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# Notes

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Title

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## A Low Pass Filter can be a combination of capacitance, inductance or resistance intended to

produce high attenuation above a specified frequency and little or no attenuation below that

frequency.

The attenuation of high frequency is due to the reactance of capacitor, which decreases with the

increasing frequency. At very high frequencies, the capacitor acts as short circuit and therefore,

## the output drops to zero.

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Circuit Diagram

The circuit is identical with that of high-pass circuit except for the fact that the output is now

taken across capacitor C instead of across resistor R. However, the behavior totally differs from

that of the high-pass circuit. As output is taken across the capacitor and reactance of a capacitor
is inversely proportional to the frequency. The name low-pass circuit is because of the fact that it

## passes low frequencies readily but attenuates high frequencies.

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Cut-off Frequency

## The cut-off frequency of RC low pass filter is given as:

1
𝑓𝑐 =
2𝜋𝑅𝐶

This is the frequency at which the transition occurs and the filter’s output is 70.7% of input is

## called the critical or "cutoff" frequency.

If the product of capacitance and resistance is increased, the point of cut off frequency will be

closer to the origin, and if the product of R and C is decreased, the point of cut-off frequency will

be away from the origin. Means that filter will allow more frequency to pass through it before

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## Frequency Response of RC LPF

The ideal frequency response of RC LPF is shown in the figure. We can observe that low

frequencies are passing through the filter before the attenuation point has come i.e. cut off

frequency. After this point the filter starts attenuating the higher frequencies.

Such response of RC LPF is used in wide range of applications such as audio amplifiers to

suppress high frequency noises and also act as an integrator in electronic circuits.

Thank you
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