’s Last Name, Author's First Name. "Title of PowerPoint." Title of Website.
Institution/organization affiliated with the site (if different) , Date Created (if available).
Complete URL without http if accessed online. Date of access (optional).

King, David. "Tech Trends for Libraries in 2016." SlideShare. LinkedIn, 30 Oct.
2015. www.slideshare.net/davidleeking/tech-trends-for-libraries-in-2016.
Wikipedia and Other Wikis:

“Title of Article with Proper Capitals.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc., Date of last update. Complete URL without http. Date of access (optional).

“Doctor Who.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 8 Jun. 2016.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_Who.
**Note: Wikis, such as Wikipedia, are constantly changing due to their ability to be edited by
anyone in the public.

 Information may not be correct and may be added or removed from the site without
advanced notice.
 Use the View History tab near the top of the page to see the when the entry was updated.

Formatting
StyleAPA
6th
Guide &
-
Trocaire College Libraries

APA Paper Formatting


IMPORTANT: Set up your paper before you begin typing it!

 8.5x 11 in. paper


 1 in. margins all around
 12 pt. Times New Roman font
 The paper is to be double spaced
 All pages are numbered
 The Running head is necessary on all pages of your paper
 On the cover sheet, the words Running head precede a brief version of the paper title
written in all caps.
 Running head: BRIEF VERSION OF THE TITLE
 On the remaining pages of the paper, the all caps brief version of the title just appears
without Running head before it
 The body of the paper begins with the complete title centered at the top of the page
 The paragraphs are indented throughout the paper (use tab key)
 Or check out our template at our Citation Help page.
Abstract
● You may be asked to include an abstract in your assignment. If you are doing a
literature review, or your instructor does not require one, you can move to the next
section.
● An abstract of your paper appears on page 2. This is a summary of your entire paper.
This should include an overview of your topic, the research you conducted and the overall
findings you had. The abstract is a paragraph long and contains 150 – 250 words.
● Keywords are found at the bottom. They are indented (use tab key) and separated by
commas. Think of them as the words people would use to search for your article in a
database.
In-Text Citations
 If you use something word for word, you must cite your quotation.
 The quotation must be in quotes, followed by the citation.
 Direct quotes from print sources (books, journals, magazines) use author, year the work
was published and page number. eBooks and articles from databases can also be cited this
way.
 Long quotations (40 or more words) are placed in a separate block text.
 If you paraphrase an author’s work (write it in your own words), you must cite your source.
 The author’s name should appear in the paraphrase.
 All authors, up to 5, must be listed in your citation.
 A webpage within a website is cited by author and date.
 Use n.d. if there is no date available.
 Use the title of the article/webpage in quotations if no author is available.
 For longer works: films, websites – use the title in italics.
 See Purdue OWL’s APA Guide for additional in-text citation information.
Books, eBooks, Journal Articles (online or print)

“Direct quote from author(s)” (author, year, page number or n/a if none exists).

Direct quote (for 1-2 authors):


“To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (Collins, 2012, p.
11) .
Direct quote (for 3-5 authors): Initial citation
"The freedom to do what you love does not happen for many people" (Edwards, Tabb &
Mix, 2007, p. 72)
Direct quote (for 3-5 authors): Subsequent citation
"The freedom to do what you love does not happen for many people" (Edwards et al. 2007,
p. 72)
Direct quote (for 6 or more authors):
"Remix culture is not a new phenomenon (Anderson et al., 2014, p. 44)

***************************************************************************

When paraphrasing, use the author’s name(s) and (year).

Paraphrasing (for 1-2 authors):


Collins (2012) states that New York is a paradise for those living there.
Paraphrasing (for 3-5 authors): Initial citation
Edwards, Tabb, and Mix (2007) believed that the freedom to do what you love is not
common for most people.
Paraphrasing (for 3-5 authors): Subsequent citation
Edwards, et al. (2007) believe that the freedom to do what you love is not common for most
people.
Paraphrasing (for 6 or more authors):
Anderson et al. (2014) do not find remix culture to be a new development.
Webpages (section of a website) or whole website:
(follow the 1-2 author rule, 3-5 author rule and 6 or more author rule as stated above)

“Direct quote from author” (author, date webpage (or website) created/updated)
“Some may say that all suburbs are the same. That person would be a liar” (Avery, 2010).

