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Module 3:

UNIT 1 : LANGUAGE AND DIALECT

Most speakers can give a nama to whatever it is they speak. On occasion, some of these
names mau appear to be strange to those who take a scientific intrrest in languages. But they
should remember that huma naming practices often have a large, "unscientific" component to
them. However, many speakers do experience difficulity in deciding wether what they speak
should be called a language or a dialect of a language .

Terralingua (1998) mention that dialects are defined as varieties of language which are
spoken in different geographical or social areas that are mutually understandable .

A Language is the method of human communication , either spoken or written, consisting of


the use of words in a structured and conventional way

UNIT 2 : KINDS OF DIALECT

1. Regional and Social Dialects

People often use a language to signal their membership of particular groups. Social
status, sex age, athnicity and yhe kinds of social net works people belong to turn out to be
important dimensions of identity in many communities.

2. Regional dialec

Wardaugh (1998) states that regional variation seems to be the most observable way in
describing the language .There are three more varieties. They are Internasional varieties,
Intra-natioal varieties, Cross-continental varieties .

3. Social dialect

The term dialect can also be used to describe differences in speech associated with
various social groups or classes. There are social dialects as well as regional ones (Wardaugh,
1998). And immediate problem is that of defining social group or social class, of giving the
proper weight to the various factors that can be used to determine social position .

4. Standard and Nonstandard Dialect

In addition to linguistic features, dialects of single language mau differ in the degrees
of social prestige afforded them. The variety of speaking and writing granted the most public
prestige is often known as the standard dialect.

In some ways, a standard dialect ia dan abstraction as there is not one strictly defined
standard is given society. Nonstandard dialects arevvarieties that are not afforded general
public prestige and that differ from standard varieties in grammar and vocabulary .

UNIT 3 : BRITISH ENGLISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH

1. GRAMMAR
 The use of ' present perfect '

In British English, the present perfect tense is used to express an action that has occured in
the recent past that has and effect on the present moment.

For example :

I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it ?

I American English the following expression is also possible :

I lost my key. Can you help me to look for it ?

 Possesion

There are two forms to express possesion in English, have or have got.

For example :

- Do you have a cat ?

- Have you got a cat ?

 Preposition

There are also a few differences in preposition Between British English and American
English.

For examples :

British English

- at the weekend

- in a team

- please write to me soon

American English

- on the weekend

- on a team

- please write me soon

 Simple past / past participle

The following verbs have two acceptable forms of the past simple / past participle in both
American English and British English.
For examples :

British English American English

Burnt Burned

Dreamt Dreamed

Learnt Learned

 Singular and Plural

American English uses only the singular form of a verb or pronoun to refer to a singular
noun corresponding to a plurality. In British English both singular and plural verbs and
pronouns can be used in this capacity .

2. PHONOLOGY

The chief differences Between Britisb English Recieved Pronounciation, as defined


above, and a variety of American English, such as Inland Northern, are in the pronounciation
of ceritain individual vowels and diphtongs. Other differences Between British English and
Amrican English are the two consonant, retroflex /r/ and flapping /t/.

3. SPELLING

Here are some general differences Between Britisb and American spellings. Words
ending in (-or), (-ize) for American and (-our) ,(-ise) for British.

For examples :

American spellings British spellings

Color Colour

Flavor Flavour

Recognize Recognise

Customize Customise

4. Vocabulary

Dialects of a single language may differ in terms of vocabulary, or lexicon. Probably the
major differences Between British English and Amrican English.

British English American English

Waterproof Raincoat

Glue Gum
Rubber Eraser

Sweets Candy

Jam Jelly

That's all the summary of module 3

Thank you.