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Variable 1

2 LEVELS >2 LEVELS CONTINUOUS

Variable 2

2 LEVELS X2 X2 t-test

chi square test chi square test

chi square test chi square test (F-test)

CONTINUOUS t-test ANOVA -Correlation

(F-test) -Simple linear

Regression

Comparisons of proportions:

Chi Square Test (X2 test)

Example 1:

physical activity (PA) and gender?

females

females

Example 1: Chi square test (SPSS output)

gender * regular PA Crosstabulation

Count

regular PA

No Yes Total

gender male 469 349 818

female 810 347 1157

Total 1279 696 1975

Chi-Square Tests

Value df (2-sided) (2-sided) (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 33.727b 1 .000

Continuity Correction a 33.174 1 .000

Likelihood Ratio 33.553 1 .000

Fisher's Exact Test .000 .000

Linear-by-Linear

33.710 1 .000

Association

N of Valid Cases 1975

a. Computed only for a 2x2 table

b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 288.

27.

Chi Square Test (X2 test)

This is the p-value for the Chi square test.

that the 2 proportions are equal.

alternative) & conclude that the 2 proportions are different.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df (2-sided) (2-sided) (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 33.727b 1 .000

Continuity Correction a

33.174 1 .000

Likelihood Ratio 33.553 1 .000

Fisher's Exact Test .000 .000

Linear-by-Linear

33.710 1 .000

Association

N of Valid Cases 1975

a. Computed only for a 2x2 table

b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 288.

27.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df (2-sided) (2-sided) (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 33.727b 1 .000

Continuity Correction a 33.174 1 .000

Likelihood Ratio 33.553 1 .000

Fisher's Exact Test .000 .000

Linear-by-Linear

33.710 1 .000

Association

N of Valid Cases 1975

a. Computed only for a 2x2 table

b. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 288.

27.

P-value: 0.000

Example 1:

Research question: Is there a relationship between regular

physical activity and gender?

Ho: Proportion of PA among males = proportion of PA among

females

Ha: Proportion of PA among males ≠ proportion of PA among

females

Statistical test: Chi square test= 33.727 P=0.000

Conclusion: At significance level of 0.05, we reject null

hypothesis and conclude that in the population there is

significant difference in the proportions of PA among males

and females.

Chi Square Test (X2 test)

Example 1: Total Percent (%)

regular PA

No Yes Total

gender male Count 469 349 818

% of Total 23.7% 17.7% 41.4%

female Count 810 347 1157

% of Total 41.0% 17.6% 58.6%

Total Count 1279 696 1975

% of Total 64.8% 35.2% 100.0%

Example 1: Row Percent (%)

regular PA

No Yes Total

gender male Count 469 349 818

% within gender 57.3% 42.7% 100.0%

female Count 810 347 1157

% within gender 70.0% 30.0% 100.0%

Total Count 1279 696 1975

% within gender 64.8% 35.2% 100.0%

Example 1: Column Percent (%)

regular PA

No Yes Total

gender male Count 469 349 818

% within regular PA 36.7% 50.1% 41.4%

female Count 810 347 1157

% within regular PA 63.3% 49.9% 58.6%

Total Count 1279 696 1975

% within regular PA 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Chi Square Test (X2 test)

Example 1: All Percentages

gender * regular PA Crosstabulation

regular PA

No Yes Total

gender male Count 469 349 818

% within gender 57.3% 42.7% 100.0%

% within regular PA 36.7% 50.1% 41.4%

% of Total 23.7% 17.7% 41.4%

female Count 810 347 1157

% within gender 70.0% 30.0% 100.0%

% within regular PA 63.3% 49.9% 58.6%

% of Total 41.0% 17.6% 58.6%

Total Count 1279 696 1975

% within gender 64.8% 35.2% 100.0%

% within regular PA 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 64.8% 35.2% 100.0%

Example 2: Chi square test (SPSS output)

major * regular PA Crosstabulation

regular PA

No Yes Total

major health Count 122 69 191

% within major 63.9% 36.1% 100.0%

% within regular PA 9.5% 9.9% 9.7%

% of Total 6.2% 3.5% 9.7%

science Count 344 161 505

% within major 68.1% 31.9% 100.0%

% within regular PA 26.8% 23.2% 25.5%

% of Total 17.4% 8.1% 25.5%

engineering Count 147 91 238

% within major 61.8% 38.2% 100.0%

% within regular PA 11.5% 13.1% 12.0%

% of Total 7.4% 4.6% 12.0%

law Count 171 104 275

% within major 62.2% 37.8% 100.0%

% within regular PA 13.3% 15.0% 13.9%

% of Total 8.6% 5.3% 13.9%

business Count 222 137 359

% within major 61.8% 38.2% 100.0%

% within regular PA 17.3% 19.7% 18.2%

% of Total 11.2% 6.9% 18.2%

arts Count 277 132 409

% within major 67.7% 32.3% 100.0%

% within regular PA 21.6% 19.0% 20.7%

% of Total 14.0% 6.7% 20.7%

Total Count 1283 694 1977

% within major 64.9% 35.1% 100.0%

% within regular PA 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

% of Total 64.9% 35.1% 100.0%

Example 2: Chi square test (SPSS output)