“Change is something that happens whether we wish it to or not” (James, Alexander, &
Taylor, 2013).

“Always check your citations and your sources before accepting something as fact” (Ortiz et
al., 2015).

If paraphrasing with known author follow with (date webpage (or website), created/updated)
Avery (2010) states that people who believe all suburbs are the same are liars.

James, Alexander, and Taylor (2013) believed changes happen regardless of what we wish.
Ortiz et al. (2015) preached fact checking through sources and citations.

If paraphrasing and no author is found for the webpage, end with ("webpage title", date
created/updated)
People who believe all suburbs are the same are liars (“It’s not just a subdivision”, 2010).

If paraphrasing and no author is found for the website, end with (website, date)
Pigeons are thought to be among the first locavores and recyclers in the green movement
(NY life, 2012).
References Page
 References is placed on the top of the page and centered.
 Like the rest of your paper this is double spaced.
 The Running head also appears on this page.
 List all of your citations alphabetically. If there are several by the same author, list them
chronologically from the oldest title to the most recent title.
 The second and subsequent lines of each citation are indented (hanging indent).
 Hanging indent: When done with all the references, highlight the text and click: CRTL+T.
 All authors, up to 7, must be listed in your citation.
 Authors are listed by Last name, Initials. (if listed).
 Do not use abbreviations, write out the full titles of materials used.
 For books, capitalize the first word in the title. Capitalize proper nouns. The title is in italics.
 For periodical titles (journals, magazines, newspapers and newsletters) use the title as it
appears, with capitalization and lowercase. The title is in italics.
 For articles capitalize only the first word of the title.
 URLs for websites and journal articles accessed online must be listed.
 See Purdue OWL’s APA Guide for additional reference citation information.
Books:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing
company.

**For publishers outside of the United States use city of publication followed by the country.
** Up to 7 authors must be listed. If 8 or more authors, list the first 6 followed by 3 ellipsis
pints (...) then the final author.

Atwood, M. (1998). The handmaid’s tale. New York, NY: Anchor Books.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American


Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Posamentier, A.S. & Thaller, B. (2015). Numbers. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Deery, R., Denny, E., & Letherby, G. (2015). Sociology for midwives. Cambridge, United
Kingdom: Polity Press.
eBooks:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title. Retrieved from complete URL of eBooks site

** Up to 7 authors must be listed. If 8 or more authors, list the first 6 followed by 3 ellipsis
pints (...) then the final author.

Boulton, C. (2013). Encyclopaedia of brewing. Retrieved


from http://ny3r.eblib.com.ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1204057
Tolley, K.A. & Herrel, A. (2013). The biology of chameleons. Retrieved
from http://www.eblib.com
Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (database/online):

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article in database. Journal Title, Volume(Issue
if available). Retrieved from complete URL of database

** Up to 7 authors must be listed. If 8 or more authors, list the first 6 followed by 3 ellipsis
pints (...) then the final author.

Lund, J.R. (2011). Best practices from a library cat. The Bottom Line, 24(1). Retrieved
from http://ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/868912
395?accountid=25948

Salmon, J., Timperio, A., Chu, B., & Veitch, J. (2010). Dog ownership, dog walking, and
children's and parents' physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3),
264-271. Retrieved
from http://ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/751606
452?accountid=25948.
Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (print):

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of journal article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue),
pages. doi (if assigned to the article).

** Up to 7 authors must be listed. If 8 or more authors, list the first 6 followed by 3 ellipsis
pints (...) then the final author.

Lund, J. R. (2011). Best practices from a library cat. The Bottom Line, 24(1), 49-50.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08880451111142060

Salmon, J., Timperio, A., Chu, B., & Veitch, J. (2010). Dog ownership, dog walking, and
children's and parents' physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3),
264-271.
Webpages (section of a website) or whole website:
(follow the 1-2 author rule, 3-5 author rule and 6 or more author rule as stated above)

Website
Author’s Last Name, Initials. (year, month day). Title of website. Retrieved from complete
URL of website

If no author listed, use:


Title of website (year, month, day). Retrieved from...

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017, August 4) Chickenpox. Retrieved from

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chickenpox/symptoms-causes/syc-20351282

Webpage
Title of page within website. (year, month day). Title of website. Retrieved from complete
URL of website with webpage you are using
Ebola Vaccines. (2016, February, 26). NIAID. Retrieved
from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/ebola-vaccines
Streaming Video (library video database, Internet or NetFlix):

Producer's Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director's Last Name, Initials. (Director).
(Year). Title of video [Medium of publication- Video file, Motion picture, Educational film].
Country of origin: Production Studio. Retrieved from complete URL of website with webpage
you are using

Shenson, W. (Producer) & Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A Hard Day's Night [Video file].
United Kingdom: United Artists. Retrieved from http://kanopystreaming.com
YouTube:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. [screen name, if known]. (Year, month day). Title of
video [Video File]. Retrieved from complete URL of the specific video

Project Information Literacy. [Project InfoLit]. (2013, November 13). The Freshman
Studies[Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BWNGZUa952A
DVD or Blu-ray:

Executive Producer’s Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, Initials.
(Director). (Year of release). Title of movie [DVD]. Country of origin: Production Studio.

Dey, D. (Producer), & Cianfrance, D. (Director). (2010). Blue valentine [DVD]. United
States: Weinstein Company.

Injoy Videos (Producer). (2008). Positions for labor [DVD]. United States: Injoy Videos.
PowerPoint or Lecture Notes online:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides/SlideShare


presentation]. Retrieved from complete URL for PowerPoint

Oakleaf, M.J. (2012, June). A multi-institution study of rubric assessment: lessons lived &
learned [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://meganoakleaf.info/railsaalhe2012.pdf

Malone, E. & Young, J. (2014, April 2). The UX of sales [SlideShare presentation].
Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/emalone/ux-of-sales-ia-summit-2014
Wikipedia and Other Wikis:

Article Title. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved date, from complete URL

Doctor Who. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 12, 2015,


from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_Who

**Please note that wikis, such as Wikipedia, are constantly changing due to their ability to
be edited by anyone in the public. Information may not be correct and may be added or
removed from the site without advanced notice. This is why (n.d.) is used; as there is no
date to verify the information contained within the site.
The Seven Steps of the Research
Process
The Seven Steps of the Research Process

The following seven steps outline a simple and effective strategy for finding information
for a research paper and do***enting the sources you find. Depending on your topic and
your familiarity with the library, you may need to rearrange or recycle these steps. Adapt
this outline to your needs. We are ready to help you at every step in your research.

STEP 1: IDENTIFY AND DEVELOP YOUR TOPIC

SUMMARY: State your topic as a question. For example, if you are interested in finding
out about use of alcoholic beverages by college students, you might pose the question,
"What effect does use of alcoholic beverages have on the health of college students?"
Identify the main concepts or keywords in your question.

More details on how to identify and develop your topic.

STEP 2: FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATION

SUMMARY: Look up your keywords in the indexes to subject encyclopedias. Read


articles in these encyclopedias to set the context for your research. Note any relevant
items in the bibliographies at the end of the encyclopedia articles. Additional
background information may be found in your lecture notes, textbooks, and reserve
readings.

More suggestions on how to find background information.

Return to the top


STEP 3: USE CATALOGS TO FIND BOOKS AND MEDIA

SUMMARY: Use guided keyword searching to find materials by topic or subject. Print or
write down the citation (author, title,etc.) and the location information (call number and
library). Note the circulation status. When you pull the book from the shelf, scan the
bibliography for additional sources. Watch for book-length bibliographies and annual
reviews on your subject; they list citations to hundreds of books and articles in one
subject area. Check the standard subject subheading "--BIBLIOGRAPHIES," or titles
beginning with Annual Review of... in the Cornell Library Classic Catalog.

More detailed instructions for using catalogs to find books.

Finding media (audio and video) titles.