Chi-Square Tests

Asymp. Sig.

Value df (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.215a 5 .205

Likelihood Ratio 7.227 5 .204

Linear-by-Linear

.017 1 .898

Association

N of Valid Cases 1977

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The

minimum expected count is 67.05.

physical activity and students’ majors?

Chi Square Test (X2 test)

Example 2: Chi square test (SPSS output)

Chi-Square Tests

Asymp. Sig.

Value df (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.215a 5 .205

Likelihood Ratio 7.227 5 .204

Linear-by-Linear

.017 1 .898

Association

N of Valid Cases 1977

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The

minimum expected count is 67.05.

Example 2: Chi square test (SPSS output)

Chi-Square Tests

Asymp. Sig.

Value df (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.215a 5 .205

Likelihood Ratio 7.227 5 .204

Linear-by-Linear

.017 1 .898

Association

N of Valid Cases 1977

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The

minimum expected count is 67.05.

P-value: 0.205

Example 2: Chi square test (SPSS output)

Chi-Square Tests

Value df (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.215a 5 .205

Likelihood Ratio 7.227 5 .204

Linear-by-Linear

.017 1 .898

Association

N of Valid Cases 1977

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The

minimum expected count is 67.05.

null hypothesis and conclude that in the population there is

no significant difference in the proportions of PA among the

different students’ majors.

SPSS commands for X2 test

Example 1

Analyze

Descriptive statistics

Crosstabs

select major for row

select regular PA for column

Go to Statistics-chose chi square

percentages

testing & Confidence Interval (CI)

Example 1: A cohort study

Lung No Lung

cancer cancer

Smoking

Yes 32 168

No 15 185

95%Confidence Interval around RR: 1.21-3.73

Example 1: A cohort study

Ho: RR=1

Ha: RR≠1

6.97, p-value < 0.01):

Because p-value of chi square test < 0.05, reject Ho.

Therefore, there is a significant association between

smoking and lung cancer.

Hypothesis testing & CI

Example 1: A cohort study

Ho: RR=1

Ha: RR≠1

interval around RR: (1.21-3.73):

We are 95% confident that the RR between smoking and

lung cancer in the population is between 1.21-3.73.

the value of the null hypothesis (1) then reject the null

hypothesis and accept the alternative. Therefore, there is

a significant association between smoking & lung cancer.

Example 2: A case control study

Breast No Breast

cancer cancer

Yes 69 66

sweetener

Artificial

No 22 134

95% Confidence Interval around OR: (3.72-10.87)

Example 2: A case control study

Ho: OR = 1

Ha: OR ≠ 1

95% Confidence Interval around OR: (3.72-10.87)

Hypothesis testing & CI

Example 2: A case control study

Ho: OR = 1

Ha: OR ≠ 1

<0.0001):

Because p-value of chi square test < 0.05, reject Ho.

Therefore, there is a significant association between

artificial sweeteners and breast cancer.

Example 2: A case control study

Ho: OR = 1

Ha: OR ≠ 1

OR (3.72-10.87):

We are 95% confident that the OR between artificial

sweetener & breast cancer in the population is between

3.72-10.87.

Because the 95% Confidence Interval does not include

the value of the null hypothesis (1) then reject the null

hypothesis & accept the alternative. Therefore, there is

a significant association between artificial sweetener &

breast cancer.

T (True) or F (False):

association between physical activity and

depression were as follows: OR = 4.2 and 95%

Confidence Interval (0.9-8.9). Based on these

results, we would conclude that in the

population there is no relation between PA and

depression because the confidence Interval

includes 4.2

Hypothesis testing & CI

T (True) or F (False):

between engaging in PA and hours spent at

work (per week), the investigator found out

that the difference in the average weekly hours

spent at work between those who engage in PA

and those who do not is 10 with a 95%

Confidence Interval of (0.9-23). Based on the

results; we would reject the null hypothesis

and conclude that there is a relation between

engaging in PA and hours spent at work .

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