Watch on YouTube: How to read citations

STEP 4: USE INDEXES TO FIND PERIODICAL ARTICLES

SUMMARY: Use periodical indexes and abstracts to find citations to articles. The
indexes and abstracts may be in print or computer-based formats or both. Choose the
indexes and format best suited to your particular topic; ask at the reference desk if you
need help figuring out which index and format will be best. You can find periodical
articles by the article author, title, or keyword by using the periodical indexes in
the Library home page. If the full text is not linked in the index you are using, write down
the citation from the index and search for the title of the periodical in the Cornell Library
Classic Catalog. The catalog lists the print, microform, and electronic versions of
periodicals at Cornell.

How to find and use periodical indexes at Cornell.

Watch on YouTube: How to read citations

Return to the top

STEP 5: FIND ADDITIONAL INTERNET RESOURCES


Nearly everyone is aware of and uses Google and its branches, Google
Scholar, Google Books, Google News, YouTube, etc., to search and find information on
the open Internet (as opposed to the subscription-only resources you will encounter in
steps 2 through 4 above). Here are links to other search engines.

You can also check to see if there is a research guide (a subject guide or a course
guide) created by librarians specifically for your topic or your class that links to
recommended resources.

STEP 6: EVALUATE WHAT YOU FIND

SUMMARY: See How to Critically Analyze Information Sources and Distinguishing


Scholarly from Non-Scholarly Periodicals: A Checklist of Criteria for suggestions on
evaluating the authority and quality of the books and articles you located.
Watch on YouTube: Identifying scholarly journals Identifying substantive news
sources

If you have found too many or too few sources, you may need to narrow or broaden
your topic. Check with a reference librarian or your instructor.

When you're ready to write, here is an annotated list of books to help you organize,
format, and write your paper.

STEP 7: CITE WHAT YOU FIND USING A STANDARD FORMAT

Give credit where credit is due; cite your sources.

Citing or do***enting the sources used in your research serves two purposes, it gives
proper credit to the authors of the materials used, and it allows those who are reading
your work to duplicate your research and locate the sources that you have listed as
references.

Knowingly representing the work of others as your own is plagarism. (See


Cornell's Code of Academic Integrity). Use one of the styles listed below or another
style approved by your instructor. Handouts summarizing the APA and MLA styles are
available at Uris and Olin Reference.

Available online:
RefWorks is a web-based program that allows you to easily collect, manage, and
organize bibliographic references by interfacing with databases. RefWorks also
interfaces directly with Word, making it easy to import references and incorporate them
into your writing, properly formatted according to the style of your choice.

See our guide to citation tools and styles.

Format the citations in your bibliography using examples from the following Library help
pages: Modern Language Association (MLA) examples and American
Psychological Association (APA) examples.

 Style guides in print (book) format:

 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA,
2009.
(Olin Reference LB 2369 .G53 2009 [shelved at the reference desk]; also
Uris Reference, others)

This handbook is based on the MLA Style Manual (Olin and Uris Ref PN 147
.G444x 1998) and is intended as an aid for college students writing research
papers. Included here is information on selecting a topic, researching the topic,
note taking, the writing of footnotes and bibliographies, as well as sample pages
of a research paper. Useful for the beginning researcher.
 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th ed.
Washington: APA, 2010. (Olin Reference BF 76.7 .P83 2010 [shelved at the
reference desk]; also Uris Reference, Mann Reference, others)

The authoritative style manual for anyone writing in the field of psychology.
Useful for the social sciences generally. Chapters discuss the content and
organization of a manuscript, writing style, the American Psychological
Association citation style, and typing, mailing and proofreading.
If you are writing an annotated bibliography, see How to Prepare an Annotated
Bibliography.

Return to the top

RESEARCH TIPS:

WORK FROM THE GENERAL TO THE SPECIFIC.


Find background information first, then use more specific and recent sources.
RECORD WHAT YOU FIND AND WHERE YOU FOUND IT.
Record the complete citation for each source you find; you may need it again later.

TRANSLATE YOUR TOPIC INTO THE SUBJECT LANGUAGE OF THE INDEXES AND
CATALOGS YOU USE.
Check your topic words against a thesaurus or subject heading list.
Need help clarifying your topic?
Need ideas about where to look next?
Want to be sure you're using a reference source effectively?

Approved

How to Do Qualitative Research


In this Article:Article SummaryPreparing Your ResearchCollecting and Analyzing Your DataCommunity Q&A21

References

Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses unstructured data collections
methods, such as observations, interviews, surveys and do***ents, to find themes and
meanings to inform our understanding of the world.[1] Qualitative research tends to try to
cover the reasons for behaviors, attitudes and motivations, instead of just the details of
what, where and when. Qualitative research can be done across many disciplines, such
as social sciences, healthcare and businesses, and it is a common feature of nearly
every single workplace and educational environment.

Part1
Preparing Your Research
1.
1
Decide on a question you want to study. A good research question needs to be
clear, specific, and manageable. To do qualitative research, your question should
explore reasons for why people do things or believe in something.
 The research questions is one of the most important pieces of your research design. It
determines what you want to learn or understand and also helps to focus the study,
since you can't investigate everything at once. Your research question will also
shape how you conduct your study since different questions require different methods of
inquiry.
 Find the balance between a burning question and a researchable question. The former
is something you really want to know about and is often quite broad. The latter is one
that can be directly investigated using available research methods and tools.
 You should start with a burning question and then narrow it down more to make it
manageable enough to be researched effectively. For example, "what is the meaning of
teachers' work to teachers" is too broad for a single research endeavor, but if that's
what you're interested you could narrow it by limiting the type of teacher or focusing on
one level of education. For example, "what is the meaning of teachers' work to second
career teachers?" or "what is the meaning of teachers' work to junior high teachers?"
2.

2
Do a literature review. A literature review is a process of studying what others have
written about your research question and particular topic. You read widely on the larger
field and examine studies that relate to your topic. You then draw up an analytical report
that synthesizes and integrates the existing research (rather than simply presents a
short summary of each study in chronological order. In other words, you are
"researching the research."
[2]
 For example, if your research question focuses on how second career teachers attribute
meaning to their work, you would want to examine the literature on second career
teaching - what motivates people to turn to teaching as a second career? How many
teachers are in their second career? Where do most second career teachers work?
Doing this reading and review of existing literature and research will help you refine your
question and give you the base you need for your own research. It will also give you a
sense of the variables that might impact your research (e.g., age, gender, class, etc.)
and that you will need to take into consideration in your own study.
 A literature review will also help you to determine whether you are really interested and
committed to the topic and research question and that there is a gap in the existing
research that you want to fill by conducting your own investigation.
3.

3
Evaluate whether qualitative research is the right fit for your research
question.Qualitative methods are useful when a question cannot be answered by a
simple 'yes' or no' hypothesis. Often qualitative research is especially useful for
answering "how" or "what" questions.[3] They are also useful when budgetary decisions
have to be taken into account.
 For example, if your research question is "what is the meaning of teachers' work to
second career teachers?", that is not a question that can be answered with a 'yes' or
'no'. Nor is there likely to be a single overarching answer. This means that qualitative
research is the best route
4.

4
Consider your ideal sampling size. Qualitative research methods don't rely as heavily
on large sample sizes as quantitative methods, but they can still yield important insights
and findings.[4] For instance, since it's unlikely that you have the funding to be able to
study all second teachers everywhere in the United States, perhaps you choose to
narrow your study to a major urban area (like New York) or schools within 200km of
where you live.
 Consider the possible outcomes. Because qualitative methodologies are generally quite
broad, there is almost always the possibility that some useful data will come out of the
research. This is different than in a quantitative experiment, where an unproven
hypothesis can mean that a lot of time has been wasted.[5]
 Your research budget and available financial resources should also be considered.
Qualitative research is often cheaper and easier to plan and execute. For example, it is
usually easier and cost-saving to gather a small number of people for interviews than it
is to purchase a computer program that can do statistical analysis and hire the
appropriate statisticians.[6]
5.

5
Choose a qualitative research methodology. The design of qualitative research is the
most flexible of all the experimental techniques, so there are a number of accepted
methodologies available to you.[7]
 Action Research – Action research focuses on solving an immediate problem or working
with others to solve problem and address particular issues.[8]
 Ethnography – Ethnography is the study of human interaction in communities through
direct participation and observation within the community you wish to study.
Ethnographic research comes from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology but
is now becoming more widely used.[9]
 Phenomenology – Phenomenology is the study of the subjective experiences of others.
It researches the world through the eyes of another person by discovering how they
interpret their experiences.[10]
 Grounded Theory – The purpose of grounded theory is to develop theory based on the
data systematically collected and analyzed. It looks at specific information and derives
theories and reasons for the phenomena.
 Case Study Research – This method of qualitative study is an in-depth study of a
specific individual or phenomena in its existing context.[11]

2
Part

Collecting and Analyzing Your Data


1.
1
Collect your data. Each of the research methodologies has uses one or more
techniques to collect empirical data, including interviews, participant observation,
fieldwork, archival research, do***entary materials, etc. The form of data collection will
depend on the research methodology. For example, case study research usually relies
on interviews and do***entary materials, whereas ethnography research requires
considerable fieldwork.[12]
 Direct observation – Direct observation of a situation or your research subjects can
occur through video tape playback or through live observation. In direct observation,
you are making specific observations of a situation without influencing or participating in
any way.[13] For example, perhaps you want to see how second career teachers go
about their routines in and outside the classrooms and so you decide to observe them
for a few days, being sure to get the requisite permission from the school, students and
the teacher and taking careful notes along the way.
 Participant observation – Participant observation is the immersion of the researcher in
the community or situation being studied. This form of data collection tends to be more
time consuming, as you need to participate fully in the community in order to know
whether your observations are valid.[14]
 Interviews – Qualitative interviewing is basically the process of gathering data by asking
people questions. Interviewing can be very flexible - they can be on-on-one, but can
also take place over the phone or Internet or in small groups called "focus groups".
There are also different types of interviews. Structured interviews use pre-set questions,
whereas unstructured interviews are more free-flowing conversations where the
interviewer can probe and explore topics as they come up. Interviews are particularly
useful if you want to know how people feel or react to something. For example, it would
be very useful to sit down with second career teachers in either a structured or
unstructured interview to gain information about how they represent and discuss their
teaching careers.
 Surveys – Written questionnaires and open ended surveys about ideas, perceptions,
and thoughts are other ways by which you can collect data for your qualitative research.
For example, in your study of second career schoolteachers, perhaps you decide to do
an anonymous survey of 100 teachers in the area because you're concerned that they
may be less forthright in an interview situation than in a survey where their identity was
anonymous.
 "Do***ent analysis" – This involves examining written, visual, and audio do***ents that
exist without any involvement of or instigation by the researcher. There are lots of
different kinds of do***ents, including "official" do***ents produced by institutions and
personal do***ents, like letters, memoirs, diaries and, in the 21st century, social media
accounts and online blogs. For example, if studying education, institutions like public
schools produce many different kinds of do***ents, including reports, flyers, handbooks,
websites, curricula, etc. Maybe you can also see if any second career teachers have an
online meet group or blog. Do***ent analysis can often be useful to use in conjunction
with another method, like interviewing.
2.
2
Analyze your data. Once you have collected your data, you can begin to analyze it and
come up with answers and theories to your research question. Although there are a
number of ways to analyze your data, all modes of analysis in quantitative research are
concerned with textual analysis, whether written or verbal.[15]
 Coding – In coding, you assign a word, phrase, or number to each category. Start out
with a pre-set list of codes that you derived from your prior knowledge of the subject.
For example, "financial issues" or "community involvement" might be two codes you
think of after having done your literature review of second career teachers. You then go
through all of your data in a systematic way and "code" ideas, concepts and themes as
they fit categories. You will also develop another set of codes that emerge from reading
and analyzing the data. For example, you may see while coding your interviews, that
"divorce" comes up frequently. You can add a code for this. Coding helps you organize
your data and identify patterns and commonalities.[16]
 Descriptive Statistics – You can analyze your data using statistics. Descriptive statistics
help describe, show or summarize the data to highlight patterns. For example, if you
had 100 principal evaluations of teachers, you might be interested in the overall
performance of those students. Descriptive statistics allow you to do that. Keep in mind,
however, that descriptive statistics cannot be used to make conclusions and
confirm/disprove hypotheses.[17]
 Narrative analysis – Narrative analysis focuses on speech and content, such as
grammar, word usage, metaphors, story themes, meanings of situations, the social,
cultural and political context of the narrative.[18]
 Hermeneutic Analysis – Hermeneutic analysis focuses on the meaning of a written or
oral text. Essentially, you are trying to make sense of the object of study and bring to
light some sort of underlying coherence.[19]
 Content analysis/Semiotic analysis – Content or semiotic analysis looks at texts or
series of texts and looks for themes and meanings by looking at frequencies of words.
Put differently, you try to identify structures and patterned regularities in the verbal or
written text and then make inferences on the basis of these regularities. [20] For example,
maybe you find the same words or phrases, like "second chance" or "make a
difference," coming up in different interviews with second career teachers and decide to
explore what this frequency might signify.
3.
3
Write up your research. When preparing the report on your qualitative research, keep
in mind the audience for whom you are writing and also the formatting guidelines of the
research journal you wish to submit your research to. You will want to make sure that
your purpose for your research question is compelling and that you explain your
research methodology and analysis in detail.

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Community Q&A
 Question

How do I construct a research question on reading culture among school


children?
wikiHow Contributor
Community Answer

First, you must determine the children's geographical background to find out their
language capacity. For instance, if you are focusing on the English language, you need
to know whether it is the children's native language or second language. The next step
is to find out or look for a proper strategy for reading. There are lots of different models
and strategies, but once again, these depend on your subjects' geographical
background.
Not Helpful 1Helpful 12

 Question

Are there any programs to help me with data collection and analysis?

wikiHow Contributor
Community Answer

I've been using Survey Monkey, and plan to use it more frequently as I move forward
with the study. The app breaks down the information nicely, as far as how many
respondents answered a certain way, number of total responses, etc.
Not Helpful 0Helpful 6

 Question

How do I collect information during an interview?


wikiHow Contributor
Community Answer

Record the interview (you can download apps on to your phone to do this), and take
notes of any common themes or relevant ideas as you listen to the interview.
Not Helpful 2Helpful 4

 Question

How do I construct a research study about the importance of a travel agency?


wikiHow Contributor
Community Answer

to construct research study about travel agency I advice you like this 1.first chose your
study methodology 2.collect the data about travel 3.put the objective the study 4. put the
importance of travel agency and its objectives
Not Helpful 4Helpful 4

 Question

Why must I do research on a career first before making a choice?

wikiHow Contributor
Community Answer

It's wise to research a career, so you understand all the details and, that way, you know
all the things involved in the career.
Not Helpful 0Helpful 0

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Tips
 Qualitative research is often regarded as a precursor to quantitative research, which is a
more logical and data-led approach which statistical, mathematical and/or
computational techniques. Qualitative research is often used to generate possible leads
and formulate a workable hypothesis that is then tested with quantitative methods. [21]
 Try to remember the difference between qualitative and quantitative as each will give
different data.

Edit Related wikiHows

How to
Do a Case Study
How to
Conduct Market Research

How to
Interview Experts

How to
Get Started With a Research Project
How to
Conduct Scientific Research

How to
Establish a Research Topic

How to
Conduct Data Analysis
How to
Frame a Questionnaire for Data Collection

How to
Analyze Qualitative Data

How to
Avoid Bias in Qualitative Research
How to
Conduct an Ethnography

How to
Select a Research Methodology

References
1. ↑ http://www.qsrinternational.com/what-is-qualitative-research.aspx
2. ↑ https://explorable.com/what-is-a-literature-review
3. ↑ https://explorable.com/qualitative-research-design
4. ↑ https://explorable.com/qualitative-research-design
5. ↑ https://explorable.com/qualitative-research-design
6. ↑ https://explorable.com/qualitative-research-design
7. ↑ https://explorable.com/qualitative-research-design
8. ↑ http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
9. ↑ http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
10. ↑ http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php
11. ↑ http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php
12. ↑ http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/
13. ↑ http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualdata.php
14. ↑ http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php
15. ↑ http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/

Show more... (6)


8-step procedure to conduct qualitative
content analysis in a research
By Shruti Datt on October 16, 2016
A study by Ary et al. (1996) categorized qualitative research/method into two distinct
forms. Firstly participant observation, where the researcher is a participant of the
study. Secondly non-participant observation, where the researcher observes but does
not participate. It is in this non-participant observation where one can use the content
analysis approach.

“A research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of


text data through the systematic classification process of coding and
identifying themes or patterns”- Hsieh & Shannon (2005; p.1278).

The content analysis unlike statistical analysis does not measure or quantify patterns.
It is based on interpreting opinions and perspectives of various subjects. Content
analysis takes into following elements when analyzing issues:

Major elements of content analysis (Source: Kohlbacher, 2005)

Steps of content analysis


Content analysis in qualitative research is carried out by recording the communication
between the researcher and its subjects. One can use different modes such as
transcripts of interviews/discourses, protocols of observation, video tapes and written
do***ents for communication. Its strength lies in its stringent methodological control
and step-by-step analysis of material. In other words every element in the data
collected is categorized into themes which are identified through secondary literature.
The method of the analysis comprises following 8 steps:
1. Preparation of data: As discussed previously, there are several ways by which
one can collect the data for qualitative content analysis. However one needs to be
transform the data before the analysis can start. From the data set which the
researcher has collected, choice of “content” need to clearly defined and justified.
Before initiation of data preparation, researcher needs to know the answers to
following questions:
1. All the data collected be transcribed or not.
2. Should verbalizations be transcribed literally.
3. Should observations be transcribed as well.

Answers to these questions are dependent on the the objectives of the study.
However, everything should be transcribed at the start to save time during
analysis.

2. Defining the unit or theme of analysis: Unit or theme of analysis means


classifying the content into themes which can be a word, phrase or a sentence.
When deciding the unit of analysis, one theme should present an “idea”. This
means the data related to the theme has to be added under that unit. Furthermore,
unit or themes should be based on the objectives of the study.
3. Developing categories and coding scheme: Next step is to develop sub-
categories and coding scheme for the analysis. This is derived from three sources,
the primary data, theories on similar topic and empirical studies. Since the
qualitative content analysis can be based on both inductive and deductive
approach, the categories and codes needs to be developed based on the approach
adopted.In case of deductive approach, it is important to link the interpretations
with the existing theories in order to draw inferences. However, in case of
inductive approach the objective is to develop new theories. So, it is important
to evaluate secondary sources in order to stimulate original ideas. In order to
ensure consistency in the codes, the categories as per their properties with
examples has to be defined.
4. Pre-testing the coding scheme on sample: Like quantitative data, pre-testing
qualitative data is also important. In order to ensure consistency, members of the
research team need to code the sample of existing data. If the level of consistency
is low across researchers then re-coding has to be done again.
5. Coding all the text: After the coding consistency in the previous stage, it is
important to apply the coding process to the data.
6. Assessing the consistency of coding employed: After coding the whole data
set validity and reliability should be checked.
7. Drawing inferences on the basis of coding or themes: In this step, one has to
draw inferences on the basis of codes and categories generated. It is important to
explore the properties, dimensions and identify the relationship and uncover
patterns in order to present the analysis.
8. Presentation of results: To present the results under each theme with
conclusions the results should be supported by secondary data and quotes from
the developed code. Further, based on the analysis, the researcher can also present
the results in the form of graphs, matrices, or conceptual frameworks. The results
should be presented in such a way that the reader is able to understand the basis of
interpretations.

Computer-assisted qualitative content analysis


In conclusion ,qualitative data, like quantitative data can be huge. In such cases
assistance from computer programs is required in order to reduce the complexity of
analysis. Among various tools the most common are NVivo or Atlas. These tools have
several features, which helps in coding and development of the nodes. This also
enables visual presentation of interpretations drawn from the content.

References
 Berg, B.L. (2001). Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
 Bradley, J. (1993). Methodological issues and practices in qualitative research. Library Quarterly, 63(4), 431-
449.
 Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research.
New York: Aldine.
 Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health
Research, 15(9), 1277-1288. Available on
: http://qhr.sagepub.com/content/15/9/1277.short?rss=1&ssource=mfc
 Miles, M., & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 Weber, R.P. (1990). Basic Content Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.